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Page No.

1.0 Basic Pile Design Data


* Type of Pile : - : Bored Cast in-situ.
* Pile Diameter = 1000 mm
* Working Load in Compression = 10,000 kN
* Minimum Factor of Safety = 3.00
* Reference Point for Level Measurements : Existing Ground Level
* Cut-off Level = -3.00 m
* Bedrock Level = -12.77 m
* Pile Toe Level = -32.50 m
* Concrete = 60 N/mm2
* Cement Type : Sulphate Resisting Cement (S.R.C.)
* Reinforcement : High Tensile [Black] Steel.
* Yield Strength of Steel = 460 N/mm2

* Longitudinal Bars
A] Top 12.00 m : 15 Nos. Φ 32 mm
B] Rest of Pile : 7 Nos. Φ 32 mm

* Helical Links
A] Top 2.00 m : Φ 10 mm @ 90 mm c/c
B] Rest of Pile : Φ 10 mm @ 150 mm c/c

* Cover of Reinforcement = 75 mm
* Number of Piles = 122
Page No. 2

2.0 Pile Capacity Calculations


* The soil investigation report has been done by : Al-Hai & Al-Mukaddam for Geotechnical Works
Report No. SR/0710609 dated Nov. 27, 2007
Borehole No. 5
* Reference Point for Level Measurements : Existing Ground Level
* Pile Diamter = 1000 mm
* Pile Toe Level = -32.50 m
* Bedrock Level = -12.77 m
* Socketd Length of Pile in Rock = 19.73 m

Ultimate Bearing Capacity of Pile (Qu)

Qu = Qb + Qs
Where Qb : Pile base bearing capacity.
Qs : Pile socket friction bearing capacity.

Qb = 2 Nφ qub Ab
Where φ : Angle of Friction
Nφ = tan 2 (45 o + φ )
2
qub : Unconfined compressive strength of the socket zone = qu (lab)
5
Ab : Area of pile base.

Qs = α βqus As
Where α : Reduction factor relating to qus.
β : Correction factor related to the discontinuity spacing in the rock mass.
qus : Unconfined compressive strength along the shaft area.
As : Area of pile shaft.
Page No. 3

Friction Capacity of Pile


Depth Range
Length RQD qucs As Qs
No. From To α β
m m % MPa m2 kN
1 -12.77 -18.05 5.28 50 0.96 0.50 0.65 16.59 5164
2 -18.05 -21.75 3.70 50 1.51 0.40 0.65 11.62 4537
3 -21.75 -23.35 1.60 50 1.78 0.35 0.65 5.03 2050
4 -23.35 -26.15 2.80 50 3.45 0.22 0.65 8.80 4276
5 -26.15 -32.25 6.10 50 4.11 0.21 0.65 19.16 10811
6 -32.25 -32.50 0.25 50 3.85 0.21 0.65 0.79 418
* Ultimate Skin Friction Capacity Qs = 27255 kN

Page No. 4

End Bearing Capacity of Pile


φ = 27 o

Nφ = 2.66
qub = 0.77 MPa
Ab = 0.79 m2
* Ultimate End Bearing Capacity Qb = 3217 kN

* Ultimate Total Capacity Qu = 30472 kN

* Actual Factor of Safety = 3.05

Thus, the pile can safely carry the applied load


` Page No. 5

3.0 Elastic Analysis


In granular soil-rock environment where the soil modulus is assumed to increase linearly with depth,
stiffness factor (T) is given by: -

EI
T =5
nh
Where E : Modulus of elasticity of concrete E = K o + 0.2 f c u , where Ko = 20
I : Moment of inertia of pile = πD
4

64
D : diameter of pile.
nh : Modulus of subgrade reaction

E = 32.00 GPa
I = 0.05 m4
nh = 45 MN/m3
* Stiffness Factor T = 2.04 m
* Net Pile Length = 29.50 m

Shear Forces
* Due to 5% of Axial Load H1 = 500.00 kN
N
* Due to Out-of-Verticality H2 = 133.33 kN =
75
* Total Shear Force H = 633.33 kN
* The following evaluation is based on the elastic analysis of laterally-loaded fixed pile head (pile cap)
and linearly increasing soil modulus (Reese & Matlock in Tomlinson 1994).

