MODULE II
ELECTROSTATICS
Syllabus – Module II
Electrostatics:
Electrostatic fields – Coulomb’s law and field intensity. Electric fields due to continuous charge distributions, Electric flux density, Gauss’s law, Applications of Gauss’s law, Electric potential, Relationship between E and V, Electric dipole, Energy density in electrostatic fields. Electric fields in material space – Properties of materials, Convection and conduction currents, Conductors, Polarization in dielectrics, Dielectric constant and strength, Linear, isotropic and homogeneous dielectrics, Continuity equation, Relaxation time, Boundary conditions. Electrostatic boundary value problems – Poisson’s and Laplace’s Equations, Uniqueness theorem, Resistance and capacitance – Parallel plate, coaxial, spherical capacitors.
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References
Text Books:
1. Mathew N.O. Sadiku, Elements of Electromagnetics, Oxford University Press
2. Jordan
and
Balmain,
Electromagnetic
waves
and
radiating systems,

Pearson Education PHI Ltd. References: 
1. 
Kraus Fleisch, Electromagnetics with applications, McGraw Hill 
2. 
William.H.Hayt, Engineering Electromagnetics, Tata McGraw Hill 
3. 
N.Narayana Rao, Elements of Engineering Electromagnetics, Pearson Education PHI Ltd. 
4. 
D.Ganesh Rao, Engineering Electromagnetics, Sanguine Technical Publishers. 
5. 
Joseph.A.Edminister, Electromagnetics, Schaum seriesMcGraw Hill 
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References
References:
1.K.D.Prasad, Electromagnetic fields and waves, Sathya Prakashan 2.Syed Nazar, 2000 solved problems in Electromagnetics, McGraw Hill
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Coulombs Law and field intensity
2
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Coulombs Law and field intensity
Coulombs law states that the force F between two point charges Q1 and Q2 separated in a vacuum or free space by a distance which is large when compared to their size is:

Along the line joining Q1 and Q2 

Directly proportional to the product Q1 Q2 of the charges. 

Inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. 
F
Q
1
=
k
Q Q
1
2
R
2
,Q ⇒ Quantity of positive or negative charges
2
R ⇒ Separation between charges Q and Q
1
2
k ⇒ Proportionality constant
When Q is in coulombs and R is in meters the constant k is found to be
k =
1
4 πε
0
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Coulombs Law and field intensity
k =
1
ε
0
k
4
⇒
=
πε
0
the permitivity of free space which is 8.854
1
=× 9
10
9
mF
/
4 πε
0
Incorporating these values
F
=
Q Q
1
2
4
πε R
0
2
× 10
− 12
F / m
The force acts along the line joining Q1 and Q2. In order to incorporate this information we may write
F
=
Q
1
Q
2
4 πε
0 R
2
^{ˆ} R
a
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Coulombs Law and field intensity
F
=
Q
1
Q
2
4 πε
0 R
2
^{ˆ} R
a
ˆ
Where a
The force F
R is a unit vector in the direction of the force
12
on Q
2
due to Q is given by
1
F
12
=
Q Q
1
2
4 πε
0 R
2
a ˆ
R
12
ˆ
Where a
R 12
is a unit vector directed from Q to Q
1
2
If
r and r are the position vectors of the points where
2
1
Q and Q
1
2
is situated
_{} Vector joining Q and Q is R = r − r
1
2
12
2
1
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Coulombs Law and field intensity
F
21
Q
1
r
1
Q
2
Origin
F
12
^{ˆ} R
a
12
=
=
R
1
2
R
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Coulombs Law and field intensity
R
=
R
12
^{ˆ} R
a
12
=
1
Now F
2
=
12
4
πε _{R}
_{2}
0 


Q Q 1 


F 
12 = 
2 
R 12 

4 πε 
0 R 
3 
⎛
⎜
⎝
=
R
1
2
R

⎞ ⎟ ⎠ 

R 
Q Q 1 2 


12 
= 
R 

R 
4 
πε R 0 
3 
12 

12 ( r 2 
− 
r 1 
) 

