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A GROUP that is; from this

To this
To this

To this
And finally to this

Thus after reading and understanding the whole project we

hope that all will understand what is exactly “GROUP

“The GROUP DYNAMICS” can bring synergy, or tear things


- Margaret Bau
Group dynamics is such a vast topic that to understand it
one must understand the core of it.

Following contents may make it easy for all of us to

understand “GROUP DYNAMICS”:

 What is Sociology??

 What is a Group??
 Criteria for Group
 Different types of Group
 Four stages of Group Development by “BRUCE

 What is a Team??
 What makes a Team?
 Teamwork and Business
 Why do team fails?


 Introduction
 Key theorists
 Group development
 Group size
 Risky shift
 Group think
 Social support
 Growth = Challenge + Support
 Group norms
 Group mix
 Group games & activities

 What are different GROUP DYNAMICS games??

 Group problem solving activities

 Role play for groups

 Practical application of Foundation of Human Skills in

a Group.

 Case study

 Conclusion

 Bibliography
To know about Group Dynamics we first have to study the
basic idea of it and to start with it we shall explain What is

In simple words Sociology can be defined as “The study and

classification of of human societies”.

Sociologists study society and socila behaviour by

examining the groups and socila institutuions people form
as well as social, religious, political and business

Basically Sociology and Sociologists studies the behaviour

and social interaction among groups, trace their origin and
growth and analyze the influence of group activities on the
group members.

Group behaviour refers to the situation where people

interact in side small groups, i.e. to reach or not a consensus
and act in a cordinated way.
What is a GROUP?

A GROUP is usually defined as a collection of humans or

animals who share certain characteristics, interact with one
another, accept expectations or obligations as member of the
group, and share a common identity.

“Two or more people who share a common definition ans

eveluation of themselves and behave in accordance with
such a definition”.

“A collection of people who inetract with one another,

accpet rights and obligations as members and who share a
common identity”.


- Formal social structure

- Face-to-face interaction

- Two or more person

- Common fate

- Common goals

- Interdependence

- Self definition as group member

- Recognition by others


- PRIMARY GROUPS: - These are small groups with

intimate, kin-based relationships: families, for example.
They commonly last for years.
They are small and display face-to-face interaction.

- SECONDARY GROUPS: - These are large groups

whose relationships are formal and institutional.
They may last for years but some may disband after a
short lifetime.
The formation of primary group happens within the
secondary group.

- REFERANCE GROUPS: - These are groups to which

individual does not have real membership, but to
which he conceptually relates him/herself and from
which he might accept goals and values as a part of
his/her self identity.

In today‟s World, groups are formed on the basis of

Such groups are categorized into Three main categories: -

 CONSERVATIVE: - These are hostile to social change

and generally include religious groups or different
 MODERATE: - These groups can be changed into other
groups since they have no strict ideology of bringing a
change or conserving the existing values or norms.

 LIBRAL GROUPS: - These groups in the society bring

social change and progress but have always been
suppressed by Conservative Groups.

Thus after learning so mush about a Group the most

technical definition of Group can be given as suggested by
Muzafer Sherif –

“A social unit consisting of number of individuals

interacting with each other with respect to:
 common motives and goals
 an accepted division of labor, i.e. roles
 established status (social rank, dominance)
 accepted norms and values with reference to matters
relevant to group
 development of accepted sanctions (praise and
punishment) if and when norms are respected or

Group is formed by the people and each and every

individual have different view and ideas.

Keeping this in mind a renowned Sociologist “BRUCE

TUCKMAN” gave a model of Four Stages of Group
Tuckman’s model state that ideal group decision making
process should occur in four stages:

Stage 1: Forming

Individual behavior is driven by a desire to be

accepted by the others, and avoid controversy or
conflict. Serious issues and feelings are avoided,
and people focus on being busy with routines,
such as team organization, who does what, when
to meet, etc. But individuals are also gathering
information and impressions - about each other,
and about the scope of the task and how to
approach it. This is a comfortable stage to be in,
but the avoidance of conflict and threat means
that not much actually gets done.

