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1
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2
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3
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4
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f xko d YdkaNymNyD; xif;&SL;yifMuD; &S&d modYk aNcvSr;f oGuo f uG Nf zifh avQmufvrS ;f oGm;onf/ csi;f csi;f vnf;
ydkifpkusif ESifhtwl vkdufygoGm;\/
rdk;Ncdrf;oHudk aMumufcJhaom csif;csif;rSm ,ckrl owådcJrav; Nzpfaeavonf/
vJaeolrSm vkvifysKdwpfa,muf Nzpfonf/ arSmufvsufom; vJusaeonfhtwGuf rsufESmudk rNrif&ay/
rnfolrnf0g NzpfaMumif;udkvnf; rodEdkif/ ydkifpkusif\ pdwfxJwGifrl xdkvludk Nrifzl;ovdkvdk xifrd\/
]]rrav; ... b,fvdkvkyfrvJ? olYudkMunfh&wm touf&Sdaeao;ykH&w,f}}
5
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
csif;csif;u ydkifpkusifudk aNymvdkufonf/
ab;'ku©ESifh MuKHawGUum owdvpfvJaeoludk awGY&onftwGuf wwfEdkiforQ ulnDay;&ef ydkifpkusifESifh
csif;csif;wkdYESpfa,muf toifh&SdaeMuonf/
odkYaomf ulnDay;a&;wGif olwdkYtzdkY tcuftcJ&Sdaeonf/
csif;csif;onf toufq,fhaNcmufESpft&G,f rdef;uav;Nzpfum ydkifpkusifrSmvnf; toufq,fh&SpfESpft&G,f
rdef;rysKdwpfa,mufNzpf\/
rvTJra&Smifomaom taMumif;udpöaMumifh rdef;uav;ESpfa,mufwnf; c&D;xGufvmMuaomfvnf;
ydkifpkusifESifh csif;csif;wkdYonf olpdrf;a,mufsm;ysKdrsm;ESifh eD;eD;uyfuyf aexdkif&rnfudk &Suf&GHUMuonf/
'Pf & mES i f h vJ u saeol r S m a,muf s m;ysKd w pf a ,muf Nzpf a e&m eD ; eD ; uyf u yf NyKpk u l n D a y;&ef
r0Hhr&JNzpfaeMuonf/
pdwfxJu apwem&Sdoavmuf vufu rygEdkifMuay/
xdktckduf ydkifpkusif\ acgif;xJwGif tMuHaumif;wpfckudk pOf;pm;rdonf/
]]'Dvdkvkyfav ... eifu bk&m;ausmif;xJoGm;NyD; ausmif;apmifhwpfa,mufa,mufudk &Smac:vmcJh? ig 'DrSmyJ
apmifhaecJhr,f? NrefNrefvkyfaemf}}
ydkifpkusif\ tMuHudk oabmusaomaMumifh csif;csif;vnf; acgif;udkwpfcsufndwfvkdufum
]][m ... [kwfw,f? rrav; pOf;pm;rdwJh tMuHodyfaumif;w,f? uRefr tckyJ ausmif;apmifhudk
oGm;ac:vdkufr,f}}
csif;csif;onf aNymaNymqdkqdk taNy;uav; xGufoGm;onf/
ydkifpkusifurl owdvpfum arSmufvsufom; vJusaeol\ teD;wGif &yfapmifh&if; usefaecJhonf/
cPtMumwG i f csif ; csif ; onf ausmif ; apmif h N zpf [ ef w l a om touf a Ncmuf q ,f c ef Y &S d
tbdk;tdkwpfa,mufESifhtwl taNy;tvTm; Nyefa&mufvmonf/
]]'DvlygyJ bb? MunfhNyD; NyKpkay;ygOD;}}
csif;csif;u owdvpfvJaeoludk nTefNyNyD; aNymonf/
ausmif;apmifh tbkd;MuD;onf bmrQ ar;Nref;raeawmhbJ arSmufvsufMuD;vJusaeaom vl&G,fudk
tomaz;rayGU,lum yufvufNzpfatmif NyKNyifay;vdkufonf/
vl&G,f\ &ifbwfwGif "m;'Pf&m wpfcsuf&Sdaeonf/
'Pf&m tawmfNyif;xefykH&onf/
vl&G,f\ rsufESmudkawGYvkduf&aomtcg ydkifpkusifESifh csif;csif;wdkYonf wpfa,mufrsufESm wpfa,muf
MunfhrdMuonf/
xkdvl&G,frSm ,refaeYu rdk;xJavxJwGif 0wfpkHpdrf;0wf vlokH;a,mufwkdY\ 0dkif;0ef;wdkufcdkufNcif;cH&um
xdk;azmufxGufaNy;oGm;cJhonfh tndKa&mif0wfpkH0wf vl&G,fNzpfaeonfudk ydkifpkusifESifh csif;csif;wdkY csufcsif;yif
rSwfrdvdkufMuonf/
]]"m;'Pf & m&NyD ; aoG ; xG u f v G e f a evd k Y owd v pf a ewmyg? touf r aoao;ygbl ; ? 'gayr,f h
ausmif;xJac:oGm;NyD; NyKpkay;rS Nzpfr,f? aoG;xGufvGefoGm;&if 'kuöawGUEdkifw,f}}
ausmif;apmifhtbkd;MuD;u vl&G,f\ 'Pf&mrsm;udk ppfaq;Munfh&SKNyD; aNymonf/
]]bbyJ wwfEdkiforQ MunfhNyD; NyKpkay;yg? aq;0g;awG vkdr,fqdk&ifvnf; uRefrwdkY oGm;0,fay;yghr,f}}
ydkifpkusifu ausmif;apmifhtbdk;MuD;udk wm0efay;tyfonf/
]]usKyfqDrSm ta&;taMumif;&Sd&if okH;Edkifatmif aqmifxm;wJh aq;aumif;0g;aumif;awG &Sdygw,f}}
ausmif;apmifhtbdk;MuD;u aNymaNymqdkqdk owdvpfaeaom vl&G,fudkxrf;um u0dewfbk&m;ausmif;twGif;&Sd
Z&yfwpfaqmifodkY ac:aqmifoGm;onf/
ydkifpkusifESifh csif;csif;wdkYvnf; ausmif;apmifhtbkd;MuD;\ aemufrS twlvdkufcJhMuonf/

6
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
ausmif ; apmif h t bk d ; MuD ; onf vl & G , f u d k Z&yf t a&S U yd k i f ; &S d tcef ; wpf c k x J o d k Y ac:oG m ;NyD ; ck w if a y:wG i f
oufawmifhoufom Nzpfatmif wifxm;ay;onf/
'Pf&mrsm;udk aq;aMumum temusufaq;rsm;xnfh ywfwD;pnf;ay;onf/ ayusHaeonfrsm;udk
oefYpifatmif aq;aMumNyD; t0wftpm;rsm;vJay;onf/ csif;&nfESifh a&mpyfxm;aom tm;wdk;aq;wpfcGufudkyif
wdkufauR;vdkufao;onf/
ydkifpkusifESifh csif;csif;wkdYu ausmif;apmifhtbkd;MuD; NyKpkukoay;aeonfudk NidrfoufpGmyif MunfhaeMuonf/
]]'Dvl odyfuHaumif;w,f? rdef;uav;wdkYeJYom rawGUcJh&if aoG;xGufvGefNyD; toufawmif qkH;Edkifw,f}}
vl&G,fudk NyKpkay;NyD;aemuf tbkd;MuD;u ydkifpkusifwdkYbufvSnfhNyD; aNymonf/
]]ol ... ol ... owd&Edkifyghrvm; bb}}
ydkifpkusifu pdk;&drf[efNzifh ar;onf/
]]'DtwGuf rylygeJY? rMumcif Nyefowd&vmrSmyg? tckawmh 'Pf&mt&Sdefu &SdaewJhtNyif apmapmu
wdkufvkdufwJh tm;wdk;aq;rSm tdyfaq;enf;enf;vnf; ygw,f? 'Dawmh olqufNyD; ESpfESpfNcdKufNcKduf tdyfaevdrfhr,f?