F 
= 

12 
πε r 02 
r 1 
3 

4 
− 
Force F
F
on Q
1
21
12
=
21
4
πε
0
R
2
due to Q
2
is given b
y F
21
a ˆ
R
21
=
12
4
πε
0
R
2
(
−
a ˆ
R
12
)
=
F
12
^{ˆ} R
a
21
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Coulombs Law and field intensity
If there are N point charges Q1,Q2,……….QN located at points with
position vectors
located at point with position vector
exerted on Q by each of the charges Q1,Q2,……….QN
rr
1,
2,
r
N


the resultant force 
F 
on a charge Q 
r
is the vector sum of the forces
F =
()
()
r
r
2
r
11
−− +
2
r
πε
33
πε
rr
rr
44
−−
01
02
1
N
()
+⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅+

( 

) 

N 
r 
− 
r N 


3 
4
πε
0
rr
−
N
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Example 1
A 2mC positive charge is
5 μC negative charge is located at P2(1,4,2). Find the force on the
located at P1(3,2,4) in
vacuum and a
negative charge.
Solution :
Q 1 =+ ×
2
10
−
3
C
Q
2
5
=− ×
10
−
6
C
ra=−−a 324ˆˆˆ a
1
_{x}
_{y}
_{z}
ra=
2
ˆˆˆ4 − a + _{2} a
x
y
R 12
= rr− =− 226ˆˆˆ a − a + a
2
1
_{x}
_{y}
_{z}
R
12
=
R
12
=
4
4
36
++ =
z
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Example 1
F
12
a ˆ
R
12
F
12
=
Q Q
1
2
4
πε
0
R
2
12
^{ˆ} R
a
12
R
−− 226ˆˆˆ aaa +
x
y
z
12
0.3 ˆˆˆ0.3
=−−aaa+
_{0}_{.}_{9}
=
R
12

= 
44


( 
2 
× 
10 
− 
3 )( 5 −× 10 − 
6 
) 

= 

4 π 
× 
8.854 10 − 12 ×× 
44 

=− 2.043 
− 
(
x
y
x
y
z
(
0.3 aaa ˆˆˆ0.3
x
y
+ _{0}_{.}_{9}
z
)
−−
0.3 aaa−
+
_{0}_{.}_{9}
ˆˆˆ0.3
z
)
F
12
=+−aaa
x
y
0.61 ˆˆˆ0.61
_{1}_{.}_{8}_{4}
z
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Electric field intensity
Electric field intensity 

at a point is defined as the force on a unit 
E 
positive test charge placed at that point.
E
=
F
Q
The direction of electric field intensity is the same as that of the force and is measured in newtons/coulomb
The electric field intensity at a point with p.v
at a point with p.v


Qr ( 
− 
r 1 
) 
r 
3 
4
πε
0
r
−
r
1
due to a point charge
2
r
1
is obtained as
^{ˆ} R
a
=
Q
E
=
4
πε
0
R
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Electric field intensity
If there are N point charges Q1,Q2,……….QN located at points with
position vectors with position vector
rr
1,
2,
r
r
N
the electric field intensity
E at point
is the vector sum of the electric field intensities
produced by charges Q1,Q2,……….QN
E =
Qr
()
Qr
()
r
2
11
−− +
2
r
πε
33
πε
rr
rr
44
−−
01
02
E =
4 πε
0
k = 1
r
−
r
k
1
N
Qr
()
k
r
∑
k
−
3
+⋅⋅⋅⋅⋅+
Q
N
(
−
r
r
N
)
4 πε
0
rr
−
N
3
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Example 2
Point charges 1mC and 2mC are located at (3,2,1) and (1,1,4) respectively. Calculate the electric force on a 10 nC charge located at (0,3,1) and the electric field intensity at that point.
Solution :
F =
1
4 πε
0
N
∑
k = 1
k
()
r
−
r
k
r
−
r
k
3
F =
Q
4
πε
0
⎛
⎜
⎝ ⎜
Qr
()()
−
11
+
2
r
2
r
Qr
−
rr −
1
3
rr −
2
3
⎞
⎟
⎟
⎠
F =
10 
× 10 − 
9 
⎪ ⎧ 10 − 
[ 
(0,3,1) 
] 
1,4) 
] 