Thus FORMING can be defined as pretending to get on or

get along with others.

Stage 2: Storming

Individuals in the group can only remain nice

to each other for so long, as important issues
start to be addressed. Some people's patience
will break early, and minor confrontations
will arise that are quickly dealt with or
glossed over. These may relate to the work of
the group itself, or to roles and responsibilities
within the group. Some will observe that it's
good to be getting into the real issues, whilst
others will wish to remain in the comfort and
security of stage 1. Depending on the culture
of the organisation and individuals, the
conflict will be more or less suppressed, but
it'll be there, under the surface. To deal with
the conflict, individuals may feel they are
winning or losing battles, and will look for
structural clarity and rules to prevent the
conflict persisting.

Thus STORMING can be defined as letting down

politeness barrier and trying to get down to the issues
even if tempers flare up.

Stage 3: Norming

As Stage 2 evolves, the "rules of engagement" for

the group become established, and the scope of
the group‟s tasks or responsibilities is clear and
agreed. Having had their arguments, they now
understand each other better, and can appreciate
each other's skills and experience. Individuals
listen to each other, appreciate and support each
other, and are prepared to change pre-conceived
views: they feel they're part of a cohesive,
effective group. However, individuals have had
to work hard to attain this stage, and may resist
any pressure to change - especially from the
outside - for fear that the group will break up, or
revert to a storm.
Thus NORMING can be defined as getting used to each
other and developing trust and productivity among each

Stage 4: Performing

Not all groups reach this stage, characterized by a

state of interdependence and flexibility. Everyone
knows each other well enough to be able to work
together, and trusts each other enough to allow
independent activity. Roles and responsibilities
change according to need in an almost seamless
way. Group identity, loyalty and morale are all
high, and everyone is equally task-orientated and
people-orientated. This high degree of comfort
means that all the energy of the group can be
directed towards the task(s) in hand.

Thus PERFORMING can be defined as working in a

group to a common goal on a highly efficient and co-
operative basis.

Ten years after first describing the four stages, Bruce

Tuckman revisited his original work and described another,
final, stage:
Stage 5: Adjourning

This is about completion and disengagement,

both from the tasks and the group members.
Individuals will be proud of having achieved
much and glad to have been part of such an
enjoyable group. They need to recognize what
they've done, and consciously move on. Some
authors describe stage 5 as "Deforming and
Mourning", recognizing the sense of loss felt by
group members.

Thus many work groups live in the comfort of Norming, and

are fearful of moving back into Storming, or forward into
Performing. This will govern their behavior towards each
other, and especially their reaction to change.

A “TEAM” comprises any group of people or animals linked

in a common purpose. A Group in itself does not necessarily

A team comprises any group of people or

animals linked in a common purpose. A group
in itself does not necessarily constitute a team.
There are however many components that make
up a team like manager and agents.
Thus teams of sports players can form (and re-
form) to practice their craft. Transport logistics
executives can select teams of horses, dogs or
oxen for the purpose of conveying goods.

What Makes a Good Team?

 Knowledgeable people from all relevant
 Between 6 and 10 members
 A clear, documented purpose
 An open, pleasant environment
 Well planned and structured meetings
 The support of superiors

When setting up a team, the most important ingredient is

the people. If the team is to function effectively, all the
necessary skills and experience should be present and the
people should have the authority to act on their own.

When a team starts working, it will need time and facilities

to start their development and agree how they are going to

The purpose of the team must be clearly stated and

written down in an initiation document or manual.

Team Work and Business

 Teams should have clear responsibilities and

authority to make decisions alone.
 Teams should be given time to develop together into
a productive unit.
 Well managed teams are more likely to produce the
correct answer.
 Teams that are well supported and trusted will
produce the best results.

Why do Teams Fail?