uJ ... uJ ... rdef;uav;wdkYvnf; oGm;p&m&Sdwmukd oGm;EdkifygNyD? olUtwGufawmh pdwfomcsoGm;Muyg}}
]][kwfuJh ... uRefrwdkY oGm;vkdufygOD;r,f? wpf&ufESpf&uf avmufMum&if olYtaNctaeudk MunfhzkdY uRefrwkdY
NyefvmcJhyghr,f}}
]]aemuf okH;&ufavmufMumrS vm&if ydktqifaNyygw,f? tJ'Dtcsdefus&if 'Doli,f&JU taNctaeuvnf;
awmfawmfav; aumif;vmygvdrfhr,f}}
]]aumif;ygNyD bb}}
ydkifpkusifESifh csif;csif;wdkYonf ausmif;apmifhtbdk;MuD;udk aus;Zl;wifpum;qdkum ESKwfqufNyD;
xGufcGmvmcJhMuonf/

7
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif

tcef; (2)
okH;&ufaNrmufaeY eHeufapmapmtcsdefNzpfonf/
tcsd e f a pmao;aomaMumif h u0d e wf b k & m;ausmif ; ok d Y bk & m;zl ; rsm; a&muf r vmao;bJ
Nidrfoufwdwfqdwfaeonf/
Z&yfwpfaqmifxJ&Sd tcef;wpfcef;xJwGif vl&G,fwpfa,mufonf ckwifay:ü wifysOfacGxdkif&if; twGif;tm;
avhusifhvsuf&Sdae\/
'Pf&m temw&rsm; tawmfyif oufomvmNyDrdkY vl&G,f\ acsmarmaom&kyfoGifu ydkíay:vGifvmonf/
vl & G , f o nf touf E S p f q ,f r Q&S d N yD ; &k y f & nf r S m a,musf m ;acsm acsmonf / ES K wf c rf ; rsm;u yg;vS y f u m
pum;aNymaumif;rnfh toGif&Sdonf/
ar;&dk;tus cyfaNyaNyESifh ESmwHay:NyD; rsufvkH;rsufckH; aumif;rGefonf/
]]a'guf ... a'guf ...}}
cyfoJhoJh ay:vmaom wHcg;acgufoHaMumifh twGif;tm;avhusifhaeaom vl&G,fonf csufcsif;yif
ckwifatmufokdY qif;um tcef;wHcg;udk oGm;zGifhay;onf/
wHcg;yGifhoGm;aomtcg tcef;xJodkY ausmif;apmifhtbkd;MuD; avQmufvSrf;0ifa&mufvmonf/
]]a[m ... bb&Sefudk;}}
vl&G,fu ysLiSmazmfa&GpGmyif ESKwfqufonf/
vl&G,f\ pum;aNymqdkykHrSm tawmfrGef&nfonf/ tNyKH;uvJ qGJaqmifrSK&Sdonf/
ausmif ; apmif h t bk d ; MuD ; bb&S e f u d k awG U vd k u f o nf h t wG u f vS K d u f v S K d u f v S J v S J 0rf ; omaeonf h
toGifrsKd;xif&Sm;pGm ay:vGifaeonf/
]]b,fhES,fvJa[h ... &SD;[kef? aexdkifaumif;aeNyD r[kwfvm;}}
bb&Sefu vl&G,fudk ar;vdkufonf/
8
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
]][kwfuJh ... bb&Sef NyKpkukoay;vdkY trsm;MuD; usef;rmvmygNyD? odyfaus;Zl;wifygw,f bb&Sef&,f?
NyD;awmh uRefawmfhudk u,fwifNyD; bb&SefqDrSm tyfay;xm;cJhMuwJh aus;Zl;&Sif rdef;uav; ESpfa,mufudkvnf;
uRefawmfawGUcsifvdkufwmAsm? olwdkYudk uRefawmf udk,fwdkif aus;Zl;wifpum; aNymcsifw,f}}
&SD;[kefu &nfrGefcsKdompGm NyefaNymonf/
]]at; ... rif; awGUcsifaewm awGU&rSmayghuG,f? olwdkY 'DaeYreufyJ a&mufvmMuvdrfhr,f}}
]][m ... 'Dvdkqdk 0rf;omp&myJaygh bb&Sef&,f}}
xdktcsdefrSmyif Z&yfay:okdY avQmufvSrf;wufvmaom aNcoHrsm;udk Mum;vdkufMu&onf/
]]a[m ... aNym&if;qkd&if; aNcoHMum;w,f? rdef;uav;ESpfa,muf a&mufvmMuNyDeJY wlw,f? [kwfr[kwf
igxGufMunfhvdkufOD;r,f}}
]][kwfuJh ... bb&Sef}}
ausmif ; apmif h tbd k ; MuD ; bb&S e f o nf tcef ; tNyif b uf o k d Y aNcvS r f ; oG u f o G u f N zif h
avQmufvSrf;xGufoGm;onf/
&SD;[kefonf tcef;xJwGif rwfwwf&yfvsuf apmifhqdkif;&if; usefaecJhonf/
tcef;tNyifbufrS wD;wdk;pum;aNymoH Mum;&NyD;aemuf cPtMumwGif tcef;xJokdY bb&SefESifh
trsKd;orD;av;ESpfa,muf 0ifa&mufvmMuonf/
&SD;[kefonf ydkifpkusif\ [efYwm;rSKudk tav;rxm;yJ 'l;axmufNrJaxmufae&m ydkifpkusifu bb&Sefudk
tultnDawmif;onfh tMunfhrsKd;Nzifh vSrf;Munfhvdkufonf/
bb&SefrSm raeomawmhbJ ...
]]uJ ... uJ ... xvdkufygawmh &SD;[kef? rdef;uav;u rif;aus;Zl;wifwmudk em;vnfoabmaygufygw,f}}
bb&Sefonf yg;pyfrS aNym&if; &SD;[kefudk rwfwwfxvsufom; Nzpfatmif qGJxlay;onf/
]]uRefremrnf ydkifpkusifyg? a[m'gu uRefr&JU &Ha&Gazmfrdef;uav; csif;csif;}}
ydkifpkusifu rdrdwdkY\ trnfrsm;udk xkwfazmfaNymum rdwfqufonf/
]]uRefawmfhemrnfu &SD;[kefyg? uRefawmfhudk ulnDu,fwif ay;cJhwJhtwGuf trsm;MuD;aus;Zl;wifygw,f?
'Daus;Zl;udk uRefawmfhwpfouf rarhygbl;}}
]]'geJY 'Du tpfuu kd b,fvkd taMumif;udpaö Mumifrh sm; tckvkd Nzpf&wmvJ? olrsm;udprö mS 0ifpyfpwk ,fvYkd awmh
rxifygeJYaemf}}
csif;csif;u ar;vdkufonf/
]][m ... rxifygbl;Asm? rxifygbl;? 'DtaMumif;udk &Sif;Nycsifaewmyg? uJ ... xdkifMuygOD;av?