* Bending Moment M f = Fm HT

Where Fm : Moment coefficient

Page No. 6

Depth Z Moment
(x) x Fm Mf
m T kNm
0 0.00 0.00 -0.92 -1185.77
1 1.00 0.49 -0.46 -590.44
-1500 -1000 -500 0 500
2 2.00 0.98 -0.08 -107.11 0.00
3 3.00 1.47 0.17 215.34
2.00
4 4.00 1.97 0.25 328.00
5 5.00 2.46 0.24 311.55 4.00
Depth (m)

6 6.00 2.95 0.18 228.44 6.00


7 7.00 3.44 0.11 139.77
8.00
8 8.00 3.93 0.05 62.22
10.00
9 9.00 4.42 0.01 8.00
10 10.00 4.91 -0.01 -10.67 12.00
11 11.00 5.41 0.00 0.00 Moment (kNm)

12
13 N.B. (x) is the depth from the cut-off level
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28

Page No. 7

4.0 Longitudinal Reinforcement

M1 = 1185.77 kNm [From the elastic analysis]


* Out-of-Position Moment M2 = 750.00 kNm = 0.075 N
* Ultimate Moment Mult = 2903.66 kNm [Factored to 1.50]
* Ultimate Axial Load Nult = 15000 kN [Factored to 1.50]
* Pile Diameter h = 1000 mm
d' = 101.00 mm
fcu = 60 N/mm2
fy = 460 N/mm2
* Required Steel Percentage
1] From PROKON = 1.45 % ------ (1)
2] 0.30% Ac = 0.30 % ------ (2) [BD 74/00, C9.2]
3] Minimum of 6 bars = 0.61 % ------ (3) [BD 74/00, C9.2]
4] 0.15N/fy = 0.62 % ------ (4) [BD 74/00, C9.2]

Top 12.00 m
* Maximum of (1), (2), (3) & (4) ρreq. = 1.45 %
* Provided Steel Diameter = 32 mm
* Required No. of Steel Bars = 15
* Provided No. of Steel Bars = 15
* Spacing Between Bars c/c = 167 mm [Maximum 300 mm]
OK
Rest of Pile
* Maximum of (2), (3) & (4) ρreq. = 0.62 %
* Provided Steel Diameter = 32 mm
* Required No. of Steel Bars = 7
* Provided No. of Steel Bars = 7
OK

Page No. 8

5.0 Stress in Concrete


* Pile Diameter D = 1000 mm
* Compressive Strength of Concrete fcu = 60 N/mm2
* Working Axial Load N = 10000 kN
* Area of Concrete Ac = 785398 mm2

* Permissible service stress should not exceed 25 % of the specified cube strength as per BS8004: 7.4.4.3
σ1 = 15.00 N/mm2
* Actual Stress in Concrete, σ = N
A
σ2 = 12.73 N/mm2
OK

6.0 Ultimate Vertical Load


* Proposed Vertical Reinforcement : 15 Nos. Φ 32 mm

As per BS8110, Part 1 - 1997, The ultimate axial load should not exceed the value of "N" given by:

N =0.3 5f c uAc 0. 7 As c f y


* Yield strength of steel. fy = 460 N/mm2
* Area of steel Asc = 12064 mm2
* Compressive strength of concrete. fcu = 60 N/mm2
* Area of concrete Ac = 773334 mm2
N = 20125 kN
* Allowable Axial Load Nall = 13416 kN [Divided by 1.50]
* Applied Axial Load Napp = 10000 kN
OK

Page No. 9

7.0 Settlement Calculations


The settlement of piles under a vertical working load is calculated as follows: -
s = s1 + s2 + s3
s : Total settlement.
s1 : Settlement of pile shaft due to elastic shortening.
s2 : Settlement of pile caused by pile point load.
s3 : Settlement of pile caused by pile shaft-transmitted load.
(Qwp + ξQws ) L
s1 =
Ap E p
where Qwp : Load carried at the pile point under working load condition.
ξ : Unit skin resistance distribution along pile shaft.
Qws : Load carried by frictional (skin) resistance under working load condition.
L : Length of pile.
Ap : Area of pile cross-section.
Ep : Modulus of elasticity of pile material.
* Ultimate End Bearing Capacity Qb = 3217 kN
* Ultimate Skin Friction Capacity Qs = 27255 kN
* Factor of Safety of End Bearing = 3.05
* Factor of Safety of Skin Friction = 3.05
Qwp = 1056 kN
Qws = 8944 kN
ξ = 0.67
L = 29.50 m
Ap = 0.79 m2
Ep = 32.00 GPa
s1 = 8.27 mm