3 
− 
(3,2, − 1) 
−× 2 10 − 
3 
[ (0,3,1) ( 1, −− − 

4 πε 10 − 
0 3 ⎨ ⎪ ⎩ ×× 10 10 (0,3,1) − (3,2, − 9 ⎪ ⎧ ( − 3,1,2) − 
1) 
3 
2(1,4, − 3) 
(0,3,1) ⎫ ⎪ −− ( 1, − 1,4) 
3 

= 
⎨ ⎪ ⎩ 
− 
⎬ ⎭ ⎪ 

4 π 
10 − 9 
( 
9 ++ 1 4 
) 3/2 
( 
1 
+ 
16 + 9 
) 3/2 

36 π 
⎪ ⎫
⎬
⎪
⎭
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Example 2
9
F =×
(
F =−
10
−
2
+
6.507 a
ˆˆˆ3.817
a
+
_{7}_{.}_{5}_{0}_{6}
−
a
xyz
)
mN
F
At this point E = Q
=
(
ˆˆˆ3.817
6.507 aaa
+
_{7}_{.}_{5}_{0}_{6}
−−
xyz
)
×
_{1}_{0}
− 3
10
×
10
− 9
(
E =−
650.7 a
ˆˆˆ381.7
a
+
_{7}_{5}_{0}_{.}_{6}
−
a
xyz
)
KV
_{/}
m
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Electric fields due to continuous charge distributions
+
Q
ρ
L
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
ρ
S
++++
++++
++++
ρ
V
++
+ ^{+} + + + +
+
^{+}
+
^{+} +
+ +
^{+} ++
POINT 
LINE 
SURFACE 
VOLUME 
CHARGE 
CHARGE 
CHARGE 
CHARGE 
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Electric fields due to continuous charge distributions
A charge may be located on a point, along a line, on a surface or in
volume. Accordingly we have four types of charge distributions:
a
Point charges Line charges Surface charges Volume charges.
Point Charge: A charge that is located on a body whose dimensions are much smaller than other relevant dimensions is called point charge. A collection of charges on a pinhead may be considered as
a point charge.
Total Charge Q =
∑
i
Q
i
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Charge distributions
Line Charge: A charge that is distributed along a fine line, as in the case of a sharp electron beam in a cathode ray tube, is considered as a line charge distribution.
with a line
It is convenient to associate a line charge density charge distribution.
ρ
L
Charge element dQ = ρ dl
L
Total charge Q =
∫
L
ρ dl
L
Surface Charge: A charge that is distributed over a surface is considered as a surface charge distribution.
It is convenient to associate a surface charge density surface charge distribution.
with a
ρ
S
Charge element dQ = ρ dS
S
Total charge Q =
∫
S
ρ dS
S
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Charge distributions
Volume Charge: A charge that is distributed throughout a specified volume is considered as a volume charge distribution.
It is convenient to associate a volume charge density volume charge distribution.
with a
ρ
L
Charge element dQ = ρ dV
V
Total charge Q =
∫
V
ρ dV
V
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Electric field intensity of Charge distributions
Electric field intensity of a point charge is given by
E
=
Q
4 πε
0 R
2
a ^{ˆ} R
By replacing the charge Q by charge elements and integrating we get the electric field intensity of various charge distributions.
For line charge distributions,
E
= ∫
For surface charge distrib utions, E
For volume charge distribu tions, E
ρ
L dl
a ˆ
R
dS
S
4 πε
=
∫
0 R
2
ρ
a ^{ˆ}
4
πε
0
R
2
=
∫
ρ
V
dV
a ^{ˆ}
4
πε
0
R
2
R
R
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Electric field intensity of a finite line charge
ρ
L
dE
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Electric field intensity of a finite line charge
Align the line charge along the Z axis symmetrically with respect to the origin.
Take two elemental lengths dz of the line charge that are symmetrical about the origin.
The charge associated with each elemental length dz is dQ = ρ dz and
L
can be treated as a point charge.
The vertical components of dE and dE gets cancelled leaving only the radial component along aˆ _{ρ}
The radial components of dE and dE gets added .
1
2
1
2
There is no variation of the field along φ direction .
So we need to calculate only the radial component along aˆ _{ρ}
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Electric field intensity of a finite line charge
dE = Radial components of (dE + dE )
1
2
=
Put
d Q
2
×
4 πε
0
α =
R
ρ
R
2
c o s
cos
d E
α
=
P ut R=
2
ρ + z
2
d E
ˆ
^{a} ρ
2
=
×
2
d Q
ρ
4 πε
0 R
3
ˆ
^{a} ρ
×
ρ
L
d z
ρ
4
(
πε ρ
0
2
+
z
2
2
ˆ
^{a} ρ
The electric field intensity at P due to the entire line charge is
E
=
2
L / 2
∫
z = 0
1
ρ ρ
L
d z ˆ
4 πε
ρ 2
+
z
2
2
^{a} ρ
0 (
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Electric field intensity of a finite line charge
Using the standard integral
∫
1
d x
(
a
2
+
x
2
)
3/2
=
E =
=
⎡
⎣
⎡
⎣
ρ ρ
L
×⎢
⎢
2 πε
0
ρ ρ
L
×⎢
0 ⎢
2 πε
z ⎤
⎥
⎥
⎦
ρ
z
222
ρ
+
L / 2
0
L
ρ
2
⎤
⎦
⎥ a ˆ
⎥
E
=
ρ
L
2
πε ρ
0
⎡
⎢
⎢
⎣
L ⎤
⎥
⎥
⎦
4 ρ 2
+
L 2
a ˆ
ρ
ˆ
^{a} ρ
ρ
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Electric field intensity of a finite line charge
For a finite line char ge E =
ρ
L
ρ
2
πε ρ
0
For an infinite line charge, L → ∞ and