at;at;aq;aq; aNymMuwmaygh}}
&kyf&nfoGifNyif rGef&nfcefYacsmNyD; pum;taNymtqdk &nfrGefaom &SD;[keftay: ydkifpkusifESifh csif;csif;wkdY
ESpfa,mufvkH;u cifrifpdwfrsm; tvdkvdkNzpfay:vmrdonf/
ydkifpkusifonf 0ifxdkif&ef tenf;i,f &Suf&GHU&GHUNzpfaeaomfvnf; uav;qefí oGufvufcsufcsmaom
csif;csif;url xdkifckHwpfckwGif apGYueJ 0ifxdkifvdkufum
]]vmav rrav;? cPxdkif&atmif}}
ydkifpkusifvnf; csif;csif;\ ab;em;wGif tom0ifxdkifcsvdkufonf/
&SD;[kefESifh bb&SefwdkYrSmrl ckwifay:wGifyif xdkifMuonf/
&SD;[kefu ydkifpkusifudk tomMunfhNyD; pum;ponf/
]]rdpämraemodkif;usrf;qdkwm nDrwkdY Mum;zl;Mur,f xifw,f}}
rdpämraemodkif;usrf;qdkaom pum;udk Mum;vdkuf&aomtcg ydkifpkusif\ rsufvkH;xJwGif ta&mifwpfcsuf
vufoGm;onf/
]]&Sif ... rdpämraemodkif;usrf; ... [kwfvm;}}
ydkifpkusifu wtHhwMo Nyefar;vdkufonf/
]][kwfygw,f? rdpämraemokdif;usrf;eJY ywfoufNyD; wdkYudk 0kdif;wdkufcdkufMuwmygyJ}}
9
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
]]tpfudku tJ'D rdpämraemodkif;usrf;udk &xm;vdkYvm;}}
]]r[kwf&ygbl;Asm? rdpämraemodkif;usrf;udk NrifawmifrNrifzl;ygbl;}}
]]'geJYrsm; ...}}
&SD;[kefu vufumNyvdkuf&m ydkifpkusifrSm pum;wpfykdif;wpfpESifh &yfwefYoGm;&onf/
]]nDrwdkYu wdkY&JUaus;Zl;&SifawG NzpfaewmaMumifh taMumif;pkH &Sif;Nyyghr,f}}
&SD;[kefu xdkokdYaNymNyD; vufzuf&nfMurf; wpfyef;uefiSJUum aomufvdkufonf/
&SD;[kefrSm tawmfyif pdwfvSKyf&Sm;aeonfhtwGuf ol\vufrsm; wkef,ifaeonf/
vSKyf&Sm;aeaom pdwfudk wnfNidrfatmif tcsdef,lxdef;odrf;onfh oabmNzifh vufzuf&nfMurf;
wpfyef;uefiSJUum aomufvdkufNcif;Nzpfonf/
xdkYNyif rdrd\ pum;udk ydkifpkusifwdkY pdwf0ifpm;rSK &Sdr&Sdudkvnf; vufzuf&nfMurf; aomuf&if; rodrom
tuJcwfMunfhvdkufavonf/
rdef;uav;ESpfa,mufvkH;u rdrd\ pum;udk pdwf0ifpm;pGm em;pGifhaeMuonfudk awGU&rS &SD;[kef
auseyfoabmusoGm;onf/
&SD;[kefu vufzuf&nfMurf; yef;uefudk NyefcsNyD;aemuf pum;qufNyefonf/
]]tJ'DNyóemNzpfaewJh rdpämraemokdif;usrf;eJY ywfoufrdykHuawmh ... [dwf b,folvJ}}
&S;D [keo f nf ydik pf u
k sifwYdk udk aNymNyae&mrS &kww f &uf Nywif;aygufbufoYdk vSr;f Munfu h m toHus,fus,fEiS hf
atmf[pfar;Nref;vdkufonf/
&SD;[kef aNymMum;rnfh pum;rsm;udk pdwf0ifpm;pGm em;pGifhaeMuaom ydkifpkusifESifh csif;csif;wdkYrSm &kwfw&ufrdkY
vefYzsyfoGm;Mu&onf/
]][m; ... [m; ... [m; ... &SD;[kef? rif;u raoao;bJudk;? w,ftoufNyif;ygvm;uG ... a[}}
Nywif;ayguf tNyifbufrS iSuq f ;dk xd;k oHtvm; atmf[pf&,farmaNymqdv k u
kd o
f u
H &S;D [ke\f pum;tqk;H wGif
qufí ay:xGufvmonf/
&SD;[kef rsufESm uGufceJ ysufoGm;onf/
olYtaeESifh "m;'Pf&mrS oufomcgpNzpf&m a&muf&Sdvmaom &efolrsm;udk &ifqdkifwdkufcdkuf&ef
rNzpfEdkifaMumif; aumif;aumif;em;vnfxm;onf/
xdYk Nyif a&mufvmonfh &eforl sm; taMumif;udv k nf; aumif;aumif; odxm;aomaMumifh &S;D [kerf mS tawmfyif
aMumufvefYaerdonf/
&S D ; [k e f \ wd w f v ef Y wk e f v S K yf a eaom trl t &mud k yd k i f p k u sif tuJ c wf r d u m tul t nD a y;&ef
pdwfydkif;Nzwfvdkufonf/
]]csif;csif; 'Du tpfudk&JU'Pf&m[m oufomcgpqdkawmh &efolukd &ifqdkifzkdYrvG,fbl;? 'Dawmh eifyJMunfhNyD;
tqifaNyatmif vkyfvdkufyg}}
ydkifpkusifu csif;csif;udk aNymvdkufonf/
þpum;rsm;udk Mum;&aomtcg &SD;[kefESifh bb&SefwdkYrSm tawmfyif tHhMooGm;rdMuonf/
csif;csif;vdk i,f&G,fEke,faom rdef;rysKdav; wpfa,muftaeNzifh tNyifwGif a&mufaeonfh &efolrsm;udk
&ifqdkifwdkufcdkuf Edkifrnf[k olwdkYu rxifMuay/
]][kwfuJh ... rrav;}}
&SD;[kefESifh bb&SefwdkY thHMoaerdMuqJrSmyif csif;csif;onf ydkifpkusif\ trdefYudkemcHum Nywif;aygufrSaeí
tNyifokdY vTm;ueJ ckefxGufoGm;onf/
csif;csif;\ toGifrSm tenf;i,frQyif aMumuf&GHUpkd;xdwf[efr&Sd? usm;ysKdrav;vdk &J&ifhowdåawG
tNynfh&Sdaeavonf/
csif;csif;onf Nywif;aygufrS tNyifodkY usm;ysKdrav;\ &J&ifhowdårsKd;Nzifh vTm;ceJY ckefxGufvmonf/
tNyifbufokdY a&mufonfESifh &efoludk &ifqkdifrdonf/
&efolrSm odkif;orm;vlMurf;MuD; av;a,mufNzpfonf/
10
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
]]&SifwkdYu b,folawGvJ? rdkuf&dkif;&rf;um;vScsnfvm;}}
csif;csif;u odkif;orm;vlMurf;MuD; av;a,mufudk pdef;pdef;MunfhNyD; aNymvkdufonf/
odkif;orm;vlMurf;MuD; av;a,mufteufrS wpfa,mufu tcef;xJ&Sd &SD;[kefMum;avmufatmif
toHus,fus,fNzifh vSrf;atmfaNymonf/
]]a[h ... &SD;[kef rif;u b,fvkdvJ? a,mufsm;r[kwfbl;vm;? bmaMumifh udk,fhudpöxJrSm wNcm;rdef;rom;
wpfa,mufudk qGJoGif;&wmv}}
rdrdtar;pum;udk tav;rxm;bJ &SD;[kefudkom vSrf;atmfaNymvdkufrSKaMumifh csif;csif;rSm tawmfyif
cHNyif;oGm;onf/
]]'Dr,f ... 'Dr,f ... tpfukd&SD;[kefudk vSrf;atmfaNymvm; bmvm;rvkyfygeJY? &SifwdkY bmtwGuf
a&mufvmw,fqdkwmudkom aNymprf;}}
csif;csif;u avoHrmrmESifh aNymvdkufNyefonf/
]]w,f ... 'Daumifrav;? udk,fhudpör[kwfbJeJY 0ifr&SKyfprf;eJY? igwdkY &SD;[kefeJYyJ aNz&Sif;csifw,f}}
odkif;orm;vlMurf;MuD; wpfa,mufu cyfaigufaigufaNymvdkufNyefonf/
xdkYaemuf xdkvlav;a,mufonf rdrdwdkY "m;&Snfrsm;udk toD;oD; qGJxkwfvdkufMuonf/
csif;csif;rSm 'Pf&maysmufuif;cgpNzpfaom &SD;[kefudk ulnDumuG,fay;Edkif&ef ydkifpkusif\ trdefYt&
&efoludkxGufí &ifqdkifNcif;Nzpfonf/ ,ck Nzpfay:aeonfh udpörsm;ESifh ywfoufí taMumif;pkHudk aoaocsmcsm
roday/
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11
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12
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13
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14
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15
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xdkYaMumifh ydkifusifvkHu yxrtqifhtaeNzifh [kd,kqefESifh ydkifpkusifwdkY ESpfa,mufudk vufxyfay;&ef
pDpOfavonf/
