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OBJECTIVES

OF STUDY

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OBJECTIVES OF STUDY

• To find out reasons for quality of work life in. DELL & INFOSYS.

• To find out effects of quality of work life in DELL & INFOSYS.

• To find out way to improve quality of work life in DELL & INFOSYS.

• To gain an insight into current working time policies and practices, as well as

work-life balance issues in INFOSYSY and DELL

• To complement existing Foundation data and research on working time -

largely based on surveys of individual workers and on literature reviews in

INFOSYSY and DELL

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RESEARCH
METHODOLOGY

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
For achieving the objectives of study, survey was conducted. For survey, personal
interviews of the Management & workers were undertaken. Personal interviews
was selected as the mode of survey to make the study more meaningful & so that
maximum information could be collected. For conducting the personal interviews
of the workers, a questionnaire was made. The questionnaire was structured with
open ended & close ended questions.
The Management was interviewed on various aspects likely to have impact on
the quality of work life & on the turn over of the employees viz. no. facilities
provided to the employees, procedure for the promotions, increments in pay,
bonus schemes incentive sector etc. given to the employees.

Sample Size:
I have covered 100 workers.
50 from DELL, Mohali
50 from INFOSYS, Mohali

Types of Data:
I have used printing as well as secondary data. Some data is been
taken from internet, some from INFOSYS & DELL literature and some is
gathered through questionnaire.

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ABSTRACT

Every company has good managers and bad, just as every company has

good employees as well as bad. If you want to look for examples, there are enough

of them in this industry to pretty much any support point of view you hold. You

will find extraordinarily long working hours but you will also find adrenaline

pumping exhilaration at the end of a successfully completed project. You will find

people complaining about monotony of work but you will also find a huge

premium on creativity and enterprise. You will find callous managers who don’t

care about people but you will also find heartwarming stories of inspirational

leadership. You will find tales of delivering under extreme

conditions but you will also find the unmistakable shiny eyed pride in front of a

delighted customer. This is the ground reality of the new knowledge industry of

our country and while not everything is right with it, there is more that is good

than has ever been in any single economic sector of India.

DELL & INFOSYS are creating a positive environment for efficient and

smooth work. With the repetitive nature of work, one’s efficiency get affected and

growth oriented opportunities becomes less.

With hectic schedule and overtime burdened one really stressed and exhausted at

work. Under the provision of the company, to any issue or problem, company take

initiatives with time and appropriate measures. For efficient working, managers do

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have to take care about the professional and personal growth. Nightshifts are really

tiring and if it is the case with females its really hectic.

In BPO’s one get stuck to the work and in the scarcity of holidays, he/she affected

mostly socially. Companies policies and procedures are making senses. Most of

the working class in BPO’s not get satisfied with the job, they always try to switch

to other profession one get settled.

Being hectic and over burdened with the worktime, one’s efficiency really get

affected.

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INTRODUCTION

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There has been much concern today about the decent wages, convenient

working hours, conducive working conditions, etc. Their term “Quality of

Worklife” has appeared in Research Journals and press in USJ only in 1970s.

There is no generally acceptable definition about this term. However, some

attempts were made to describe the term quality of work life QWL. It refers to the

favourableness or unfavourableness of a job environment for people. J. Richard

and J. Lay define QWL as ‘ the degree to which members of a work organisation

are able to satisfy important personnel needs through their experience in the

organisation.”

Quality of worklife improvements are defined as any activity which takes

place at every level of an organisation, which seeks greater organisational

effectiveness through the enhanceme of human dignity and growth . a process

through which the tock-holders in the organisation management, unions and

employees—learn how to work together better to determine for themselves what

actions, changes and improvements are desirable and workable in order to achieve

the twin and simultaneous goals of an improved quality of life at work for all

members of the organisation and greater effectiveness for both the. company and

the unions.

Richard E. Walton explains quality of worklife in terms of eight broad conditions

of employment that constitute desirable Quality of Worklife (QWL). He proposed

the same criteria for measuring QWL.

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DEFINING QUALITY OF WORK LIFE

The best way of approaching quality of life measurement is to measure the


extent to which people's 'happiness requirements' are met - ie those requirements

which are a necessary (although not sufficient) condition of anyone's happiness -

those 'without which no member of the human race can be happy.'

- McCall, S.: 1975, 'Quality of Life', Social Indicators Research 2, pp 229-248

WHAT IS QOL? QOL may be defined as subjective well-being. Recognising


the subjectivity of QOL is a key to understanding this construct. QOL reflects the

difference, the gap, between the hopes and expectations of a person and their

present experience. Human adaptation is such that life expectations are usually

adjusted so as to lie within the realm of what the individual perceives to be

possible. This enables people who have difficult life circumstances to maintain a

reasonable QOL.

- Janssen Quality-of-life Studies

Quality of Life is tied to perception of 'meaning'. The quest for meaning is


central to the human condition, and we are brought in touch with a sense of

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meaning when we reflect on that which we have created, loved, believed in or left

as a legacy.

- Frankl VE. 'Man's search for meaning.' New York: Pocket Books, 1963.

Our definition of quality of life is: The degree to which a person enjoys the
important possibilities of his/her life. Possibilities result from the opportunities

and limitations each person has in his/her life and reflect the interaction of

personal and environmental factors. Enjoyment has two components: the

experience of satisfaction and the possession or achievement of some

characteristic, as illustrated by the expression: "She enjoys good health." Three

major life domains are identified: Being, Belonging, and Becoming. The

conceptualization of Being, Belonging, and Becoming as the domains of quality of

life were developed from the insights of various writers.

The Being domain includes the Belonging includes the person's fit Becoming refers to the purposeful

basic aspects of "who one is" and with his/her environments and also activities carried out to achieve

has three sub-domains. Physical has three sub-domains. Physical personal goals, hopes, and wishes.