 Teams fail when they are not given authority
 Teams fail when they do not understand how
to use their combined abilities
 Teams fail because of vested interests
 Teams fail when they do not understand team


Take Big Brother, they are a group of 12 people who will be

with each other for a few months during the weeks, they will
have to nominate a person to leave the Big Brother house,
the aim is to be the last two people in the house so the public
votes who's going to win £70000, whist playing the game
they have to work with each other to clean, cook etc, they
haven't got a leader so everything can go pear shaped, and
they will go behind peoples back to win the money. Collins
Dictionary 1995 'number of people or things regarded as a
unit' What is a team? Take a football team they have to work
together for 90mins on the pitch, there aim is to produce as
many goals as possible.
Human beings exhibit some characteristic behavior patterns
in groups. People involved in managing groups and group
members themselves can benefit from studying theories and
doing practical exercises which help them to better
understand people's behavior in groups and group

When group patterns are combined with study of individual

development, then group dynamics can also are applied to
education and therapy (as is often the case in experiential,
outdoor and adventure education).

People may underestimate the importance of society and

group memberships on their lives. Whilst people sometimes
undertake solo journeys but by and large much of our
experiences of life involves being engaged with others and
groups. The nature of these groups can be quite varied,
from a family going for a walk, to the crowd at a football
game, to an internet discussion group, to a group of fellow

Given the diverse, yet common occurrence of groups, what

is the nature and pattern of such group experiences? The
social dynamics which occur within groups over time vary
from group to group, but also illustrate some commonalities.

A classic example is the issue of what happens to groups

over time? For example, Tuckman's (1965) Forming,
Storming, Norming, Performing model of group development
is commonly used to describe the evolving experience and
organization of adventure-based groups.

The term GROUP DYNAMICS implies that individual

behavior may differ depending on individual‟s current or
prospective connections to a sociological group. Group
Dynamics is the area of social sciences that focuses on nature
of the group.
 Kurt Lewin (1943, 1948, 1951): He is commonly
identified as the founder of the movement to study
groups scientifically. He coined the term Group
Dynamics to describe the way groups and individuals
act and react to changing circumstances.

 William Schutz (1958, 1966): He looked at interpersonal

relations from the perspective of three dimensions:
inclusion, control and affection. Conversely, a group may
also devolve at an earlier stage if unable to resolve
outstanding issues at a particular stage.

 Wilfred Bion (1961): He studied Group Dynamics from

a psychoanalytical perspective. Many of his finding
were reported in his book, Experiences in Groups.

 Bruce Tuckman (1965): - He proposed the Four Stage

Group Development model called Tuckman’s Stages fro
a group.
Theory - 6 to 16 is roughly ideal

A well-cited theory by Walsh and Golins (1976) includes

the claim that a group size of 10 is ideal for Outward
Bound programs - not too large so that individuals get
lost, not so small that a group lacks dynamic diversity.

It‟s more practical to consider an optimal range - say 6 to

16. Besides practicalities (e.g., enrolments and
resources), the group size may be adjusted according to
age, maturity, experience, program goals, experience of
instructor, program difficulty, etc.

It is important to realize that group dynamics take place

regardless of group size and, ultimately, it is the
dynamics rather than the actual number in a group
which is most likely to affect psycho-social outcomes.
Groups with sizes between about 6 and 16 are likely to
experience similar processes and outcomes. This is also
a common size for other intense group settings, e.g.,
group therapy.
Research - Group size doesn't matter - its the individual's
quality of experience matters

From research on approximately 3000 participants in

Outward Bound and related programs in Australia, no
consistent effects of group size on life effectiveness
outcomes were identified. Group sizes in the study
ranged between 5 and 26.

When people are in groups, they make decision about risk
differently from when they are alone. In the group, they are
likely to make riskier decisions, as the shared risk makes
the individual risk less.

They also may not want to let their compatriots down, and
hence be risk-averse (this is sometimes called cautious shift).
The overall tendency towards a shift in risk perception is
also sometimes called choice shift.

Myers and Bishop (1970) put highly prejudiced students together

to discuss racial issues. They became even more prejudiced. The
reverse happened with unprejudiced students, who became even
more unprejudiced.

