You are on page 1of 111

n œ œ œ œ œœ ..

∑ c œœœœ

œ.
∑ c n œœ œœ œœ œœ œ .
œœ œœ # œœ œœ œœ œœ ˙
c ˙

#œ œ œ œ œ.
∑ c
f
œ.
∑ c œœœœ
f
a2
∑ c #œ œ œ œ œ.

Πc Musical Analysis
n˙ ˙
Œ b ˙˙ c ˙˙
f Visiting the Great Composers
Œ ˙˙ c ˙˙
f Version 2.4
Πc
f˙ œ œ

œ œ n˙ c
˙

œ œ ˙˙ c ˙˙

œ œ #œ œ n˙.
œ c ˙
˙. ˙
œ œ #œ œ
c ˙ F.G.J. Absil
œ ˙.
b ˙˙ . ˙˙
˙ .. ˙ September 2009
c

b ˙˙ .. c ˙˙

∑ c

∑ c

c
b˙. œ œ
œ œ #œ œ E7 b 13/ #11 E7 b 13/# 11
œ ˙. c |

œ.
œœ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ c n n œœ œœ n œœ œœ œ .
œ œ œ œ œ bœ nœ
∑ c

Œ b˙ c Œ bœ

y y y y y y y Y
c æ

Œ ˙ c œ œ
æ æ æ
f Suspended cymbal
c ˙
∑ fæ
n ˙˙ c nœ œ œ œ œ.
œ n ˙˙

14
Preface
This booklet is still under development. Gradually, more examples
of musical analysis from the masterworks will be included.

This document was created using the public domain LATEX computer
typesetting program.

The navigation links (printed in red) in the Adobe Acrobat Reader


file (the pdf-file) were created using the hyperref package from
the LATEX distribution.

c
2009 F.G.J. Absil, the Netherlands.
URL Website: http://www.fransabsil.nl

ii
Contents

List of Tables viii

1 Introduction 1
1.1 What you will find in this booklet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.2 How the musical analysis diagrams were created . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.3 How to read the diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

2 Johann Sebastian Bach 4


2.1 Brandenburg Concerto No. 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.1.1 Mvt. 2 Andante . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
2.1.2 Mvt. 3 Presto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

3 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 6


3.1 String Quintet in C Major KV 515 (1787) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.1.1 Mvt. 1 Allegro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.1.2 Mvt. 4 Allegro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.2 String Quintet in G Minor KV 516 (1787) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.2.1 Mvt. 1 Allegro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.2.2 Mvt. 2 Minuetto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.3 Symphony No. 40 KV 550 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.3.1 Mvt. 2 Andante . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
3.4 Symphony No. 41 ‘Jupiter’ KV 551 (1788) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.4.1 Mvt. 2 Andante Cantabile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

4 Franz Schubert 12
4.1 Symphony No. 8 ‘Unvollendete’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4.1.1 Mvt. 1 Allegro moderato . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4.1.2 Mvt. 2 Andante con moto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
4.2 Song cycle ‘Die Winterreise’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

5 Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy 23
5.1 A Midsummer Nights’ Dream . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
5.2 Symphony No. 4 ‘Italian’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
5.2.1 Mvt. 1 Allegro vivace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
5.2.2 Mvt. 2 Andante con moto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
5.2.3 Mvt. 3 Con moto moderato . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
5.2.4 Mvt. 4 Saltarello presto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

iii
CONTENTS

6 Robert Schumann 30
6.1 Symphony No. 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
6.1.1 Mvt. 1, Andante - Allegro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
6.1.2 Mvt. 2, Larghetto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
6.1.3 Mvt. 3, Scherzo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
6.1.4 Mvt. 4, Allegro animato e grazioso . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
6.2 Symphony No. 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
6.2.1 Mvt. 3, Adagio espressivo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
6.3 Symphony No. 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
6.3.1 Mvt. 1, Lebhaft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
6.3.2 Mvt. 4, Feierlich . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
6.3.3 Mvt. 5, Lebhaft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
6.4 Symphony No. 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
6.4.1 Mvt. 4, Langsam - Lebhaft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

7 Johannes Brahms 43
7.1 German Requiem Op. 45 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
7.1.1 Mvt. 1, Selig sind, die da Leid tragen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
7.1.2 Mvt. 2, Denn alles Fleisch es ist wie Gras . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
7.1.3 Mvt. 3, Herr, lehre doch mich . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
7.2 String Quartet Op. 51 No. 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
7.2.1 Mvt. 1, Allegro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
7.2.2 Mvt. 2, Romanze Poco Adagio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
7.2.3 Mvt. 3, Allegretto Molto Moderato e Comodo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
7.2.4 Mvt. 4, Allegro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
7.3 String Quartet Op. 51 No. 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
7.3.1 Mvt. 4, Finale, Allegro non assai . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
7.4 Symphony No. 4 Op. 98 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
7.4.1 Mvt. 1, Allegro non troppo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

8 Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky 56


8.1 Nutcracker Suite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
8.1.1 Mvt. 1, Ouverture miniature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
8.1.2 Mvt. 2, Danses caractéristiques, Marche . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
8.1.3 Mvt. 2, Danses caractéristiques, Danse de la Fée-Dragée . . . . . . . . 56
8.1.4 Mvt. 2, Danses caractéristiques, Danse russe Trépak . . . . . . . . . . . 56

9 Claude Debussy 60
9.1 Prélude à l’après-midi d’un faune . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
9.2 Trois nocturnes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
9.2.1 No. 2 Fêtes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
9.2.2 No. 3 Sirènes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

10 Maurice Ravel 64
10.1 String Quartet in F . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
10.1.1 Mvt. 2, Assez vif - très rythmé . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
10.2 Miroirs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

iv
CONTENTS

10.2.1 Mvt. 4, Alborada del Gracioso . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64


10.3 Rapsodie Espagnole . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
10.3.1 Mvt. 1, Prélude à la nuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
10.3.2 Mvt. 2, Malagueña . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
10.3.3 Mvt. 3, Habanera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
10.3.4 Mvt. 4, Feria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
10.4 Ma mère l’oye . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
10.4.1 Pavane de la Belle au bois dormant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
10.4.2 Petit Poucet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
10.5 Daphnis et Chloë . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
10.5.1 Danse Guerrière . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
10.5.2 Danse Générale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
10.6 Piano Concerto in G . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
10.6.1 Mvt. 1, Allegramente . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
10.6.2 Mvt. 2, Adagio Assai . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
10.6.3 Mvt. 3, Presto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74

11 Richard Strauss 82
11.1 Op. 20 Don Juan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
11.1.1 Introduction and Don Juan 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
11.1.2 Countess . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
11.1.3 Don Juan 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
11.1.4 Anna . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
11.1.5 Don Juan 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
11.1.6 Carnival . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
11.1.7 Don Juan 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
11.1.8 Death . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
11.2 Symphonic poem Tod und Verklärung . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

12 Gustav Mahler 90
12.1 Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
12.1.1 Wenn mein Schatz Hochzeit macht . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
12.1.2 Gieng heut’ Morgens über’s Feld . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
12.1.3 Ich hab’ ein glühend Messer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
12.1.4 Die zwei blauen Augen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
12.2 Symphony No. 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
12.2.1 Mvt. 4 Adagietto Sehr Langsam . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

13 Sergei Prokofiev 95
13.1 Classical Symphony . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
13.1.1 Mvt. 1, Allegro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95

14 Dmitri Shostakovich 97
14.1 Symphony No. 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
14.1.1 Mvt. 3, Lento . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
14.2 Symphony No. 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
14.2.1 Mvt. 1, Allegro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

v
List of Tables

1.1 Notation convention in the diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2


1.2 Notation convention in the diagrams (cont’d) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

2.1 Bach, Brandenburg Concerto No. 4, Mvt. 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4


2.2 Bach, Brandenburg Concerto No. 4, Mvt. 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

3.1 Mozart, String Quintet in C Major KV 515, Mvt. 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7


3.2 Mozart, String Quintet in C Major KV 515, Mvt. 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
3.3 Mozart, String Quintet in G Minor KV 516, Mvt. 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
3.4 Mozart, String Quintet in G Minor KV 516, Mvt. 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.5 Mozart, Symphony No. 40 in G minor, Mvt. 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.6 Mozart, Symphony No. 41 ‘Jupiter’, Mvt. 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

4.1 Schubert, Symphony No. 8 ‘Unvollendete’, Mvt. 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13


4.2 Schubert, Symphony No. 8 ‘Unvollendete’, Mvt. 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
4.3 Schubert, ‘Die Winterreise’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
4.4 Schubert, ‘Die Winterreise’ (cont’d) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
4.5 Schubert, ‘Die Winterreise’ (cont’d) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
4.6 Schubert, ‘Die Winterreise’ (cont’d) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
4.7 Schubert, ‘Die Winterreise’ (cont’d) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
4.8 Schubert, ‘Die Winterreise’ (cont’d) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
4.9 Schubert, ‘Die Winterreise’ (cont’d) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
4.10 Schubert, ‘Die Winterreise’ (cont’d) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

5.1 Mendelssohn, A Midsummer Nights’ Dream Overture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24


5.2 Mendelssohn, Symphony No. 4 ‘Italian’, Mvt. 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
5.3 Mendelssohn, Symphony No. 4 ‘Italian’, Mvt. 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
5.4 Mendelssohn, Symphony No. 4 ‘Italian’, Mvt. 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
5.5 Mendelssohn, Symphony No. 4 ‘Italian’, Mvt. 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
5.6 Mendelssohn, Symphony No. 4 ‘Italian’, Mvt. 4 (Cont’d) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

6.1 Schumann, Symphony No. 1 ‘Frühling’, Mvt. 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31


6.2 Schumann, Symphony No. 1 ‘Frühling’, Mvt. 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
6.3 Schumann, Symphony No. 1 ‘Frühling’, Mvt. 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
6.4 Schumann, Symphony No. 1 ‘Frühling’, Mvt. 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
6.5 Schumann, Symphony No. 1 ‘Frühling’, Mvt. 4 (cont’d) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
6.6 Schumann, Symphony No. 2, Mvt. 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

vi
LIST OF TABLES

6.7 Schumann, Symphony No. 3 ‘Rheinische’ , Mvt. 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37


6.8 Schumann, Symphony No. 3 ‘Rheinische’, Mvt. 1 (cont’d) . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
6.9 Schumann, Symphony No. 3 ‘Rheinische’, Mvt. 1. Development section . . . . 39
6.10 Schumann, Symphony No. 3 ‘Rheinische’, Mvt. 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
6.11 Schumann, Symphony No. 3 ‘Rheinische’, Mvt. 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
6.12 Schumann, Symphony No. 4 in D minor, Mvt. 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

7.1 Brahms, German Requiem Op. 45, Mvt. 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44


7.2 Brahms, German Requiem Op. 45, Mvt. 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
7.3 Brahms, German Requiem Op. 45, Mvt. 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
7.4 Brahms, String Quartet Op. 51 No. 1, Mvt. 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
7.5 Brahms, String Quartet Op. 51 No. 1, Mvt. 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
7.6 Brahms, String Quartet Op. 51 No. 1, Mvt. 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
7.7 Brahms, String Quartet Op. 51 No. 1, Mvt. 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
7.8 Brahms, String Quartet Op. 51 No. 1, Mvt. 4 (cont’d) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
7.9 Brahms, String Quartet Op. 51 No. 2, Mvt. 4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
7.10 Brahms, Symphony No. 4, Mvt. 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
7.11 Brahms, Symphony No. 4, Mvt. 1 (cont’d) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

8.1 Tchaikovsky, Nutcracker Suite, Mvt. 1 Ouverture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57


8.2 Tchaikovsky, Nutcracker Suite, Marche . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58
8.3 Tchaikovsky, Nutcracker Suite, Danse de la Fée-Dragée . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
8.4 Tchaikovsky, Nutcracker Suite, Danse russe Trépak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

9.1 Debussy, Prélude à l’après-midi d’un faune . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61


9.2 Debussy, Trois nocturnes, No. 2 Fêtes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
9.3 Debussy, Trois nocturnes, No. 3 Sirènes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

10.1 Ravel, String Quartet, Mvt. 2 Assez vif - très rythmé . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65


10.2 Ravel, Miroirs, Mvt. 4 Alborada del Gracioso . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
10.3 Ravel, Rapsodie Espagnole, Mvt. 1 Prélude à la nuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
10.4 Ravel, Rapsodie Espagnole, scales and modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
10.5 Ravel, Rapsodie Espagnole, Mvt. 2 Malagueña . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
10.6 Ravel, Rapsodie Espagnole, Mvt. 3 Habanera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
10.7 Ravel, Rapsodie Espagnole, Mvt. 4 Feria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
10.8 Ravel, Rapsodie Espagnole, Mvt. 4 Feria (cont’d) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
10.9 Ravel, Ma mère l’oye, Pavane de la Belle au bois dormant . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
10.10Ravel, Ma mère l’oye, Petit Poucet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
10.11Ravel, Daphnis et Chloë, Danse Guerrière . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
10.12Ravel, Daphnis et Chloë, Danse Générale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
10.13Ravel, Daphnis et Chloë, Danse Générale chord structures . . . . . . . . . . . 77
10.14Ravel, Concerto pour Piano et Orchestre, Mvt. 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
10.15Ravel, Concerto pour Piano et Orchestre, Mvt. 1 (cont’d) . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
10.16Ravel, Concerto pour Piano et Orchestre, Mvt. 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
10.17Ravel, Concerto pour Piano et Orchestre, Mvt. 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
10.18Ravel, Concerto pour Piano et Orchestre, Mvt. 3 (cont’d) . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

11.1 Strauss, Op. 20 Don Juan, formal analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

vii
LIST OF TABLES

11.2 Strauss, Introduction and Don Juan 0, harmonic analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . 84


11.3 Strauss, Countess, harmonic analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
11.4 Strauss, Don Juan 1, harmonic analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
11.5 Strauss, Anna, harmonic analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
11.6 Strauss, Don Juan 2, harmonic analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
11.7 Strauss, Carnival, harmonic analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
11.8 Strauss, Don Juan 3, harmonic analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
11.9 Strauss, Death, harmonic analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
11.10Strauss, Symphonic poem Tod und Verklärung . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
11.11Strauss, Tod und Verklärung (cont’d) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
11.12Strauss, Tod und Verklärung (cont’d) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

12.1 Mahler, Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen, 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91


12.2 Mahler, Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen, 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
12.3 Mahler, Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen, 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
12.4 Mahler, Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen, 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
12.5 Mahler, Symphony No. 5, Mvt. 4 Adagietto . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

13.1 Prokofiev, Classical Symphony, Mvt. 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96

14.1 Shostakovich, Symphony No. 1, Mvt. 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98


14.2 Shostakovich, Symphony No. 9, Mvt. 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
14.3 Shostakovich, Symphony No. 9, Mvt. 1 (cont’d) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100

viii
Chapter 1

Introduction

1.1 What you will find in this booklet


This booklet presents a number of diagrams, representing the musical analysis of a number
of compositions from the classical music repertoire. The diagrams are in the form of tables
and they cover a set of masterpieces from the tonal music period, i.e., starting with the Baroque
and ending with Impressionism and the late Romantic composers. A limited set of later works
is also included.
Each chapter contains works from one specific composer. Chapters are ordered more or
less chronologically.

1.2 How the musical analysis diagrams were created


Over the years I have analysed many musical scores, in order to try and understand the
following aspects in the works by the great masters:

• musical form;

• the relations between the keys (or tonal centrer) within a movement;

• the harmonic progressions,

• the use of melodic material (from a short motive to a long and varied musical sentence);

• the instrumentation;

• the detailed voice leading within a part.

This analysis has yielded a set of annotated scores in my music library. As a byproduct I
created coloured diagrams on graph paper, with a more or less proportional representation
of the musical form and harmony, melody and other aspects indicated.
Recently I decided to put these diagrams into electronic form and make them available
on the Internet. I chose to transform the diagrams into tables, losing some of the information
(such as specific colours for melodic material and the exact duration of pedal points) on the
way. However, I thought they might still be useful as a reference source for musical analysis.

1
CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION

1.3 How to read the diagrams


The diagrams are presented in more or less standardised tables. See Table 1.1 and 1.2 for an
explanation of the labels and symbols used in the diagrams.

Table 1.1: Notation convention in the diagrams

Label Meaning

m measure number
(112 m.) total number of measures in the movement
M Melodic material (motive, theme, melody)
M0 Motive, used as introduction
M1 First main theme
M1’ Varied first theme
(M1) Vague reference to a theme
M1.1 First theme from the first thematic group (sonata form)
M2 Second theme (contrasting theme in sonata form)
I(M1.1) Melodic inversion of M1.1
▽ Gradual introduction of the melodic material below
..
. Melodic material from the previous line is continued
⊥ Melodic material from the previous line ends here
R Key or tonal centre
H Harmonic progression

When reading the tables one should take into account:


• The exact start and ending of melodic material is not indicated.
• A sequence of roots in the column R indicates a quick modulation taking place (within
the timespan of a few measures).
• The harmonic progressions frequently are reduced to the main chords that support the
structure (the functional harmony).
• A harmonic sequence (more or less exact repeat of a short fragment) is frequently in-
dicated by the notation Seq(3 × 2m; R7 ). This is a sequence of 6 measures in total,
consisting of a 2 measure pattern used 3 times. Each repeat is at an upward tonal step
(R7 ). This notation is based on the tonal positive and negative root cycle system:
– R3 : root moving a third downward, R−3 : root moving a third upward;
– R5 : root moving a fifth downward, R−5 : root moving a fifth upward;
– R7 : root moving a second upward, R−7 : root moving a second downward;
• Pedal point are indicated as c-ton-ped or (for a tonic pedal) g-dom-ped (in case of a
dominant pedal). When the pedal is indicated between brackets, e.g., (c-ped), it is
continued from the previous line.

2
1.3. HOW TO READ THE DIAGRAMS

Table 1.2: Notation convention in the diagrams (cont’d)

Label Meaning

[T] , [SD] , [D] Tonic, sub-dominant and dominant tonal axis material
ℜ(Dm7 − G7 ) Harmonic riff
(a), (b) phrase from a musical sentence (e.g., M1=a+a+b)
Exp. Exposition in the sonata form
Dev. Development in the sonata form
Rec. Recapitulation (also abbreviated as Recap.)
Tr. Transition (also abbreviated as Trans.)
Retrans. Retransition (back to initial tonal key)
Gr. Group (a group of related melodic material)
A, B Sections in a longer form
A’ Varied section in a longer form
(N ) Neapolitan chord (major chord on lowered second step)
[A],
h i #1 Rehearsal mark in the printed score
3
4 Meter
Stat. Statement (also abbreviated as St.)
Seq. Sequence (see the explanatory notes)
Sym. Symmetric harmonic structures
Imit. Imitation
Ctp. Counterpoint
Ped. Pedal point (e.g., c-tonic-pedal)
Rh. Rhythmic motive
Unis. Unisono
Chr. Chromatic
Asc. Ascending
Desc. Descending
Aug. Melodic augmentation (longer durations)
Dim. Melodic diminuition (shorter durations)
Wh.t.-sc. Whole-tone scale
Oct.-sc. Octatonic scale

3
CHAPTER 2. JOHANN SEBASTIAN BACH

Chapter 2

Johann Sebastian Bach

2.1 Brandenburg Concerto No. 4 (1721)


Source: [1].

2.1.1 Mvt. 2 Andante


Form: ternary form, ABA’. See Table 2.1 for the analysis.

Table 2.1: Bach, Brandenburg Concerto No. 4, Mvt. 2 Andante

m M R H Comment

1 M1 Em Em A, Echo(Question-Answer)
9 M2 B E7 − Echo(Q-A)
M2 Am E − D − C∆7 B7 − Seq(3 × 1m; R−7 )
18 M2 Em D7 − G E7 − Am E7 − Echo(Q-A)

28 M2 Am Am D7 − G − C∆7 F ♯∅7 − B7 B, solo, Seq(3 × 2m; R−7 )


⊥ Em − F ♯7 −
37 M2 Bm Bm F ♯7 − Bm C♯ − B − A Seq(3 × 1m; R−7 )
⊥ G∆7 F ♯7 −
45 M2 Bm A7 − D B7 − Em B7 − Echo

55 M1 Em Em F/A− A’
61 M2 B F ♯ − E − D G∆7 Seq(3 × 1m; R−7 )
68 Em Am/C − B Coda

2.1.2 Mvt. 3 Presto


See Table 2.2 for the analysis.

4
2.1. BRANDENBURG CONCERTO NO. 4

Table 2.2: Bach, Brandenburg Concerto No. 4, Mvt. 3 Presto

m M R H Comment

1 M1 G G D − G A7 − D D7 − G Fugato-Intro (4 stat.)
23 M1 G A7 − D D− Tutti 1 (2 stat.)
41 M1 G G G D7 − G D7 − Solo 1, imit.
47 ⊥ G Em − A7 − Seq(3 × 2m; R−7 )
53 M1 D D A7 − D A7 − Imit.
57 ⊥ D E7 − A7 − Seq(3 × 2m; R−7 )
d
67 M1/M2 D D A7 − D D7 − Em B7 − Em Tutti 2
d d
75 M2 E7 − F A7 − Bm Seq(3 × 2m; R5 )
M1/M2 G B7 −
87 Em Em B7 − Em B7 − Em A7 − Solo 2 (violin)
95 D D A7 − D7 − G7 E7 − Seq(3 × 2m; R5 )
Am Am B7 − Em
105 M1 B7 − Imit.
Em Em A7 B7 − Em B7 − E7 −
Am Am B7 − Em B−

127 M1 Em Em B7 − Em B7 − Em B7 − Em Tutti 3 (3 stat.)


138 M3 Seq(3 × 2m; R5 ), (4 stat.)
Bm F ♯7 − Bm E7 − F ♯7 − Bm F ♯7 −
152 Bm Bm E7 − Am D7 − G Em − A7 − Solo 3, Seq(3 × 2m; R−7 )
159 M1’ G−C D D7 − G G7 − C G7 − Imit.
167 M1 C C D7 − G G7 − C F G7 −

175 M1 C C G7 − C G7 − C G7 − Tutti 4, imit. (3 stat.)


183 C D7 − Solo, Seq(3 × 2m; R−7 )
189 M1 G G D7 − G D7 − G D7 − G Tutti 5, imit. (3 stat.)
197 G A7 − D7 − Seq(3 × 2m; R−7 )

207 M1/M2 G G
M2 A7 − D7 − Seq(2 × 2m; R5 )
219 G G G7 − C D7 − Coda
225 M1 G D7 − G D7 −
G A7 − D G7 − C E7 − Am − D7 −
237 M1 G D7 − G D−G Imit. (2 stat.), (244 m.)