Being includes aspects of physical Belonging is defined as the Practical Becoming describes day-

health, personal hygiene, connections the person has with to-day actions such as domestic

nutrition, exercise, grooming, his/her physical environments such activities, paid work, school or

clothing, and physical as home, workplace, volunteer activities, and seeing to

appearance. Psychological Being neighbourhood, school and health or social needs. Leisure

includes the person's community. Social Belonging Becoming includes activities that

psychological health and includes links with social promote relaxation and stress

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adjustment, cognitions, feelings, environments and includes the reduction. These include card

and evaluations concerning the sense of acceptance by intimate games, neighbourhood walks, and

self, and self-control. Spiritual others, family, friends, co-workers, family visits, or longer duration

Being reflects personal values, and neighbourhood and activities such as vacations or

personal standards of conduct, community. Community Belonging holidays. Growth Becoming

and spiritual beliefs which may or represents access to resources activities promote the improvement

may not be associated with normally available to community or maintenance of knowledge and

organized religions. members, such as adequate income, skills.

health and social services,

employment, educational and

recreational programs, and

community activities.

- Quality of Life Research Unit, University of Toronto

• Being physically able to get around.


Physical Being
B
• My nutrition and the food I eat.
E • Being free of worry and stress.
I Psychological Being

N • The mood I am usually in.


• Having hope for the future.
G
Spiritual Being
• My own ideas of right and wrong.
B • The house or apartment I live in.

E Physical Belonging
• The neighbourhood I live in.
L
Social Belonging • Being close to people in my family.
O

N • Having a spouse or special person.

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• Being able to get professional services (medical, social, etc.)
Community Belonging
G
• Having enough money.
I

B
N • Doing things around my house.

E Practical Becoming
• Working at a job or going to school.
C
• Outdoor activities (walks, cycling, etc.)
O
Leisure Becoming
M • Indoor activities (TV, cycling, etc.)

• Improving my physical health and fitness.


I
Growth Becoming
N
• Being able to cope with changes in my life.
G

- Quality of Life Research Unit, University of Toronto

In quality of life research one often distinguishes between the subjective and
objective quality of life. Subjective quality of life is about feeling good and being

satisfied with things in general. Objective quality of life is about fulfilling the

societal and cultural demands for material wealth, social status and physical well-

being.

- Quality-of-Life Research Center, Denmark

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The approach to the measurement of the quality of life derives from the position
that there are a number of domains of living. Each domain contributes to one's

overall assessment of the quality of life. The domains include family and friends,

work, neighborhood (shelter), community, health, education, and spiritual.

- The University of Oklahoma School of Social Work

The City of Vancouver measures QOL using the following indicators:

Community Affordability Measure, Quality of Employment Measure, Quality of

Housing Measure, Health Community Measure, Community Social Infrastructure,

Human Capital Measure, Community Stress Measure, Community Safety

Measure, Community Participation Measure.

- Website of the City of Vancouver

UNDP has been publishing the annual Human Development Index (HDI) for
countries around the worlkd. It examines the health, education and wealth of each

nation's citizens by measuring:

• life expectancy

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• educational achievement -- adult literacy plus combined primary, secondary

and tertiary enrolment; and

• standard of living -- real GDP per capita based on PPP exchange rates.

- Human Development Report, UNDP, 1997

There are essentially two perspectives taken in quality of life research: social
indicators research which considers the elites' valuation of what the people need,

and conventional quality of life research which studies what people want, in order

to improve their quality of life.

- Quality of Life, Ramkrishna Mukherjee, Sage Publications, 1989.

T he purpose of the Quality of Life Index (QOLI) is to provide a tool for


community development which can be used to monitor key indicators that

encompass the social, health, environmental and economic dimensions of the

quality of life in the community. The QLI can be used to comment frequently on

key issues that affect people and contribute to the public debate about how to

improve the quality of life in the community. It is intended to monitor conditions

which affect the living and working conditions of people and focus community

action on ways to improve health. Indicators for the QOLI include:

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• SOCIAL: Children in care of Children´s Aid Societies; social assistance

beneficiaries; public housing waiting lists etc.

• HEALTH: Low birth weight babies; elderly waiting for placement in long

term care facilities; suicide rates etc.

• ECONOMIC: Number of people unemployed; number of people working;

bankruptcies etc.

• ENVIRONMENTAL: Hours of moderate/poor air quality; environmental

spills; tonnes diverted from landfill to blue boxes etc.

Quality of Life is the product of the interplay among social, health, economic and

environmental conditions which affect human and social development.

Ontario Social Development Council, 1997

How does QOL compare with 'Standards of Living'? Standards of Living is a


measure of the quantity and quality of goods and services available to people. It

meaures such aspects as GDP Per Capita, life expectency, Births/1000, Infant

Mortality/1000, Doctors/1000, Cars/1000, TV/1000, Telephones/1000, Literacy

levels, %GDP spent on Education, %GDP spent on Health, Cinema attendence,

Newspaper circulation, Fertility Rate, Density, Population per dwelling, etc.

Quality of Life is the product of the interplay among social, health, economic and

environmental conditions which affect human and social development.

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- Various sources

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CRITERIA OF MEASURING QWL

(i) Adequate and Fair Compensation

There are different opinions about the adequate compensation. The committee on

Fair Wages defined fair wage as “. . the wage which is

above the minimum wage but below the living age.”

(ii) Safe and Healthy Working Conditions

Most of the organisations provide safe and healthy working conditions due to

humanitarian requirements and/or legal requirements. In fact, these conditions are

a matter of enlightened self-interest.

(iii) Opportunity to Use and Develop Human Capabilities

Contrary to the traditional assumptions, QWL is improved the extent that the

worker can exercise more control over his or her work, and the degree to which

the job embraces an entire meaningful task”

but not a part of it. Further, QWL provides for opportunities like autonomy in

work and participation in planning in order to use human capabilities.

(iv) Opportunity for Career Growth

Opportunities for promotions are limited in case of all categories of employees

either due to educational barriers or due to limited openings at the higher level.

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QWL provides future opportunity for continued growth and security by expanding

one’s capabilities, knowledge and qualifications.

(v) Social Integration in the Work Force

Social integration in the work force can be established by creating freedom from

prejudice, supporting primary work grq a sense of community and inter-personnel

openness, legalitariani and upward mobility.

(vi) Constitutionalism In the Work Organisation

QWL provides constitutional protection to the employees only to the level of

desirability as it hampers workers. It happens because the management’s action is

challenged in every action and bureaucratic procedures need to be followed at that

level. Constitutional protection is provided to employees on such matters as

privacy, free speech, equity and due process.

(vii) Work and Quality of Life

QWL provides for the balanced relationship among work, non- work and family

aspects of life. In other words, family life and social life should not be strained by

working hours including overtime work, work during inconvenient hours, business

travel, transfers, vacations, etc.