Page No. 10

qwp D
s2 = (1 − µ s2 ) I wp
Es
Qwp
Where qwp : Point load per unit area at the pile point =
Ap
D : Diameter of pile.
Es : Modulus of elasticity of soil at or below pile point.
µs : Poisson's ratio of soil.
Iwp : Influence factor = αr for circular foundations.
qwp = 1344 kN/m2
D = 1000 mm
Es = 1.00 GPa
µs = 0.30
Iwp = 0.85
s2 = 1.04 mm
Q D
s3 = ( ws ) (1 − µ 2 ) I ws
pL Es

where p : Perimeter of pile.


L
Iws : Influence factor = 2 + 0.35
D

p = 3142 mm
Iws = 3.90
s3 = 0.34 mm
Total Settlement s = 9.66 mm

Page No. 11

8.0 Shear Calculations on Piles


Assumptions and Considerations
* Concrete Compressive Strength fcu = 60 N/mm2
* Yield Strength of Stirrups fyv = 460 N/mm2
* Applied Shear Force = 633.33 kN
* Applied Normal Force = 10000 kN
* Factored Shear Force V = 950 kN [Factored to 1.50]
* Factored Normal Force N = 15000 kN [Factored to 1.50]
* Pile Diameter dp = 1000 mm
* Cross-sectional Area of Pile Ac = 785398 mm2
* Main Reinforcement : No. of Bars = 15
Diameter of Bars = 32 mm
* Area of Tension Reinforcement As = 6032 mm2 [Half the Total Reinforcement].
* Concrete Cover = 75 mm

Shear Stress Calculations


* Width of Pile b = 1000 mm
* Centroid of Tension Zone c = 239 mm
* Effective Depth d = 739 mm
* Shear Stress v = 1.29 N/mm2
* Maximum Shear Stress vmax = 4.75 N/mm2 [BD 74/00, C5.1]

Shear Stress is OK

Page No. 12

* Calculating the factor ξ s vc


ξs = 0.91 (Table 9, BS 5400)
γm = 1.25 (Table 8, BS 5400)
* Shear Stress in Concrete vc = 0.69 N/mm2
ξ s vc = 0.63 N/mm2

0.05N = 1.95
(1 + )
Ac
ξ s vc * = 1.22 N/mm2

Shear Reinforcement Criterion (BD 74/00)

* The criterion of shear reinforcement is based on the following cases:

ξ s vc *
Case (1) v < , No shear reinforcement is required.
2

Case (2) ξ s vc * , Minimum shear reinforcement is required.


≤ v ≤ ξ s vc *
2
Case (3) v > ξ s vc * , Shear reinforcement is to be provided.

v = 1.29 N/mm2
ξ s vc * = 1.22 N/mm2

Therefore, case (3) governs

Page No. 13

* Minimum Shear Reinforcement = 1.00 mm2/mm

Provided Reinforcement
A] Top 2.00 m
* Number of Legs = 2 legs
* Diameter of Stirrups = 10 mm
* Spacing = 90 mm
* Provided Area of Stirrups Asv = 1.75 mm2/mm
* Required Area of Stirrups Asv = 1.65 mm2/mm
OK

B] Rest of Pile
* Number of Legs = 2 legs
* Diameter of Stirrups = 10 mm
* Spacing = 150 mm
* Provided Area of Stirrups Asv = 1.05 mm2/mm
* Required Area of Stirrups Asv = 1.00 mm2/mm
OK
Formulas

500
ξs = 4 or 0.70 whichever is greater.
d

vc =
γm 
0 .27 3 100A s
bd
3
 f cu

 
A sv
sv m in
=
0. 4b
0 . 87 f yv

A sv b v−ξ s vc 
= for case (3)
sv 0.87 f y v