5
CHAPTER 3. WOLFGANG AMADEUS MOZART

Chapter 3

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

3.1 String Quintet in C Major KV 515 (1787)


Source:[10].

3.1.1 Mvt. 1 Allegro


Form: sonata form. The formal analysis is shown in Table 3.1.

3.1.2 Mvt. 4 Allegro


Form: rondo form. The formal analysis is shown in Table 3.2.

3.2 String Quintet in G Minor KV 516 (1787)


3.2.1 Mvt. 1 Allegro
Form: sonata form. The formal analysis is shown in Table 3.3.

3.2.2 Mvt. 2 Minuetto


Form: ternary form (3-part song form). The formal analysis is shown in Table 3.4.

3.3 Symphony No. 40 in G minor KV 550 (1788)


Source: [9].

3.3.1 Mvt. 2 Andante


Form: ternary form, three-part song form. The formal analysis is shown in Table 3.5.

6
3.3. SYMPHONY NO. 40 KV 550

Table 3.1: Mozart, String Quintet in C Major KV 515, Mvt. 1 Allegro

m M R H Comment

1 M1.1 C C G7 − C C − G Exp., Gr. 1


d
21 M1.1 Cm Cm F − C G7 −
46 M1.2 Am Am D♭(N ) − C/G A7 −
69 M1.1-1.3 D D
M1.4-1.5 D7 − G Transition
94 M2.1/M1.5 G G Gr. 2
M1.5 D7 − Seq(3 × 2m, R7 )
115 M2.2 G D7 −
d
131 M1.4 G G7 − Tr., g-ton-ped.

152 M1.1 A7 − B♭/F D7 − C/G E7 − Dev.


171 M1.4 Am − Dm− Am A7 − Dm C
..
. Gm − Cm− D7 − Gm G7 − Cm Seq. (cont’d)
..
. Fm C7 − F m Seq. (cont’d)
⊥ B♭7 − E♭
193 M1.5 G7 − Cm D7 −
197 M2.1 G G G7 −
d
205 M1.1 C C G7 − Rec., Gr. 1
230 M1.2 Am Am D7 −
255 M1.1-1.3 G G
M1.4-1.5 G7 − C G7 − c-ton-ped.
281 M2.1/M1.5 C C Seq.
M1.5 C/G − G7 − Gr. 2
305 M2.2 C

322 M1.4 C C/G D7 /F ♯− Coda, g-dom-ped.


d
341 M2.1/M1.5 C/G G7 − Am
A7 − Dm − G7 −
353 M1.4 C F/C C G7 − C c-ton-ped. (368 m.)

7
CHAPTER 3. WOLFGANG AMADEUS MOZART

Table 3.2: Mozart, String Quintet in C Major KV 515, Mvt. 4 Allegro

m M R Comment

1 a C A (102 mm.)
17 b
42 a
58 c
74 T1 C Trans.

103 M1 G B (109 mm.)


120 M2
136 M3 (M3=a’)
162 M4
184 T2 Trans.

212 a C A (85 mm.)


228 b
253 a
269 c
285 T1 Trans.
297 a’ F C (61 mm.), Seq(3 × 8m, R−7 )
321 Seq(6 × 2m, R5 )
333 T1’ Trans.

358 M1 G B (109 mm.)


375 M2
393 M3 (M3=a’)
419 M4
441 T2’ Trans.

467 a’ F Coda (73 mm.)


477 a’ C
493
521 a’ (539 m.)

8
3.3. SYMPHONY NO. 40 KV 550

Table 3.3: Mozart, String Quintet in G Minor KV 516, Mvt. 1 Allegro

m M R H Comment

1 M1 Gm Gm D7 − Exp., Gr. 1
9 M1 Gm D7 −
18 T1 A♭9
7 D7 − Gm Trans., Seq(R5 )
30 M2 Gm Gr. 2
34 M2 B♭ F7 − B♭
40 T2 C7 F7 − Trans.
49 M2’ B♭ E♭ F7 − Imit.
64 M1’ B♭ F7 − Fin. St., Imit.
76 T3 B♭ F7 − Trans.
d
85 M1’ B♭ G7 − Codetta, Imit.
97 M1’ Cm A♭ F m D♭ B♭7 Dev.
107 M2 E♭m Seq(3 × 4m, R7 )
M2 Fm Seq. (Cont’d)
M2 Gm D7 − Seq. (Cont’d)
G7 − C7 − F7 − B♭7 − E♭7 Seq(R5 )
123 Gm D7 D7 − Retrans., d-dom-ped., imit.

133 M1 Gm Gm D7 − Recap., Gr. 1


141 M1 Gm Cm
156 T1 A7 D7 − Gm Trans., Seq(R5 )
168 M2 Gm Gr. 2
172 M2 Cm G7 − Cm
176 T2 Gm Cm A7 − D7 − Trans.
185 M2’ Gm Cm D7 − Imit.
210 M1’ Gm D7 − Fin. St., Imit.
213 T3 Gm D7 − Trans.
222 M1’ Gm D7 − Codetta, Imit.

235 M1 Gm Gm D− Coda, Imit.


243 M2 Gm D − Gm d-dom-ped. (254 m.)

9
CHAPTER 3. WOLFGANG AMADEUS MOZART

Table 3.4: Mozart, String Quintet in G Minor KV 516, Mvt. 2 Minuetto

m M R H Comment

1 M1 Gm D7 − Allegretto, Pt. 1
5 M2 Dm Gm A7 − Dm A7 − Dm
14 M1’ Cm − E♭ G7 − Cm B♭7 − E♭ Pt. 2
Cm G7 − Cm A7 − D7 −
26 M1 Gm D7 − Pt. 3
30 M2 Gm G7 − Cm A7 − D7 D7 − Gm (43 m.)

1 M1 G A7 − Trio, Pt. 1
7 M2 D D A7 − D
20 M1’ Am E7 − Am Pt. 2
C − Am − G G7 − C E7 − Am D − G Seq.
A7 − D−
d
32 M1 G G D7 − Pt. 3
35 M2 Em Am7 − D7 − G (47 m.)

Table 3.5: Mozart, Symphony No. 40 in G minor, Mvt. 2, Andante

m M Key Comment Phrase

1 M1 E♭ Sentence: 2 + 2 + 4 m Part 1, 1st statement


9 M1 E♭ 2+2+8m 2nd Statement
20 M2 B♭ Sentence 2 + 2 + 4 m Contrasting theme
28 G♭ − F7 Sequence (neg. cycles R−5 ) Transition
37 B♭ Cadential material 4 + 7 + 5 m Closing

53 M2 E♭(m) Much varied and inverted Part 2


57 M2 D♭ − E♭ − F Sequence R7
63 M2 G7 − C
69 C − B♭7 Retransition
74 M1 E♭ Sentence: 2 + 2 + 4 m Part 3, 1st statement
82 M1 E♭ 2+2m 2nd Statement
86 M2 F m − E♭7 Subdominant 4 + 4 m
94 M1 A♭ − B♭7 Subdominant 2 + 3 m 3nd Statement
99 C♭ − B♭7 Sequence (neg. cycles R−5 ) Transition
108 E♭ Cadential material 4 + 3 + 9 m Closing

10
3.4. SYMPHONY NO. 41 ‘JUPITER’ KV 551 (1788)

3.4 Symphony No. 41 ‘Jupiter’ KV 551 (1788)


Source: [9].

3.4.1 Mvt. 2 Andante Cantabile


Form: ternary form, three-part song form. The formal analysis is shown in Table 3.6.

Table 3.6: Mozart, Symphony No. 41 ‘Jupiter’, Mvt. 2 Andante Cantabile

m M Key Comment Phrase

1 M1 F B♭ C Sentence: a(2) + a′ (2) + b(6) m Part 1, 1st statement


11 M1 F a(2) + a′ (2) + b(4) m 2nd Statement
19 M2 Cm Sentence a(2) + a′ (2) + b(5) m Contrasting theme
28 C Transition
32 Sequence
39 C Cadential material 4 + 3 + 9 m Closing

45 M2 Dm Contrasting theme Part 2


51 M2 E♭m − B♭m − F m−
Cm − Dm − Gm Sequence R−5
56 Dm − A7 · · · C7 Retransition

60 M1 F B♭ C Sentence: a(4) + a′ (7) + b(5) m Part 3, 1st statement


76 F Transition
80 Sequence
87 F Cadential material
92 M1 F a(3) + b(7) m 2nd statem., Closing

11
CHAPTER 4. FRANZ SCHUBERT

Chapter 4

Franz Schubert

4.1 Symphony No. 8 ‘Unvollendete’ (1822)


Source: [17].

4.1.1 Mvt. 1 Allegro moderato


Form: Sonata. See Table 4.1 for the analysis.

4.1.2 Mvt. 2 Andante con moto


Form: A1 B1 A2 B2 . See Table 4.2 for the analysis.

4.2 Song cycle ‘Die Winterreise’ (1827)


Source: [16].
See Table 4.3 to 4.10 for the formal analysis.

12
4.2. SONG CYCLE ‘DIE WINTERREISE’

Table 4.1: Schubert, Symphony No. 8 ‘Unvollendete’, Mvt. 1 Allegro moderato

m M Key/H Comment

1 M0 Bm Introduction
9 M1 Exp., Gr. 1, 1st stat.
22 M1 Bm 2nd stat.
31 F ♯7 Bm D7 Trans. 1
42 M2 G Gr. 2, 1st stat.
53 M2 2nd stat.
63 Gm Trans. 2, tremolo
73 M2’ Seq(3 × 4 m)
85 G Chords
94 M2’ d-dom-ped.
104 G F ♯7 − Bm Trans. 3,

110 M0 B7 − Em Dev.
122 (M0) C Tremolo
134 (M0) F ♯7 Tremolo
146 C♯m/G♯ Dm/A Em/B B7 − Trans. 2, Seq(3 × 8m, R7
170 M0 Em
176 (M0) Em Bm Seq.
184 (M0) F ♯m Bm Em A7 − Seq.
202 D F ♯ F ♯7 Retrans.

218 M1 Bm B7 Recap., Gr. 1, 1st stat.


231 M1 Em D 2nd stat.
238 F ♯m E − A7 − Trans. 1
256 M2 D Gr. 2, 1st stat.
267 M2 2nd stat.
281 Em Trans. 2, tremolo
291 M2’ Seq(3 × 4 m)
303 B Chords
312 M2’
322 Trans. 3,

328 M0 Bm Coda
336 M0
334 (M0) (368 m.)

13
CHAPTER 4. FRANZ SCHUBERT

Table 4.2: Schubert, Symphony No. 8 ‘Unvollendete’, Mvt. 2 Andante con moto

m M Key/H Comment

1 a1 E A1
16 a1 E G E
32 b1 E C♯m
45 a1’ E
56 Trans.

64 a2 C♯m B1
82 a2’ C♯
96 a2” C♯m
111 D Seq.
121 G
139 C Retrans.

142 a1 E A2
157 a1 E G E
173 b1 E A F ♯m
186 a1’ A
252 Trans.

205 a2 Am B2
223 a2’ A
237 a2” Am
252 F Retrans.

268 a1 E Coda
280 E G♯ E Trans.
300 E (313 m)

14
4.2. SONG CYCLE ‘DIE WINTERREISE’

Table 4.3: Schubert, ‘Die Winterreise’

Form m. Key/H Comment

1. Gute Nacht
I 6 Dm Introduction
A 9
B 8 F − B♭−
C 9 Dm

I 6 Interlude
A 9
B 8 F − B♭−
C 9 Dm

I 6 Interlude
A 9 D
B 8 G − D−
C 11 D

7 Dm Coda (105 m.)

2. Die Wetterfahne
I 6 Am Introduction
A 5 Unisono
B 4 C
C Seq.

A’ 5 Am
B’ 5 F − A − Am
C 9 Dm

A” 5 Dm
B’ 7 F − Gm − A
C 11 D

5 Am Coda (52 m.)

3. Gefror’ne Thränen
I 8 Fm Introduction
A 13 F m − A♭
B 9 C − A♭m

C 10 C − A♭m Ambiguity N-chord


C 10 C − A♭m

6 Coda (56 m.)

15
CHAPTER 4. FRANZ SCHUBERT

Table 4.4: Schubert, ‘Die Winterreise’ (cont’d)

Form m. Key/H Comment

4. Erstarrung
I 7 Cm Introduction, RH arpeggio
A 8 Cm−
B 9 E♭m

C 7 Gm LH arpeggio
12 Cm

I 4 A♭ Interlude, RH arpeggio
D 12 LH/RH arpeggio
5 Cm RH arpeggio

A 8
B 9 E♭

C 7 Gm LH arpeggio
14 Cm

7 Coda, RH arpeggio (109 m.)

5. Der Lindenbaum
I 8 E Introduction
A 16
I 4 Em Interlude

A’ 8
8 Em b-dom-ped.

B 14 Em − E b-dom-ped.

A 18

6 Coda (82 m.)

6. Wasserflut
I 4 F ♯m Introduction
A 10

I 4 A Interlude
B 10 F ♯m

4 Coda (32 m.)

16
4.2. SONG CYCLE ‘DIE WINTERREISE’

Table 4.5: Schubert, ‘Die Winterreise’ (cont’d)

Form m. Key/H Comment

7. Auf dem Flusse


I 4 Em Introduction

A 9 Em − D♯m Sudden, unprepared modulation (key shifts)


A 9 Em − D♯m Unprepared modulation

B 8 E
10

C 6 Em − D♯m− Unprepared modulation


6 G♯m Unprepared modulation

C’ 8 Em − G − F ♯m− Unprepared modulation


10 Em − G − Em Unprepared modulation

3 Coda (74 m.)

8. Rückblick
I 10 Gm Introduction

A 6 Gm − Dm Tonal ambiguity
B 11 Dm − Gm

C 12 G
9 Em Tonal ambiguity

A 6 Gm − Dm Tonal ambiguity
B 4 Gm

11 G Coda (69 m.)

9. Irrblick
I 4 Bm Introduction
A 12 Bm − D − Bm
A 12 Bm − D − Bm

B 12 Bm − C Harmonisation of Neapolitan chord

Bm Coda (43 m.)

17
CHAPTER 4. FRANZ SCHUBERT

Table 4.6: Schubert, ‘Die Winterreise’ (cont’d)

Form m. Key/H Comment

10. Rast
I 6 Cm Introduction, tonic pedal
A 14 Cm − E♭ Tonic pedal
B 10 Cm

I 6 Interlude
A 14 Cm − E♭ Tonic pedal
B 10 Cm

7 Coda (67 m.)

11. Frühlingstraum
I 4 A Introduction
A 10
B 12 Dm − Gm − Am Rapid key changes

C 17 A − Am

I 5 A Interlude
A 10
B 12 Dm − Gm − Am Rapid key changes

C 18 A − Am (89 m.)

12. Einsamkeit

I 8 Bm Introduction, tonic pedal

A 8 Tonic pedal
B 9

C 12 A−C Stressing the Neapolitan chord

C’ 13 G − A − C − Bm Stressing the Neapolitan chord (48 m.)

18
4.2. SONG CYCLE ‘DIE WINTERREISE’

Table 4.7: Schubert, ‘Die Winterreise’ (cont’d)

Form m. Key/H Comment

13. Die Post


I 8 E♭ Introduction, ton. and
A 18 dom. pedal, chrom.
B 19 D♭ − E♭ desc. bass

I 8 E♭ Interlude
A 18
B 19 D♭ − E♭ (94 m.)

14. Der greise Kopf


Form m. Key/H Comment

I 4 Cm Introduction

A 6
B 6 G
C 13 A♭ E♭ Cm

A 6
B’ 4 C
C’ 5 Cm (45 m.)

15. Die Krähe


I 5 Cm Introduction, LH arpeggio

A 8 Cm
2 E♭

B 9 E♭ − C − F − D − G Shifting keys

A 4 Cm

C 9 F m − Cm Tonic pedal

6 Cm Coda (43 m.)

19
CHAPTER 4. FRANZ SCHUBERT

Table 4.8: Schubert, ‘Die Winterreise’ (cont’d)

Form m. Key/H Comment

16. Letzte Hoffnung


I 4 E♭ Introduction

A 4 Through-composed
6 Cm

B 11 Cm − E♭m Key ambiguity

C 9 E♭m

D 13 E♭ (47 m.)

17. Im Dorfe
I 6 D Introduction

A 13 D − Dm − D
B 11 G−D

A 7 D − Dm
C 6 D
7 (49 m.)

18. Der stürmische Morgen


I 3 Dm Introduction, unisono
A 6 unisono
B 4 B♭
C 6 Dm (19 m.)

20
4.2. SONG CYCLE ‘DIE WINTERREISE’

Table 4.9: Schubert, ‘Die Winterreise’ (cont’d)

Form m. Key/H Comment

19. Täuschung
I 5 A Introduction
A 8
8
B 9 E
A 8 A F ♯m chord on lyrics Taäuschung
5 (44 m.)

20. Der Wegweiser


I 5 Gm Introduction

A 8
8 Seq.

B 8 G−
11 Em − Gm Shifting keys

A 8
8 Seq.

C 12 Gm Chrom. asc. bass


C’ 9 Chrom. asc. bass

6 Coda (84 m.)

21. Das Wirthshaus


I 5 F Introduction

A 6 Through-composed
6

B 5 B♭ − C f -dom-ped.

C 6 F m − A♭ − F

3 Coda (31 m.)

21
CHAPTER 4. FRANZ SCHUBERT

Table 4.10: Schubert, ‘Die Winterreise’ (cont’d)

Form m. Key/H Comment

22. Muth
I 4 Am Introduction

A 7 Am
7 A

B 6 E
6 A
6 E−C
6 A

4 Am Coda (46 m.)

23. Die Nebensonnen


I 4 A Introduction

A 5
6

B 4 Am
6 C − Am

A 4 A
3 Coda (33 m.)

24. Der Leiermann


I 8 Am Introduction, ton+dom-ped. throughout

A 8 Simple I-V7 harmony


8
B 6

A 8
8
B 6

9 Coda (61 m.)

22
Chapter 5

Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy

5.1 A Midsummer Nights’ Dream Overture (1826)


Source: [8]. Form: Sonata. See Table 5.1 for the analysis.

5.2 Symphony No. 4 ‘Italian’ (1833)


Source: [8].

5.2.1 Mvt. 1 Allegro vivace


Form: Sonata Form. See Table 5.2 for the analysis.

5.2.2 Mvt. 2 Andante con moto


Form: ABA’B’. See Table 5.3 for the analysis.

5.2.3 Mvt. 3 Con moto moderato


Form: ABAB’. See Table 5.4 for the analysis.

5.2.4 Mvt. 4 Saltarello presto


Form: Sonata form. See Table 5.5 and 5.6 for the analysis. M0 is the saltarello rhythm (groups
of three eight notes).

23
CHAPTER 5. FELIX MENDELSSOHN-BARTHOLDY

Table 5.1: Mendelssohn, A Midsummer Nights’ Dream Overture

m M Key/H Phrase Comment

1 M0 E Exposition
8 M1 Em AABA’ Gr. 1 Th. 1
41 Em B− BA’
62 M2 E [A] Gr. 1 Th. 2
78 M3 E F ♯7 Transition
98 M1 B C♯m E Sequence
122 F ♯7 − B F ♯7 − [B] Transition
138 M4 B AA’ Gr. 2 Th. 1
166 M5 B Transition
198 M6 B AB [C] Gr. 2 Th. 2
222 B Transition
230 M2 B
247 M0 B

250 M1 Bm [D] Development


270 M1 F ♯m
290 M1 Em
298 M1 Bm A7 −
316 M1 D [E]
334 M2 C♯ A7 − D F ♯ Sequence
358 G♯7 −
373 M4 C♯m [F]

394 M0 E Recapitulation
404 M1 Em AABA’ Gr. 1 Th. 1
436 M1 C E B7 − Transition
458 M4 E Gr. 2 Th. 1
486 M5 E Transition
518 M6 E AB [G] Gr. 2 Th. 2
542 M3 E B7 − Transition
586 M2 E Gr. 1 Th. 2

620 M1 Em ABA [H] Coda


d
644 Em B7 − [I]
658 M2 C♯m E [K]
682 M0 E (686 m.)