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(viii) Social Relevance of Work

QWL is concerned about the establishment of social relevance to work in a

socially beneficial manner. The workers’ selfesteem would be high if his work is

useful to the society and the vice versa is also true.

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SPECIFIC ISSUES IN QWL

Trade unions claim that they are responsible for the improvement in various

facilities to workers whereas management takes credit for improved salaries,

benefits and tacilities. However, P/HR manager has (identified) specific issues in

QWL besides normal wages, salaries, fringe benefits, etc. and takes lead in

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providing them so as to maintain higher order QWL. IKlott, Mundick and Schuster

suggested 11 major QWL issues. They are:

(I) Pay and Stability of Employment

Good pay still dominates most of the other factors in employee satisfaction.

Various alterrtative means for providing wages should be developed in view of

increase in cost of living index, increase in levels and rates of income tax and

profession tax. Stability to a greater extent can be provided by enhancing the

facilities for human resource development.

(ii) Occupational Stress

Is a condition of strain on one’s emotions, thought process and physical condition.

Stress is determined by the nature of work, working conditions, working hours,

pause in the work schedule, worker’s abilities and nature and match with the job

requirements. Stress is caused due to irritability, hyper—excitation or depression,

unstable behaviour, fatigue, stuttering, trembling psychomatic pains, h smoking

and drug abuse. Stress adversely affects employ productivity. The P/HR manager,

in order to minimise the stress, has identify, prevent and tackle the problem. He

may arrange the treatment of the problem with the health unit of the company.

(iii) Organisational Health Programmes

Organisational health programmes aim at educating employees abdut health

problems, means of maintaining and improving of health, etc. These programmes

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cover drinking and smoking cessation, hypertension control, other forms of

cardiovascular risk reduction, family planning, etc. Effective implementation of

these programmes result in reduction in absenteeism, hospitalisation, disability,

excessive job turnover and premature death. This programme should also cover

relaxation, physical exercise, diet control, etc.

(iv) Alternative Work Schedules

Alternative work schedules including work at home, flexible working hours,

staggered hours, reduced work week, part-time employment which may be

introduced for the convenience and comfort of the workers as the work sch which

offers the individual the leisure time, flexible hours of work is preferred.

(v) Participative Management and Control of Work

Trade unions and workers believe that workers’ participation in management and

1e improves WL. Workers also feel that they have control êr their work, use their

skills and make a real contribution to the job if they are allowed participate in

creative and decision-making process.

(vi) Recognition

Recognising the employee as a hum being rather than as a labourer

increases the QWL Participative management, awarding the rewarding systems,

congratulating the employees for their achievement, job enrichment, offering

prestigious designations to the jobs, providing well furnished and decent work

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places, offering membership in clubs or association, providing vehicles, offering

vacation trips are some means to recognise the employees.

(vii) Congenial Worker-Supervisor Relations

Harmonious supervisor-worker relations gives the worker a sense of social

association, belongingness, achieve of work results, etc. This in turn leads to better

QWL.

(viii) Grievance Procedure

Workers have a sense of fair treatment’ when the company gives them the

opportunity to ventilate their grievances and represent their case succinctly rather

than settling the problems arbitrarily.

(ix) Adequacy of Resources

Resources should match with st4ted objectives, otherwise, employees will not be

able to attain the Objectives. This results in employee dissatisfaction and lower

QWL

(x) Seniority and Merit in Promotions

Seniority is generally taken as the ba for promotion in case of operating

employees. Merit is considered as the basis for advancement for managerial

people whereas seniority-c is preferred for promotion of ministerial employees.

The promotional policies and activities should be fair and just in order to ensure

higher QWL.

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(xi) Employment on Permanent Basis

Employment of workers on casual, te probationary basis gives them a sense of

insecurity. On the dther hand, employment on permanent basis gives them security

and leads to higher order QWL.

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QWL AND FRINGE BENEFITS

P/HR manager has to build and maintain QWL providing a wide range of fringe

benefits. Fringe benefits and social security benefits result in improvement in

productivity, reduction in absenteeism, turnover, sick L alienation, etc. These

benefits or maintenance activities include medical and health benefits, safety

measures, legal and financial services, consumer services, retirement benefits,

conveyance, canteen facilities, , recreational services, career counselling,

employee information reports, etc.

QWL AND PRODUCTIVITY

The general perception is that improvements in QWL costs much to the

organisation. But it is not so, as improvement over the existing salary, working

conditions and benefits will not cost much However, the rate of increase in

productivity is higher than that of cost of QWL. Thus, increase in QWL results in

increase in productivity. But continual increase in QWL eventually leads to

reduction in productivity due to increase in cost of output This is because the

worker’s output does not increase proportionately after a certain level even though

QWL increases.

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Improved QWL leads to improved performance. Performance should mean not

only physical output but also the behviour of the worker in helping colleagues in

solving job-related, accepting orders with enthusiasm, promoting a positive team

spirit and accepting temporary unfavourable work conditions without c

QUALITY OF WORK LIFE AND HUMAN RESOURCES

MANAGEMENT

Quality of worklife is broader than m though these two terms seem to be similar.

All personnel-related activities affect quality of worklife. Some examples are:

BARRIERS TO QUALITY OF WORKLIFE

Quality of worklife suffers from barriers like any other new schemes.

Management, employees and unions fear the effect of unknown change. All these

parties feel that the bends of this concept are few though they are convinced about

its effect on personnel management as a whole and on the individual parties

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separately. Management should develop strategies to improve quali of worklife in

view of the barriers.

STRATEGIES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF QWL

The strategies for improvement in quality of worklife include self-managed work

teams, redesign and enrichment, effective leadership and supervisory behaviour,

career development, alternative work schedules, job security, administrative

orgastisational and participating management.

(i) Self-managed Work Teams

These are also called autonomous work groups or integrated work teams. These

work teams are formed with 10 to 20 employees who plan, co-ordinate and control

the activities of the team with the help of a team leader who is one among them.

Each team performs all activities including selecting their people. Each team has

authority to make decisions and regulate the activities. The group as a whole is

accountable for the success or failure. Salaries are fixed both on the basis of

individual and group achievement.