[k, d qk efonf ydik uf sifv\ Hk vuf&;Hk wynfNh zpfaomaMumifh ydik pf u k sifEiS v
hf nf; cifrifonf/ ydik pf u k siftaeNzifh
[kd,kqeftay: cifrifonfhpdwf&Sdaomfvnf; tpfudkwpfa,mufvdkom cspfcifonf/ qef;Nym;aom pdwfxm;rsKd;r&Sday/
xdkYaMumifh zcifNzpfol\ pDpOfrSKudk Niif;qdkawmhonf/
xdkokdY&Sdae&mrS ydkifusifvkHonf usm;NzLr,f usKda0vefudk vufxyf,l&ef MuH&G,fxm;aMumif; ydkifpkusif
od&Nyefonf/ wpfylay: ESpfylqifhqdkovdk ydkifpkusiftzdkY ydkí pdwfxdckdufp&m NzpfcJh&onf/
ydkifpkusif\ pdwfxJwGif rdrd\ om,maysmf&TifzG,faumif;aom b0vrf;uav; tarSmifxk MuD;pkd;vmovdk
cHpm;&onf/
rdrdzcifonf rdrdtay: tcspfavsmhenf;oGm;avNyD[lí awG;awmum pdwfraumif;Nzpf&onf/
xdkYNyif usKda0veftay:wGifvnf; rkef;wD;vmonf/
usKda0vefESifh vufxyfrnfhudpöudk vkH;0oabmrwlEdkifaMumif; ydkifpkusifu aNymqdkuefYuGuf&mrS
om;tzESpfa,muf pum;rsm;Mu&onf/
ydkifpkusifonf zcif\ tvdkvdkufrSKudkcH&aom orD;wpfa,muf Nzpfonf/ ,cifuqdkvQif ydkifusifvkHonf
orD;Nzpfol pdwfwdkif;us t&m&mudk vdkufavsm vkyfaqmifay;NrJ Nzpfonf/
,ckrl zcifu rdrEd iS hf qefYusiaf Nymqdv k monft h wGuf ydik pf u k sirf mS ydí
k 0rf;enf;vmonf/ ydí k aMuuGv J monf/
ydkípdwfxdckdufvmonf/ usKda0veftay:wGifvnf; ydkí trkef;yGm;vmcJhonf/
ydkifpkusifu usKda0vefonf rdrdwdkY\ twGif;ypönf;Opömrsm;udk vdkcsifrufarmaomaMumifh ydkifusifvkHudk
vufxyf&ef &nf&G,fNcif;NzpfNyD; xdktMuHatmifNrif&eftwGuf [dk,kqefudkvnf; e*g;NzLa*[mwGif okdif;ynm
oifMum;apcJhNcif;NzpfaMumif; poNzifh ememMunf;Munf;yif pGyfpGJaNymqdkonf/
pdwfxdcdkufrSK? emMunf;rkef;wD;rSKaMumifh ydkifpkusifrSm pdwfudkrxdef;EdkifawmhyJ raNymoifh raNymxdkufonfh pum;rsm;udk
vGefvGefuJuJ aNymrdonf/

16
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
pum;taNymtqdk vGefusL;vmonfhtwGuf ydkifusifvkHu orD;Nzpfoludk atmfaiguf[efYwm;&kHru
&dkufESufíyif qkH;rcJhonf/
rdrdtay: wpfoufvkH; zl;zl;rSKwfum tvkdvdkufcJhaom pum;udkyif rmrmraNymcJhaom zcifNzpfolu
atmfaigufonfhtNyif &dkufESufonftxd NyKrlvmonhftwGuf ydkifpkusifrSm ,lMuKH;r&Nzpfum tvGefyif
pdwfxdckdufaMuuGJ&\/
usKda0vefudk taMumif;NyKí zcifNzpfolu rdrdtay: tcspfavsmhum trkef;yGm;vmavNyD [lívnf;
rdcifarwåm iwfcJh&aom ydkifpkusif\ Eke,fonfh ESvkH;om;av;xJwGif rSwfxifoGm;rdonf/
þuJo h Ydk aom 0rf;enf;pdw?f emMunf;pdw?f ,lMuKH;r&aMuuGpJ w d w
f Ydk aMumifh ydik pf u
k sifonf &Ha&Gazmf rde;f uav;
csif;csif;udk tazmfNyKum [kdifeefuRef; vufig;acsmif;awmifrS okdif;q&mrMuD; 0lpifESifhtwl oGm;a&mufaexdkif&ef
xGufcGmvmcJhNcif; Nzpfayonf/
ydkifpkusifonf zcifudk tvGefcspfonf/ Nzpfcsifovdk rNzpf&bJ rNzpfcsifwmawG Nzpf&onfh avmuwHxGm?
"r®wmt& aetdrfrS pdwfvdkufrmefyg xGufcGmvmcJh&aomfvnf; tcsdefESifhtrQyif zcifudk owd& vGrf;qGwfaerdonf/
wu,fawmh rdbwdkY\ t&dyftm0goonf om;orD;rsm;twGuf tvGefat;Nronfh em;ckd&m Nzpfonf/
csrf;aNrYaysmf&TifrSK udkNzpfaponf/ at;csrf;vkHNcKHrSKudk ay;avonf/
rd b wd k Y \ t&d y f t m0goud k ausmck d i f ; um xG u f c G m vmcJ h a om om;orD ; rsm;onf at;Nraom
opfyif&yd af tmufrS aeylxo J Ydk xGuv f monft h cg ylNyif;aom ae&Sed 'f Pfukd cH&bdouJo h Ydk b0\ txktaxmif;rsm;udk
cg;pnf;um &ifqdkifMu&rnf rvGJay/
rdrdbmom aetdrfrS xGufvmcJhaom ydkifpkusif\ b0vrf;wGifvnf; tauGUtaumuf tzktxpfrsm;ESifh
awGUMuKHcJh&ayonf/ tcuftcJrsm;udk &ifqdkifcJh&ayonf/
xdkaeYnwGif ydkifpkusif aumif;aumif;rtdyfaysmfay/
csif ; csif ; u tpazmf a y;ovd k Nzpf a omaMumif h td r f t aMumif ; ud k yd k o wd & rd o nf / zcif u d k v nf ;
ykdívGrf;qGwfrdonf/
aumif;pGm tdyfraysmfEdkifbJ tdyf&mxufwGif wvl;vl;wvdrfhvdrfh Nzpfae&Smonf/
oufNyif;vnf; tcgcg csaerdonf/
td y f a ysmf a eaom csif ; csif ; onf wpf a &;Ed k ; vmaomtcg wvl ; vl ; wvd r f h v d r f h N zpf a eoH E S i f h
oufNyif;csaeoHwdkYaMumifh ydkifpkusif tdyfraysmfao;aMumif; odvdkuf&onf/
]]rrav; ... tdyfraysmfao;bl;vm;}}
csif;csif;u ydkifpkusifudk vSrf;ar;onf/
]]b,fvdkvkyf tdyfaysmfEdkifrSmvJ csif;csif;&,f}}
ydkifpkusifu NyeftaNzay;onf/
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ydik pf u
k sifonf &ifxw J iG f wif;usyfpmG armaeaom aomuudk aNyvdak NyNim; oufNyif;&SnMf uD; csvdu k rf o
d nf/
]]aMomf ... tdrftaMumif; awG;aerdwmyg? tcktcsdefrSm ararom &Sdae&if igwdkYtaeeJY tdrfuxGufvmp&m
taMumif;&SdrSm r[kwfbl;aemf}}
csif;csif;rSmvnf; ydkifpkusif rnfodkY cHpm;ae&onfudk em;vnfonfhtwGuf ydkifpkusifenf;wlyif &ifxJwGif
wif;usyfvmum oufNyif;wpfcsuf csvkdufNyD; ...
]]aMomf ... rrav;&,f? ocifrMuD;om &Sdae&ifawmh bmrsm;aNymp&mvdkovJ? twdkif;xuftvGef
wHcGefeJYukuúm;aygh}}
]]at;av ... tckawmhvnf; igwdkYrSm bmrsm;wwfEdkifrSmvJ? NzpfcsifwmrNzpf& rNzpfcsifwmNzpf&qdkwJh
avmu"HudkyJ ,dk;r,fzGJY&awmhr,f xifyg&JU? uJ ... csif;csif; NyeftdyfvdkufOD;? reufNzef c&D;qufMu&r,f r[kwfvm;}}
csif;csif;onf bmrSraNymawmhyJ NyeftdyfaysmfoGm;avonf/
ydkifpkusifrSmrl awmfawmfESifh tdyfr&ay/ b0wpfyg;okdY aNymif;oGm;NyDNzpfaom rdcifMuD;udk wrf;wrSef;q&if;
vGrf;rsuf&nfrsm; usaerdonf/
17
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
t&kPfwufvkvk tcsdefwGifrS ydkifpkusifonf arS;ceJ tdyfaysmfoGm;avawmh\/
t&kPfwufvkeD;rS tdyfaysmfoGm;cJhaom ydkifpkusifrSm rdk;vif;onfhtcsdefwGif tdyf&mrS rEdk;ao;ay/
csif;csif;onf ESpfNcKdufpGm tdyfarmusaeaom ydkifpkusifudk rESKd;csifaomfvnf; c&D;quf&rnfh ta&;
&SdaeaomaMumifh rwwfombJ ESKd;vdkuf&onf/
]]rrav; ... xawmhav? rdk;vif;aeNyD? uRefrwdkY c&D;qufMu&OD;r,f r[kwfvm;}}
tdyfarmusaeaom ydkifpkusifrSm xdktcgwGifrS Edk;vm&onf/
]]aMomf ... tif; ... tif; ... [kwyf g&JU? rd;k vif;cgeD;rS tdyaf ysmfomG ;vdYk rd;k vif;wmawmif rEd;k Edik yf J Nzpfae&w,f?