Entire football teams sometime get into aggressive or

defensive moods as they either throw caution to the winds
trying to score or desperately try to avoid being caught out.
Juries given weak evidence will become very lenient after
discussion, whilst when given strong evidence they are
likely to give harsh judgment.

Show the other person how other people are making the
same decision. Frame the risk as individually less.

Make decisions on your own. Shared risk is still the same


Groups sometimes fall into a style of thinking where the
maintenance of the group‟s cohesion and togetherness
becomes all-important and results in very bad decision-

Janis (1972) defines it as "a way of deliberating that group

members use when their desire for unanimity overrides
their motivation to assess all available plans of action."

The eight primary symptoms of groupthink are:

 Illusions of invulnerability where the group think it is

invincible and can do no wrong.
 Collective efforts to rationalize or discount warnings.
 Unquestioned belief in the moral correctness of the
 Stereotyped views of the out-group, often as too evil,
weak or stupid to be worth bothering with.
 Self-censorship as people decide not to rock the boat.
 Pressure to conform.
 A shared illusion of unanimity (everyone always
agrees with everyone else).
 Protecting the group from contrary viewpoints, by self-
appointed „mind-guards‟.

Groupthink happens most often when the group is already

cohesive, is isolated from conflicting opinions and where
the leader is open and directive. The lack of a formal
decision process is also common.

Problem-solving and task-oriented groups are particularly


Resulting decisions are often based on incomplete

information and fail to consider alternatives and risks.

The most famous example of Groupthink is the presidential

advisory group who almost led Kennedy into invading
Cuba and potential nuclear war in the Bay of Pigs affair.

The Challenger disaster was another effect where NASA

officials disregarded engineer‟s concerns and decided to
launch the shuttle.

For an enjoyable example, watch the movie 'Twelve Angry

Men', which is about blind agreement and dissent on a

The leader should avoid being too directive and be vigilant for
groupthink effects. External opinions should be taken seriously or
even having external people included in meetings. The group
should be split into subgroups for reporting back and discussion.
Individuals should be privately polled for personal opinions.
Social Support Helps People Grow: -

In psychological theory and research, it has been known for

many years that social support is a key factor which
determines people‟s level of physical and mental health.

For example, in group and workplace settings socially

supportive teams are more likely to reach their objectives.

At the heart of this approach is the importance of deep

valuing and active support of each individual.

People who feel good about themselves generally are more

productive and effective than those who don't feel good
about themselves.

This is consistent with a person-centerd approach to therapy:

“As persons are accepted and prized, they tend to develop a
more caring attitude towards themselves” (Rogers, 1980:

The person-centered or humanistic approach is based

around respect for the dignity and individuality of each
member. This believes in each person's value is seen as a
critical ingredient for growth and development. Effective
psychological change processes usually benefit from a
humanistic orientation.

Support alone, however, is not enough. For example, there

has recently been criticism of parenting and schooling
practices which artificially inflate children's self-esteem
without giving the children real skills upon which to base
their self-esteem.

Ideally, support should be paired with appropriately

challenging experiences. The mix of social support and
challenge can be a powerful formula for healing and growth.

This may explain, for example, the impressive effects

of outdoor education programs. Programs such as Outward
Bound provide controlled exposure to challenging
experiences and emphasize a warm and supportive group

Social support helps people to take positive risks. However,

when there are negative relations with others, people are
inclined to adopt defensive or aggressive postures are at not
able to create and engage in as many growth opportunities.

Social support can also serve as a salve to pains encountered

along the way. It gives people confidence in 'having a go'
and testing their limits when they know they have a
community of support.

Social support is freely available. Create social support

yourself - a smile, a compliment, a helping hand - and you
start to create your own environment of support. Love
really does make the world go around if we keep passing it

Leaders can create social support by demonstrating a caring

attitude towards each individual. In addition, the leader
fosters social support amongst the group by providing
sequential activities such as:
 Early on, name games, get-to-know-you activities,
and trust experiences
 Personal and interpersonal exploration activities,
such as sharing life stories, diaries, etc.
 Interpersonal feedback and life review and life
planning activities

When the power of social support and challenge are really

harnessed, a group can collectively achieve very significant,
even transformational growth together.
Growth = Challenge + Support
Life and even non-life forms demonstrate remarkably
simple principles.