(ii) Job Redesign and Enrichment

Narrow jobs can be combined into larger units of accomplishment. Jobs are

redesigned with a view to enriching them to satisfy higher order human needs.

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(iii) Effective Leadership and Supervisory Behaviour

For effective leadership and supervisory behaviour ‘9-9’ style of managerial grid

is suitable.

(iv) Career Development

Provision for career planning, communicating and counselling $he employees

about the career opportunities, career path, education and development and for

second careers should be made.

(v) Alternative Work Schedules

Provision for flexible working hours, part-time employments, job- sharing and

reduced work week should be made.

(vi) Job Security This tops the employees’ list of priorities. It should be

adequately taken care of.

(vii) Administrative or Organisational Justice

The principles of justice, fair and equity should be taken care of in disciplinary

procedure, grievance procedures, promotions, transfers, demotion, work

assignment, leave, etc.

(viii) Participative Management Employees should be allowed to participate in

management participative schemes which may be of several types. The most

sophisticated among them is quality circle.

Implementation of these strategies ensures higher level of quality of worklife.

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QUALITY OF WORK LIFE AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT

IMPACTS EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE

It is a known fact that most professionals leave an organisation due to lack

of career growth. Active career development initiatives by a company is a key

retention tool to keep the best talent within its fold. It is one of the greatest

motivators to keep an employee happy and engaged. But does career planning and

development of employees actually make a difference to the productivity of a

worker? Most organisations think so, and consider it a part of their critical human

resource strategy. From the employees’ point of view career development

initiatives gives them a clear focus about their career track, the blind spots that

they have to overcome and the final goal to be reached. This focussed approach

works to their advantage from their everyday work to long-term aspirations.

The impact of career development/ succession planning programmes can be seen

through the productivity indicator, engagement surveys and reduction in attrition

rate. It is in fact a win-win situation for all. “The typical employee views a career

development programme as a path to upward mobility, the manager sees it as a

retention and motivational tool, and the top management view it as a tool for

succession planning,” explains Tarun Singh, Director, Kenexa Technologies

(India). These career development efforts bring into focus high potential

candidates who can be groomed for greater responsibilities in the future.

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The right approach to QWL

Organisations have today begun to understand the effectiveness of mentoring

among all career development initiatives like promotion, job rotation, training, etc.

The mentorship approach has proved to make a significant impact. Nirupama V G,

Associate Director, TeamLease Services, informs, “Few companies assign career

counsellors to employees, who act as a mentor and coach throughout the

counselee’s career with the company. The counsellors take genuine interest in the

counselee’s career and guide them to projects which will enable him/her to

develop the skills and experience and hence employability. Review of the project

handled by the employee is done with respect to the career plan at regular

intervals.” This apart many companies have “communities” of knowledge

comprising people involved in similar projects, business streams or domains.

These communities act as knowledge banks/learning centres which help the

employees to strengthen the skills pertaining to their career stream.

Biju S Nair, Vice-president (Finance & HR), Four Soft, lists the best approaches to

developing careers:

• Creating opportunities for the employees in the organisation.

• Employee-friendly work environment with high learning curve and

leadership mentoring.

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• Understanding broad corporate goals as well as industry requirements and

aligning the career development initiatives.

• Creating friendly work culture and transparent environment for better

career growth.

• Salary growth and benefits to match the role specific requirement and

ability to perform as per the job requirement.

Common career development initiatives

• Promotion

• Training

• Job rotation

• Job enlargement

• Succession planning

• Mentoring

• Assessment and development centres

Source: Compass Connections

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Aligning with organisational goals

The growth of an individual is intrinsically linked with the growth of an

organisation and vice versa. No organisation can develop without taking its

employees on the growth path and an individual’s development is meaningless if it

does not align with the organisational goals and strategies. When an individual’s

aspirations is directed elsewhere from that of his organisation’s it can lead to

absolute chaos.

“Organisations have their own vision and individuals their own aspirations.

Alignment and congruence of both create a win-win situation and the lack of such

alignment can create movement in haphazard directions leading to loss of

productivity, morale, etc,” states Talwar.

Alignment of employees with organisational goals and strategies is a must.

Shrikant Kulkarni, Senior Vice President, KPIT Cummins Infosystems, points out

that this happens when organisations leverage home-grown talent which

understands the company’s business, its challenges, customers, technology, its

values and culture.

“Soft skills development is an integral part of career planning initiative. Team

play, leadership skills, communication skills are key competencies for one who

goes up the career in the IT industry,” adds Kulkarni.

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Every organisation needs to retain people with the right skills and talent. This can

be enabled by investing in their future growth and showing them the path to fulfil

their dreams. In this process the effort put by employees gives a fillip to their

performance and transforms into greater organisational productivity.

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Dell Inc. (NASDAQ: DELL) is a trusted and diversified information

technology supplier and partner employing 65200 employees worldwide working

towards selling a comprehensive portfolio of products and services to customers

worldwide. Dell is recognized by Fortune magazine as America's most admired

company and No. 3 globally, designs, builds and delivers innovative, tailored

systems that provide customers with exceptional value. Company revenues for the

last four quarters were $54.2 billion.

Dell India Pvt Limited (the Indian arm of Dell Inc.) was incorporated in

1996.Dell’s direct operations in India started in the year 2000 from Bangalore.

Ever since its launch in India, Dell India has been growing at a tremendous pace.

The major support factor for this growth has been the team, Dell’s direct model

and the high levels of post sales service given to the customers. Dell India got the

top rank for product and post sales service support in the DQ-IDC Customer

Satisfaction Audit 2005. This feedback from customers is a clear indication of

Dell's growing stature in India.

Dell's Higher Standard

Dell's success is built on a foundation of personal and professional integrity. We

hold ourselves to standards of ethical behavior that go well beyond legal

minimums. We never compromise these standards and we will never ask any

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member of the Dell team to do so either. We owe this to our customers, suppliers,

shareholders and other stakeholders. And we owe it to ourselves because success

without integrity is essentially meaningless.

Our higher standard is at the heart of what we know as the "Soul of Dell" - the

statement of the values and beliefs which define our shared global culture. This

culture of performance with integrity unites us as a company that understands and

adheres to our company values and to the laws of the countries in which we do

business. Just as the Soul of Dell articulates our values and beliefs, the following

Code of Conduct provides guidance to ensure we meet our higher standard and

conduct business the Dell Way - the right way, which is "Winning with Integrity."