eifESKd;ayvdkYaygh}}
olwdkYESpfa,mufonf t0wftpm;rsm; vJvS,fum ypönf;rsm;udk xkyfydk;vsuf aEGOD;wnf;cdk&dyfomrS
xGufvmcJhonf/
c&D;rqufrDS &SD;[kefudk ESKwfqufEdkif&eftwGuf u0dewfbk&m;ausmif;odkY vmcJhMuonf/
ydkifpkusifESifh csif;csif;wdkY ESpfa,muf u0dewfbk&m;ausmif;odkY vmcJhMuonf/
ydkifpkusif\ pdwfxJwGif wpfrsKd;MuD; cHpm;ae&onf/
vGrf;oa,mifa,mif Nzpfaomfvnf; vGrf;Ncif;um; r[kwf/
aqG;ovdkvdkxif&aomfvnf; aqG;rdNcif; rqdkEdkif/
[efMuLNrdKUrS xGufcGmoGm;&rnfudkyif aemufqHwif;ovdkvdk pdwfxJwGif cHpm;ae&onf/
rnfonfhtwGufaMumifh ,ckvdk cHpm;aeonf qdkNcif;udkum; ydkifpkusifrSm pOf;pm;taNz&Smí r&EdkifcJhay/
xdkYaMumifh u0dewfbk&m;ausmif;odkYvmcJhonfh vrf;wpfavQmufwGif ydkifpkusifonf csif;csif;udkyif
pum;raNymEdkifbJ ESKwfqdwfum rdrd\tawG;ESifhrdrd NidrfoufpGm avQmufvSrf;vmcJhonf/
u0dewfbk&m;ausmif;wGif bk&m;zl;rsm;Nzifh pnfpnfum;um; &SdaeMuonf/
ydkifpkusifwdkYonf bk&m;0wfNyKNyD;aemuf &SD;[kefaexdkif&m Z&yfodkYvmcJhMuonf/
&SD;[kefonf Z&yfa&SUbufwGif wpfa,mufwnf; xdkifvsuf&Sdae&mrS ydkifpkusifwdkY vmaeonfudk
Nrif&aomtcg xdkif&mrSckefxNyD; 0rf;omtm;&yif qD;MuKdESKwfqufonf/
]][m ... nDrwdkYygvm;}}
tm;&0rf;om ESKwfqufvdkuf&mrS ydkifpkusifwdkYESpfa,muf c&D;oGm;awmhrnf toGifrsKd; &Sdaeonfudk
awGU&aomtcg &SD;[kef\ rsufESm nSdK;i,foGm;onf/
]]aMomf ... c&D;qufMuawmhrvdkYudk;}}
&SD;[kef\ pum;rsm;u toufrygovdk Nzpfaeonf/
apmapmu tm;&0rf;om ESKwfqufvdkufrSKESifhawmh qefYusifbuf/
rd r d w d k Y c&D ; quf a wmh r nf h taMumif ; od o G m ;onf h t wG u f &S D ; [k e f \ pd w f x J w G i f t m;avsmh u m
xdcdkufoGm;onf[k ydkifpkusifawG;rdNyD; tawmfyif pdwfraumif; Nzpfrdonf/
yd k i f p k u sif r S m &k w f w &uf pum;rqd k E d k i f b J cyf i d k i f i d k i f N zpf a e&m ES K wf o G u f a om csif ; csif ; uom
pum;NyefaNymqdkvdkuf&onf/
]][kwfw,f ... 'gaMumifh tpfudkYudk vmESKwfqufwm? tpfudkYudk ESKwfqufNyD;wmeJY uRefrwdkY
c&D;qufMuawmhr,fav}}
&S;D [ke\ f rsufEmS ydí k i,fomG ;onf/ ydik pf u
k sifuv kd nf; tm;avsmhonfh tMunfNh zifh wpfcsufvrS ;f Munfo h nf/
olYtMunfh rsufvkH;rsm;u wpfpkHwpf&mudk pGefYvTwfqkH;&SKH;vdkuf&ovdk rdSefrSdefzszs/
]]aMomf ... ol awmfawmfav; pdwfxdckduftm;i,foGm;&Smw,f xifyg&JU? tdk ... igeJY bmqdkifwmrSwfvdkY}}
ydkifpkusif\ pdwfxJwGif &SD;[kefbufokdY omomxdk;xdk;av; pmemawG;vdkuf udk,fhudk,fudkvnf; Nyefí
owday;vdkufESifh Nzpfae&onf/
&SD;[kefu tm;,lNyKH;&onfh tNyKH;rsKd; NyKH;NyvdkufNyD; ...
]]tif;ayghav ... tcsdew f efawmhvnf; ud, k vhf rf;ud, k o
f mG ;&rSmyJu;kd ? 'gayr,fh wdYk uawmh nDrwdYk &UJ aus;Zl;udk
b,fawmhrS rarhbl;qdkwm ,kHyg}}
18
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
&S;D [keo f nf wu,fyif pdwyf suftm;avsmhomG ;&onf/ olonf ydik pf u k sifEiS hf ydrk &kd if;ES;D vmatmif vkyaf qmifzYkd
tMuHMuD; MuHxm;NyD;Nzpfonf/ ,ck ydkifpkusifwdkY c&D;qufMuawmhrnfqkdonfh twGuf olYtMuHMuD; MuHxm;orQonf
oJxJa&oGefovdk NzpfoGm;&avNyD/
]]aus;Zl;awG bmawG tMuD;tus,f wifaep&m rvdkygbl;? uRefrwdkYuvnf; ulnDcGifh&vdkY ulnDcJhw,fvdkYyJ
oabmxm;ygw,f? tpfudkYae&mrSm wNcm;vlwpfa,muf Nzpfae&ifvnf; uRefrwkdYu vufydkufMunfhaerSm
r[kwfygbl;? 'geJY bb&Sefwpfa,mufaum rNrifygvm;}}
]]bb&Sef NrdKYbufudk cPoGm;aew,f}}
]][kwfvm; ... 'gqdk&if uRefrwdkY ESKwfqufoGm;w,fvdkY aNymvdkufygaemf}}
]]aumif;ygNyD ... aNymvdkufyghr,f? nDrwdkYu b,fudkoGm;MurvJ? 'Dvdkar;vdkY &dkif;w,frxifygeJYaemf?