In order for a life-like pattern to flourish, it requires:

 challenge
 support

Challenge sets a process in motion - it provides the

motivation or energy for a response. Support helps to
ensure successful adaptation.

The challenges for a newly sprouted seed it to survive and

thrive until its produced seed. It needs support in the
form of light and nutrients. The challenge and the support
allow it to succeed. Without the challenge (the
motivation) or support (the help), the plant would wither.

In humans, support alone creates laziness. Challenge

alone can be harmful. Together, challenge and support
can create a myriad of adventurous growth experiences.

Forms of human support can be depicted using Maslow's

hierarchy of needs. As one's more basic needs are met,
one's higher needs can be pursued. Thus, genuine support
should be matched with people's real needs.

Research Evidence about the Role of Challenge + Support

In a study of 41 adult Outward Bound participants, it was

found that the amount of social support strongly predicted
changes in participants‟ „psychological resilience‟ (Neill &
Dias, 2001).

Resilience refers to an individuals‟ capacity to survive and

thrive in difficult circumstances. In this study, there were
four measures of social support

 overall group support

 instructor support
 support from the most supportive group member, and
 support from the least supportive group member.

Interestingly, it was the support received from the least

supportive person that best predicted gains in resilience.

This seems to mean that disruptive, negative individuals

may be seriously limiting the potential for other group
members‟ learning and development.

These research findings support the need for a humanistic

approach and suggest the need for leaders to deal
proactively with negative group members who may retard
the potential growth of other group members.

Early intervention, involving feedback and support to

individuals providing low or negative support, as well as
to those individuals who are perceiving that they are
receiving low support, is recommended.
Think of the circumstances under which we come together
in groups: the middle-management team at the plant, the
outdoor expedition group, the church finance committee,
passengers on a bus, a class in emergency procedures, a
social gathering, a jury. Most of us have experienced these
kinds of groups. And most of us have experienced the
discomfort that comes from not knowing what the 'ground
rules' are when we enter a new group, as well as the comfort
of knowing them, or the frustration of trying to live with
'rules' which, though unspoken, seem to prevent us from
being or doing what we really want to be or do.

These usually unspoken and unexamined 'rules,' which

determine what is and what is not acceptable behavior in the
group, are not really rules at all: they are behavioral norms.
The outdoor leader for example, may have a rule (stated and
known to all) that the day will start at 6:15 a.m. Anyone
watching the group, however, will note that the day usually
starts between 7:00 and 7:15 a.m., without anyone's taking
exception to it. A new member of the group must somehow
learn this norm. In another instant, a person who swears like
a trooper at work may use much more decorous language
when meeting with a youth group, though the group has
never discussed the issue nor established a 'rule' about it.

A norm, then, is an operational entity. It comes into

being as a result of what the group is and does. Over a
period of time, for example, as a group forms, the members
somehow come to know that it is acceptable to do something
('Frank doesn't interrupt anybody'). Since this usually
happens without the group's conscious awareness, norms
can develop which block and hinder the group from doing
what it really wants to do. For this reason it is often useful
for a group to identify important norms, judge whether they
are facilitating or blocking, and then decide how to go about
developing new ones if the old will not do.

Facilitating and Hindering Norms

Facilitating Norms Hindering or Blocking Norms

 Collaborative behavior  Competitive behaviour
 Dealing with the here-  Dealing with the here-and-
and-now then
 Acceptance of my own  Censoring and/or denying
and other's feelings own feelings; criticizing or
 Respect for the evaulating others'
individual  Insistence upon conformity to
 Describing other the group
persons' behaviour  Inferring the motivation
 Recognizing that behind other persons' behaviour
behaviour has consequences  Insistence that a person
"should" or
"should not" behave in a particular

Group homogeneity versus heterogeneity? e.g., what is the

effect of having groups consisting of people from one
ethnicity compared to groups which are multi-ethnic? Is it
better to create groups with diverse (heterogeneous) or
narrow (homogenous) membership?