E 
= 


E 
= 
lim
L
→∞
ρ
L
2
πε ρ
0
ρ
L
2
πε ρ
0
ˆ
^{a} ρ
a ˆ
ρ
For an infinite line charge E =
ρ
L
ˆ
^{a} ρ
2
περ
0
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Electric field intensity of an infinite surface charge
X
= ρ dz
ρ L
ρ
S
R
d
R
C
(/
2
m
α
α
)
P
•
dE
2
1
α
α dE
dE
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Electric field intensity of a infinite surface charge
Assume that the infinite sheet charge is located in the x  z plane.
Assume that the infinite sheet charge is composed of line charge
distributions with density ρ
L
= ρ
S
dz C
/
m
The electric field intensity of an infinite line charge is radially directed away from the line charge and its magnitude is
ρ
_{S} d z
d E
L
ρ
=
2
πε
0
R
=
2
πε
L
0
'
R
symmetrically located with respect to
Consider one more line charge ρ the origin
The vertical components of dE and dE gets cancelled leaving only the
1
2
radial component along a ^{ˆ} y
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Electric field intensity of a infinite surface charge
dE = y components of (dE + dE )
1
2
Put
dE
d 

c o s 
α = 

R 
=
ρ S
d
πε
0
R
2
dza ˆ
y
=
2
⋅
ρ
S
d z
2 πε
0 R
cos
α
a ˆ
y
The electric field intensity at P due to the entire sheet charge is
E
= ∫
∞ ρ
S d
z = 0
πε
0 R
2
dza ˆ
P ut R=
d
2
+ z
2
y
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Electric field intensity of a infinite surface charge
∫ ∞ 
ρ 
S 
d 

z = 0 
πε 
0 
( 
d 
2 
+ 
z 
2 
) 