ud,k ahf us;Zl;&Siu f kd aus;Zl;qyfciG rhf &vdYk wdYk pdwrf aumif;bl;? tcgtcGio
hf ifwh ahJ eY aus;Zl;NyefqyfEikd af tmif ar;&wmyg}}
&S;D [ke\ f toHrmS rodromwke, f ifaeonf/ pum;tqk;H wGif oufNyif;armudk odoo d momyif csvdu k o f nf/
csif;csif;u &SD;[kef\ pum;udk csufcsif; taNzray;aobJ ydkifpkusifudk cGifhawmif;ovdk vSrf;íMunfhonf/
ydkifpkusifonf &SD;[kef\ tar;udk olrukd,fwkdifyif NyeftaNzay;onf/
]]uRefrwdkY uGrfwkef;Nynfe,fbufudk c&D;qufMurvdkYyg}}
ydkifpkusifwdkYESifh NyefvnfqkHpnf;Edkifonfh vrf;p &vdkufonfhtwGuf &SD;[kefrSm Nyefvnftm;wufvmonf/
rsufESmtrlt,mudkum; csKyfwnf;xm;\/
]]tckvdk od&wm aus;Zl;wifygw,f nDr&,f? wdkYudk ulnDay;cJhwJh nDrwdkY&JU aus;Zl;udk wpfaeYr[kwf
wpfaeY NyefqyfEdkifygapvdkY wkdY qkawmif;ygw,f}}
&SD;[kefu ydkifpkusifudk pl;pdkufMunfhum aNymonf/
&SD;[kef\ taNymESifh &SD;[kef\ tMunfhwkdYu ydkifpkusif\ Eke,faom ESvkH;om;udk wodrfhodrfh
vSKyf&Sm;oGm;aponf/
pd w f v S K yf & S m ;rS K t&d y f t oG i f r sm; ay:vG i f r vmap&ef yd k i f p k u sif o nf renf ; yif Mud K ;pm;um
£a`E´aqmifae&avonf/
yd k i f p k u sif o nf trl t &mrysuf a tmif Mud K ;pm;um xd e f ; od r f ; &if ; &S D ; [k e f u d k rod r om
rsufvkH;a0hMunfhvdkufrdonf/
&SD;[kef\ tMunfhESifh tMunfhcsif;qkHrdaomaMumifh ydkifpkusifrSm &ifzdkarm[dkufoGm;&Nyefonf/
&ifxJwGifvnf; yDwdvSKdif;uav;rsm; wvdyfvdyf xoGm;onf/
aoG;ckefESKef;aMumifh wpfukd,fvkH; aEG;axG;oGm;onf/ xdkokdYaEG;axG;oGm;&mrS at;ceJ cHpm;&NyD; a0,HtNrifhodkY
aNrmufwufoGm;ouJhodkY cHpm;vdkuf&Nyefonf/
rNyKH;om r&,fom &ifrSmzdkodyfarm&onfh aomuaNc&mwdkYonf vnf;aumif;? r&kef;omrz,fom tMuifem
,dkzdwfaom armyrf;EGrf;vsrSKwdkYonf vnf;aumif; ydkifpkusif\ &ifxJwGif vSKyf&Sm;cHpm;ae&onf/
ydkifpkusifonf &ifxJrS cHpm;&csufwdkYudk rsufESmwGif ray:vGifatmif MudK;pm;xdef;odrf;onfh taeNzifh
rsufvTmav;udk csum pum;r&Sd pum;&Smí aNymvdkufrdonf/
]]tpfukd usef;rmatmif aeygaemf? uRefrwkdY oGm;awmhr,f}}
ydkifpkusif\ pum;oHrSm &SD;[kef Mum;Edkif&kHavmufom wdk;nSif;vSonf/
&SD;[kefu ESKwfrSraNymbJ acgif;udkom ndwfNyonf/ ydkifpkusifonf csif;csif;udk tomqGJac:um Z&yfxJrS
xGufvmcJhonf/
ydkifpkusifonf rdrd\pdwfudk rdrdtHhMoaerdonf/
,ckuJhokdY ESvkH;om;udk vSKyf&Sm;atmif vTrf;rdk;zefwD;Edkifonfh a,mufsm;rsKd;udk ydkifpkusif rawGYzl;ao;ay/
olronf trdrJhorD;wpfa,muf NzpfaomaMumifh zcifydkifusifvkHudk cspftm;ydkcJhonf/ tvGefyif oHa,mZOf
wG,fcJhonf/
zcifxHwGif odkif;ynm oifMum;aeol [kd,kqefESifh i,fpOfuyif cifrif&if;ESD;cJhonf/
oHa,mZOfqkdonfrSm wG,fwmNcif;[k qdkaomfvnf; [dk,kqeftay:wGif &dk;om;oefYpifpGm cifrifcJhonf/
19
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
yd k i f p k u sif w d k Y \ e*g;NzLa*[mwG i f od k i f ; ynmoif a,muf s m;av;rsm; trsm;tNym;&S d o nf /
xdka,mufsm;av;rsm;ESifh &if;ESD;cifrifpGm aexdkifcJhaomfvnf; yuwd &dk;om;NzLpifaom pdwfNzifhom cifrifcJhonf/
,ck &SD;[kefudk awGY&onfrSm bmrQrMumNrifhao;/ &ufydkif;rQom &Sdao;ovdk tMudrftenf;i,fom
MuKHqkHzl;ao;aomfvnf; owd&Ncif;? wrf;wNcif; ponfhcHpm;rSK rsKd;udk ydkifpkusif cHpm;wwfaeayNyD/
rdrdwdkY c&D;qufxGufcGmoGm;í wpfa,mufwnf; usefaecJhaom &SD;[kefudk odkif;orm;qdk;rsm;u
vma&mufwdkufcdkuf&efNyKrnfhta&; awG;rdNyefaomtcg ydkifpkusifrSm aemufqHwif;ae&Nyefavonf/
ydik pf uk sifonf tdraf xmifa&; aomurkew f ikd ;f udk a&Smif&mS ;um rdrb
d mom at;at;csrf;csrf; aevdak omaMumifh
tdrfrSxGufcGmvmcJhNcif; Nzpfonf/
,ckrl rylcsifvdkY ta0;wdrf;aewmawmif rD;yGm;av;rsm;u pifNzpfatmif pifvkdufMuao;onf/
&SD;[kef\ &nfrGefaom aNympum;rsm;udk em;xJwGif Mum;a,mifaeonf/ &SD;[kef\ cHhnm;acsmarmaom
&kyfoGifu pdwftm&kHwGif xif[yfaeonf/
c&D;qufum a&SYodkY aNcvSrf;ae&aomfvnf; pdwfuawmh aemufodkY Nyefa&GYcsifaeonf/
tNcm;aom a,mufsm;wdkY\ tcspfudk acgif;cgvspfvsL&SKEdkifcJhaom ydkifpkusifonf &SD;[kefudkawmh arhazsmufypfí
r&Edkifatmif Nzpfaeonf/
ydkifpkusif\ Eke,faom ESvkH;om;udk &SD;[kefu pkd;rdk;í xm;avNyD/
tcspfqkdwm 'grsm;vm;[laom tawG;udkyif ydkifpkusif r&Jw&Jav; awG;vmrdonf/
wu,fwrf; aNym&vQif ydkifpkusifonf &SD;[keftaMumif;udk bmrQrodao;ay/ vlaumif;vm;? vlqdk;vm;
qdkonfudkyif cGJNcm;rodEkdifao;ay/
odkYaomf ...
rdef;rysKdav;rsm;\ pdwfxm;um; qef;Mu,fvSonf/
olwdkYonf omrefvlrsm;tay: oHo,pdwfrsm; rsm;wwfaomfvnf; olwdkYcspfcifESpfoufoludkrl
,Ofaus;odrfarGYol? rGef&nfum pdwfxm;NrifhNrwfol? tMuifemw&m; Nynfh0ol[lí ,kHrSwfwwfMuonf/
xdkolaNymorQudkvnf; tMuGif;rJhyif vufcH,kHMunfwwfMuonf/
ydkifpkusifrSmvnf; &SD;[keftay: NrwfEdk;cifrif ESpfoufaeNyD NzpfaomaMumifh &SD;[kefaNymorQudk
oHo,vkH;0r&SdbJ t,HkMuD;,kHrdaeygNyD/
&SD;[kef\ aNymykHqkdykHuvnf; ydkifpkusiftzdkY oHo,uif;p&m NzpfaeNyefonf/
ydkifpkusif\ pdwfxJwGif &SD;[kefonf tvGef&kd;om;ol? pdwfxm;NrifhNrwfol? odkif;orm;qdk;rsm;\ &efNyKrSK
tEå&m,fudk &ifqdkifae&ol? tultnDvdktyfaeol tNzpfom xifrSwfae&Smonf/
pl;prf;qifNcifNcif;rNyKbJ rdrdpdwfxJwGif xifrSwfaerSKudk trSeftNzpf ,kHrSwfxm;rSKonf raumif;aom
tusKd;qufrsm;udk Nzpfay:wwfayonf/
zsHMuD;&SD;[keftay: t,kHMuD;,kHaeavaom ydkifpkusif\ b0vrf;c&D;um; rnfokdYzefwD;vmavrnfenf;/

20
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif

tcef; (4)
ydkifpkusifESifh csif;csif;wdYk ESpfa,mufonf uGrfwkef;Nynfe,fbufodkY a&S;&SKumc&D;qufMuonf/
vrf;c&D;wpfavQmufwGif awGYNrif&aom pdrf;vef;pdkNynfonfh a&aNrawmawmif obm0&SKcif;rsm;onf
ydkifpkusif\ vGrf;oa,mif aqG;ovdk vSKyf&Sm;aeaom pdwfudk tenf;i,f aNyNidrf;aponf/
vSyaom obm0ywf0ef;usifu ydkifpkusifESifh csif;csif;wdkY\ pdwfudk vef;qef;vmapcJhonf/
urÇmausmf w&kwfpma&;q&mMuD; vif,kwef aNymMum;cJhaom "pmayonf pm;yGJckHay:&Sd &SKarQmfcif;Nzpf?