Group Mix is needed to be understood very nicely because

without knowing Group Mix we can not know how
effectively and properly a selected group can perform the
assigned task and achieve the goal efficiently.

Speaking about Group homogeneity versus heterogeneity

every individual has his/her own perception about certain
task. It is not necessary that views of two people must
match. Even view points of two siblings don‟t match to a
greater extent.

Talking about ethnicity every individual is influenced by the

atmosphere in which he/she live and thus they have
different ethnicity. Thus different individuals look at the
same task in different manner.

Group Dynamics thus deals with how effectively and efficiently a

group tries to handle the task assigned to it for which the leader has
to deal with homogeneous as well as heterogeneous type of

Descriptions of Group Games for Fun

Fun chasing game with suspense,
laughter and exercise. Giant (arms up,
Giants, Wizards &
roars) beats elf (hands to ears); elf beats
Elves wizard (waves wand & "kazaam");
wizard zaps giant.
Energizing 10 min. group activity. Adds
suspense, physical exercise, and fun.
Wink There are runners, catchers, and a
Creates wicked dizziness. Put a 6ft stick
in the middle of a circle. Challenge:
Wobbly Holding stick vertically on end of chin,
Broomstick looking at the top, spin around 20 times,
then throw the stick to the ground and
jump over it. Its almost impossible!
Hilarious, physically engaging, strategic
group game. Create a tight circle of
chairs (1 each). One person stands in
middle, leaving a vacant chair. The
Chair Game person in the middle tries to sit in the
"vacant chair" but other people keep
switching into the vacant chair, making
the gap move.
Fun, physically demanding, competitive
team activity. Several teams pull against
Multi-Way Tug-
each other, requiring communication and
of-War tactics as well as strength to
outmanoeuvre and win.
Each person places his head on another
person's tummy, so that everyone is
connected. The 1st person says "Ha",
Ha-ha then the 2nd person "Ha-ha" and so on.
The goal is to get all the way through the
group without anyone laughing; its
infectious if someone starts laughing.
In threes, each puts in one hand. Join
hands with grip as per a 2-way thumb
3-way Thumb wrestle. Try to pin the other two
Wrestle members thumbs for victory. Victors can
then go into competition etc. if you want
a grand winner.
Groups of three. Two are free - fox and
Trains, Fox & hunter. If fox gets on end of train, train
Hunter becomes fox. If hunter catches fox, they
Hobby by In a circle, each person says own name &
Pantomime shows his/her hobby by pantomime.
In a circle, everybody swaps to opposite
Circle Dance side - Return to old place backwards - Go
to opposite side blind.
1. In pairs in a small space (e.g., rope
circle) - Try to catch partner - If caught,
Mini-Chasey switch chaser. 2. Catch partner by sight -
using binoculars made from hands.
Everybody is blind & normal – if normal
people meet each other they have to
make a sound – but one person will be a
Vampires vampire (chosen by leader) who doesn‟t
speak. If you meet a vampire, become a
vampire. If two vampires meet, they
become normal.
In pairs, face to face. Alternate counting
1 - 2 - 3 (keep going) then replace
saying...1 with a clap...2 with clapping
legs...3 with a jump
Groups of 5 to 8 players – the ending
player has scarf like tail – the head of
Dragons dragon has to catch tail of the other
dragon – the dragons can‟t break
Two lines – play paper-scissors-stone – if
person wins, moves up line, if person
Group Papers-
loses, swap into opposite line (remember
Scissors-Stone some winners in that line will be moving
up). The line will keep moving.