24
5.2. SYMPHONY NO. 4 ‘ITALIAN’

Table 5.2: Mendelssohn, Symphony No. 4 ‘Italian’, Mvt. 1 Allegro vivace

m M R H Comment

1 M1.1 A A E7 − Exp. Gr. 1, 1st st. (a+b)


24 M1.1’ A F ♯m C♯m E7 − A B7 − E7 − Trans. (a)
51 M1.1 A E7 − 2nd stat., (a+c)
66 A B7 − E C♯m− Trans. Ton→Dom.
M1.1 F ♯7 − B7 − (a)
90 M2.1 E E B7 − Em B7 − Tr.+Gr. 2
110 M2.2 E F ♯7 − B7 − 1st stat.
124 M2.2 E B7 /A 2dn st.+M1.1(b)
140 M2.2 E/G♯ B7 − E F ♯m 3rd stat.
159 M1.1’ C♯m E♯m/G♯ G♯ − C♯m F ♯7 − Tr.,(a)
167 M1.1 E E/B B7 − E Final stat., (a)
187 M2.2’ E−A B7 − E E7 − A 1): Tr., (c)

210 M2.1 Am E7 − Am A Dev., Tr.


222 ⊥ Dm Dm
225 M3.1 Am E7 − Am B7 − Em G7 − C New theme, ctp.
M3.1’ Am − Em E7 − Am B7 − Em
257 M3.1 Bm Bm/F ♯ F ♯7 − Bm/F ♯ F ♯7 −
269 M3.1/1.1 B B7 − E E7 − A A7 − D D7 − (a)
285 M1.1 C C/G − G7 − C B7 − False rec., (a)
297 M3.1 Em Em B7 − Em
313 M3.1 F ♯m C♯7 − F ♯m
319 M1.1 C♯ (a)
327 C♯ C♯7 − F ♯m A A7 − Retrans.
357 M1.1’ D D F ♯m B7 − (a), back to Ton.

371 M1.1 A A/E E7 − Rec. Gr. 1, (a+b)


391 A E7 − Trans.
407 M2.2 A B7 − E7 − Gr. 2
421 M2.2 A E7 /D− +M1.1(b)
437 M2.2 A − Bm A/C♯ F ♯ − Bm
458 M3.1 Am Am/E G7 − C C7 − F (Dev. Th.)
478 M3.1 E7 − Am E7 /D−
486 M1.1/3.1 A−D A/C♯ E7 − A A7 − D Bm Final st., (a)

512 M4.1 A E7 − A Coda


536 M1.1’ A/E F ♯7 − Bm E7 − A
548 M1.1’ B7 E7 −
557 M2.2’ A E7 − (c)
572 M3.1’ A
580 M1.1’ (a), (588 m.)

25
CHAPTER 5. FELIX MENDELSSOHN-BARTHOLDY

Table 5.3: Mendelssohn, Symphony No. 4 ‘Italian’, Mvt. 2 Andante con moto

m M R H Comment

1 Dm A7 − A, Intro
4 M1.1 Dm A7 − (a)
12 M1.1 Dm (a)
20 M1.2 A − Dm E7 − A7 − (b)
M1.1 Dm
28 M1.2 A7 − Dm E7 − A7 − (b)
M1.1 Dm A7 −
36 Dm E7 − A E7 − Am B7♭5 /F − Trans.

45 M2 A E7 − A A7 − B, e-Dom-Ped.
49 (M2) D D Em − A7 − D A/C♯ − D♯/F ♯
57 E7♭9 − Trans.

59 M1.1 Am Am A7 − B♭/D A’
(M1.1) D♯◦7 − B7 − E7 − A7 −
66 M1.1 Dm Dm A♭97 −
(M1.1) Dm
71 A♭9
7

74 M2 D A A7 − D B’, a-dom.ped.
78 (M2) G E7 − A7 − D7 − G
⊥ B7 − Em A7 − D/F ♯ − G
85 D/A − A7

86 Dm A7 − Dm E∅7 /G − A − Dm Coda
94 C♯◦7 A♭9
7 −
97 M1.1 Dm D7♭9 − Gm
E∅7 /D − A7 /C♯ A − Dm (103 m.)

26
5.2. SYMPHONY NO. 4 ‘ITALIAN’

Table 5.4: Mendelssohn, Symphony No. 4 ‘Italian’, Mvt. 3 Con moto moderato

m M R H Comment

1 M1.1 A E7 − A A − E E7 /D − A/C♯ A
15 ⊥ F ♯m − B7 − E
B7 − E Trans., e-dom-ped
21 M1.2 Bm F ♯7 − Bm
..
35 . F ♯m C♯7 − F ♯m
39 ⊥ D/F ♯ − E7
42 M1.3 A E7 − A A7 − D F ♯7 −
..
50 . Bm C♯7 − F ♯m A/E−
56 ⊥ E7 − A
58 M1.1’ E7 − A E7 − A Trans.
69 E7 − A

76 M2 E B7 /A − E/G♯ B
..
83 . B7 /A E/B−
90 ⊥ B7 − E
92 Em B7 /A − Em/G b-dom-ped
96 E B7 − E − Am−
100 E Am − E E/G♯ − Am e-ton-ped
108 M2 B7 /A − E/G♯ B7 /A E/B−
121 ⊥ B7 − E
125 (M1.1’) A E7 Trans.

127 M1.1 A E7 − A A − E E7 /D − A/C♯ A


141 ⊥ F ♯m − B7 − E
B7 − E Trans., e-dom-ped
147 M1.2 Bm F ♯7 − Bm
..
161 . F ♯m C♯7 − F ♯m
165 ⊥ D/F ♯ − E7
168 M1.3 A E7 − A A7 − D F ♯7 −
..
176 . Bm C♯7 − F ♯m A/E−
182 ⊥ E7 − A
186 M1.1’ E7 − A E7 − A Trans.
195 E7 − A

203 M2 A B7 /A − E7 − A/E − B7 B’
210 ⊥ B7 /A F ♯m − E7 −
219 A (223 m.)

27
CHAPTER 5. FELIX MENDELSSOHN-BARTHOLDY

Table 5.5: Mendelssohn, Symphony No. 4 ‘Italian’, Mvt. 4 Saltarello presto

m M R H Comment

1 M0 Am Am Exp-Gr. 1, a-ton-ped.
6 M1 E7 − Am Am St. 1-3 (a-ton-ped)
20 E7 − Am (a-ped) B7 −
22 M1 E E B−E St. 4, e-ton-ped.
26 M1 A B7 − E − A E7 − St. 5, a-ton-ped.
30 M1 Am Am B∅7 − Am − E− St. 6, e-dom-ped.
34 Am E7 − Am Trans.
41 (M0) G7 − C A7 − Dm E7 − Am
D7 − G F∅7 − Em/B − B−
53 M2.1 Em B7 − Em B7 − Em Gr. 2, b-dom-ped.
d
61 M2.2 F ♯∅7 − B7 −
(M0) C G − C Am/C − B7 − Em
E7 /G♯−
d
72 Am Am D7 − Trans.
76 M1 Em Em Em/B − B7 − Gr. 1, Final Stat.
80 ⊥ Em Am − F ♯∅7 − B7 −
84 M2.2/M0 Em B − Em G − C B − Em
Em/B − B−
97 M2.3 Em D♯◦7 /A − Em e-ton-ped.

101 Em Em Development
105 M1/M0 A A Dm/A− Gr. 1a-ton-ped.
110 M1 G G A7 /C♯− g-ton-ped.
115 M1 D D C♯◦7 /G − D d-ton-ped.
122 M1.2 Gm D7 − Gm/B♭ D7 − Gm New theme, imit.
133 M1.2 Am E7 − Am B7 − Em G7 − C Imit.
143 M1.2 Em F ♯∅7 − B7 − Em/B
148 ⊥ D7 − G A7 − D D7 − G D7 Imit.
156 M0-M1.2 Am E7 /G♯ − Am Imit.
159 M0-M1.2 Dm A − A7 − Dm Imit.
163 M0 G D − D7 Imit.
166 M1.2 G−C G G7 − C B7 − Em C7 − F Stretto
175 M1.2 Am E7 − Am

179 M1/M0 Em B − Em/B A♯◦7 /E − B− Tr. (False Rec.), b-dom-ped.


183 M1/M0 Am E7 − Am/E B7♭5 /F − E e-dom-ped.
E7 − Am
193 B−E

28
5.2. SYMPHONY NO. 4 ‘ITALIAN’

Table 5.6: Mendelssohn, Symphony No. 4 ‘Italian’, Mvt. 4 Saltarello presto (Cont’d)

m M R H Comment

195 M1.2 Am E7 − Am/E Rec. (2nd Dev.), e-dom-ped.


200 M1.2 E7 − Am B7 − Em E7 − Am (e-ped)
210 M1 E7 − Am/E E7 − (e-ped.)
214 M0 D A7 − D D7 − B7♭5 /F −
222 M1 Am Am/E E7 − Am
226 M1.1 Dm E∅7 /G − A♭9
7 −
230 M0 ♭5
Dm/F B7 /F − Am/E − E7 − Trans.

234 M0 Am Am E− Coda, a-ton-ped.


242 M0 Dm/A − Am (a-ped)
244 Am/E − E − Am E7 − Am
252 M0 Am/E − E − Am
254 M1 G♯◦7 − Am a-ton-ped.
258 M1 G♯◦7 − Am − E7 − Am (a-ped), (264 mm.)

29
CHAPTER 6. ROBERT SCHUMANN

Chapter 6

Robert Schumann

6.1 Symphony No. 1 ‘Frühling’ (1841)


Source: [18].

6.1.1 Mvt. 1, Andante - Allegro


Form: sonata form. See Table 6.1 for the analysis.

6.1.2 Mvt. 2, Larghetto


Form: rondo form. See Table 6.2 for the analysis.

6.1.3 Mvt. 3, Scherzo


Form: rondo form, ABACA. See Table 6.3 for the analysis.

6.1.4 Mvt. 4, Allegro animato e grazioso


Form: sonata form. See Table 6.4 and 6.5 for the analysis.

6.2 Symphony No. 2 (1846)


Source: [18].

6.2.1 Mvt. 3, Adagio espressivo


Form: ternary form, A1 BA2 . See Table 6.6 for the analysis.

30
6.2. SYMPHONY NO. 2

Table 6.1: Schumann, Symphony No. 1 ‘Frühling’, Mvt. 1 Andante - Allegro

m M R/H Form Comment

1 M1 B♭ Intro Andante
6 M2 Dm G7 − Cm F7 − Seq.(R7 )
15 B♭ D D7 F7 − (39 m.)
1 M1 B♭ E♭ F7 − A♭7 − D♭ D7 − Exp., Gr. 1 A-A-B(seq)-A’
33 C Trans.
43 M3 Am F C F Gr. 2 A
..
57 . Dm C7 B
72 ⊥ G♭/B♭ − C7 − C
80 M4 F Trans.

96 M1 Bb C Dev. Seq(3 × R7 )
112 M5 Dm Gm Cm Seq(3 × R5 )
128 ⊥ Dm E♭ E♭7 − Seq(3 × R7 )
140 M1 D G A7 − C7 − False Rec. A-A-B(seq)
164 M1 F G Am Dev (cont’d) Seq(3 × R7 )
180 M5 Am Dm Gm Seq(3 × R5 )
196 ⊥ Am B♭ B♭7 − Seq(3 × R7 )
208 M4 A G Fm Seq(3 × R−7 )
232 ⊥ Cm − F7 − B∆7 C7 − Seq(3 × R5 )
251 B♭/F − F7 −
270 M1 B♭ Intro
M2 Dm
279 M1 B♭7 D♭7 G♭ G♭7 − Rec., Gr. 1 B(seq)-A
295 F Trans.
306 M3 Dm B♭ F B♭ Gr. 2 A
..
321 . Gm F7 B
335 ⊥ C♭/E♭ − F7 − C
343 M1 B♭ F7 − Coda
367 M1 B♭ C7 −
391 B♭/B♭ B♭
400 M6 E♭
419 M6 E♭ F7 −
429 B♭
445 M1 B♭ (477 m.)

31
CHAPTER 6. ROBERT SCHUMANN

Table 6.2: Schumann, Symphony No. 1 ‘Frühling’, Mvt. 2 Larghetto

m M R H Comment

1 M1 E♭ E♭ B♭7 − E♭7 − A♭ Cm − F7 /C− A


7 ⊥ B♭ E♭7 − A♭ D∅7 − G7 − Cm E♭/B♭ − B♭7
15 M1’ G7 − C7 − F m B♭7 − G7 − Cm−
20 ⊥ F7 − E♭/B♭ − B♭7 − E♭

25 M2 C C F m/C − B◦7 − C B, c-ton.-ped.


28 ⊥ D∅7 − G7 − C G7 − C C7 g-dom.-ped.
33 M2 A A Dm/A − G♯◦7 − A a-ton.-ped.
36 ⊥ A/E − B∅7 − E7 − A E7 − A F7 e-dom.-ped.

41 M1 B♭ B♭ F7 − B♭7 − E♭ Gm − C7 − F B♭7 /A♭ − E♭/G A’


51 ⊥ F7 /A − D7 − Gm E♭ − E◦7 − B♭/F − F7 −
55 B♭ B♭ D7 /A− C, Imit.
57 Gm Gm B♭7 /F − Imit.
59 E♭ −E♭ D∅7 /F − G/B Imit.
62 Fm C7 /B♭ − F m/A♭ G∅7 /B♭ − C/E−
66 G F m D7♭9 − G D7 − G D7 − G Imit.
75 E♭7 − A♭ A♭m − E♭/B♭ − B♭7 −
78 M1 E♭ E♭ B♭7 − E♭7 − A♭ E♭/G − Cm − F7 /C− A”
..
84 . B♭ E♭7 /D♭ − A♭/C
..
87 . B♭7 /D − D∅7 − G7 − Cm
⊥ F m7 /A♭ − F7 /A − E♭/B♭ − B♭7
92 M1’ G7 /B − C7 − F m B♭7 − G7 − Cm − F7 /A−
98 ⊥ E♭/B♭ − B♭7 − E♭
102 E♭ A♭/E♭ − B♭7 − E♭ E♭7 − A♭ − F7 − B♭7 − Coda, e♭-ton.-ped.
108 E♭ A∅7 /C − E♭/B♭ − B♭7 − E♭ D − Gm − D

32
6.2. SYMPHONY NO. 2

Table 6.3: Schumann, Symphony No. 1 ‘Frühling’, Mvt. 3 Scherzo

m Motif R Comment
h i
3
1 a(8m)+a’(8m) Dm A1, 4
1 a(8m)+a’(8m) Dm
17 b(8m)+b’(8m) F f -ped.
25 a(8m)+a’(8m) Dm
h i
2
1 c(16m)+c(16m) D B, Trio 1, 4
33 c’(8m)+c’(8m)+d(8m)+d’(8m) F
65 d’(10m) D Trans.
75 e(18+16m) D a-ped.
109 c’(8m)+c’(8m)+d(8m)+d’(8m) F
141 d’(10m) D Trans.
151 e(18+16m) D a-ped.
h i
3
1 a(8m)+a’(8m) Dm A2, Tempo 1, 4
17 b(8m)+b’(8m) F f -ped.
25 a(8m)+a’(8m) Dm
h i
3
1 f(8m)+f(8m) B♭ C, Trio 2, 4
9 f(8+8+16+8m) E♭ − Cm − F − F Seq.
9 f(8+8+16+8m) E♭ − Cm − F − F Seq.
49 f(8+8m) B♭ Retrans
h i
3
1 a(8m)+a’(8m) Dm A3, Coda, 4
17 b’(16m) D h i
2
33 c(12m) D 4
45 d(20m) D

33
CHAPTER 6. ROBERT SCHUMANN

Table 6.4: Schumann, Symphony No. 1 ‘Frühling’, Mvt. 4 Allegro animato e grazioso

m M R H Comment

1 M0 B♭ B♭F Exp
7 M1 B♭ D7 − Gm B◦7 − C7 − F7 Gr. 1/Th. 1
15 M1’ B♭7 −
19 M1’ E♭ F7 − B♭ DG − Cm/E♭ B♭/F − F7 −
31 B♭ B♭7 − E♭ F7 − B♭ D− Tr. 1
43 M2 Gm Gm D − Gm A− Gr. 1/Th. 2
50 M2 Dm Dm A − Dm
58 M1’ G♭9 ♭9
7 − C7 − Tr. 2
66 M0 F F B◦7 − C Gr. 2
74 M0 F − C7 − F D7 /F ♯ − Gm G7 /B − C
84 M0 F C7 − F D7 /A − Gm C7 − F
F/C − C7 − F
92 C7 − F B♭ F/C − C7 − F − F7 Retrans.

103 F − D♭ F F7 /E♭ − D♭ A♭7 − D♭ Dev.


111 M0 D♭ B♭7 −
117 M0 E♭m E♭m
123 M0’ D♭ E♭7 F7 Imit., Seq.(3 × 4m; R7 )
⊥ Cm G G7 /F − Cm E7 /B♭−
139 M0’ A − Dm B7 − Em C♯7 − F ♯m E♭7 Imit., Seq.(3 × 4m; R7 )
153 M0’ A♭m A♭m Stretto
159 ⊥ E♭7 − A♭7 F7 − B♭7 G7 − C7 Seq.(3 × 4m; R7 )
F7sus4 − F7
B♭ Cm7 /E♭ − F7 Tr. 3

180 M1 B♭ B♭ C7 − F − Recap., Gr. 1,Th. 1


184 M1 B♭ D7 − Gm B◦7 − C7 − F F7 −
192 M1’ B♭7 −
196 M1’ E♭ F7 − B♭ B◦7 − Cm D7 − G − Cm/E♭
206 ⊥ B♭/F − F7 −
208 B♭ B♭7 − E♭ F7 − B♭ G− Tr. 1
221 M2 Cm Cm G − Cm D− Gr. 1, Th. 2
228 M2 Gm Gm D − Gm
236 M1’ C7 − F7 −
244 M2 B♭ B♭ E◦7 − F Gr. 2
252 M2 B♭ C7 − F7 −
260 M2 B♭
268 F7 − B♭ E♭ − B♭/F − F7 Retrans.

34
6.2. SYMPHONY NO. 2

Table 6.5: Schumann, Symphony No. 1 ‘Frühling’, Mvt. 4 Allegro animato e grazioso (cont’d)

m M R H Comment

275 B♭ − G♭ B♭ B♭7 /A♭ − G♭ D♭7 − G♭ Coda


283 M0’ G♭ E♭7 − A♭7 F7 − B♭7 Imit., Seq.(3 × 4m; R7 )
294 G7 − Cm − C7 − B♭7 − F7 −
299 B♭ − B♭7 /A♭−
303 G♭ G♭ D♭7 − G♭ C♯7 − F ♯−
307 M0’ B7 A♭7 − D♭7 B♭7 − E♭7 C7 /E− Imit., Seq.(3 × 4m; R7 )
319 B♭ B♭7 /F − F7 −
323 M0’ B♭ F7 − B♭ F7 −
339 B♭ (353 m.)

Table 6.6: Schumann, Symphony No. 2, Mvt. 3 Adagio espressivo

m M R/H Form Comment

1 M1 Cm E♭ B♭7 − A A1
9 M1 E♭ B♭7 − E♭ A
20 M2 E♭ B♭ B
26 M3 E♭ F7 − Trans.
35 M1’ B♭ A Imitation
44 M2 A♭ F∅7 /A♭−
d
48 M1’ E♭/B♭ B♭7 − C
56 M1’ Cm B♭7

62 E♭ B♭ E♭ A♭ D B, contrast
F m E♭ F m D♭/F −
74 M1 G G7 − A’ g-dom.-ped.

82 M3 C G D7 − A2 , transition
91 M1’ G A Imitation
100 M2 F D∅7 /F −
d
104 M1’ C/G G7 − C Chrom. bass, climax
112 M1’ Am G7 −

118 M1’ C Coda


M3’ (128 m.)

35
CHAPTER 6. ROBERT SCHUMANN

6.3 Symphony No. 3 ‘Rheinische’ (1850)


Source: [18].

6.3.1 Mvt. 1, Lebhaft


Form: sonata form. See Table 6.7 and 6.8 for the analysis. The detailed harmonic analysis of
the development section is presented in Table 6.9.

6.3.2 Mvt. 4, Feierlich


Form: ternary form, A1 BA2 . See Table 6.10 for the analysis.

6.3.3 Mvt. 5, Lebhaft


Form: rondo/sonata form, ABAC. See Table 6.11 for the analysis.

6.4 Symphony No. 4 in D minor (1841/1851)


Source: [18].

6.4.1 Mvt. 4, Langsam - Lebhaft


Form: sonata form. See Table 6.12 for the analysis.

36
6.4. SYMPHONY NO. 4

Table 6.7: Schumann, Symphony No. 3 ‘Rheinische’, Mvt. 1 Lebhaft

m M R/H Comment

1 M1 E♭ Exp., Gr. 1 (ABAB’)/Th. 1


19 Trans.
25 M2.1 Gm Gr. 1/Th. 2
35 M2.2
43 M2.3/M1 Return of Th. 1
53 Trans.
57 M1 E♭ Th. 1
75 Trans.
77 M2.1’ Cm
83 M2.2’ Gm

95 M3 Gm Gr. 2 (AA’BA”)/Th. 1
103 M3’ Cm
111 M4 B♭ Gr. 2/Th. 2
127 M3” Gm
139 Trans.
143 M2 B♭ Final statements Gr. 1
153 M2/M1
165 M3 B♭ Final stat. Gr. 2
177 M1

185 M2 G G7 − Dev. Gr. 1


193 M2 C C7
201 M3 Fm Gr. 2
215 M3’ Trans., Seq.
231 M2 G♭/B♭ F7 − Gr. 1
239 M2/M3 B♭
253 ⊥ Trans.
259 M3’ E♭7 − Trans., Seq.