&SKarQmfcif;um; obm0avmuay:&Sd pmayNzpfavonf" [laom pmydk'fudk ydkifpkusif owd&rdonf/
c&D;ESifvmcJhMuaom ydkifpkusifwdkYonf usef;MudK;NrdKUodkY a&muf&SdvmMuonf/
wnf;ckcd ef;iSm;um ypön;f rsm;udk xm;cJMh uNyD; use;f MudK;NrdKU\ &SKcif;udk vSnv
hf nfMunf&h KS &ef xGuv
f mMuonf/
usef;MudK;NrdKUwGif;rS Nzwfum pD;qif;aeonfh avmfyefNrpf\ tvSu wpfrsKd;yif wifharmaponf/
ydkifpkusifwdkY vSnfhvnfMunfh&SKaeqJrSmyif aumif;uifwGif rdk;om;wdrfwdkufrsm; tkHYqdkif;í vmonf/
rdk;eHYygaom avNynfavnif;uvnf; wokefokef wdkufcwfí aeonf/
]]*sdrf; ... 'vdef;}}
us,favmifaom rdk;Ncdrf;oHu &kwfw&uf ay:aygufvmonf/
csif;csif;onf aNcvSrf;wpfcsuf wkHYoGm;um yckH;av;wGefYNyD; ydkifpkusifudk vSrf;Munfhonf/ rdk;Ncdrf;oHudk
xdwfvefYaomfvnf; ydkifpkusifNrifrSm pdk;onfhtwGuf aMumuf&GHU[efrNy&J/
]]rdk;&Gmawmhr,feJY wlw,f? igwkdYuvnf; rdk;eJYcsnf; wdk;aerdawmhwmyJ}}
ydkifpkusifu tkHYrSKdif;aeaom rdk;aumif;uifudk armhMunfhNyD; aNymvdkufav\/
]]rdk;u tawmfonf;r,hfykHyJ rrav;? b,fvdkvkyf MurvJ}}
csif;csif;u rsufvkH;av; uv,fuv,fESifh aNymonf/
"m;orm; av;a,mufukd owdåtNynfhESifh &ifqdkiftEdkif,lcJhaom csif;csif;onf rdk;Ncdrf;oHESifhrdk;udkawmh
vefYaeao;onf/
21
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
]]avSiSm;NyD; oGm;&if aumif;vdrfhr,f? avmavmq,f rdk;cdkp&m&r,fhtNyif avmyefNrpfxJudkvnf;
avQmufMunfhNyD;om; NzpfoGm;r,f}}
ydkifpkusifu rdrdpOf;pm;rdaom tMuHudk xkwfaNymonf/
]]rrav; tMuHodyfaumif;w,f}}
]]vm ... avSqdyfudk tNrefoGm;MupdkY? rdk;u&Gmawmhr,f}}
ydkifpkusifESifh csif;csif;wdkY ESpfa,mufonf avSqdyfodkY cyfokwfokwf aNy;oGm;Muonf/
olwdkYESpfa,muf avSqdyfudk a&muf&SdoGm;csdefwGif rdk;u pwif&Gmcsonf/ avSqdyfwGifvnf; avSrsm;rSm
toD;oD; xGufcGmoGm;ukefMuNyD Nzpf&m aemufqkH;Nzpfaom avSonfyif urf;pyfrS cGmpNyKaeayNyD/
]]avSq&mMuD; ... avSq&mMuD; urf;udkNyefuyfygOD;? uRefrwdkYvnf; vdkufcsifvdkYyg}}
csif;csif;u toHus,fus,fESifh vSrf;atmfonf/
]]usKyfavSudk q&mav;wpfa,mufu iSm;xm;NyD;ygNyD? rdef;uav;wdkY wNcm;avSudk apmifhMunfhMuygOD;}}
avSorm;MuD;u avSudkavSmfcwfae&if;rS NyefatmfaNymonf/
ydkifpkusifESifh csif;csif;wdkY tawmfyif pdwfysufoGm;onf/ rdk;uvnf; tawmfonf;vmNyDNzpf&m
onftwdkif;qdkvQif olwdkYESpfa,mufrSm rdk;a&xJwGif tpkdcH&awmhrnfh taNctaersKd; Nzpfaeonf/
]]avSqdyfrSm wNcm;avSawGvnf; r&Sdawmhbl;? &SifhavSu iSm;xm;NyD;om; Nzpfae&ifvnf; uRefrwdkYyg
twlwlvdkufpD;yg&ap? avScudk ydkay;yghr,f&Sif}}
csif;csif;u avSorm;udk vSrf;aNymqdkaecsdefwGif avSaygif;rdk;atmufrS vl&G,fwpfa,mufonf qDpdrfpuúLNzifh
NyKvkyfxm;onfh xD;wpfvufudk aqmif;um aygif;rdk;tNyifokdY xGufvmonf/
xdkxD;aqmif;xm;olu avSorm;udk wpfpkHwpf&m wD;wkd;aNymvdkuf&m avSorm;onf avSudkNyefvSnfhum
urf;okdY uyfvmonf/
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]]b,folawGrsm;vJvdkY ... vufpowfawmh nDrwdkYygvm;}}
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Nzpfonf/
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&SD;[kefu ydkifpkusifESifh csif;csif;wkdYudk aygif;rdk;xJ 0ifaponf/ oludk,fwdkifrl avSaygif;rdk;xJodkY r0ifbJ
avSOD;wGif xD;aqmif;um &yfaeonf/
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0rf;omMuNrJNzpfonf/
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ydkifpkusifrSm tawmfyif aysmf&TifoGm;rdonf/
]]tpfudkvnf; 0ifvmcJhygvm;}}
csif;csif;u ydkifpkusifudk MunfhNyD;aemuf &SD;[kefudk vSrf;zdwfac:onf/
avSrSm avSi,fav;wpfpD;om Nzpfonf/ aygif;rkd;uvnf; odyfrus,f/ vlESpfa,muf acsmifacsmifcsdcsd
xdkifEdkifonfh tus,f0ef;om&Sdonf/
tu,fí &SD;[kefom avSaygif;rdk;xJokdY 0ifvdkufygu tawmfyif usyfusyfwnf;wnf; NzpfoGm;ayrnf/

22
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
ydkifpkusifESifh &if;ESD;onfxuf ydk&if;ESD;vdkaom &SD;[kefonf aygif;rdk;xJwGif usyfusyfwnf;wnf;
0ifxdkifvdkonf/ odkY&mwGif wpfcGef;zdwfac:&kHESifh csufcsif;0ifa&mufoGm;vQif rdrdtay: tNrifraumif;bJ
&Sdrnfpkd;aomaMumifh tm;em[efNzifh Niif;y,fvdkufonf/
]]nDrwdkY ESpfa,mufyJ aygif;rdk;xJrSm at;at;oufom aeMuyg? wdkYu bmudpörSr&Sdygbl;}}
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vSrf;ac:csifaomfvnf; ESKwfr&JaomaMumifh csDwkHcswkH Nzpfaeonf/
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qufvufavSmfcwfaeonf/
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avuvnf; ydkxefvmonf/
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&SD;[kefrSm xD;aqmif;xm;onf qdkaomfvnf; rdk;'Pfav'Pfudkum; b,fvdkrS rcHEdkif/ ab;bDrS
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]]tpfudkYxD;u rdk;vJvkHatmif rvkyfEdkifygbl;? 'DtxJudkom 0ifvmcJhyg? bmrS tm;remraeygeJY}}
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trSwfrxif oabmNzifh ydkifpkusif\ ab;em;wGif 0ifxdkifvdkufonf/
tom;csif; xduyfrdonf/ tdpufEl;nHhaom tawGYxl;aMumifh &SD;[kef\ &ifxJwGif w'def;'def; ckefvm&onf/
rdk;&Gmí csrf;pdrfhpdrfh &moDOwkrSmyif acR;Nyefvm&onf/
avSuav;u rdk;xJavxJwGif avSmfcwfoGm;aeqJ/
ydkifpkusifonf &SD;[kefudk rsufvkH;&GJMuD;Nzifh wpfcsufMunfhNyD; rsufvTmudk csxm;onf/
]]'geJY pum;rpyf ar;&OD;r,f? [kd[efMuLNrdKUrSmwkef;u tpfudk&SD;[kefudk 0kdif;wkdufcdkufMuwJh vlawGu