 Dancing

 Dramaturgy

 Group problem solving activities

 Ice-breaker games

 Large group games

 Leadership games

 Psycho drama

 Role playing games

 Team building games

 Trust building games

 Win-win games

There are a number of exercises that propose a problem that

the group must solve. Some of these simply benefit from the
diversity of perspectives and background knowledge
inherent in groups to find the answer more quickly (Trivia,
Wuzzles) while another approach is to give each individual
some information and the collective information is needed to
solve the problem or challenge.

These can be simple or truly elegant situations. Many, like

ZinObelisk, can be found for free on various websites and in
books designed for use by trainers. Some of these free
programs come with adequate support instructions while
others are less complete. Many are readily adaptable to
different situations and desired outcomes.

Some companies market ready-to-play board games that are

good for large groups. An example is Performance
Management Company, which sells games like "The Search
for The Lost Dutchman's Gold Mine." These types of
programs often give teams resources, provides a structured
environment for problem solving, and rewards collaboration
(rather than competition). You can expect that these for-sale
products will be bundled with instructor's guides, templates
for play and other facilitation and instructional resources.

Many of these team building kinds of events are available. A

good place to search is under the general keywords of
"teambuilding exercises"
Roleplay for Groups
This roleplay exercise allows people to become aware of
roles they may play in groups. People often assume roles in
specific groups that are different from their normal roles
because of how they want or need to be perceived. Often,
they are playing a role but not aware of it. Some roles are
healthy, some are not. This exercise helps create awareness
of role characteristics. This exercise can be modified for use
in about any kind of group.

This exercise is often done after a group has been together

for a period of time so that roles in the group have emerged.
You announce to the group that you will need some of them
to play some roles that are often found in groups. State that
you need eight (six to ten) volunteers to roleplay and they
will draw their roles randomly out of a hat (basket). Each
role is described and each will have one or two goals that
demonstrate some characteristics of the role. In your
introduction, make it sound like fun because it is in most

Role players will sit in a circle facing each other in the

middle of the room while the rest of the group becomes
observers. Their task will be to determine each role. “We will
do this for 15 -20 minutes. The observers will then tell what
they observed and then the role players will tell what it was
like to play the role.”

Before you start, ask the role players if any of them have a
role they do not what to play. Try to exchange it with
another person or allow them to leave the group or quickly
select another person or leave that role out. Some people
may develop psychological blocks for certain roles and it
would not be good for them to play it.

Designate one person as a leader. Help facilitate that person

in getting the group started. You can actually start it yourself
by saying something like: “Glad to have such a find group of
people here today to have some fun. It‟s time to start your
roles. John, why don‟t you start us off.” If John has a
problem getting the group going, step in and help only the
minimum, then step out of the circle.

You will know when to stop the role play because after
awhile (10 –20 minutes) they will usually start getting silly,
usually laughing at themselves. If not, just step into the
circle and say, “I think we have developed enough of the
roles to talk about them.”

Start your debrief of the role play. Ask observers what roles
they saw? Then move to the role players. You can ask them a
number of questions about playing their role, like: Was your
role familiar to you? Was it hard to play? Did you like the
role? How did the role make you feel? Etc. Following the last
debrief, you will need to go to the center of the circle and
address each role player to defuse any residual feeling they
may have about playing the role. About half the people may
get a role they have played. You need to tell them they are
no longer playing the role before they leave the circle and
ask if any are having a problem with this? A few may and
you will need to process this with them so they can let go of
the role.

Leadership, motivation, attitudes, values, ability to learn,

listening, teamwork, etc. are the skills required by every
social animal today in order to be successful and satisfied.
But everybody does not equally possess these skills.
Someone may have power and potential but may not be able
to motivate others. Someone may be a really good leader but
may not have the ability to work well in a team.