Simply put, we want all members of our team, along with our shareholders,

customers, suppliers and other stakeholders, to understand that they can believe

what we say and trust what we do. Our higher standard includes several key

characteristics that both underpin the Soul of Dell and provide the foundation for

our Code of Conduct:

Trust - Our word is good. We keep our commitments to each other and to our

stakeholders.

Integrity - We do the right thing without compromise. We avoid even the

appearance of impropriety.

Honesty - What we say is true and forthcoming - not just technically correct. We

are open and transparent in our communications with each other and about

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business performance.

Judgment - We think before we act and consider the consequences of our actions.

Respect -We treat people with dignity and value their contributions. We maintain

fairness in all relationships.

Courage - We speak up for what is right. We report wrongdoing when we see it.

Responsibility - We accept the consequences of our actions. We admit our

mistakes and quickly correct them. We do not retaliate against those who report

violations of law or policy.

COMPANY FACTS

The Company

Dell Inc. listens to customers and delivers innovative technology and services they

trust and value. Uniquely enabled by its direct business model, Dell sells more

systems globally than any computer company, placing it No. 28 on the Fortune

500. Dell's climb to market leadership is the result of a persistent focus on

delivering the best possible customer experience by directly selling standards-

based computing products and services. Revenue for the last four quarters totaled

$56 billion and the company employs approximately 65,200 team members

around the globe.

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Dell was founded in 1984 by Michael Dell, the longest-tenured executive to lead a

company in the computer industry. The company is based on a simple concept: by

selling computer systems directly to customers, Dell could best understand their

needs and efficiently provide the most effective computing solutions to meet those

needs. This direct business model eliminates retailers that add unnecessary time

and cost, or can diminish Dell's understanding of customer expectations. The

direct model allows the company to build every system to order and offer

customers powerful, richly-configured systems at competitive prices. Dell also

introduces the latest relevant technology much more quickly than companies with

slow-moving, indirect distribution channels, turning over inventory every four

days on average.

The Dell Effect

For more than 20 years, Dell has revolutionized the industry to make computing

accessible to customers around the globe, including businesses, institutional

organizations and individual consumers. Because of Dell's direct model—and the

industry's response to it—information technology is more powerful, easier to use

and more affordable, giving customers the opportunity to take advantage of

powerful new tools to improve their businesses and personal lives.

Dell has demonstrated this effect time and again as it enters new, standardized

product categories, such as network servers, workstations, mobility products,

printers and other electronic accessories. Nearly one out of every five standards-

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based computer system sold in the world today is a Dell. This global reach

indicates our direct approach is relevant across product lines, regions and customer

segments.

Balancing Liquidity, Profitability and Growth

Dell's high return to shareholders has been the result of a focused effort over time

to balance growth with profitability and liquidity. Dell has consistently led its

largest competitors in each of those categories.

PRODUCTS AND SERVICES

Servers Dell's standards-based PowerEdge line of servers is designed to provide

customers affordable performance, reliability, and scalability. Options include

high performance rack and tower servers for enterprise customers and aggressively

priced tower servers for small organizations and workgroups/remote locations.

Storage Dell/EMC and Dell's PowerVault lines of storage products offer

customers a comprehensive portfolio of cost-effective hardware and software

products to store, serve and protect customer data. The portfolio includes external

storage, tape backup products, network attached storage, fibre channel arrays,

storage area networks, and rack solutions.

Printing and Imaging Systems Dell features a wide array of Dell-branded printers,

from photo printers for consumers to large multifunction lasers for corporate

39
workgroups. The Dell printer product line is focused on making printing easier to

buy, own, and use. All Dell printers feature the Dell Ink Management System or

Dell Toner Management System, which simplify the supplies purchasing process

by displaying ink or toner levels on the status window during every print job and

proactively prompting users to order replacement cartridges directly from Dell.

Workstations Dell Precision desktop and mobile workstations are intended for

professional users who demand exceptional performance to run sophisticated

applications, such as three-dimensional computer-aided design, digital content

creation, geographic information systems, computer animation, software

development and financial analysis.

Notebook Computers Dell offers two lines of notebook computer systems. The

Latitude line is designed to address a wide range of business and organizational

needs, including powerful performance, portability, and flexibility. Latitude

offerings range from wireless-ready, highly expandable full-featured models to

thin, light ultra-portable models. The Inspiron line is targeted to customers who

require high-performance computer systems at aggressive prices. Typical

customers are individuals or small-to-medium sized businesses that require

optimum performance for their investment.

Desktop Computers Dell customers can select from two lines of desktop computer

systems. The OptiPlex line is designed for corporate, institutional and small

business customers who demand highly-reliable, stable, manageable and easily

40
serviced systems within networked environments. The Dimension line is designed

for small businesses and home users requiring fast technology turns and high-

performance computing. The Dimension product line typically features the latest

high-performance components.

Networking Products Dell's PowerConnect switches connect computers and

servers in small- to medium-sized networks. PowerConnect products offer

customers enterprise-class features and reliability at a low cost.

Software and Peripheral Products Dell offers a multitude of competitively priced

software and peripheral products, including software, monitors, printers,

handhelds, notebook accessories, networking and wireless products, memory,

digital cameras, projectors and scanners. The company also offers several new

Dell peripheral products, including plasma and LCD TVs, and Axim handhelds.

Managed Services Dell's wide range of IT management services allow customers

to lower annual service costs and enhance performance without sacrificing control

of their systems. Dell Managed Services assists customers in planning,

deployment, maintenance, asset management, on-site field services and other

related services.

Professional Services Dell Professional Services help businesses utilize emerging

technology, enhance efficiencies, reduce business risk and maximize return on

technology investment. Using its expertise and best practices in technology

41
consulting, application development, solutions integration, and infrastructure

design, Dell designs, develops and implements end-to-end technology solutions.

Deployment Services Dell's deployment services are designed to rapidly configure

and deploy Dell systems and products into IT environments. Dell's custom factory

integration services allow customers to configure systems to meet their specific

hardware and software needs. Additional deployment services include asset

management and recovery services, custom delivery services, installation services,

managed deployment services and image management services.