273 M1’ A♭m Gr. 1


281 M1 B
295 B7 B♭ B♭7 − Trans
311 M1’ E♭m
319 M1 G♭
329 F ♯7 F7 − Trans.

337 M3 B♭m Gr. 2


351 M3’ Fm Trans.

37
CHAPTER 6. ROBERT SCHUMANN

Table 6.8: Schumann, Symphony No. 3 ‘Rheinische’, Mvt. 1 Lebhaft (cont’d)

m M R/H Comment

368 M1 E♭ C7 − False Recap., Gr. 1


375 M4 Fm Gr. 2
387 M4 Cm
399 M1’ Trans.

411 M1 E♭ Recap. Gr. 1


429 Cm A♭ F m G7 − Trans., Seq.

457 M3 Cm Gr. 2
473 M4 E♭
489 M3’ Cm

505 M2 E♭ Gr. 1
515 M2/M1

526 M1/M4 E♭ Coda


547 M1/M4
563 M1 E♭ (585 m.)

38
6.4. SYMPHONY NO. 4

Table 6.9: Schumann, Symphony No. 3 ‘Rheinische’, Mvt. 1 Lebhaft. Harmonic analysis of
the development section

Development 2nd Group themes

m 185 188 193 196 202 212 213 217 218


H G G♭9
7 − C C7♭9 − Fm G7 − Cm D7 − Gm
R5 R5 (IV m− V− Im) (IIm−
(IV m− V− Im)

m 222 225 237 239 244 245 252 253 258


H C− Fm F7 − B♭ B♭7 − E♭m F7 − B♭m C7 −
V− Im) (IV m− V− Im)
(IV m− V−

m 259
H F

I)

Development 1st Group themes

m 260 265 271 273 280 281 294 304 311


H F7 − B♭7 − E♭7 − A♭m F ♯7 − B B7 B♭7 E♭m
(IV m− N/V − V /V − V7 − Im)
(IV m−

m 318 319 329 337 343 350 351 361 368


H C♯7 − F♯ F ♯7 − F7 B♭m C7 − Fm F7 − E♭/B♭−
(IV m− V− Im)
N/V V /V − V7 − Im) (IIm− II7 − I46 −

m 379
H B♭7 −

V7 )

39
CHAPTER 6. ROBERT SCHUMANN

Table 6.10: Schumann, Symphony No. 3 ‘Rheinische’, Mvt. 4 Feierlich

m M R H Comment
h i
1 M1 E♭m E♭m B♭7 − E♭m A♭m− A1 , 44
8 M1 E♭m Imit. 3×
13 M1 Imit. 2×, b♭-dom-ped.
18 M1 A♭m− Imit. 3×, e♭-ton-ped.
h i
3
23 M1 E♭m B, 2 , Imit. 3×
26 M1 B♭m C∅7 − F7 − B♭m − B♭7
30 E♭m E♭m
32 M1 F7 − Imit. 3×
35 M1 B♭m B♭m Imit. 3×
38 M1 A♭ E♭7 − A♭ Imit. 2×
40 M1 A♭ − E♭m E♭7 − A♭ B♭ − E♭m Imit. 4×
h i
4
45 M1 E♭m B♭7 − E♭m A2 , 2 , Imit. 2×
50 B♭7 − E♭m A♭m−
52 E♭m
58 M1 B7 − E B♭7 − E♭m B♭− Imit. 3×
67 E♭m− (67 m.)

40
6.4. SYMPHONY NO. 4

Table 6.11: Schumann, Symphony No. 3 ‘Rheinische’, Mvt. 5 Lebhaft

m M R H Comment

1 M1 E♭ F m7 − B♭7 − E♭ A (a)
17 M2 B♭7 − E♭ (b)
27 M3 B♭7 (c)
39 M2 B♭7 − E♭ (b)
47 M4 E♭ − B♭ F7 − Trans.
57 M5 B♭ B♭/D (d)
72 M3 A♭ B♭m7 − E♭ − A♭ (c)
80 Fm D♭/F − C7 /E − F m B♭7 − Trans., e♭-ped., b♭-dom-ped.

98 E♭ F ♯m D E♭ B, Dev.
E♭m A♭m
108 M5 F Imit.
110 F7 − G7 − A7 Seq(3 × R7 )
116 M5 Em B7 − Em C♯7 − Imit.
122 M5 F ♯m G♯m F ♯m C♯m/G♯ − E♭7 − A♭m
126 A♭m B E♭7 − A♭m F ♯7 −
130 M6 B B
138 E♭ B♭7 /F − b♭-dom-ped.
150 M5 E♭/B♭

154 M1 E♭ F m7 − B♭7 − E♭ A (a)


162 M2 B♭7 − E♭ (b)
172 M3 B♭7 (c)
184 M2 B♭7 − E♭ (b)
192 M4 E♭ − B♭ F7 − Trans.
202 M5 B♭ B♭/D (d)
217 M3 E♭ F m7 − B♭ − E♭ (c)
225 Cm A♭/C − G7 /B − Cm Trans.
244 E♭ B♭7 /F

255 M1/M5 E♭ C. Coda


271 M4 E♭/B♭ Imit.(5×)
299 M2 Cm − B♭ − E♭ Schneller, Imit.
315 M6 B♭7 −
323 E♭ (329 m.)

41
CHAPTER 6. ROBERT SCHUMANN

Table 6.12: Schumann, Symphony No. 4 in D minor, Mvt. 4 Langsam - Lebhaft

m M R H Comment

1 Dm B♭ Dm/A E7 − A− Langsam
Dm − G7 − C
7 Dm − Gm/B♭ − A − A7 − (16 m.)

1 M1 D A7 − D Lebhaft, Seq.
9 Seq.
11 M2 Bm Em Seq(2 × 6m; R5 )
23 M3 A E7 − A
29 M3 B7 C♯7 Seq(2 × 4m; R7 )
37 M3 F ♯7 − B7 − E7 − A/E Seq(R5 )
43 E7 − Trans. 1
51 A A Bm C♯m D− Bell effect, Seq(3 × 2m; R7 )
57 M1 A E7 − A

62 Bm ℜ(G − F ♯♭9
7 ) Trans. 2
66 M1 Bm Bm Ctp.(4 × 3m)
78 M1 Trans. 3, Seq(R5 )
82 M1 Bm D
88 M4/M1 G
92 M4/M1 Em
99 M2 F ♯m Em Em − A7 − Trans. 3, Seq.
105 M2 D a-dom-ped.
113 M3 D A7 − D a-dom-ped.
119 M3 E7 − F ♯7 Ped., Seq(2 × R7 )
M3 B7 − E7 − A7 − D/A Seq(3 × R5 )
133 D A7 − Trans. 1
141 Dm Em F ♯m G Bell effect, Seq(3 × 2m; R7 )
147 M1 D A7 − D

152 Em ℜ(C − B7 ) Trans. 2


156 M5 D Em − A7 − D
160 E7 − D/A − A7 − Bell effect
164 M5 D
168 E7 − D/A − A7 − Bell effect
172 D D Schneller
180 A7 − E7 − Trans. 2 (194 m.)

1 D A − D B7 − Em − A7 − D Presto, Scales
14 E7 − D/A − A7 − D (26 m.)

42
Chapter 7

Johannes Brahms

7.1 German Requiem Op. 45 (1868)


Source: [4].

7.1.1 Mvt. 1, Selig sind, die da Leid tragen, Ziemlich langsam und mit Ausdruck
Form: ABA1 B1 A2 ’. See Table 7.1 for the analysis.

7.1.2 Mvt. 2, Denn alles Fleisch es ist wie Gras, Langsam, marschmäßig
Form: AAB. See Table 7.2 for the analysis.

7.1.3 Mvt. 3, Herr, lehre doch mich, Andante moderato


Form: ABC. See Table 7.3 for the analysis.

7.2 String Quartet Op. 51 No. 1 (1873)


Source: [2].

7.2.1 Mvt. 1, Allegro


Form: Sonata. See Table 7.4 for the analysis.

7.2.2 Mvt. 2, Romanze Poco Adagio


Form: ABA’B’. See Table 7.5 for the analysis.

7.2.3 Mvt. 3, Allegretto Molto Moderato e Comodo


Form: ABA’. See Table 7.6 for the analysis.

43
CHAPTER 7. JOHANNES BRAHMS

Table 7.1: Brahms, German Requiem Op. 45, Mvt. 1, Selig sind, die da Leid tragen

m M R H Comment
h i
4
1 F F C7 − F Introduction, 4 , f -Ped.

15 M1 F − B♭/F − B♭m − F A, Chorus


19 ⊥ F − Dm − Am − Em − F
27 M2 B♭ − C − F Sec. Motive
..
29 . F F7 − B♭m C7 − Chorus [A]
d
37 ⊥ A/C♯ − C7 − Dm/F C7 − Chorus

47 M3.1 D♭ D♭ G♭ − E♭7 /G− B, Chorus [B]


55 M3.2 A♭7 − D♭7 Eb7 /G− Imit.
59 ⊥ D♭/A♭ − Ab7 − D♭ − G♭−

65 M4 F F F◦7 − C7 /F − F7 − B♭ A1 , f -Ped. (intro), Chorus [C]


d
74 ⊥ F m D♭7 − F/C − C7♭9 −

80 M3.3 D♭ D♭/F − G♭m E♭7 /G− B1 , Chorus[D]


88 M3.2 A♭7 − D♭7 Eb7 /G− Imit.
92 ⊥ D♭/A♭ − Ab7 − D♭ − G♭−

96 D♭7 − G♭/D♭ D♭7 − F/C − C7 /E− d♭-Ped. (intro)

106 M1 F F − F7 − B♭ A2 , Chorus [E]


..
111 . F Dm − Am − Em − F
..
119 . F E7 − Am − B♭m − G7 − C7 −
d
127 ⊥ A/C♯ − C7 − Dm C7 − Chorus
136 M2 F ♯m/A − Dm − Am Dm C7 − Trans.

144 M2 F F − F7 − B♭/F − C7 − F C7 − Coda, Chorus, [F]


150 ⊥ F − F/C − C7 − F (158 mm.)

44
7.2. STRING QUARTET OP. 51 NO. 1

Table 7.2: Brahms, German Requiem Op. 45, Mvt. 2, Denn alles Fleisch es ist wie Gras

m M R H Comment
h i
3
1 M0 B♭m E♭m − B♭m G♭ − C7 − F F − A, 4 , Intro
23 M1 B♭m G♭ − C7 − F Gm7/F − G∅7 /F − F (a), Chorus [A]
43 M0 F G7 /F − C7 − D♭ B◦7 − F7♭9 − (b), f -Ped. [B]
55 M1 B♭m C♭ − F7 − F − B♭ A◦7 − B♭ (a), Chorus
75 M2 G♭ G♭ D♭7 − G♭ C♭ − C∅7 − D♭ Chorus [C]
..
91 . D♭ C♯◦7 − D/F ♯ − E♭m/G♭ − F7 Chorus [D]
107 ⊥ G♭ C♭/G♭ − C♭m/G♭ − G♭ D♭7 − G♭

127 M0 B♭m E♭m − B♭m G♭ − C7 − F F − A, Intro [E]


147 M1 B♭m G♭ − C7 − F Gm7/F − G∅7 /F − F (a), Chorus [F]
167 M0 F G7 /F − C7 − D♭ B◦7 − F7♭9 − (b), f -Ped. [G]
179 M1 B♭m C♭ − F7 − F − B♭ A◦7 − B♭ (a), Chorus
198 M2 B♭ B♭ − A − Dm Cm/E♭ − B♭m/F − F − Chorus, Trans. [H]
h i
4
206 M3 B, 4 , Allegro, Chorus
219 M3 F Dm · · · Em · · · F Seq(3 × 2m; R7 ) [I]
224 ⊥ B♭∆7 − G♭/B♭ − F/C − C7 − F Climax
233 M4 F C − C7 /B♭ − F m/A♭ B♭m− Dim.+Aug., Chorus [K]
..
245 . C − F Gm− Dim.+Aug.
253 ⊥ C7 − F ♯7 − B7 − Am − F7 /A Trans.
261 M3 B♭m B♭m G♭ − B/D♯− Imit., Chorus [L]
..
267 . B♭ Em · · · Am · · · Dm − B♭ E♭/G− Stretto imit.
276 ⊥ B♭/F B♭7 − E♭ A♭ Cm − F7 − B♭ Climax
291 M3 Gm · · · Am · · · B♭− Seq(3 × 2m; R7 ) [M]
296 ⊥ B♭7 − E♭m − C♭ − B♭/F − F7 − Climax

303 M3 B♭ · · · E♭ Coda, Seq(4 × 4m; R5 ) [M]


..
319 . F7 − B♭ Cm7 − F7 − B♭ B♭7 − b♭-Ped.
329 ⊥ E♭/B♭ − F79 − B♭ b♭-Ped. (337 mm.)

45
CHAPTER 7. JOHANNES BRAHMS

Table 7.3: Brahms, German Requiem Op. 45, Mvt. 3, Herr, lehre doch mich

m M R H Comment
h i
4
1 M0 Dm 4 Bass Motive
2 M1 Dm E∅7 /G − A − Dm Solo
d
17 M1 Am/C E∅7 /G − A − Dm E∅7 /G − A − Chorus [A]
33 M2 B♭ B♭ F ♯7 /A♯ − Bm E7 /B♭ − A− Solo [B]
d
48 M2 B♭ E♭m/B♭ − B7 − Am − A7 /G − Chorus
58 ⊥ B♭/F F ♯m/C♯ − A7 − Dm/A − Am a-Ped.
66 M1 Dm A − Dm/A A − Dm Solo, a-Ped. [C]
81 M1 E∅7 /G − A C♯m/G♯ G♯◦7 /D − Dm − A− Chorus
93 M2 Dm d-Ped.
h i
3
105 M3 D D B7♭9 /D♯ − E7 − D7 − G/D − A − D 2 Solo
118 M1 Dm Dm/A F ♯◦7 − Gm Dm − Gm Solo, M2 Imit. [D]
129 M3 F F B◦7 − D♭7 − F/C − C7 − Chorus, (M2) Imit. [E]
138 F/C − F − B♭/F − Gm/B♭ − F/C − C7 −
142 M1 Dm A/C♯ − Dm Solo
144 M4 A/C♯ − D7 /C − G/B Chorus, Imit. [F]
147 ⊥ E7 − E7 /D − A7 /C♯ − A♭9
7 /G−
150 M4 D/F ♯ − F ♯♭9
7 − D/F ♯ − Dm/F − E7 − Stretto Imit., (M2) Climax
157 M1 G♯◦7 /D

164 A − D/A Asus


7
4−A −
7 Chorus, Trans, a-Ped.
h i
2
173 M5 D D − D7 − G/D − A7 − D E7 − C♯◦7 − D 2 , Chorus Imit, d-Ped.
..
183 . D − D7 − G/D E∅7 − A7 − Dm d-ped. (cont’d) [G]
..
193 . Gm/D − A7 − D − D7 − Gm/D
..
196 . A♭9
7 − D D − D7 − G/D G7 − C Stretto Imit., Climax [H]
207 ⊥ G/D − D − Em7 /D − D (208 mm.)

46
7.2. STRING QUARTET OP. 51 NO. 1

Table 7.4: Brahms, String Quartet Op. 51 No. 1, Mvt. 1 Allegro

m M R H Comment

1 M1 C Cm F7 /C − B♭m − A♭ − G − F Exp.-Gr. 1
11 M2 F m − G7 −
15 M2 C
⊥ F ♯◦7 − G7 −
23 M1 Cm F7 /A − B♭m − A♭ − E♭m
31 ▽ E♭m F7 − B♭7 − E♭m Trans. 1
37 M3 E♭m F7 − B♭7 − E♭7 Gr. 2
d
45 B7 − A7 /G − D Dm − A − Tr. 1’
53 M4 E♭ B♭7 /A♭ · · · E♭/G B♭7 /A♭−
M4’ E♭ − A♭ − F m − F7 −
56 M5 E♭/B♭ F7 − B♭7 F7 − E♭/B♭ − B♭7 −
75 M1’ E♭ B♭7 − E♭ Trans. 2
80 F ♯◦7 − Cm/G − G7 1)
80 F ♯◦7 − F7 − Am/E − Am 2)

84 M1 Am Am/E − F7 − B♭/D − E7 − Am B◦ /D− Dev.


96 M3 C C C7 − F B7 −
100 Em Em D7 /F ♯−
104 M3/M1 G G F ♯7 − Bm G7 − Cm G♯7 −
112 ⊥ C♯m C♯m D − G♯7 −
118 Retrans.
119 F ♯m C♯7 − Bm/D G♯7 − C♯7 −
129 F ♯m7 /C♯ D/F ♯ A/E G♯7 /D♯

133 A♭/C Recap.


137 M1 Cm D7♭9 /A − Cm/G A♭/C − D− Gr. 1
151 M2 G♭9
7 /B − Cm
155 M2 G7 − C − F m C7 −
164 M1 F m A♭/C − G
174 ▽ G♭9
7 − Cm G7 − Tr. 1
178 M3 Cm
d
186 A♭7 − F ♯7 − B Bm − F ♯ − Tr. 1’
194 M4 C G7 /F · · · C/E G7 −
M4 C − F − Dm − D7 −
204 M5 C/G D7 − G7 D7 − C/G − G7 −
216 M1’ C F ♯◦7 − C/G − G7 − Cm − G7−

224 ▽ Fm C7♭9 − F m G♭9 ♭9 ♭9


7 − C7 − F m G7 Coda - Tr. 1
232 M1’/M3’ C C F − F m − D♭/A♭ − Cm/G − G♭9
7 −C
⊥ C7 − F − D♭/F −
252 C 260 mm.

47
CHAPTER 7. JOHANNES BRAHMS

Table 7.5: Brahms, String Quartet Op. 51 No. 1, Mvt. 2 Romanze Poco Allegro

m M R H Comment

1 M1 A♭ A♭ D♭/F A♭/E♭ − B7♭9 − E♭7 − A - (a)


7 M1 A♭ D♭ A♭/E♭ − B7♭9 − E♭ (a)
13 C/E E♭7 − (b)
17 A♭ B♭7 − E♭7 −
19 M1’ A♭ A♭/E♭ − E♭7 − A♭ A♭/E♭− (a)
25 E♭7 Trans.

27 M2 A♭m A♭m B♭7 /D − E♭ B - (a)


29 M2 B B A♯◦7 (a)
31 M3 Em F ♯ − B7 − Em (b)
E♭m C♭ − F7 − B♭7 − E♭m
35 M2 A♭m E♭7 E♭7 − A♭m (a)
37 M2 E E D♯◦7 − E (a)
39 M3 Am B − E7 − Am (b)
⊥ A♭m B♭7 − E♭7 − A♭m
43 E/B Retrans.
A♭ A♭/E♭ F mE♭/G − E♭7 −

49 M1’ A♭ A♭ D♭/F A♭/E♭ − B7♭9 − E♭7 − A’ - (a)


55 M1 A♭ D♭ A♭/E♭ − B7♭9 − E♭ (a)
61 C − G Cm7 − E♭7 − (b)
65 A♭ D♭ − D♭m−
67 M1’ A♭ A♭/E♭ − E♭7 − A♭ A♭/E♭− (a)
74 E♭7 − A♭7 Trans.

75 M2’ D♭m A♭ E♭∅7 B’ - (a)


77 ⊥ E E B7 − E
79 M2’ E♭m B♭7 /F F∅7 (a’)
81 ⊥ G♭ G♭/B♭ D♭7 /F − G♭
83 A♭ E♭ − A♭7 − D♭ B♭7 − E♭7 −

86 M1’ A♭ A♭ A♭7 − D♭ E♭7 − A♭7 − Coda


90 ⊥ C♯m A E C♭ D♭m
92 A♭/C − E♭7 − A♭

48
7.2. STRING QUARTET OP. 51 NO. 1

Table 7.6: Brahms, String Quartet Op. 51 No. 1, Mvt. 3, Allegretto Molto Moderato e Comodo

m M R H Comment
h i
4
1 M1 Cm F m − G7 − A♭/C B♭7 − E♭ 8 A
5 M1 Fm F m − G7 − C7 − F m − D7 − G7 − C
9 G∅7 E♭♭9 ♭9
7 F7 G7 − Cm G7 − Seq (3 × R7 )
15 M2 Cm D∅7 /F − G7 −
19 M2 Cm D∅7 /F − G7 − Cm
25 Fm 1)
2)

27 M3 Cm Cm C∅7
⊥ Bm F ♯7 − Bm/D C♯7 − F ♯7 −
32 M3 Bm B∅7 F7 −
⊥ B♭m B♭m C∅7 − F7
35 D◦7
38 M4 D♭ D♭7 G♭7 − C♭ A♭7 − D♭
46 M4 F G7 − C7 − F7 − B♭7 − G7 − C7 − F
54 Fm

56 M1 Cm F m − G7 − A♭/C B♭7 − E♭ A’
60 M1 Fm F m − G7 − C7 − F m C7 − F m − C7 −
66 M2 F m G∅7 /F − C7 −
70 M2 F m G∅7 /F − C7 − F m
76 M1’ F m C7 − B♭m−
80 M1’ F m C7 − B♭m−
83 F m B♭m−
85 F F
h i
3
87 M1 F (a − ped) F Am Dm/F − 4 Un poco piu animato
95 A Cm/E♭ − G B♭m/D♭ − F
Dm/F − C/G − G7 − C
107 C − F/F − C Em − Am/E − Em
Am/E − Em C7 B
118 M1 (a − ped) F A∅7 /C A
127 Ff − B♭ D7 /A − Gm F/C − C7 − F
F/C − C7 −

135 (a − ped) F Dm − F Am/C − F F m Coda (146 mm.)