It is said that skills are innate. But research has proved that
these skills can be learnt and imbibed and used in our day-
to-day life. It is for this reason that people have written such
great books on these attributes. Today a manager‟s job is not
just restricted to taking major decisions. It is his
responsibility to delegate right job to the right person,
supervise his sub-ordinates, create a good environment to
work in, carry out various administrative work and most
important of all being futuristic. He has to understand and
study the human psychology and behavior in various
situations and act accordingly. It is for this reason, we being
future managers; have to study FOUNDATION OF
HUMAN SKILLS in order to understand ourselves as well as
others in a better way. The theory covered by this subject is
not just for studying but also for relating them practically.
In order to understand this in a better manner let us take a
real life example. This happened when I was in 9th grade. We
were going for our N.C.C. camp. Nobody ever thought that
our class which was well known for its mischievous
activities would do so well when it came to teamwork.
While we were in the bus, our supervisor, Mrs. Chakravarti,
well known for being hotheaded woman, didn‟t allow us to
sing and play during the trip. Her principle was „NO NOISE,
NO VOICE‟. We got so frustrated with that provocative
woman that finally we decided that no matter what
happens, we will not only enjoy but involve her in
enjoyment during our 3-day camp and make it a memorable
trip for her. It was declared that the class getting the
maximum marks would get a certificate from N.C.C. for
being the best class of the year. All of us had a desire to win
that certificate. This decision motivated us so much that for
the first time our attitude towards every classmate changed
and we started working as a group. Our scout leaders were
in-charge of taking care of all the activities. We won in
debates, elocution, theory, signs n symbols and other
curricular activities. Then came the doom day when we were
to be tested on marching. This was our last test and we had
to give our best shot. But because we were unable to hear
our teacher properly, we interpreted instructions in the
wrong manner and marched wrongly. It was just because of
this that we lost the title to be the best class amongst four
divisions. That was really depressing. But all of us had
achieved the real award; we learnt the value of working as a
team and adjusting according to different behaviors. It was
this attitude of ours‟ which made our class teacher proud.
Even our N.C.C. supervisor was happy after seeing the
efforts we had put in.
The above example highlights various skills like teamwork,
motivation, leadership, etc. and also tells about various
behaviors of individuals. This is also common in
organizations and world at large. What is important to learn
is that we should adapt to the environment and improve our
skills as far as possible.

Much of the work on groups and teams was originally done
in the 1940's and 1950's by two researchers called “Sherif &
Sherif”. In their most important work they took two street
gangs off the streets of New York City and gave them a
summer vacation at a resort in the up state New York. One
group was favored while the other one was subtly
discriminated against so it appeared as if the group was
always second best. As an example, the one gang was given
accommodations close to the meal hall while the other group
slept over half a mile away. The meals were on a first-come
first-serve basis which meant that the groups further away
were already operating on a disadvantage. In addition, both
groups were given small housekeeping tasks which had to
be done before they could go to meals. The people
inspecting the two gangs were given instructions to speed
on the first group while slowing on the second. The first
gang always beat the second to the meal hall and had first
choice of the meals. As you probably suspected, there was
not enough tasty food to go around and the meals the
second gang received were repetitive and not very

When the two gangs competed in games with each other,

the first gang was always judged the winner. Over the
course of the first week “Sherif & Sherif” noticed the morale,
cohesion, and performance of the first gang increased while
that of the second gang went down dramatically. Tensions
rose between the two gangs as a result of various incidents.
One night, the first gang pelted the house the second gang
lived in with unripe apples until all the windows were
broken. Fights broke out between the gangs, and even
within the second gang. Matters reached a head when one
gang member from the second gang pulled a switchblade
knife on a member of the first gang. The initial stage of the
experiment ended at this point.

For the follow up to the first part of the experiment,

“Sherif & Sherif “decided to attempt to get the two gangs to
operate together not only peacefully, but as one group. They
changed the nature of the games from group competitions to
tasks which required more members than were in either of
the two gangs. Preferential treatment of the first gang was
eliminated and the boys from both gangs were treated
equally. The speed at which former antagonisms were
forgotten and the two gangs merged resources surprised
“Sherif & Sherif”.

Sherif & Sherif Summations:

 The availability of resources and rewards has an

impact on the morale, group unity and productivity.
 Recognition and effort impact group
 Productivity increased and maintains group