Support Services Dell offers a variety of customized services and support

programs tailored to meet specific customer requirements. Customers can select

from four tiers of service levels through Enterprise Support for server and storage

systems. Additionally, the company provides a limited warranty for all computer

systems and offers 24 hour telephone and online technical support. Warranty

upgrades and services such as CompleteCare accidental damage protection, At

Home Service for technical support and Express Tech Support, give customers

priority access to Dell's technical support team.

Training and Certification Services Dell's training and certification programs

appeal to businesses and consumers worldwide. The company's online training

programs feature more than 1,200 courses for consumer, business and IT

professionals. The courses are designed for all skill levels and range from personal

finance to business productivity to IT certification.

42
On-site service is provided by independent third-party service providers. Dell, the

Dell logo, Dell Ink Management System, Dell Toner Management System,

PowerEdge, PowerVault, PowerConnect, Dell Precision, Inspiron, Latitude,

OptiPlex, Dimension, Axim and Premier Dell.com are trademarks of Dell Inc.

Microsoft and Windows are trademarks of Microsoft Corp., Intel is a trademark of

Intel Corp. and EMC is a trademark of EMC Corp.

DELL FINANCIALS

(in millions, except per-share data) FY'06 FY'05 Change

Revenue $15,183 $13,457 13%

GAAP Operating Income $1,246 $1,187 5%

Non-GAAP Operating Income 2 $1,246 $1,187 5%

GAAP Net Income $1,012 $667 52%

Non-GAAP Net Income 2 $1,012 $947 7%

GAAP EPS $0.43 $0.26 65%

Non-GAAP EPS 2 $0.43 $0.37 16%

Days supply in inventory 4 4

43
Annual Financial Highlights

(in millions, except per-share data) FY061 FY052 FY04 FY03 FY023

Net revenue $55,908 $49,205 $41,444 $35,404 $31,168

Operating income $4,789 $4,254 $3,544 $2,844 $2,271

Net income $3,825 $3,323 $2,645 $2,122 $1,780

Earnings per share $1.56 $1.29 $1.01 $0.80 $0.65

Closing stock price $29.26 $41.06 $33.44 $23.86 $26.80

Growth Highlights

44
INFOSYS, MOHALI

The Global Delivery Model (GDM), pioneered by Infosys in the early

1980s, emerged as a disruptive force in the industry and led to the rise of offshore

global outsourcing. Today, offshore global outsourcing has gained widespread

acceptance as a crucial aspect of business strategy.

Enabled by the availability of highly-educated, technically-skilled and low-cost

talent in India and other emerging economies, the GDM has achieved broad

acceptance through its ability to deliver lower costs, higher quality, and

productivity.

Offshore outsourcing is at the core of the Global Delivery Model, which refers to

the philosophy of:

• breaking pieces of work into logical components, and

• distributing these components geo-locationally, to perform them

where it creates the maximum value.

Modular Global Sourcing: Next-generation global outsourcing services

Having realized the short-term benefits of project-oriented offshore global

outsourcing , experienced practitioners are looking for ways to extract additional

value from global outsourcing initiatives. To achieve this goal, companies are

adopting sourcing models that shorten the time required to achieve steady-state

operations.

45
Modular Global Sourcing, the next generation of strategic services outsourcing,

applies the fundamental concepts of modularization to business process and IT

application and infrastructure services sourcing decision making, implementation

and ongoing management. Developed by Infosys to help enterprises at any

maturity level realize the full benefits of global sourcing, it provides both a

conceptual foundation and a set of actionable frameworks for business and IT

leaders to:

• Think about outsourcing services at an enterprise-wide level to

create alignment between business, operations and IT;

• Structure business and IT assets and their execution phases in a well-

defined modular fashion to achieve flexibility; and

• Act on a global level using strategic global delivery to ensure

predictability of cost, quality, risk, and meeting shared business objectives.

Modular Global Sourcing represents Infosys’ vision for the future of offshore

outsourcing. It is a model for enterprises to be in step with continuously changing

business realities. As such, it represents a conceptual shift in thinking about IT and

business process services outsourcing on a global scale. At the same time, it

defines a set of actionable frameworks and steps that business and IT decision

makers can undertake to put the concepts into practice to realize operational

46
efficiencies and enable business innovation, regardless of their current level of

sourcing maturity.

The Global Delivery Model is a great value multiplier

The cost arbitrage of the Global Delivery Model is about the lowest form of value

that you get. Part of the savings allows you to invest in more quality time for the

definition and design phase of the solution. This increases your odds of gaining a

competitive advantage. Further, savings from Global Delivery Model (GDM)

allows you to invest in pilot projects, which you couldn't have because of resource

constraints. This adds to your competitive advantage as well.

Infosys' Global Delivery Model (GDM) is driven by the highest process and

quality standards in the world. You get twin value multipliers:

• Assurance of the best product quality, which cuts down costs of fixing

defects, maintenance and hence, the TCO

• Advantages coming out of the continuous improvements, which keep

improving all the key parameters.

Leveraging Global Delivery Model (GDM) also gives you access to the best

global talent. This increases your chance of innovating.

Although business process outsourcing (BPO) and IT services outsourcing

have been practiced in various forms since the 1980s, the past few years have

47
witnessed a tremendous increase in their adoption rate by enterprises of all sizes

and across all industries.

Several key trends are now shaping the landscape of offshore outsourcing

services:

• Offshore outsourcing is now center-stage and mainstream

• The nature of services spend is moving away from infrastructure to

business processes and applications

• Engineering advances and standardization are increasing the ability

to modularize business process and IT services

The modularization of components and production processes has enabled

companies to leverage offshore outsourcing more effectively and achieve greater

benefits using global supplier networks. Strategic Global Sourcing provides both a

conceptual foundation and a set of actionable frameworks for business and IT

leaders to think about outsourcing services at an enterprise-wide level to create

alignment between business, operations and IT.

Strong processes are the backbone of the Global Delivery Model. At Infosys,

detailed, documented and time-tested processes drive all our activities and

interfaces.

48
• Strong quality and project management processes ensure excellence

in delivery.

• World class processes for knowledge management and sharing

encourage cross-pollination among teams.

• Processes for managing talent ensure that your project gets the best

and most motivated people.

• Our processes for interaction and communication within teams make

it possible for globally distributed groups to interface and collaborate

seamlessly, delivering excellence.