49
CHAPTER 7. JOHANNES BRAHMS

Table 7.7: Brahms, String Quartet Op. 51 No. 1, Mvt. 4, Allegro

m M R H Comment

1 M1.1 Cm G7 − A♭ G7 − Cm A7 /E♭ A1
7 M1.2 D Dm − G7 − F m
13 M1.1’ F m − B♭7 − Cm D7 /A♭ Cm/G−
21 M1.2’ Cm F m − G − Cm G7− Transition

33 M2 Cm − E♭m Cm G − Cm E♭m − B♭ B
41 M3.1 E♭ B♭7 − E♭ Imitation
46 ⊥ B♭m C∅7 − F7 − B♭m
50 M3.2 F7 − B♭7 − E♭7 F∅7 − B♭7 Seq(3 × 2m; R5 )
58 E♭ E♭ − A♭ − D♭ Seq(3 × 2m; R5 ),
unis/chr.
68 M1.1 B◦7

70 M1.1 E♭ F∅7 − B♭7 B♭7 − E♭ F7 − B♭ C1 , b♭-dom.-ped.


82 ⊥ A♭ E♭ B♭ F Seq(4 × 1m; R5 )
86 Cm F7 − D7 /F ♯ − Cm/G E◦ − F m Transition

94 M1.1 Cm F m − G♭9
7 − Cm A♭ A♭7 A2 , 2pt imitation
102 M1.1 C♯m C♯m D♯7 − E/G♯ E7 − 4pt imitation
d
110 M1.1 Am − Em Am B7 − C − F ♯∅7 − B7 − Em 2pt imitation
⊥ Am E7 − Am B7 − E (m. 120)

50
7.2. STRING QUARTET OP. 51 NO. 1

Table 7.8: Brahms, String Quartet Op. 51 No. 1, Mvt. 4, Allegro (cont’d)

m M R H Comment

124 M2 Am − Cm Am E − Am Cm G B
132 M3.1 C G7 − C Imitation
137 ⊥ Gm A∅7 − D7 − Gm
141 M3.2 D7 − G7 − C7 D∅7 − G− Seq(3 × 2m; R5 )
149 C C − F − B♭ Seq(3 × 4m; R5 ),
unis/chr.
159 M1.1 G♯◦7

161 M1.1 C D∅7 − G7 Am − D7 − C2 , g-dom.-ped.


172 M1.1 G7 C♯7 − F ♯7 − B − F ♯7 − Seq(3 × 2m; R5 )
180 Em − Cm Em/B G7 − C D∅7 /C − D7 /F ♯− Transition

193 M1.1’ Cm G7 − Cm A7 − Dm− A3


d
··· B♭ − F − G − A♭
205 ⊥ A♭/C − G7 − Cm A7 − see m. 3
209 M1.2 C D Dm − G7 − C/G
d
215 F m − Cm F m − D♭ − B♭m G7 − A♭ Seq(3 × 2m; R3 ),
see m. 12
225 D7 − G − F m Transition, see m. 17-20
M1.1 D7 − Cm/G − G−

231 M2 Cm Cm F m − G7 − Cm Coda
C7 − F m − B◦7 − Cm c-ton.-ped.
244 Cm D7 /A♭ − Cm/G − G − Cm (248 m.)

51
CHAPTER 7. JOHANNES BRAHMS

7.2.4 Mvt. 4, Allegro


Form: A1 BC1 A2 BC2 A3 -Coda. See Table 7.7 and 7.8 for the analysis.

7.3 String Quartet Op. 51 No. 2 (1873)


Source: [2].

7.3.1 Mvt. 4, Finale, Allegro non assai


Form: Rondo (A-B-A1 -B1 -A-B-A2 ). See Table 7.9 for the analysis.

52
7.3. STRING QUARTET OP. 51 NO. 2

Table 7.9: Brahms, String Quartet Op. 51 No. 2, Mvt. 4, Finale, Allegro non assai

m M R H Comment
1 M1 Am Am E7 − A
13 M1 Am
25 E7 − Seq.
37 F Dm7 − G7
45 M2 C G7 − C/E G
59 M3 F Gm − C7 − F G7 − B
71 ⊥ C C C♯◦7 −
75 Dm − G7 − C C♯◦7 − Dm
91 G7 − Seq.
100 Am C F ♯7 − B7 − E − E7 −
116 M1 Am Am A1
129 B7 − Seq.
132 M2 Em Em D7 −
140 F Gm − C7 −
144 M2 F C − A∅7 − A7−
161 M3 Dm Dm B7 B1 , Imitation
166 M3 Em Em
173 F ♯m G♯7 − C♯ A4 −
184 Dm Dm B7 −
186 Am E7 − e-dom.-ped.
196 M1 Am Am E7 − A
210 M1 Am
222 Seq.
234 A E D♯◦7 − e-dom.ped.
238 M2 E7 − A E − Em
251 M3 D Em − A7 − D E7 − B
264 ⊥ A A A♯◦7 −
268 Bm − E7 − A A♯◦7 − Bm
284 E7 A/E − E7 Seq.
293 M1 A A F ♯m − B7 − A/E A7 − D A2 , Imitation
309 A/E − E7 −
320 M1 A Augm.
328 e-dom.-ped.
334 M1 Am Am D♯◦7 − Coda, Diminished
E E − 7 − Am A7 − Dm B7 /A− e-dom.-ped.
352 M1 Am/E − E− Diminished
359 Am

53
CHAPTER 7. JOHANNES BRAHMS

7.4 Symphony No. 4 in E minor, Op. 98 (1885)


Source: [3].

7.4.1 Mvt. 1, Allegro non troppo


Form: Sonata. See Table 7.10 and 7.11 for the analysis.

Table 7.10: Brahms, Symphony No. 4 in E minor, Mvt. 1 Allegro non troppo

m M R H Comment

1 M1 Em Em B7 Exp. Gr. 1, asc. bass


19 M1 Em F ♯7 [A] desc. bass
37 B7 F ♯7 −
45 Bm G F ♯7 − Bm [B] Gr. 2
53 M2 F ♯−
57 M3 Bm [C]
d
65 M3 F ♯7 − Bm F ♯7 −
73 M2 G B7 −
77 M2 C F ♯7 −
87 B B F ♯7 − [D]
91 M4.1 B F ♯7 −
95 M4.2 B F ♯7 −
99 M4.3 B C♯7 −
110 M2 B/F ♯ [E]
119 M2 B/F ♯ A7 −
125 M2 D−B D/F ♯ F ♯7 − B E − F ♯−

137 B [F] Dev.


145 M1 Em B7 − Em D7 False, recap., desc. bass
157 M1’ Gm Gm F7 − [G] variation
d
169 M1’ B♭m B♭m F ♯7 − Imitation
184 Bm G [H]
188 M2 Cm F m − G − Cm
D♭m − Dm − E♭m − E♭ Rapid mod.
206 M2 Em F ♯∅7 − B7 − E D♯7 − [I]
217 M1 G♯m G♯m F ♯ − B − B7 − G♯m−
227 D♯7 D7 − E7 − F ♯7 B7 [K] Retrans, Seq(R7 )

54
7.4. SYMPHONY NO. 4 OP. 98

Table 7.11: Brahms, Symphony No. 4 in E minor, Mvt. 1 Allegro non troppo (cont’d)

m M R H Comment

246 M1 Em Em B7 − [L] Rec. Gr. 1, asc. bass


d
273 M1 Em B7 − C F ♯7 − desc. bass
297 M2 B B7 [M] Gr. 2
301 M3 Em
d
309 M3 B7 − Em B7 −
317 M2 C E7 −
321 M2 F B7 −
331 E E/B B7 − [N]
335 M4.1 E B7 −
339 M4.2 E B7 −
343 M4.3 E F ♯7 −
352 M2 E/B [O]
363 M2 E/B D♯7 −
d
369 M2 G♯m G♯m B♭7 −
377 M2 Em − Gm B − Em D7 − Gm F ♯7 B7 − [P]
d
394 M1 Em Em B7 − [Q] Coda, asc. bass
d
402 Am/E B7 −
414 C B7 − Am/E
421 F ♯∅7 − Em/B − B7 −
426 Em (440 m.)

55
CHAPTER 8. PETER ILYICH TCHAIKOVSKY

Chapter 8

Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky

8.1 Nutcracker Suite (1892)


Source: [22].

8.1.1 Mvt. 1, Ouverture miniature


Form: binary form, A1 B1 A2 B2 . See Table 8.1 for the analysis.

8.1.2 Mvt. 2, Danses caractéristiques, Marche


Form: ternary form, A1 BA1 CA2 BA2 . See Table 8.2 for the analysis.

8.1.3 Mvt. 2, Danses caractéristiques, Danse de la Fée-Dragée


Form: ternary form, A1 BA2 . See Table 8.3 for the analysis.

8.1.4 Mvt. 2, Danses caractéristiques, Danse russe Trépak


Form: ternary form, ABA’. See Table 8.4 for the analysis.

56
8.1. NUTCRACKER SUITE

Table 8.1: Tchaikovsky, Nutcracker Suite, Mvt. 1 Ouverture miniature

m M R H Comment

1 M1.1 B♭ B♭ C7 − F − B♭ F7 − A1
9 M1.1 B♭ C7 − F − B♭ F7 − B♭
17 M1.2 Gm D7 − Gm D7 − Gm
21 M1.2 F C 7 − F C7 − F
25 B♭ C∅7 − F F/C Tr. 1, Dom. ext.
32 M1.1 B♭ C7 − F7 − B♭ D◦7 −
39 E♭ F ♯◦7 − Gm A7 /E♭ − D G7 /B − Cm − C7 /E Tr. 2

45 M2 F F C7 − F A7 − Dm G7 − C7 − B1
57 M2 F C7 − F F7 /E♭ − B♭/D F7 − B♭ A7 −
70 M2’ Dm Dm D7 − Gm A7 − Dm Gm7 /B♭ − C7
79 B♭ F C7 − F F − C7 − F − Cad.

90 M1.1 B♭ B♭ C7 − F − B♭ F7 − A2
98 M1.1 B♭ C7 − F − B♭ F7 − B♭
107 M1.2 Gm D7 − Gm D7 − Gm
111 M1.2 F C 7 − F C7 − F
115 B♭ C∅7 − F F/C Tr. 1, Dom. ext.
123 M1.1 B♭ C7 − F7 − B♭ D◦7 −
129 E♭ F ♯◦7 − Gm A7 /E♭ − D G7 /B − Cm − C7 − F

135 M2 B♭ B♭ F7 − B♭ D7 − Gm C7 − F7 − B2
147 M2 B♭ F7 − B♭ B♭7 − E♭/G D7 −
160 M2’ Gm Gm D7 − Gm E♭ C7 − F7 −
169 B♭ B♭ F7 − B♭ Cad. (183 m.)

57
CHAPTER 8. PETER ILYICH TCHAIKOVSKY

Table 8.2: Tchaikovsky, Nutcracker Suite, Danses caractéristiques, Marche

m M R H Comment

1 a G G − Em − Bm − G − Em A1
5 b Am − D/F ♯ − G F ♯∅7 /A − B7 − Em A7 /C♯ − D
9 a G − Em − Bm − G − Em
13 b’ Am Bm C Em − F ♯7 /A♯ − B− Seq(3 × 1m, R7 )
17 cd Em B/F ♯ − Em Em − Am − F ♯∅7 − B B
21 ce B/F ♯ − Em Em − Am − D − D7
25 a G G − Em − Bm − G − Em A1
29 b Am − D/F ♯ − G F ♯∅7 /A − B7 − Em A7 /C♯ − D
33 a G − Em − Bm − G − Em
37 b’ Am Bm C G/B − Am − D7 − G Seq(3 × 1m, R7 )

41 M2 Em Em − E7 − Am − B7 − Em − E7 − A − F ♯∅7 − Em C, e-ton-ped.
45 M2 Em − E7 − Am − B7 − Em − E7 − A − F ♯∅7 − Em

49 a G G − Em − Bm − G − Em A2
53 b Am − D/F ♯ − G F ♯∅7 /A − B7 − Em A7 /C♯ − D
57 a G − Em − Bm − G − Em
61 b’ Am Bm C Em − F ♯7 /A♯ − B− Seq(3 × 1m, R7 )
65 cd Em B/F ♯ − Em Em − Am − F ♯∅7 − B B
69 ce B/F ♯ − Em Em − Am − D − D7
73 a G G − Em − Bm − G − Em A2
77 b Am − D/F ♯ − G F ♯∅7 /A − B7 − Em A7 /C♯ − D
81 a G − Em − Bm − G − Em
85 b’ Am Bm C G/B − Am − D7 − G Seq(3 × 1m, R7 ),
(88 m.)

58
8.1. NUTCRACKER SUITE

Table 8.3: Tchaikovsky, Nutcracker Suite, Danses caractéristiques, Danse de la Fée-Dragée

m M R H Comment

1 Em Em − F ♯∅7 − A♯∅7 − D♯◦7 Intro, e-ton-ped.


5 a Em A♯∅7 − D♯◦7 − Em A1 , e-ton-ped.
9 b F ♯♭5 ♭5
7 /A♯ F ♯7 − B − F ♯7 /C − B
13 a Em A♯∅7 − D♯◦7 − Em e-ton-ped.
17 a’ Em B/F ♯ − Em Em − Am − F ♯∅7 − B Trans, Seq(3 × 1m, R7 )

21 c C♯∅7 /B − B − Em/G B1 , b-dom-ped.


25 c C♯∅7 /B − B − Em/G b-dom-ped.
29 c C♯∅7 /B − B − Em/G b-dom-ped.
33 B7 B2 , retrans.

37 a Em A♯∅7 − D♯◦7 − Em A2 , e-ton-ped.


41 b F ♯♭5 ♭5
7 /A♯ F ♯7 − B − F ♯7 /C − B
45 a Em A♯∅7 − D♯◦7 − Em e-ton-ped.
49 a’ F ♯7 − B − E7 − A − D7 − G − B7 − Em Coda, Seq(3 × 1m, R7 ),
(52 m.)

Table 8.4: Tchaikovsky, Nutcracker Suite, Danses caractéristiques, Danse russe Trépak

m M R H Comment

1 a G G D− A, g-ton-ped.
9 a’ G C −G g-ton-ped., plagal cad.
17 a G D− A, g-ton-ped.
25 a’ G C −G g-ton-ped., plagal cad.

33 b D D Em − A7 − F ♯m − Bm Em − E7 − A7 − D B, bridge
41 b D Em − A7 − F ♯m − Bm Em − E7 − A7 − D
49 c Cm/E♭ − A7 − D Cm/E♭ − D − G retrans.

57 a G G D− A, g-ton-ped.
65 a’ G C −G g-ton-ped., plagal cad.
73 G D− Coda, g-ton-ped.,
(84 m.)

59
CHAPTER 9. CLAUDE DEBUSSY

Chapter 9

Claude Debussy

9.1 Prélude à l’après-midi d’un faune (1895)


Source: [5]. Form: ternary form, ABC. See Table 9.1 for the analysis.

9.2 Trois nocturnes (1899)


Source: [5].

9.2.1 No. 2 Fêtes


Form: ternary form, A1 BA2 . See Table 9.2 for the analysis.

9.2.2 No. 3 Sirènes


Form: ternary form, ABC. See Table 9.3 for the analysis.

60
9.2. TROIS NOCTURNES

Table 9.1: Debussy, Prélude à l’après-midi d’un faune

m M R H Comment
h i
9
1 M1 E [SD] A97 C♯m7 − F ♯7 [A] (♯♯♯♯),
8
Subdom.-plagal
h i
6
5 E7alt F ♯7 E7alt 8
11 M1 [D] D∆7 G7 /D B713 − E 6 C♯7 Dom.-auth.
A♯7 F ♯7 G♯7 B7
[T] A♯7 C♯7 Climax1,
h ih i tonic
12 9
21 M1 E 6 C C♯m7 C79 8 8
M1 [D] B7 Am7 D7 Cm Dom.
h i h ih i
12 9 12
26 M1 [D] E7 B7 − E713 F ♯7 E7 − F ♯7 − B 8 8 8
31 M1’ C♯7 G7 Trans., Seq(2 × 3m, R3 ),
Wh.t.-sc.
h i
3
34 M1’ B♭7 = E7 F ♯7 − 4

37 M2 B7 E7 B
41 M2 [T] E7 D96
d h i
4
h i
3
44 M2’ [T] G7 B♭7 E♭7 − 4(♮♮♮♮) 4 , tonic focus
47 M3 D♭6 A♭7 A7 E♭7 − Climax 2
51 M3 A♭ A♭ A♭7 − (♭♭♭♭)
55 M4 D ℜ(D♭ − E♭7 /G) F ♯m7 − B7 (♭♭♭♭♭)
⊥ [D] Am7 − D Climax 3
63 M4 ℜ(D♭ − E♭7 /G) E♭m7 − A♭sus
7
4

E♭m7 − A♭7 −
74 M3 D♭6
75 M4 D♭7
h i
79 M1 E E(7) C♯m7 − F ♯7 A 44 (♯♯♯♯)
83 M5 [SD] Am7 A7 C79 (♮♮♮♮)
86 M1 E♭7 Cm7 − F7sus4
90 M5 [D] G♯m7 G♯7
[D] G♯7
94 M1 ℜ(E7 − C7 ) G♯7 G♯7 F ♯7 − (♯♯♯♯)
100 M1 [T] ℜ(C♯7 − A♯7 ) h i
9
102 ⊥ C♯7 8
C7 = F ♯7 F ♯m − B7 − h i
12
106 M1’ E E − C F ♯7 − E 8 (110 m.)

61
CHAPTER 9. CLAUDE DEBUSSY

Table 9.2: Debussy, Trois nocturnes, No. 2 Fêtes

# M R H Rhythm/Scales/Comment
h i h i
0 M1,M2 F → D♭ open 4ths/5ths, A1 , 12 9
8 / 8 , Rh1,
ex. par. D79 dor./alt.
1 M1,M2 D → E♭ → D♭ Rh1, hwh.i tone
h i
2 M1 A diat. parallel Rh2( 158 - 9
8 ), mixo-lyd.
3 D♭ Rh1, Rh3, wh. tone, ion.
4 M3,M4 F →A chromatic Rh2
5 M5 B→E Rh3, mixo-lyd.
6 M4,M5 E diatonic Rh2, ion., start climax
..
7 . D diatonic Rh2, ion, build climax
8 ⊥ E diat., chrom. Rh2, Rh3, ion., chrom.,
build climax
9 M5 C♯ Rh2, Rh1, climax
h i
10 M6 A♭ pedal (D♭97 − B♭97 − E79 ) B, 24 , Rh4, dor.,
mixo-lyd., start climax,
bitonal flavour
E
11 M6 pedal (E79 − D♭97 ) Rh4, dor., mixo-lyd.,
G♯
build-up
B♭
12 M6 pedal (B♭97 ) Rh4, dor., mixo-lyd.,
A♭
build-up
B♭ E
13 M6,M1 A♭ − − pedal (D♭97 − B♭97 − E79 ) Rh4, dor., mixo-lyd.,
A♭ G♯
climax
h i h i
14 M1 D♭ → D ex. par. D79 A2 , 68 / 98 , Rh1, alt.,
start climax
15 M7 E♭ ex. par. D79 Rh1, hRh2,i hclimax
i
16 M6 E♭ diat. parallel 15
Rh2( 8 - 98 )
h ih i
17 M1 A diat. parallel Rh2( 15 9
8 - 8 ), mixo-lyd.,
start climax
18 M3 C♯ Rh1, Rh2, climax
19 M3,M6 C♯ → B♭ Rh2, haeol.,
i h chrom.
i
20 M3,M6 D♭ Rh2( 4 - 24 )
3

21 M3,M6,M2 A
22 A Rh2

62
9.2. TROIS NOCTURNES

Table 9.3: Debussy, Trois nocturnes, No. 3 Sirènes

m M R H Scales/Comment

1 F♯ − A − C F ♯69 − A69 − C96 #0, mixo-lyd.,


appoggiaturas
8 M1 C − E♭ − F ♯ − A ex. par. C79 #1, M1(CorA)
22 M1,M2 B B79 − G97 #2, octatonic, app.,
M1(Str)(WW), M2(choir),
start climax
34 M2 B−D−E B7 − D79 − E79 #3, octaton., ‘tango’,
exact parallel M2(choir), climax
40 M2 E − F ♯ − C♯ − E♭ ex./diat. par. S79 #4, mixo-lyd.,
M2(choir)
50 M2,M3 D♭ D♭97 − A97 E♭97 − B79 #5, echo’s, app.,
M2(WW)(Hns)(Str),
M3(choir),
climax
72 M2 A♭ A♭97 − D79 #6,
M2(Str+WW)
80 M4 D Bm7/D D7♯11 #7, wh.tone,
Heavy str+WW, M4(Tpt)
87 M3 D♭ − A − B − E♭ S79 #8, app.
M3(choir)
G E◦7
101 M2 #9,
C♯ F ♯97
M2(WW)(choir)
111 M2,M4 B B7 G7 /B #10, octaton./wh.t., echo’s,
M2(choir)(Hns)(Str),
M4(Tpt)
125 M2,M1,M4 B B7 G7 /B #11, echo’s,
exact parallel M2(Str)(choir), M1(Str),
M4(CorA)
135 M1,M2,M4 B B7 G7 /B #12, M1(Str),
M2(choir), M4(Tpt)

63
CHAPTER 10. MAURICE RAVEL

Chapter 10

Maurice Ravel

10.1 String Quartet in F major (1903)


Source: [13].

10.1.1 Mvt. 2, Assez vif - très rythmé


Form: Three-part form, ABA’. See Table 10.1 for the analysis.

10.2 Miroirs (1905)


Source: [15].