ρ 
S d 
∫ 
∞ 

πε 
0 
z = 0 
( 
d 
2 
+ ) z 2 
E
dza ˆ
=
y
1 dza ˆ
=
∫ 
y 
1 d x 
= 
^{1} 
tan 
− 1 
⎛ 
z 
⎞ 

( 
a 2 
+ x 2 ) 
a 
⎝ ⎜ 
a 
⎟ ⎠ 

a ˆ 
ρ 
S 
π 
ρ 
S 

y 
= 
πε 0 
⋅ 2 
a ˆ 
y 
= 
2 ε 
0 a ˆ 


ρ 

E 
S 
ˆ 
0 

=− 2 
ε 0 
a 
y y 
< 
Using the standard integral

ρ 
d 
⎡ ⎣ ⎢ 
1 

E 
= 
S 
tan 
− 1 

πε 
0 
d 


ρ S 

E 
ˆ 
0 

= 
2 
ε 
0 a 
y 
y 
> 
z
d
⎤
⎦ ⎥
∞
0
y
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Electric field intensity of a infinite surface charge
ρ


E 
= 
S 
a ˆ 
2
ε
0
y
The electric field of a sheet charge is normal to the plane of the sheet and is independent of the distance between the sheet and the point of observation. In a parallel plate capacitor, the electric field existing between two plates having equal and opposite charges is given by
E
=
ρ
S
2
ε
0
a ˆ
y
−
ρ
(
S
+−
2
ε
0
a ˆ
y
ρ


E 
= 
S 
a ˆ 
ε
0
y
)
=
ρ
S
ε
0
a ˆ
y
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Electric flux
If a positive test charge is brought near another positive charge it will be repelled in a direction along the line joining the two charges. If the second charge is moved around the first one, it will be repelled in radially outward direction at all points. The lines drawn to trace the force on a test charge is called lines of force. Such lines are called electric flux in electrostatics. A charge of Q Coulombs produces an electric flux of ψ Coulombs.
ψ = Q
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Electric flux density
The electric field around a point charge is given by
E
=
Q
4
πε R
0
2
a ^{ˆ} R
If this equation is multiplied by ε _{0} , we get
ε
0
E
=
Q
4
π
R
2
a ^{ˆ} R
The RHS of the above equation is independent of permittivity ε _{0} , and so ε _{0} E is a quantity that is independent of the medium.
4π R
Q
2
4
π R
2
is the area of an imaginary sphere around the charge Q.
is then charge per area or surface charge density.
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Electric flux density
Since Q Coulombs of charge produces ψ Coulombs of flux ,
ε
0
E
=
Q
4
π
R
2
=
ψ
4
π
R
2
is the flux density
This quantity is represented by
D
and its unit is Coulombs/m ^{2}
D =ε
0 E


In the case of a point charge 
D 
= 
Q
4 π R
2
a ˆ
R
All the equations derived for
calculating
E from Coulomb’s law can be used for
ε
0
D by multiplying with
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Gauss’s Law
The total electric flux passing through any closed surface is equal to the total charge enclosed by that surface. Or, the surface integral of the normal component of the electric flux density over any closed surface is equal to the charge enclosed. Consider a cloud of point charges surrounded by a closed surface of any arbitrary shape as shown below.
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Gauss’s Law
If the total charge inside the surface is Q then Q Coulombs of electric flux must pass through the surface.
At every point on the surface the electric flux density vector
D
will
have a value
D
S
Consider a small element of the surface having area dS. dS is fully specified only if its magnitude and orientation in space is specified. The only unique direction that may be associated with dS is the direction of the outward normal to the plane which is tangential to the surface dS.
Let
The flux crossing
D
S
make an angle θ with
dS
dS
. normally is then
dψ = D
S
cos
θ × dS
=
_{}
⋅ dS
D
S
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Gauss’s Law
The total flux passing through the closed surface is
ψ 
= 
Q 
= 
∫
∫
S
S
_{}
D ⋅=dS
S
_{}
⋅ dS
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