At Infosys, our teams believe in Process Osmosis. This is the planned diffusion of

best practices, not only across engagements within Infosys, but also between the

client organization and Infosys.

Our processes, while strong, lend ample space for creativity and flexibility. Honed

over years, and benchmarked beyond the best, our processes enable the Global

Delivery Model (GDM) to create far more value for you than traditional sourcing

models. Here is what they translate into for you:

• Quicker, seamless transitions, and early ownership

• Optimum onsite/ offshore mixes through intelligent allocation of

resources

• High degree of predictability through processes and reuse

49
• A strong relationship approach to ensure continuity and business-

level focus

• Sharing of best practices and tools

• Depth and quality of resources, continuously retrained to suit project

needs

• Adherence to SLA based pricing models to ensure ROI and drive

customer satisfaction

50
ANALYSIS OF
QUESTIONNAIRE

51
1. Which of the following best describe your working area?

Tele Marketing 29
Back Operation 11
Finance / Accounting 1
Human Resources 2
MIS 7
QWL
Human
MIS
Resources
14%
4%

Finance /
Accounting Tele Marketing
2% 58%

Tele Marketing
Back Operation
Back Operation
Finance / Accounting
22%
Human Resources
MIS

INFOSYS
Tele Marketing 32
Back Operation 7
Finance / Accounting 2
Human Resources 2
MIS 7
QWL
Human
MIS
Resources
14%
4%

Finance /
Accounting
Tele Marketing
4%
64%

Tele Marketing
Back Operation Back Operation
14% Finance / Accounting
Human Resources
MIS

DELL

52
2.Which of the following best describe your position?
Clerical 33
Managerial 5
Accounting 7
Other 1
Executive 4
QWL
Executive
Other 8%
2%
Accounting
14%

Clerical
66%
Managerial
10% Clerical
Managerial
Accounting
Other
Executive

INFOSYS

Clerical 37
Managerial 3
Accounting 6
Other 2
Executive 2

QWL
Other Executive
4% 4%
Accounting
12%

Managerial
6%

Clerical
74%
Clerical
Managerial
Accounting
Other
Executive

DELL

53
3.How long have you been working here?
Less than 6 months 11

6 months-12months 19
1-2 yrs 9
3-5 yrs 6
More than 5 yrs 5
QWL

More than 5 yrs Less than 6 months


3-5 yrs 10% 22%
12%

1-2 yrs
18% Less than 6 months
6 months-12months
38% 6 months-12months
1-2 yrs
3-5 yrs
More than 5 yrs

INFOSYS
Less than 6 months 10

6 months-12months 17
1-2 yrs 7
3-5 yrs 8
More than 5 yrs 8

QWL

More than 5 yrs Less than 6 months


16% 20%

3-5 yrs
16%

1-2 yrs 6 months-12months Less than 6 months


14% 34% 6 months-12months
1-2 yrs
3-5 yrs
More than 5 yrs

DELL

54
4.Are you satisfied with your work environment?

Satisfied 26
Unsatisfied 15

No Response 9

QWL

No Response
18%

Satisfied Satisfied
Unsatisfied 52%
Unsatisfied
30%
No Response

INFOSYS

Satisfied 21
Unsatisfied 19

No Response 10

QWL

No Response
20%
Satisfied
42%
Satisfied
Unsatisfied
Unsatisfied
38% No Response

DELL

55
5.Satisfaction with working condition or facilities provided?
Sanitation 6
Safety 19
Drinking Water 2
Transport 23

QWL

Sanitation
12%
Transport
46%

Safety
38%
Drinking Water
4% Sanitation
Safety
Drinking Water
Transport

INFOSYS

Sanitation 9
Safety 15
Drinking Water 6
Transport 20

QWL

Sanitation
18%
Transport
40%

Safety
Drinking Water 30%
12% Sanitation
Safety
Drinking Water
Transport

DELL

56
6.Is there any extra facilities like food or Transportation being provided?

Free 36

Concession 14

QWL

Concession
28%

Free
72%
Free
Concession

INFOSYS
Free 33
Concession 17

QWL

Concession
34%

Free
66%
Free
Concession

DELL

57
7.Attitude of supervisor and colleagues toward you.

Fair 36
Good 8
Bad 6

QWL
Bad
12%
Good
16%
Fair
Good
Fair Bad
72%

INFOSYS
Fair 33
Good 9
Bad 8

QWL
Bad
16%

Good Fair
18% Good
Fair
Bad
66%

DELL

58
8.Is job rotation facility provided?
Yes 39
No 11

QWL
No
22%

Yes
No
Yes
78%

INFOSYS

Yes 36
No 14

QWL

No
28%

Yes
No
Yes
72%

DELL

59
9.Are you provided with training?

Yes 42
No 8

QWL
No
16%

Yes
No

Yes
84%

INFOSYS

Yes 40
No 10

QWL
No
20%

Yes
No
Yes
80%

DELL

60
10.Would you refer a friend to apply for the job?

Yes 44

No 6

QWL
No
12%

Yes
No

Yes
88%

INFOSYS

Yes 42
No 8

QWL
No
16%

Yes
No

Yes
84%

DELL

61
11.Are you provided with enough growth opportunities?

Yes 31
No 19

QWL

No
38%
Yes
Yes No
62%

INFOSYS

Yes 28
No 22

QWL

No
44%
Yes
Yes
No
56%

DELL

62
12.Are there any performance appraisal or job incentives?
Yes 24
No 26

QWL

Yes
48% Yes
No
52% No

INFOSYS

Yes 21

No 29

QWL

Yes
42%
Yes
No No
58%

DELL

63
13.Any extra facilities like health camps or yoga camps being held for health
benefits?