10.2.1 Mvt. 4, Alborada del Gracioso


Form: ternary song form, ABA’. See Table 10.2 for the analysis.

10.3 Rapsodie Espagnole (1907)


Source: [15].

10.3.1 Mvt. 1, Prélude à la nuit


Form: ternary song form, ABA’. See Table 10.3 for the analysis. The scales and harmonies
used are specified in Table 10.4.

10.3.2 Mvt. 2, Malagueña


See Table 10.5 for the analysis. The scales and harmonies used are specified in Table 10.4.

10.3.3 Mvt. 3, Habanera


Form: ABAC. See Table 10.6 for the analysis. The scales and harmonies used are specified in
Table 10.4.

64
10.3. RAPSODIE ESPAGNOLE

Table 10.1: Ravel, String Quartet in F major, Mvt. 2 Assez vif - très rythmé

m M R H Comment

1 M1 A Modal, A-Aeolian A, 1st stat., pizz.


13 M2 C♯ C♯-Dorian [A], 1st stat., arco
21 A A∆7 − F ♯7 [B], fragments from M1 and M2
Transition
30 C♯ C♯7 [C], transition, tremolo
40 M1 A A-Aeolian [D], 2nd stat., climax, pizz.
52 M2 C/F ♯ [E], 2nd stat., arco
60 B♭ B♭∆7 − G7 [F]=T[B]
Transition
69 E−A Symmetric-modal [G], transition, tremolo, M1 fragments

89 M3 d-Dor. E♭ Chromatic-parallel B, [H], 1st stat., arco, lyrical


Accompaniment based on M2
104 M2’ A♭ − C♯ A♭7 − C♯m [I]
115 C C∆7 − F ♯7 [J], pizz. M1 fragments
Arco M2 fragments
120 M3 F F7 − G7 /F [K], 2nd stat., M1 background

129 E − G♯ A’, [L], retrans., pizz.


150 M1 A Modal, A-Aeolian [M], 3rd stat., climax, pizz.
162 M2 C♯ C♯-Dorian [N]=[A], 3rd stat.
170 A − E♭ A7 − E♭7 [O], trans., M1 and M2 fragments
179 M1’ C Symmetric-parallel [P], tremolo, M1 fragments
A Modal Pizz. (198 m.)

65
CHAPTER 10. MAURICE RAVEL

Table 10.2: Ravel, Miroirs, Mvt. 4 Alborada del Gracioso

m M Scale/Mode H Comment
h i
1 d-Phryg. D7 A7 − D7 D A[a] 68 (♭)
12 M1 b♭-Ion./g-Aeol. Cm7 Gm7 Cm7 B♭∆7 − E♭∆7 [b]
22 b♭-Phryg. B♭7 F7 − B♭7 [a], b♭-ped.
h i
31 M1’ d♭-Ion./b♭-Aeol. B♭∆7 − F7 − B♭∆7 [b’] 98
h i
6
38 M1’ D♭ A♭7 − D♭ E7 8
43 (M2) g♯-Phryg. G♯ − C♯m − G♯ [c] (♯♯♯♯), g♯-ped.
52 M2 C♯7 − F ♯m G∆7 − Em (♯♯)
58 M1 b-Aeol./d-Ion. Em7 A7 [b]
62 d-Mixolyd. D7alt Aalt
7 E7
alt D [a]
h i
3
71 M3 b-Aeol. Bm7 B [a] 4 (♯♯)
79 M3 A♭9
7
85 M3 G69
91 M3 F ♯alt
7
105 M4 C♯♭5
7 [b]
111 b − f ♯-ped
116 M4 C♯alt
7
120 b − f ♯-ped.
126 M5 A7 − E7 − B7 − F ♯7 h[c],i f ♯-ped.
6
131 8
137 M4 C♯♭5
7 [b]
141 b − f ♯-ped
145 M4 C♯7
151 d-Ion. D6 d
h− i a-ped.
9
8 , a-ped.
157 M5 A7 [c]
162 D/A A7 a-ped.

166 E♭ B♭7 − E♭ hA’ i[a’] (♮♮)


6
170 F ♯ − G♯7 − F ♯7 8
174 (M2) c♯-Phryg. C♯ − C♯7 Am − C♯ − C♯7 [c] , c♯-ped.
181 ⊥ C♯7 (♯♯♯♯)
185 M2 C♯7 − F ♯m G∆7 − Em (♯♯)
191 M1 b-Aeol. Em7 [b’]
196 d-Mixolyd. D7alt A7 − D7 [a]
200 M1’ Am7 A7 B7
209 M1’ F ♯7 − E7 − D7 − h i
9
213 G♭9
7 /C 8 h i
6
219 d-Mixolyd. D − A7 − D [a] 8 (229 m.)

66
10.3. RAPSODIE ESPAGNOLE

Table 10.3: Ravel, Rapsodie Espagnole, Mvt. 1 Prélude à la nuit

m M Scale/Mode H Comment

1 M0 d-Gypsy-Oct. Intro #0 (M0: downward scalar riff)


..
4 . B♭7 B∅7
..
8 . B♭7 B∅7 #1
..
14 ./M1 d-Gypsy A #2, [D]
..
16 ./ ⊥ C♯m
..
18 . d-Oct A♯7 E7 B♭7
..
22 . A♯7 E7 B♭7 #3
..
28 ./M2 d-Aeol. Gm7 A7 − D7 B #4
32 ⊥/M2 Gm7 A7 − D7
37 (M0) d-Oct. C7♭9 #5
41 ⊥ F6
44 g-Oct. E♭alt
7 #6, [SD]

46 M0/M1 d-Gypsy C♯alt


7 A’ #7
54 d-Oct. B♭alt
7 #8, [T]
56 M0 d-Oct-Gypsy B♭7 B∅7 #9
61 ⊥ A (63 m.)

67
CHAPTER 10. MAURICE RAVEL

Table 10.4: Ravel, Rapsodie Espagnole, scales and modes

Scale/Mode Pitch content Harmonic structures Used in #

Mvt. 1
d-Gypsy d e f g♯ a b c♯ B∅7 C♯m7 C♯7 0, 1, 2, 7, 9
d-Octatonic d e f g g♯ b♭ b c♯ [T]: B♭7 E7 C♯♭10
7 , 0, 1, 3, 5, 6, 8, 9
[SD]: E♭♭9
7 C7
♭9

d-Aeolian d e f g a b♭ c Gm7 C7 F 6 4
Mvt. 2
a-Aeolian abcdef g 0, 6
d-Gypsy See above 2, 13
d-Octatonic See above 2, 13
d♯-Phrygian d♯ e f ♯ g♯ a♯ b c♯ 10
c♯-Octatonic c♯ d♯ e f ♯ g a b♭ c 11
Mvt. 3
f ♯-Aeolian f ♯ g♯ a b c♯ d e E7 C♯7 1, 5
f ♯-Phrygian f ♯ g a b c♯ d e♯ G7 2, 6
f ♯-Ionian f ♯ g♯ a♯ b c♯ d♯ e♯ 3
a-Aeolian See above 7, 9
f -Aeolian f g a♭ b♭ c d♭ e♭ 8, 10
Mvt. 4
c-Mixolydian c d e f g a b♭ 0, 3, 4, 5, 10, 11, 19, 20, 25
c-Ionian See above 6, 21, 31
f ♯-Phrygian See above 12, 13, 15, 30
f ♯-Gypsy See above 12

68
10.3. RAPSODIE ESPAGNOLE

Table 10.5: Ravel, Rapsodie Espagnole, Mvt. 2 Malagueña

m M Scale/Mode H Comment

1 M0 a-Aeol. Am7 #0 (M0: scalar riff)


..
7 . #1
..
13 . d-Oct./Gypsy A7 C D+ #2
19 ⊥ A♭9
7 B♭/D #3
25 (M0) alt
A7 #4
28 Aalt
7 A7 /G− #5

35 M1 b-Aeol. F ♯♭9
7 G∆7 /F ♯ #6 (♯♯)
40 M1 F ♯♭9 ♭9 ♭9
7 − Bm7 F ♯7 − B7 − E7 D7 A7 − #7
46 F ♯7 #8
52 F ♯7 − G7 − G♯7 − A7 − B♭7 F ♯alt
7 E7 − #9
62 M1’ d♯-Phryg. D♯ − E − F ♯ − G♯m − B∅7 #10 (♯♯♯♯♯)
65 M1’ A♯m − B − C♯m − D♯ − E − F ♯
68 c♯-Oct. D♯ C♯m7 #11
73 M2 D♯m − C♯♭9
7 C♯7 #12

78 d-Oct./Gypsy B♭7 /D #13 (♮♮♮♮♮)


83 M0 Aalt alt
7 B♭7 A7 #14
88 Aalt
7 #15
93 Am F/A A/C♯ (94 m.)

69
CHAPTER 10. MAURICE RAVEL

Table 10.6: Ravel, Rapsodie Espagnole, Mvt. 3 Habanera

m M Scale/Mode H Comment

1 D7 G7 #0, c♯-ped.
7 C♯ #1, c♯-ped. (cont’d)
9 M1 f ♯-Aeol. C♯7 − D7 − E7 D7 − E7 F ♯−
..
13 . f ♯-Phryg G
14 ⊥ F ♯ − G7 F ♯ − D7 #2, f ♯ − c♯-ped.

19 M2 f ♯-Ion. F ♯ − D♯m7 A/C♯ G♯m7 − C♯7 F ♯ #3, c♯-ped.


25 F ♯m F ♯ #4

30 M1 f ♯-Aeol. C♯7 − D7 − E7 D7 − E7 F ♯− #5
..
34 . f ♯-Phryg G7
35 ⊥ F ♯ − D7 G7 F ♯ − D♯m7 #6, f ♯ − c♯-ped.

40 M3 a-Aeol. ℜ(E7 − F7 ) − A #7, e-ped [T]


44 M3 f -Aeol. G7 ℜ(C7 − G7 ) − B♭ D7 − F ♯ #8, c♯-ped [SD]
48 M3 a-Aeol. ℜ(E7 − F7 ) − A #9, e-ped [T]
44 M3 f -Aeol. G7 ℜ(C7 − G7 ) − B♭ D7 − F ♯ #8, c♯-ped [SD]
56 F ♯m F ♯ #11, c♯-ped. (61 m.)

70
10.4. MA MÈRE L’OYE

10.3.4 Mvt. 4, Feria


Form: ternary song form, ABA. See Table 10.7 and 10.8 for the analysis. The scales and
harmonies used are specified in Table 10.4.

10.4 Ma mère l’oye (1911)


Source: [15].

10.4.1 Pavane de la Belle au bois dormant


Form: ternary song form, ABA’. See Table 10.9 for the analysis.

10.4.2 Petit Poucet


Form: ternary song form, ABA’. See Table 10.10 for the analysis.

10.5 Daphnis et Chloë (1912)


Source: [14].

10.5.1 Danse Guerrière


Form: ternary song form, ABA’. See Table 10.11 for the analysis.

10.5.2 Danse Générale


Form: ternary song form, ABA’. See Table 10.12 for the analysis. The chord structures in this
dance are based on two octatonic scales on the tonic and sub-dominant step, as demonstrated
in Tabel 10.13.

10.6 Concerto pour Piano et Orchestre (1932)


Source: [12].

10.6.1 Mvt. 1, Allegramente


Form: sonata form. See Table 10.14 and 10.15 for the analysis. The instrumentation is ab-
breviated as O for Orchestra and P for Piano (in the Melody column, with the secundary
element between brackets).

10.6.2 Mvt. 2, Adagio Assai


Form: ternary song form, ABA’. See Table 10.16 for the analysis. The instrumentation is
abbreviated as P for Piano, W W for woodwinds, Br for brass and Str for strings (in the
Melody column, with the secundary element between brackets).

71
CHAPTER 10. MAURICE RAVEL

Table 10.7: Ravel, Rapsodie Espagnole, Mvt. 4 Feria

m M Scale/Mode H Comment
h i
1 c-Mixolyd. A #0 68 , g-dom.-ped.
4 M1 Cm7 C79 g-ped. (cont’d)
7 C7♯11 #1, c − g-ped.
14 M1 C79 E♭97 /G #2, g-ped.
17 e♭-Mixolyd. E♭7 #3, e♭ − b♭-ped.
27 M2 E♭97 #4
30 M1 f ♯-Mixolyd. E♭97 − F ♯7
33 M2 F ♯7 − B7 #5
34 M3 b-Mixolyd. F ♯7 − B7 [SD]
⊥ d-Mixolyd. D79 /F ♯−
40 M2 c-Ion. C6 #6, c − g-ped.
9/sus4
43 M4 ℜ(C 6 − G7 )
6 9/sus4
47 M4 ℜ(C − G7 ) #7
6 9/sus4
51 M5 (2×) ℜ(C − G7 ) #8
6 9/sus4
59 M5’ ℜ(C − G7 ) #9
6 9/sus4
62 M5’/M4 ℜ(C − G7 )
66 M2 #10
69 M1 c-Mixolyd. C7
71 #11
h i
3
77 f ♯-Phr/Gyp F ♯m7 − C♯7 B #12 4 (♯♯♯)
79 M6 ℜ(F ♯m7 − C♯7 )
84 ⊥ B7 − Em7 − A7
B∅7 /D − A7 − F7
89 ℜ(F ♯m7 − C7 ) #13
93 M6’ c♯-Phryg. F m7 − B♭7 Em7 G♯7 −
99 C♯7 G7 #14
103 M7/M0 f ♯-Phryg. C♯♭9
7 G7 #15 (M0: downward scale riff)
109 M7 C♯♭9
7 #16
112 M0 B♭7 #17
116 M2 B♭7 #18

72
10.6. PIANO CONCERTO IN G

Table 10.8: Ravel, Rapsodie Espagnole, Mvt. 4 Feria (cont’d)

m M Scale/Mode H Comment
h i
6
121 B♭7 C #19 8 (♮♮♮)
123 M2 f ♯-Mixolyd. F ♯7 − B7
124 M1 ℜ(F ♯7 − B7 )
126 M3 F ♯7 #20
131 ⊥ d-Mixolyd. D79 /F ♯
133 M2 c-Ion. ℜ(C 6 − G7 ) #21 [T]
137 M5 (2×) ℜ(C∆7 − Gsus
7
4) #22
9/sus4
145 M5’/M4 ℜ(C∆7 − G7 ) #23
149 M4 ℜ(C∆7 − Gsus
7
4) #24
154 M2/M1 c-Mixolyd. C7 #25
160 E79 − A♭97 #26
164 M0 Dm7 − D7 #27 [SD], d-ped.
168 M3
172 ⊥ G7 /D − D7 #28
175 M1 F79
177 ⊥ E♭ D♯97 #29
181 M2 c♯-Phryg. ℜ(C♯m − G♯∅7 ) #30 [D]
185 ⊥ c-Ion. C #31 [T]
189 B♭7 /A♭ − C #32 (190 m.)

Table 10.9: Ravel, Ma mère l’oye, Pavane de la Belle au bois dormant

m M R H Comment

1 M1 A Am7 A, a-Aeol., muted str., pizz., thin structures (2p)


5 M2 E Em7 Arco strings

9 M3 Em7 − A B, Pizz. strings

13 M1 D−E Dm7 A’, #1, a-Aeol., Melodic tension now S9


17 M2 E−A Em7 − Am Arco strings

73
CHAPTER 10. MAURICE RAVEL

Table 10.10: Ravel, Ma mère l’oye, Petit Poucet

m M R H/Scale Comment

1 C c-tonal/modal (Aeol.) A, [T] intro, muted str., parallel


5 M1 c-Dor./Aeol.
12 M2 E♭ e♭-Dor. #1, [T]
22 M1’ G g-pedal #2, [D]
32 C − E♭ c-Aeol. #3, [T], unisono climax
40 M2 A♭ a♭-Dor. #4, [SD]

51 M1’ D D7♭10 , d-ped B, #5, contrasting middle section


55 D−G d-pedal #6, [D]

60 C c-Dor. A’, #7, [T]


67 F F m97 #8, [SD], material from Mvt. 1
75 C #9, [T], intro

10.6.3 Mvt. 3, Presto


Form: sonata form. See Table 10.17 and 10.18 for the analysis. The letter P1 in the M column
stands for featuring the piano.

74
10.6. PIANO CONCERTO IN G

Table 10.11: Ravel, Daphnis et Chloë, Danse Guerrière

m M Pedal H Comment
92 M0 b B7 A [T]
..
94 M1 . C7 /B [D]
95 M0 ⊥ C7 /B D7 /B [T]
96 M0 f♯ C7 [D]
..
98 M1 . G7 [V/V]
99 M0 ⊥ G7 − A7 E7 − F ♯7
101 M0 c C7 [D]
102 M1 b B7 [T]
103 M2 ⊥ G7 [V/V]
104 a A B [D]
..
105 M3 . A7
..
106 M3 .
107 M0/M2 ⊥ E♭7
108 f ♯7
..
109 M3 .
110 M3 ⊥
111 M0/M1 C7 − E♭7
112 c C7 [D]
..
114 M3 .
..
115 M0/M3 .
..
116 M2/M3 . F7 [T]
..
117 M0/M3 .
..
118 M2/M3 . A♭7
..
119 M0/M3 .
..
120 M0/M2/M3 . D♭7 [SD]
121 M2 ⊥ C7 [D]
122 M0 B♭7 − E7 A’ [SD]
123 M0 A7
124 M0 B♭7 − C7
125 M2 F ♯7 [D]
126 M3 c♯ C♯7 [SD, II7 ]
..
127 M3 . C♯7
128 M3 ⊥ C♯7 II-
129 ⊥ f♯ F ♯7 − D♯7 [D] V-III
130 M0/M2 b B7 I

75
CHAPTER 10. MAURICE RAVEL

Table 10.12: Ravel, Daphnis et Chloë, Danse Générale

# M R Pedal H Comment

194 V F7 /A A
195 M0
196 M1 I c♯ C♯7
197 M1 G7
198 D♯7 Trans.
199 IV a B♭m/A
200 M2
201 M2 V B7 − F7 − D7
202 M2 IV a A♯m/A
203 ⊥ F ♯m7 /A − Am7

204 M0 IV f♯ C7 /F ♯ B
205 M0 ⊥ D7 − Bm7
206 M0’ I e B♭7 − E7
207 M0’ IV-I E♭7 − E7
208 IV-I E♭7 − E7 B♭7 − Gm
209 M0 I c♯ C♯7
..
210 M1 I . C♯7 A’
..
211 M1 . G♯7 −
..
212 M1 . C♯7
213 M1 ⊥ G♯7
214 M2 I7 e B♭m7 − B♭
215 M2 ⊥ E∅7 − B♭7
d
216 V Bm7 B7 − A♭7 − F7 − D7 −
M2 IV C7
217 Gm7 G7 − E7 − C♯7 − B♭7 −
M2 I C♯7

218 V b C♯7 − B7 Coda


219 I B♭ − A♭ − G♭ − E − D − C − A♭−
V/IV E7
220 M2 iV=I a B♭m/A
221 I-V-I ⊥ A − G7 /E − A

76
10.6. PIANO CONCERTO IN G

Table 10.13: Ravel, Daphnis et Chloë, Danse Générale chord structures

Scale Pitch content Chords Comment

c♯-Oct. c♯ − d − e − f − g − g♯ − a♯ − b B♭7 [T]


Gm7 used in #217
C♯7
B♭m
f ♯-Oct. f ♯ − g − a − a♯ − c − c♯ − d♯ − e A, Am [SD]
F ♯7 , F ♯m used in #203
C7 used in #204
E♭7 used in #207
D♯m7 used in #213

Table 10.14: Ravel, Concerto pour Piano et Orchestre, Mvt. 1 Allegramente

m M R/Scale H Comment
h i
2
1 M1.1/1.2, O(P) G-Pentat. G/D − D7 [0], Exp./Gr. 1, 2
16 O(P) C −D C/G − D7sus4 [1], Tr. 1
25 M1.1/1.2, O G-Pentat. D − D7sus4 [2]
37 M1.2 B-Aeol. Bm7/F ♯ [3]
44 M2.1 F ♯-Phryg.-Dor. F7alt [4], Gr. 2
52 M2.2/2.3, O(P) [5]
63 M2.2/2.3, OP [6]
75 M3, (O)P E-Ion. 9
E∆7 [7]
84 M3, (O)P F ♯m − C♯m − F ♯m [8]
96 M3, O(P) E7 − A [9]

77
CHAPTER 10. MAURICE RAVEL

Table 10.15: Ravel, Concerto pour Piano et Orchestre, Mvt. 1 Allegramente (cont’d)

m M R/Scale H Comment

107 (O)P B-Ion. C♯m7 − F ♯97 − B∆7 /F ♯ [10], Dev., Tr. 2


115 (O)P [11]
123 M1.2/2.2, (O)P G-Ion. D/F ♯ − D7♭10 [12], Gr. 1
131 M1.2/2.2, (O)P D7♭10 − G♯sus
7
4 /F ♯ [13]
142 (O)P E E∆7 [14]
9/sus4
150 (O)P C G7 [15]
173 (O)P A♭ E♭97 [16] Tr. 3/Tr. 1
182 P [17]
183 M1.1, OP G G/D − D7sus4 [18]
195 M1.2, O(P) B♭-Ion. F7 − B♭ [19]
202 M2.1, (O)P D A♭9
7 [20], Gr. 2
210 M2.2, P [21] h i
215 M2.3, O A7 [22], 34
221 O A − D7 [23] h i
227 M2.2, O(P) Aalt
7 [24], 22
h i
3
232 M2.3, O A♭10 ♭9
7 − D7 [25],
h4i
4
241 M3, P G-Ion. G − C∆7 − Em7 − Am7 [26], 4
256 M3, (O)P G [27]
263 OP A7 /E [28]
h i
2
266 (O)P A♭9
7 [29], Recap., 2 , Tr. 2
278 (O)P D/A − Gm/B♭ [30]
286 OP F [31]
292 (O)P C [32]
300 OP A♭ E♭97 [33], Tr. 2

306 M1.1, OP C C − G97 Em7 − B7 [34], Coda


316 OP G A97 − D7sus4 [35]
329 M1.2, O(P) G-Pentat. G [36]

78
10.6. PIANO CONCERTO IN G

Table 10.16: Ravel, Concerto pour Piano et Orchestre, Mvt. 2 Adagio Assai

m M R/Scale H Comment
h i
3
1 M1.1, P E-Ion. E · · · (diat.) · · · G♯7 − [0], A, 4
19 M1.2, P C♯-Aeol. C♯m E7 − A B7 − E7 −
d
36 WW(P+Str) E-Ion. A E∆7 C♯7 − D♯m D♯7 [1], Trans.

46 M2.1, P(WW) C♯-Aeol, G♯alt


7 − C♯m7 [2], B, Seq.(2 × 4m, R−7
50 M2.1, P(WW) B-Aeol. F ♯alt
7 − Bm7
54 M2.2, P(Str) D7 − G [3]
Em7 − A7 − D
58 Br+WW(P+Str) B♭97 [4], bitonal: P(G♭)+O(E♭)
60 Br+WW(P+Str) B79 Bitonal: P(G)+O(E)
62 M2.2, Str(P) Em G − C
Am7 − D7 − G
♯5/♭9
66 P(WW+Br+Str) G♭9 9
7 E♭7 Em/G G7 [5]

74 M1.1, WW(P+Str) E-Ion. E · · · (diat.) · · · G♯7 − [6+7], A’


d
91 M1.2, WW(P+Str) C♯-Aeol. C♯m E7 − A B7 − [8]

97 WW(P+Br) C♯97 − F ♯m7 [9], Coda


G♯m − F ♯m7−
103 Str(P+WW) E E [10] (108 m.)

79
CHAPTER 10. MAURICE RAVEL

Table 10.17: Ravel, Concerto pour Piano et Orchestre, Mvt. 3 Presto

m M R/Scale H Comment

1 G[T ] G∆7 /D − D∆7 − G [0], Intro, Cadence


P1 G Em − A7 Riff
17 M0, P1 G [1], Riff
23 P1 C C Riff
25 M0, P1 Am [2]
33 G G∆7 /D − D∆7 − G Cadence

37 M1, P2 C Dm7 [3], Exp., Gr.1̃


46 M1, P2 Dm7 − G7 − C [4]
⊥, P2 G D7 /A − Em7 Bm7 − E
57 P2 E-Aeol. Em7 Dm7− [5], Riff (Seq)
66 P2 C G7 − C C7 − F D7 /F ♯ [6], Riff
76 B − G7 /B − B Cadence
79 M2 B-Mixol. [D] B7 F7♯11 B7 − E∆7 [7], Gr. 2
90 E 6 E7 B7 [8], Glissando
95 M2, P3 B7 F7 B7 − E 6 E7 − A [9]
108 P3 A − F ♯7 B7sus4 − [10], Gliss.
115 P3 E∆7 B7 − B7 − B7 [11], Chr. Sc.+Cad.
128 P3 E∆7 C♯7 [12], Chr. Sc.
136 P3 G♯m/D♯ − E♯7 /D♯ − G♯m/D♯ Cadence
140 P3 E7 /G♯ − C♯7 − F ♯m [13], Chr. Sc.
144 P3 G7 /B − E7 − B7sus4 /A Chr. Sc.
d
152 P3 D7 /C − E♭ Chr. Sc.

154 E♭ [SD] E♭/G [14], Dev., Riff


F♯ E♭ C A F ♯ Symmetric roots
162 M1/M2 Riff
170 M1/M2, P4 C/E [15], Riff
182 M1/M2, P4 A/C♯ [16], Riff,
c♯ = d♭-Ped.
190 M1/M2, P4 B♭m/D♭ [17], Riff, d♭-Ped.
198 M1/M2, P4 F ♯m/C♯ [18],Riff, c♯-Ped.
206 M1/M2, P4 E♭7 /D♭ A7 /C♯ [19], Riff,
c♯ = d♭-Ped.

80
10.6. PIANO CONCERTO IN G

Table 10.18: Ravel, Concerto pour Piano et Orchestre, Mvt. 3 Presto (cont’d)

m M R/Scale H Comment

214 M0, P5 G [T] G/D [20], Rec., Riff


219 M0, P5 E7 /D G/D D7 Riff
229 M1, P5 C D7 /C [21], Gr. 1
237 M1, P5 C D7 /C D−
245 M2, P5 G B♭7 − G B7 − G♯ C − A [22], Gr. 2
255 P5 [SD] E♭∆7 C7 − F ♯m F ♯ E♭7 Am [23], Seq(2 × 6m)+Gliss.

268 P6 [T] B7 /A D7 A7 /G D7 /C F7 [24], Coda, Seq.+Chr. Sc.


274 P6 [SD] C7 /B♭ F ♯7 /A♯ A7 /C♯ C7 /E G7 Seq.+Chr. Sc.
284 M1 [D] B∆7 C♯/F ♯
287 P7 [SD] D♯ [25], Riff, Chr. Sc.
295 P7 [T] G [26], Riff, Chr. Sc.
303 G/D − D∆7 − G Cadence (306 m.)

81
CHAPTER 11. RICHARD STRAUSS

Chapter 11

Richard Strauss

11.1 Op. 20 Don Juan (1888)


Source: [21]. Form: Symphonic poem. See Table 11.1 for the formal analysis.

11.1.1 Introduction and Don Juan 0


See Table 11.2 for the detailed harmonic analysis.

11.1.2 Countess
See Table 11.3 for the detailed harmonic analysis.

11.1.3 Don Juan 1


See Table 11.4 for the detailed harmonic analysis.

11.1.4 Anna
See Table 11.5 for the detailed harmonic analysis.

11.1.5 Don Juan 2


See Table 11.6 for the detailed harmonic analysis.

11.1.6 Carnival
See Table 11.7 for the detailed harmonic analysis.

11.1.7 Don Juan 3


See Table 11.8 for the detailed harmonic analysis.

11.1.8 Death
See Table 11.9 for the detailed harmonic analysis.

82
11.1. OP. 20 DON JUAN

Table 11.1: Strauss, Op. 20 Don Juan, formal analysis

m Episode Key (m) Theme/Motif

1 Introduction E (5) DJ Vigour + DJ Triads


9 Don Juan 9 (9) DJ Heroic 1, (18) DJ Triads, (23) DJ Scales + DJ Triads
31 G (31) Car 2, (37) DJ Vigour
40 E (40) DJ Scales
44 C (44) Zerlinchen
46 C♯m (46) Countess
52 Rejection G♯ (50) DJ Vigour, (54) DJ Vigour, (53) Rejection,
(56) DJ Heroic 1, (57) DJ Scales, (62) DJ Vigour
66 Transition (66) Rejection,(75) DJ Scales

71 Countess B (90) Countess


111 A Countess
129 C♯m
149 Rejection Em (151) Countess, (153) DJ Vigour

169 Don Juan 1 C (169) DJ Heroic 1, (176) DJ Scales, (182) Rejection


185 E♭ (185) DJ Heroic 1 + DJ Triads, (186) DJ Scales

197 Anna Gm (197) Anna 1


232 G (232) Anna 2 + Anna 1, (233) Rejection, (252) Anna 2
268 Rejection (268) Anna 2 + Rejection
296 Transition

313 Don Juan 2 C (314) DJ Heroic 2, (327) Anna 2, (330) DJ Heroic 2,


(337) DJ Heroic 2, (343) DJ Heroic 2, (344) DJ Vigour

351 Carnival D (351) Rejection, (353) Carnival 1, (357) DJ Heroic 2


365 G (367) Carnival 1, (379) DJ Vigour, (382) DJ Triads
386 C♯m (386) Carnival 2, (393) DJ Heroic 2
398 A (401) DJ Heroic 2, (402) Carnival 2
409 Dm (403) DJ Scales, (411) DJ Triads
421 Transition Em (430) Zerlinchen, (437) Countess, (443) Anna 2,
(447) Countess, (458) DJ Vigour

474 Don Juan 3 E (474) DJ Vigour, (476) DJ Heroic 1, (479) DJ Triads,


(486) DJ Scales
490 C♯m (490) Carnival 2
510 E (510) DJ Heroic 2, (521) DJ Heroic 2
543 C
556 F (558) Carnival 2, (564) DJ Vigour, (568) DJ Scales
569 Transition E (564) DJ Scales

586 Death Em (606 m)

83
CHAPTER 11. RICHARD STRAUSS

Table 11.2: Strauss, Introduction and Don Juan 0, harmonic analysis

m H Comment

1 C − B − E C♯m − F ♯ 7 − Introduction
9 E/B A♯◦7 /B − E/B − A∆7 − E/G♯ Don Juan 0, Heroic
13 G7 E7♭9 /G♯ E7 /B G♯∅7 − C♯♭9
7 − F ♯m
d
17 B − B7 /A − B7♭9 − C − D♯◦7 − C − F ♯♭9
7 /C− Triads
23 E /B − B7 − E − E7 − A − C♯m7/G♯ − E7♭9 /B−
6 6 A
d
D/A − D7 /A♭ − Cm/G − D7 /F ♯ − F7 − A♭9
7 −
31 G/D − D7 − G
37 B♭/D − B7 −
d
40 E − C − E/B − B7 − C♯m − B, Zerlinchen, Countess
52 G♯∆7 B♯m7 G♯♭9 7 E♯m G♯m7/F ♯ C
55 G♭9
7 Em Gm7/F − C7 /E − F7 /E♭ − B♭/D C7♭9 /C♯−
62 F7 /C − C♯∅7 − F ♯7 − D

Table 11.3: Strauss, Countess, harmonic analysis

m H Comment

71 F ♯97 − D
90 B6 − F ♯7 /E − B/D♯ − F ♯7 /E − B/D♯− Countess theme
G♯m7 − C♯♭9 7 − F ♯7 −
101 B − F ♯7 /E − B/D♯ − F ♯7 /E − B/D♯− E, Countess
B7 − E − D♯◦7 − A/E−
111 A − C♯♭9 ♭9
7 − F ♯m − C♯7 − D/F ♯ − D− Countess (developed)
B∅7 − E7 /D − F ♯7 − A7 − B7♭9 /D♯ − G♯7 −
♭9

129 C♯m C♯∅7 − F ♯♭9 7 − B7 /F ♯ − C♯7 /G♯− F, Countess (developed)


149 Em − F ♯7 /E − Em − C/E−
156 Em − F ♯7 /E − Em − D♯7 /A♯− G
d
163 D♯7 (= A7 ) − B7 −

84
11.1. OP. 20 DON JUAN

Table 11.4: Strauss, Don Juan 1, harmonic analysis

m H Comment
d
169 C/E D♯◦7 − C/E − Em − C7 /E G7 /B − H, DJ Heroic 1
175 F/A − Dm7/A − Gsus 7
4−G −E −
7 7
177 A − D♯◦7 − A − E7 /G♯ − C G7 − C B♭ − B♭7 DJ Heroic 1 + Triads
185 E♭ − F7 /E♭ − E♭ E♭m − C♭7 /E♭ − E♭m I
189 G♯7 (= A♭7 ) − D7 (= G♯7 ) − C♯♭9
7 /D − C♯7 − F ♯m

Table 11.5: Strauss, Anna, harmonic analysis

m H Comment

197 Gm C♯◦7 (= A7) − D7 − K, Anna 1 theme


d
208 Gm C♯◦7 (= A♭9
=7 C7♭9 )
− D♭/A♭ − A♭7 − Anna 1
F/A − E◦7 − F − E◦7 − F/C− Anna 1 (cont’d)
221 A◦7 (= F7♭9 ) − B♭m G♯◦7 (= E7♭9 = D♭♭9
7 ) − Bm/F ♯
Am/E − F7 /C−
d
232 G D7 − C/E E7 − Am − D7 − L, Anna 2 theme
d
252 G D7 − Em F ♯♭9
− Bm/D
7 M, Anna 2
9
E7 /D − C♯∅7 (= A7 ) − F ♯7 − Anna 2 (cont’d)
268 B B7♭9 − E7♭9 B7♭9 F ♯7 /G♯ E7 /G♯−
d
274 E♭7 /G − A♭ D7 − Em Am7/C − D7 − G E7 − A Anna 2, Neap. key
d
D7 − E♭ − A♭/C Neap. interm. key (cont’d )
290 G/D Em7/D − D7 Am7/D − D7 − Dom-ped.
d
296 G D7 − A∆7 /G − A∅7 /G − Am7/G − D7 − G

Table 11.6: Strauss, Don Juan 2, harmonic analysis

m H Comment

313 G G7 /F − C/E G7 − C/E G DJ Heroic 2


327 F ♯◦7 − Anna 2
331 G G7 − C/E C♯◦7 /E − F ♯m D♯◦7 /F ♯ − G♯m O, DJ Heroic 2
♭9/♭13
343 G7 /D F ♯7 P

85
CHAPTER 11. RICHARD STRAUSS

Table 11.7: Strauss, Carnival, harmonic analysis

m H Comment

351 D Em7 − D D7 /C − G/B D/A Carnival 1 theme


E7 /G♯ − A G A7 − D7 − Carnival 1 (cont’d)
365 G Am − G∆7 G7 − C7 /E B♭ B♭7 /A♭ − E♭/G Q, Carnival 1
C♯◦7 /E(= A♭97 ) − G◦7 /B♭ E♭m A◦7 /E♭ − F m Carnival 1 (cont’d)
379 ♭9
G♯7 B7 G♯7 −♭9 R
386 C♯m F ♯m − E/B B7 /A − E7 /A − A S
402 A7 − T, DJ Heroic 2
409 Dm − Am − B♭∆7 C7 /E − C7 − E◦7 −
417 D♭/F B♭7 (= E7 ) A♭7 /G♭ F ♯◦7 (= A♭♭9 ♭9
7 = D7 )
421 ♭9 ♭9
C♯◦7 (= A7 ) B◦7 /D(= C♯7 ) B◦7 Em/B− U, Zerlinchen
430 B7♭9 B♭7 E◦7 C, /E♭ Countess, Anna 2
d
447 B7♭9 B7 − V, Countess, DJ

Table 11.8: Strauss, Don Juan 3, harmonic analysis

m H Comment

474 C B − E A♯◦7 /E(= F ♯♭9


7 ) − E − A − E/G♯ W, DJ Vigour, DJ Heroic 1
d
B7 − C♯m − A7 /C♯ C♯m C G♯m7 − G♯◦7 (= E7♭9 )−
Bm F ♯7 − Bm/D F ♯m7/E−
490 G♯7 /F ♯ B7 /D♯ − E7 /B F ♯m/A − B79 /F ♯− X, Carnival 2
d
E/G♯ − B7 − C♯m − E7♭9 /F (= C♯♭9 7 ) Carnival 2 (cont’d)
♭9
C♯7 /E♯ − D/F ♯ Carnival 2 (cont’d)
♯5/♭9
508 G∆7 /B − E7♭9 /D − A/C♯ − F ♯7
510 E/B B7 − E Y, DJ Heroic 2
521 E/B − B7 − E/B B7 /A − E/G♯ B/F ♯− Z, DJ Heroic 2
d
529 E A/E F ♯m7 D♯7 /G − E/G♯ D♯7 /G − G♯m B7 /A−
537 E/G♯ B7 /F ♯ C♯♭5
7 /E♯ − F ♯m
A/E − F ♯♭9
7 − Bm/D G7 −
543 C G7 − C G7 − C G7 E7♭9 /B♭− Aa
♭5/♭9
549 Am7 D/A A/C♯ − F ♯7 /C − E/B − C7 /B♭−
Am7 − A7 − B◦7 (= E7♭9 /G♯)
556 F Dm7/F F/A B♭/D F ♯7 − B7 − E Bb, Countess 2, Intro
569 E/B E7♭9 /B − B7 F ♯♭9 6
7 − E /B − C7 /B♭− Cc
d
A7 G♯◦7 /B(= E7♭9 ) F ♯7 − B7 −

86
11.2. SYMPHONIC POEM TOD UND VERKLÄRUNG

Table 11.9: Strauss, Death, harmonic analysis

m H Comment

586 Am F ♯∅7 /A−


596 Em Dd

11.2 Symphonic poem Tod und Verklärung (1889)


Source: [21]. Form: Symphonic poem. See Table 11.10, 11.11 and 11.12 for the analysis.

Table 11.10: Strauss, Symphonic poem Tod und Verklärung

m M R H Comment

1 Cm E♭ Cm/E♭ Pt. 1, c-ton-ped.


8 D∅7 /A♭ − Cm F m7 B◦7 /A♭ − F m/A♭ c-ped (cont’d)
16 M1.1 D♭7 /C♭ C7 /E A
21 E7 D D7 − E♭/G E♭7
29 M1.2 A♭m A♭m B♭∅7 /A♭ − E♭♭9
7 − B
35 M1.1 A♭
37 M1.2 C C Dm7/C − B◦7 −
42 M1.1 C7 B7 /F ♯ D7 − C
49 G7 g-dom-ped.
52 M1.1 G7 − C/G C7 − F Cm/G − D7 − G♭5
7 D, g-ped (cont’d)

67 M2.0 Cm Cm D♭m/F ♭ Pt. 2


74 E/B D7 − G
79 M2.0 G♭9
7 E, g-dom-ped.
97 M2.1 Cm Cm G/B E◦7
101 M2.2 F/A
106 M2.3/2.2 Cm − F7 /A−
110 M2.3/2.2 B♭m B♭m G∅7
113 ⊥ Fm C7 D∅7 /A♭ G

87
CHAPTER 11. RICHARD STRAUSS

Table 11.11: Strauss, Tod und Verklärung (cont’d)

m M R H Comment

118 M2.3 Am E7♭9 /B B∅7 /A D7♭9 /C Cm/E♭ Imit.


125 M2.4 Gm Gm F ♯◦7 − Gm H
129 M2.4 Gm E◦7 /D♭ − F7 /C − B♭m G◦7 /F ♭−
133 M2.4 A♭7 /E♭ − D7♭9 − G/D
137 M2.4 D7♭9 A♭9 ♭9
7 − D7 − G/B − C7 /B♭− I
142 ⊥ F/A B♭/ A♭ − E♭/G A♭♭9 7 /G♭−
144 M2.4 D♭/F
148 M2.1 Cm Cm K
150 M2.2 Cm/G G7 − F ♯◦7 − G7 C7♭9 − g-dom-ped.
155 ⊥ F E◦7 /G − G7 − g-ped. (cont’d)
158 M2.4/2.3 F ♯◦7 g-ped (cont’d)
162 M3.1 D∅7 /F D◦7
170 B♭7 B♭7 D D7 L
187 M1.2 G G6 Am7/G G − F ♯◦7 − G Pt. 3
198 G7 − Em7
201 M1.2 Em F ♯∅7 /E − B7♭9 − Em − A7 − Imit.
207 M1.1 D D Am7 − D7 − Imit.
215 M1.2 G G D7 − G E7♭9 − A D7♭9 M, imit.
227 ⊥ G Imit.
231 M2.3 D◦7 B♭7 − Imit.
236 M1.1 E♭ E♭ D − Gm C7 − F m B♭7 − Pt. 4
244 ⊥ E♭/G D♭7 /G♭−
247 M1.1 G♭ G♭ D∅7 /C − F7 /A − E♭m/B♭ A7 G7 /F − O
257 M1.2/2.0 B B 6 /F ♯ − F ♯7 − B G♯m7−
263 M1.2/2.0 E C♯m − F ♯7 − B7 − E C∅7 /E P
273 M2.0 C7 − F D7 −
277 Gm Gm G♯7 − C♯m − F ♯7 Q
285 M2.0 A♭9
7 /G − D/F ♯ B♭/D − B7 − Imit.
290 M2.0 E E B7 − E R
296 M2.3 B♭7 /F D◦7 E
302 M2.3/1.2 D∅7 /F B♭∅7 /F ♭−
310 M1.2/2.0 E♭7 e♭-dom-ped.
317 E♭7 − e♭-ped. (cont’d)
321 M3.1 A♭ A♭ B♭7 /A♭
326 C/E − D∅7 /F − C7 /G−
330 F m/A♭ D♭/F − D◦7 /F − E7♭9
335 M3.1 A D7 /A C♯7 /E♯−

88
11.2. SYMPHONIC POEM TOD UND VERKLÄRUNG

Table 11.12: Strauss, Tod und Verklärung (cont’d)

m M R H Comment

339 D♯∅7 /F ♯ C♯7 /G♯− U


342 M1.2/2.3 F ♯m7/A Imit.
346 M1.2/2.3 Em C♯7 A7 /G F ♯7 C♯♭9 7
E G♯7 /D♯
354 D7 −
356 M3.1 D♭ D♭ E♭7 /D♭ D♭7 − G♭/D♭
363 F/A a-ped.
365 Am7 D♯7 /A A♭9 7 G◦7 − Am7 Am W, a-ped. (cont’d)
381 M2.1 Cm Cm D7 /A− a-ped. (cont’d)
383 M2.2 Cm/G Gm − G7 − F ♯◦7 − g-dom-ped.
G♭9
7 − Cm/G g-dom-ped. (cont’d)
⊥ C7 − F G♭97 g-ped. (cont’d)
391 M2.2/2.4 F ♯◦7 g-ped. (cont’d)
397 C F ♯◦7 Pt. 5, c − g-ped.
402 M3.1 Dm7 G7 c − g-ped (cont’d),
imit. (augm)
411 M1.2/3.1 G7 c − g-ped. (cont’d)
420 M1.2 G7 G7 − Y, c − g-ped. (cont’d), imit.
432 M3.1 C D7 /C E◦7 − F B◦7 − C
437 Am7/C − G7
442 M3.1 AM 7/G − D7 /F ♯ − G7 /F − C/E
450 Dm7/F − G − G7 −
453 M3.1 1.2 C A♭9
7 Z
457 M3.1/1.2 D B7♭9 −
461 M3.1/1.2 G♯◦7 − F/C B7 E♭ F7 /C
467 M3.1 B♭ A♭ Aa
471 M3.1 C/G g-dom-ped.
475 M3.1 G7 Augm.
481 M3.1 C A♭/C Bb
487 M3.1 C Am/C
491 C Cc (501 m)

89
CHAPTER 12. GUSTAV MAHLER

Chapter 12

Gustav Mahler

12.1 Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen (1885)


Source: [6].