Yes 29

No 21

QWL

No
42%
Yes
Yes
No
58%

INFOSYS

Yes 24

No 26

QWL

Yes
48% Yes
No
52% No

DELL

64
14.Is the management flexible with respect to your social responsibilities?
Very Flexible 14
Flexible 20
Not Flexible 16

QWL
Very
Not
Flexible
Flexible
28%
32%

Flexible
Very Flexible
40%
Flexible
Not Flexible

INFOSYS

Very Flexible 11
Flexible 19
Not Flexible 20

QWL
Very
Flexible
Not 22%
Flexible
40%

Flexible
Very Flexible
38%
Flexible
Not Flexible

DELL

65
15.How satisfied are you with your job?
Satisfied 22
Oversatisfied 9
Under Satisfied 12
No Response 7

QWL

No Response
14%
Satisfied
44%
Satisfied
Under Satisfied Oversatisfied
24%
Under Satisfied
Oversatisfied
No Response
18%

INFOSYS

Satisfied 17
Oversatisfied 6
Under Satisfied 18
No Response 9

QWL

No Response
18% Satisfied
34%
Satisfied
Oversatisfied
Under Satisfied Under Satisfied
Oversatisfied
36% No Response
12%

DELL

66
FINDINGS

FINDINGS

58 % workers are associated with the telemarketing in INFOSYS whereas 64 % in

DELL means the workload over DELL workers is more, other works like Back

67
Operation, Finance/Accounting, Human Resources and MIS works are almost

same.

Mainly workers are on the clerical work, more 74 % are there in the DELL as

compared to INFOSYS that is 66%. Another works are Managerial, Accounting,

Other and Executive are the different sections that are followed by the workers in

outsourcing field.

The counting of workers which are surviving there in the BPO sector in both the

companies whether INFOSYS and DELL are less in terms of staying for a longer

period.

Ratio of satisfied and unsatisfied are a bit different and really not having a big gap.

But unsatisfaction in case of INFOSYS is only 30 % whereas with DELL is 38 %.

Workers are well satisfied with the working conditions and the facilities provided,

this is where private or MNC companies are well ahead of Public Companies.

Extra facilities like food or transportation being provided, but in return they charge

the perks but in addition those perks are not so high as compared to the well high

class facilities.

72 % of the attitude of the supervisor and the colleague towards workers are fair in

INFOSYS and 66 % in case of DELL.

Meanwhile the job rotation is provided 78 % in case of INFOSYS and 72 % in

case of DELL.

68
With the start of new venture 84 % of the workers are to be given training in

INFOSYS and to 80% of the workers in DELL.

As working with the high class environment and with good facilities everybody

like to offer the same job to his/her friend, thereby 88 % of the INFOSYS workers

and 84 % of the DELL workers offers the same.

Growth opportunities are less while working with the BPO sector, only 62 % in

case of INFOSYS and 56 % in case of DELL.

Performance Appraisal or job incentives are also very less as 48 % in INFOSYS

and just 42 % in case of DELL.

Health and yoga camps are to be provided for meditation and relaxing after a

hectic work but not as compared to the burden of the work as only 58 % in

INFOSYS and 48 % in case of DELL.

Management flexibility with respect to the social responsibility to the workers is

not upto the mark.

People are satisfied just on the fact that there is no other are opened for them, they

have the only option to work in BPO’s for the livelihood.

69
SUGGESTIONS AND

RECOMMENDATIONS

70
SUGGESTIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS
The trend has been showing a fast growth for the BPO sector. BPO companies are
the fastest growing potential for India. Many of the working employee in these
companies get good perks and treatment but their working schedules are hectic.
Companies have to reform their policies and understand the working
conditions of the employee.
They have to relate their work in the manner that employees don’t get
frustrated with the stress and over burdened of the work.
Facilities like food and transportation to be provided free, company has to
provide more growth opportunities to the workers.
Time to time Performance Appraisal and job incentives has to be provided.
Health and yoga camps to provide on regular basis to make their workers
get rid of stress of work load.
Social responsibility should have to increase at professional level.
The policies have to be in the manner that employees efficiency with the
repetitive nature of work won’t get affected.
It is to be in the mind of the employee that with the impact of the work time
his/her moral don’t get affected and also the efficiency with the work.

71
LIMITATIONS
OF
STUDY

72
LIMITATIONS
1. The information provided by the workers is not definitely true.
2 The samples of workers are not representative of the total workforce.
3. The workers hesitate disclosing the true facts in order to secure their job.
4.There is no measure to check out whether the information provided by the
workers is correct or not.
The behaviour of the Organisation is not co-operative while giving information, so
it is very time consuming.

73
BIBLIOGRAPHY

74
BIBILOGRAPHY
Internet Sites
• www.dell.com

• www.infosys.com

• http://www.expressbusinesspublications.com/

• http://www.loksatta.com/

Personal Interviews
• Dr. C. B. Gupta “HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT” , Sultan Chand & Sons

• DELL Literature

• INFOSYS Literature and reviews

75
QUESTIONNAIRE
Dear Respondent,

I am a student of MBA (Final Year) at Deshbhagat Institute of Mgt. &


Computer Science Tech., Mandi Gobindgarh and as a part of our curriculum; I am
supposed to undertake a survey on “Quality of Work Life”. I will be obliged if
you provide full and correct information upto your knowledge.

Name of the Organization: _______________________________________


Name of the Employee: _______________________________________
Age:___________________________________________________________
Marital Status: _____________________________________________
Job Title: ___________________________________________________
Department / Branch: ____________________________________________
Designation: ____________________________________________________
Working Hrs/Day: ____________ Shift: Day Night

1. Which of the following best describe your working area?


Tele Marketing
Back Operation
Finance / Accounting
Human Resources
MIS
2. Which of the following best describe your position?
Clerical
Managerial
Accounting
Other
Executive

76
3. How long have you been working here?
Less than 6 months
6 months-12months
1-2 yrs
3-5 yrs
More than 5 yrs
4. Are you satisfied with your work environment?
Satisfied
Unsatisfied
No Response
5. Satisfaction with working condition or facilities provided?
Yes No
Sanitation
Safety
Drinking Water
Transport
6. Is there any extra facilities like food or Transportation being provided?
Yes No
If Yes, then Free Concession
7. Attitude of supervisor and colleagues toward you.
Fair Good Bad
8. Is job rotation facility provided?
Yes No
9. Are you provided with training?
Yes No
If Yes, then
Any salary Paid during training?
Yes No

77
10. Would you refer a friend to apply for the job?
Yes No
11. Are you provided with enough growth opportunities?
Yes No
12. Are there any performance appraisal or job incentives?
Yes No
13. Any extra facilities like health camps or yoga camps being held for health
benefits?
Yes No
14. Is the management flexible with respect to your social responsibilities?
Very flexible Flexible Not Flexible
15. How satisfied are you with your job?
Satisfied Over Satisfied

Under satisfied No Response

78