12.1.1 Wenn mein Schatz Hochzeit macht


Form: three-part song form, ABA’. See Table 12.1 for the analysis.

12.1.2 Gieng heut’ Morgens über’s Feld


Form: AABC. See Table 12.2 for the analysis.

12.1.3 Ich hab’ ein glühend Messer


Form: ABC. See Table 12.3 for the analysis.

12.1.4 Die zwei blauen Augen


Form: two-part song, AB. See Table 12.4 for the analysis.

12.2 Symphony No. 5 (1904)


Source: [7].

12.2.1 Mvt. 4 Adagietto Sehr Langsam


Form: ternary form, A1 BA2 . See Table 12.5 for the analysis.

90
12.2. SYMPHONY NO. 5

Table 12.1: Mahler, Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen, 1. Wenn mein Schatz Hochzeit macht

m M R H Comment
h i
1 M0 Dm Dm A 24 , d-ton-ped.
5 M1/M0 Dm E∅7 /D Gm7 /D E∅7 /D d-ped. (cont’d)
14 M2/M0 Dm C D7 − Gm/D − Dm #1, d-ped. (cont’d)
..
22 . B♭∆7 A♭9 ♭9
7 B♭∆7 A7 B♭ b♭-ped.
..
28 ./M0 B♭ b♭-ped. (cont’d)
..
30 . Gm E♭/B♭ A∅7 D∅7 /A♭ G7 − Cm
⊥ A♭∆7 /C Gm/D − D7− #2
38 M0 Gm g-ped.
h i
6
44 M3 E♭ E♭ F m − B♭7 − E♭ B♭7 − E♭ B 8 #3, e♭ − b♭-ped.
⊥ Gm/B♭ Cm B♭
57 M4 F C7 − F Gm − C7 #4, c-dom.ped.
h i
64 M1 Dm Dm Gm/D A’ 24 #5, d-ton-ped.
71 M2 Dm Am/C Gm/D Dm d-ped. (cont’d)
74 M0 d-ped. (cont’d)
..
77 . B♭∆7 A♭9
7 B♭ E♭∆7 /B♭ #6, b♭-ped.
..
. A∅7 D∅7 /A♭ − G7 − Cm
⊥ A♭/C Gm/D D7 −
89 M0 Gm Gm #7, g-ped. (96 m.)

91
CHAPTER 12. GUSTAV MAHLER

Table 12.2: Mahler, Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen, 2. Gieng heut’ Morgens über’s Feld

m M R H Comment

1 M1 D D A #8, a-dom.-ped.
11 ⊥ G/D − A7 − D A7 − D/A Bm/D− #9
Em7 − E7 − A7 − D/A
23 M2 G Em − A7 B7 /A − Em − A♭9
7 − #10
27 9
A7

30 M1 D A #11, a-dom.-ped.
39 ⊥ G/D − A7 − D A7 − D/A #12
Em7 − E7 − B7 /A − Em−
M1 A7 − D/A − A7 − D/A
51 M2 G Em − A7 B7 /A − Em − A97 − #13
56 C♯97 − F ♯/C♯ C♯97 − F ♯/C♯ − B

64 M1 B B B #14, b − f ♯-ped.
75 M3 F ♯sus
7
4−B #15
85 ⊥ F♯ F ♯ C♯ − F ♯ C♯sus
7
4 − F ♯ − B/F ♯ #16, f ♯ − c♯-ped.

103 M1 F♯ F♯ C #17, f ♯-ton.ped.


110 B/F ♯
118 M1 C♯97 −
118 ⊥ F ♯ B D♯7 − G♯m − C♯7 −
124 F♯ (127 m.)

92
12.2. SYMPHONY NO. 5

Table 12.3: Mahler, Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen, 3. Ich hab’ ein glühend Messer

m M R H Comment
h i
9
1 M0 Dm Dm 8 #19, d-ton.-ped.
5 M1 Dm B♭ E7 /G♯ − A7− A, d-ped. (cont’d)
12 M1’ Dm D7 − Gm − A7 −
20 M2 Dm E∆7 Dm+7 − Dm7 − Dm6 #20
26 ⊥ Gm E∅7 − A7
32 M0 Gm C7 G7 − Cm7 − D7♭9 − Gm D7 −

41 C G B #22, g-dom.-ped.
46 M2 G − C G∅7 − Gm+7 − Cm Gm g-ped. (cont’d)
53 M2 C/G G7 Em C♯∅7 g-ped. (cont’d)
.. h i
4
62 . C♯7 D♯7 C♯7 C 4 #24
65 ⊥/M0 B7 B♭ D7♭9
68 M3 E♭m E♭m/B♭ A♭m F7 #25
75 M0 E♭m/B♭ E♭m (81 m.)

Table 12.4: Mahler, Lieder eines fahrenden Gesellen, 4. Die zwei blauen Augen

m M R H Comment

1 M1/M0 Em Em D − G B7 − Em A #26
9 M1/M0 Em D7 − G F/A − Am7 − B7 −
14 M0 Em #27
17 M2 C C Cm G♭97 −C
28 ⊥ Cm C7♭9 − F m − G♭9
7 − #28
31 C Cm C Cm

37 F Cm C7 − F/C B #29, c-dom.ped.


41 M3 F f -ton.-ped.
45 M3 B♭/F − C7 − F B♭/F − C7 − #30, f -ped. (cont’d)
50 M2 F m F F7 − B♭/F − C7♭9 − f -ped. (cont’d)
57 ⊥ F C7 − F B♭/F − F C− #31 f -ped. (cont’d)
F F B♭m/F − f -ped. (cont’d)
M0 Fm Fm f -ped. (cont’d) (67 m.)

93
CHAPTER 12. GUSTAV MAHLER

Table 12.5: Mahler, Symphony No. 5, Mvt. 4 Adagietto Sehr Langsam

m M R H Comment

1 F Am A1 (♭)
3 M1 F − Dm/C − Gm7 /B♭ − F/A − D♭7 /A♭−
6 ⊥ G7 D7♭9 − Gm F − C4
d
12 M1’ Am F F/C − E7♭9 − E7 − F B♭/D−
16 ⊥ Am/E D♯◦7 − E7 −
19 (M1) Am F/A Am Tr.
23 M2 F C7 /G − F
d
26 ⊥ Gm7 /B♭ D7 /F ♯ E7 /G♯ − F/A G∅7 /B♭ Asc. bass
30 F/C − C7♭9 − Climax 1, c-dom.ped.
33 (M2) F Gm7 /F − F Gm/B♭ − C − F

39 M3 Cm Dm/F − B◦7 − Cm B
..
44 . Cm/E♭ C∅7 A∅7 /C − F7 −
..
47 . G♭ G♭ A♭♭9 9
7 − D♭7 E♭m7 /D♭ (♭♭♭♭♭♭)
..
52 . D♭ A♭ E♭m7 /B♭ − A♭7 /C Mel. in 8va
..
56 . B♭m B♭7 − E♭m − A♭7 − D♭7 − C7♭9 Climax 2 (ր), desc. bass
..
60 . E E/B − B7 − E7 − (♯♯♯♯), desc. bass
.. d
63 . D B7 /A Bm7 /AA7 − Bm7 /A A7 − (♯♯), a-dom.ped.
..
. D+ E − E7 /D−
68 ⊥ A7 − G♯7 − C♯7 − desc. bass

72 F F/C Am7 A2 (♭)


74 M1 F Dm7 /C − Gm7 /B♭−
..
78 . F/A − D∅7 /A♭ − G7 G∅7 −
80 ⊥ D7 /F ♯ − Gm
(M3) F/A − C4 G7 − C c-dom.ped.
85 M2 C7 /G − F F/A − Gm7 /B♭ c-ped. (cont’d)
91 ⊥ D7 /F ♯ − E∅7 /G − E7 /G♯ − G∅7 /B♭ − B∅7 Asc. bass
95 F/C (Dm7 ) F/C Dm7 F/A − C7 /G− Climax 3, c-dom.-ped.
99 F (103 m.)

94
Chapter 13

Sergei Prokofiev

13.1 Classical Symphony (1917)


Source: [11].

13.1.1 Mvt. 1, Allegro


Form: Sonata. See Table 13.1 for the analysis.

95
CHAPTER 13. SERGEI PROKOFIEV

Table 13.1: Prokofiev, Classical Symphony, Mvt. 1 Allegro

m M R H Comment
d
1 M1.1 D D − A7 − D A7 − Exp. Gr. 1
Bm D− Modulating trans.
11 M1.1 C C G7 − C
F ♯∅7 /B − A− Mod. trans.
17 M1.2 D D A7 − D F ♯7
28 M1.2 Bm Bm F ♯m − Bm Bm7 −
36 (M1.2) E7 Bm− Trans.
42 E7 − e-dom-ped.
46 M2.1 A A F − B− Gr. 2
54 M2.1 (C) A F − C − F − C F ♯m − Bm − E−
66 M2.1 A A D∆7 − Bm7 − E7−
74 A A D∆7 − Bm7 − E7 − A E7 − A Cadential closing

87 M1.1 D D A − Dm Dev.
d
G7 − Modulating trans.
d
95 M1.2 A♭ A♭ E♭7 − Imit.
99 M1.2 F F A7 Imit. (cont’d)
103 F ♯∅7 /B Em B7 F7♭5 /C − B− Mod. trans.
d
111 M2.1 E E/B B7 /A −
115 M2.1 C C/G F ♯7 −
d
119 M2.1 B B/F ♯ F ♯7 /E −
d
123 M2.1 G G/D D7 /F ♯ −
127 M2.1 C C7 /G F Stretto
d
131 Am C/G G7 − Am Dm7 − G7 − C Retrans.

142 M1.1 C C G7 − C Recap.


146 F ♯∅7 /B A− Mod. trans.
150 M1.2 D D A7 − D F ♯7 − Bm
d
159 M1.2 B B B7 − C Trans.
167 Em7 − A7 −
172 D D B♭ − E
179 D B♭ − F
d
187 (M2.1) Bm Bm F ♯ − Bm F ♯7 − Coda
191 (M2.1) G∆7 Em7 − A − 7−
194 D D G∆7 − Em − A7 − D A7 − Cadential closing
202 D A7 − D Cad. closing (cont’d)
(207 m.)

96
Chapter 14

Dmitri Shostakovich

14.1 Symphony No. 1 (1924-5)


Source: [19].

14.1.1 Mvt. 3, Lento


Form: ternary, ABA’. See Table 14.1 for the analysis1 . The main element in this slow move-
ment is the combination of chromatic stepwise movement (both in the lead melody and in
the bass and inner voices) and the melodic interval of the minor third (three chromatic steps,
also in the melodic brass motto and in lower voices). Although here only one movement
from the symphony is analysed, the same melodical material returns in the other move-
ments.

14.2 Symphony No. 9 (1945)


Source: [20].

14.2.1 Mvt. 1, Allegro


Form: Sonata. See Table 14.2 and 14.3 for the analysis.

1
Analysis of this movement was suggested to me by Bill Dobbins, professor at the Eastman School of Music,
and jazz composer and arranger.

97
CHAPTER 14. DMITRI SHOSTAKOVICH

Table 14.1: Shostakovich, Symphony No. 1, Mvt. 3 Lento

m M R H Comment

1 M1 D♭ D♭ E♭/G − A♭7 − A Oboe lead (∆i chromatic


melody)
d
9 M1’ D♭ E♭ Cm − C79 /E −
15 M2 Dm/F − D/F ♯ − B7sus4 − E/G♯− [#1] Trans., Seq.,
chr. asc. bass
21 M2-M0 G♭/B♭ F ♯♭9
7 [#2] ”Minor 3rd motto”
25 M2’ C/F ♯ A♭♭5
7 /D− [#3] Chr. desc. bass
29 M1/M3 D♭ E♭7 − A♭7 − [#4] Tutti
33 M0 D♭∆7 [#5]
39 M0 B♭/D [#6] Closing with echoed
motto
♯11/13
44 M4 F ♯7 /A♯ − B7 − [#7]

47 M5 Em Em B [#8] Vc+Db lyrical theme


51 M6 Em [#9] Ob signalling theme
59 M5-M0 F ♯♭5
7 /A♯ − B7
♭5 [#10] Hi strings, lyrical
63 ⊥ G♭ − E♭ − C− [#11] Symmetrical roots
67 M6 E7 − G/C♯ − F/D♯ − F m7 − F ♯ [#12] Brass
73 B/F − G♯/E− [#13]
75 M5 Em − G − Em/B − A− [#14] Vc+DB
79 M4 F ♯7 /E − A♭♭5
7 /D− [#15] Clar.

81 M1/M3’ D♭ D♭ E♭ − E♭m − F7 − G♭ A’ [#16] Solo vln.


87 M0 E♭/G − A♭♭97 Tpt motto
89 M1/M3 D♭ [#17] Hi str + ww
92 ⊥/M0 B♭∅7 − Cm7 − G♭/D♭ [#18]
95 M0 B♭/D [#19] Echoed motto in brass
101 M1/M6 E♭ F7♭5 /B − B♭ A♭97 − A♭♯5
7 − [#20]

111 M1-M0 D♭ A♭sus


7
4− [#21] Coda, div. str. + ww.
114 M0 sus
A♭7 4 − D♭ Echoed motto (120 mm.)

98
14.2. SYMPHONY NO. 9

Table 14.2: Shostakovich, Symphony No. 9, Mvt. 1 Allegro

m M R H Comment

1 M1.1 E♭ E♭ Exp., Gr. 1, also I(M1.1)


8 M1.2 Cm B♭7 −
12 M1.1’ E♭
16 B♭7 − E♭7 − A♭ Bridge
22 M1.3 C Am Symmetric Harmony
30 Am G7 Tr. 1
37 M1.1 E♭ E♭ also I(M1.1)
45 M2.1 B♭ B♭ F7 − B♭ F/A Gr. 2, b♭ − f -ped.
d
55 M2.1 B♭ F7 − B♭ F m7 /A♭ Em F ♯7 −
68 M2.2 G G F ♯7 g − d-ped.
76 M2.1 B♭ B♭ F7 − b♭ − f -ped.
82 A D B B♭− Tr. 2

86 I(M1.1) G♭ G♭ Dev., f ♯-ton-ped., aug.


90 M1.1 G − F♯ Bm F ♯7 D7 /F ♯ f ♯-ped. (cont’d)
98 I(M1.1) F♯ f ♯-ped. (cont’d)
102 M1.2 G∆7 /F ♯ A♭7 /E♭ B/F ♯ f ♯-ped. (cont’d)
104 Cm F ♯7 /C Dm7 /C B7 c-ped., bridge
108 I(M1.1) A A Bm7 a-ton-ped., aug.
112 M1.1 B♭ Dm E♭m G a-ped. (cont’d)
118 Tr., oct.-sc.
123 M1.3 Em E7♭10
126 M2.1 C♯ C♯ E7♭10 C♯m E7♭10 g♯-dom-ped.
134 M1.1 D D a-dom-ped.
142 M2.1 A A E7 A E7 a-ton-ped., aug.
150 Retrans.

99
CHAPTER 14. DMITRI SHOSTAKOVICH

Table 14.3: Shostakovich, Symphony No. 9, Mvt. 1 Allegro (cont’d)

m M R H Comment

154 M1.1 E♭ E♭ Recap.


161 M1.2 E C♯m B
166 Gm Bridge
170 M1.3 E♭ E7 /G♯ = B♭7 a♭-ped., symm.
174 M1.1 E♭ a♭-ped. (cont’d)
180 ⊥ A − B7 − E
182 M2.1 A♭ A♭ E♭7 − A♭ F m a♭-ton-ped.
192 M2.1 A♭ E♭7 − A♭ a♭-ped. (cont’d)
198 ⊥ E♭m7 /G♭ e♭-dom.-ped.
203 M2.2 F F B7 − Em B♭7 −

212 M1.1 E♭ E♭ Coda


218 G7 Tr. 1
228 M1.1 B♭7 −
230 M2.1 E♭
244 M1.1 G7 − A♭7 − B♭7 − E♭ (247 m.)

100
Bibliography

[1] J.S. Bach, The Six Brandenburg Concertos and the Four Orchestral Suites, Dover Publi-
cations, Inc., New York, ISBN 0-486-23376-6, 1976 4

[2] J. Brahms, Complete Chamber Music for Strings and Clarinet Quintet, Dover Publica-
tions, Inc., New York, ISBN 0-486-21914-3, 1968 43, 52

[3] J. Brahms, Complete Symphonies in Full Score, Dover Publications, Inc., New York,
ISBN 0-486-23053-8, 1974 54

[4] J. Brahms, German Requiem in Full Score, Dover Publications, Inc., New York, ISBN
0-486-25486, 1987 43

[5] C. Debussy, Three Great Orchestral Works in Full Score, Dover Publications, Inc., New
York, ISBN 0-486-24441-5, 1983 60

[6] G. Mahler, Songs of a Wayfarer and Kindertotenlieder in Full Score, Dover Publications,
Inc., New York, ISBN 0-486-26318-5, 1990 90

[7] G. Mahler, Symphonies Nos. 5 and 6 in Full Score, Dover Publications, Inc., New York,
ISBN 0-486-26888-8, 1992 90

[8] F. Mendelssohn Bartholdy, Major Orchestral Works, Dover Publications, Inc., New
York, ISBN 0-486-23184-4, 1975 23

[9] W.A. Mozart, Later Symphonies, Full Orchestral Score of Symphonies 35-41, Dover
Publications, Inc., New York, ISBN 0-486-23052-X, 1974 6, 11

[10] W.A. Mozart, Complete String Quintets with the Horn and Clarinet Quintet, Dover
Publications, Inc., New York, ISBN 0-486-23603-X, 1978 6

[11] S. Prokofiev, Four Orchestral Works, Dover Publications, Inc., New York, ISBN 0-486-
20279-8, 1974 95

[12] M. Ravel, Concerto pour Piano et Orchestre, Editions Durand & Cie., Paris 71

[13] M. Ravel, Quartet in F major, for two violins, viola and cello, Score no. 539, Internatio-
nial Music Company, New York 64

[14] M. Ravel, Daphnis and Chloe, Dover Publications, Inc., New York, ISBN 0-486-25826-2,
1988 71

101
BIBLIOGRAPHY

[15] M. Ravel, Four Orchestral Works in Full Score, Dover Publications, Inc., New York,
ISBN 0-486-25962-5, 1989 64, 71

[16] F. Schubert, Complete Song Cycles, Dover Publications, Inc., New York, ISBN 0-486-
22649-2, 1970 12

[17] F. Schubert, Four Symphonies in Full Score, Dover Publications, Inc., New York, ISBN
0-486-23681-1, 1978 12

[18] R. Schumann, Complete Symphonies in Full Score, Dover Publications, Inc., New York,
ISBN 0-486-24013-4, 1980 30, 36

[19] D. Shostakovich, Symphonies Nos. 1 and 5 in Full Score, Dover Publications, Inc., New
York, ISBN 0-486-28368-2, 1995 97

[20] D. Shostakovich, Symphonies No. 9 and 10 in Full Score, Dover Publications, Inc., New
York, ISBN 0-486-28801-3, 1995 97

[21] R. Strauss, Tone Poems Series 1: Don Juan, Tod und Verklärung, Don Quixote, Dover
Publications, Inc., New York, ISBN 0-486-23754-0, 1979 82, 87

[22] P.I. Tchaikovsky, Nutcracker Suite in Full Score, Dover Publications, Inc., New York,
ISBN 0-486-25379-1, 1987 56

102
Index

AAB form, 43 string quartet, 43, 52, 64


AABC form, 90 string quintet, 6
AB form, 90 symphonic poem, 60, 82, 87
ABA form, 4, 30, 36, 43, 56, 60, 64, 71, 90, 97 symphony, 6, 11, 12, 23, 30, 36, 54, 90, 95, 97
ABAB form, 12, 23, 43, 56
ABABA form, 43 ternary form, 4, 6, 11, 30, 36, 56, 60, 64, 71, 90,
ABAC form, 36, 64 97
ABACA form, 30 tonal centre, 1
ABACABA form, 56 tonal music, 1
ABC form, 43, 90 two-part song, 90
ABCABCA form, 52
voice leading, 1
Baroque music, 1
binary form, 56

concerto, 4, 71

form, 1
functional harmony, 2

harmonic progression, 1

Impressionism, 1
instrumentation, 1

melody, 1
modulation, 2
musical analysis, 1

orchestral music, 60, 64, 71


overture, 23, 56

requiem, 43
Romantic music, 1
rondo form, 6, 30, 36, 52
root cycle, 2

sequence, 2
sonata form, 6, 12, 23, 30, 36, 43, 54, 71, 74, 95,
97
song cycle, 12, 90

103