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csif;csif;u pum;p&Smum ar;vdkufonf/
&SD;[kefrSm taMumif;&Sm pum;aNym&ef pOf;pm;aeonfNzpf&m csif;csif;\ tar;pum;aMumifh pum;vrf;p
&oGm;onf/
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]]&rf;um;&ufpufvSw,fvdkY emrnfMuD;wJh vlawGvm;? t&dk;pk*dkPf;om;awGudk;? 'gaMumifhvJ 'Davmuf
rdkufvkH;MuD;aeMuwmyJ}}
csif;csif;u rSwfcsufcsonf/
ydkifpkusifurl bmrQraNymbJ em;pGifhíom aeonf/
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wu,fhtNypfuif;onfh vlaumif;av;[k xifap&ef rnfokdYrnfykH aNymMum;&rnfudk MudKwifMuHpnftuGufcsxm;NyD;
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tMuGif;rJh ,kHMunfoGm;Muonf/
t&dk;pk*dkPf;ay: a':oxGufrdovdk &SD;[kefudkvnf; oem;rdMuonf/
23
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
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rodvdkYomaygh? odrsm;od&if uRefrudk,fwdkifxGufNyD; tNywf&Sif;ypfvdkufrSm}}
&SD;[kefaNymNyonfh vkyfMuHZmwfvrf;udk em;axmifNyD;aemuf ydkifpkusifu tHav;Mudwfum aNymonf/
]]uRefruvnf; tJ'DvlawGudk t&dk;pk*dkPf;om;awGrSef; rodvdkY oufnSmNyD; vTwfay;vdkufrdwm
uRefrtNypfygyJ}}
csif;csif;uvnf; aNymonf/
]]nDrwdkYu 'DvlawGtaMumif;udk rodMuvdkY NzpfcJhwmyJ? tNypfqdkp&m r&Sdygbl;? nDrwdkY&JU nSmwmwwfwJh
pdwfxm;udkod&vdkY wdkY*kPf,lrdygw,f? NyD;awmh olwpfyg; qdk;oGrf;wdkif; udk,fu vkdufNyD; &ufpufMurf;MuKwfvdkY
b,fNzpfrSmvJ? 'DvdkomvdkufNyD; &ufpufae&&if udk,fvnf; olwdkYvdkNzpfoGm;rSmaygh}}
&SD;[kefonf taNymaumif;um y&d,m,f MuG,f0vSolNzpfonf/ okdif;avmuwGif usifvnfusufpm;aeol
tcsKdUudkyif &SD;[kefu pum;y&d,m,f MuG,fMuG,fNzifh ,kHMunfatmif aNymEdkifpGrf;&Sdonf/
ydkifpkusifESifh csif;csif;wdkYvdk &dk;pif;aom rdef;rysKdrsm;ukdum; qkdzG,fr&Sdawmh/
ydkifpkusifESifh csif;csif;wdkYonf &SD;[kefudk &efolrsm;tay:wGifyif oabmxm;MuD;MuD; xm;wwfol[k
xifNrifoGm;Muonf/
]]'gayghav? pdwfaumif; apwemaumif;xm;wm[m rGefNrwfygw,f? 'gayr,fh wcsKdYuawmh ta,mifaqmif
rsufESmzkH;eJY vlaumif;olaumif;vdk [efaqmifaewwfMuao;w,f? 'grsKd;udkawmh owdxm;zdkY vdkvdrfhr,f}}
ydkifpkusifu omref&dk;&dk;om;om; aNymMum;vdkufNcif; Nzpfaomfvnf; ta,mifaqmiform; &SD;[kefrSm
rvkHonhftdk; wkwfESifhtxdk;cH&ovdk tawmfyif tae&txkdif& cufoGm;onf/
rdrd\ ta,mifaqmifrSKudk &dyfrdonfhtwGuf þpum;rsKd; aNymavovm;[kvnf; tvefYvefY tzsyfzsyf
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MunfEl;aerdonf/
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txifMuD;oGm;ap&ef ydkifEdkifpGm vkyfaqmifEdkifcJhonf/
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]]anmif&GmavSqdyfurf;udk a&mufygNyD}}
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avSqdyfNzpfayonf/
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aqmif;apNyD; olukd,fwdkifurl rdk;a&xJwGif onftwdkif;yif vrf;avQmufNyefoGm;onf/
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Nynfh0olwpfa,muftNzpf ,lqxm;aomtNrifudk ykdí cdkifrmoGm;aponf/
wnf;cdkcef;odkY a&mufonfESifh ydkifpkusifESifh csif;csif;wkdYonf a&pdkaeaomt0wfrsm;udk vJvS,fum
acgufqGJNyKwf wpfyef;uefpD rSm,lpm;aomufMuonf/
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ydkifpkusifESifh &SD;[kefwkdYudk eD;pyfapvdkaom qE´&Sdaeonf/
24
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
[dkifeefuRef;odkY oGm;&rnfh c&D;vrf;rSm a0;uGmvSonf/ vESifhcsDí oGm;&OD;rnfNzpfonf/
olwdkYESpfa,mufrSm odkif;ynm wwfaNrmufaomfvnf; tawGUtMuKH Eke,fvSao;onf/ ,cifuqdkvQif
tdrfxJu tdrfNyifyif odyfxGufavhr&SdMuay/ e*g;NzLa*[momvQif olwdkYusifvnf&m urÇmav; NzpfcJhonf/
tawG U tMuKH r &S d a om rd e f ; uav;ES p f a ,muf w nf ; a0;vH v S o nf h c&D ; &S n f M uD ; ud k prf ; w0g;0g;
oGm;aeonfxuf ,kHMunftm;udk;&aom a,mufsm;tazmf wpfa,mufa,mufygvQif ydkrdkaumif;rGefrnf[k csif;csif;
awG;rdonf/
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,kHMunfxm;onf/
xdkYaMumifhvnf; &SD;[kefESifh ydkifpkusifwdkY eD;pyfapvdkaom pdwfqE´´ Nzpfay:aerdNcif;Nzpfonf/
tu,fí &SD;[kef taMumif;udkom odvQif csif;csif;taeNzifh þtawG;rsKd; acgif;xJ0ifvmrdrnf r[kwfay/
]]rrav;udk uRefr ar;p&m&Sdw,f? ar;&rvm;[if}}
csif;csif;u pum;pvdkufonf/
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ydkifpkusifu csif;csif;udk pdkufMunfhNyD; NyefaNymonf/
]]tpfudk &SD;[keftay: rrav; b,fvdkNrifovJ}}
ydkifpkusif\ &ifxJwGif 'dwfceJ ckefoGm;onf/
]]eifu bmaMumifh 'Dar;cGef;rsKd; ar;wmvJ}}
]]odcsifvdkYyg rrav;&JU? uJyg uRefr ar;wmudk aNzprf;ygOD;}}
ydkifpkusifu acwåpOf;pm;vdkufNyD;
]]ol [ m &nf r G e f w ,f ? pd w f a umif ; &S d w ,f ? tepf e mcH w wf w ,f ? NyD ; awmh pd w f a epd w f x m;vnf ;
&dk;om;yGihfvif;w,fvdkY xifrdwmyJ}}
]]NyD;awmhaum}}
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]]'gyJvm; rrav;&JU}}
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]]&Sdygao;w,f rrav;&m? rrav;u odvsufeJY raNymbJaewm r[kwfvm;}}
]]igodorQ aNymNyD;NyD? bmrS rusefawmhbl;}}
]]rrav; odygw,f? &SufvdkY raNymbJ aewmyg}}
]]w,fcufygvm; csif;csif;&,f? uJ ... 'DxufydkNyD; eifodxm;wm&Sd&if aNymprf;}}
]]rrav;uvnf; odvsufom;eJY ar;aeNyefNyD}}
]]uJ ... csif;csif; eifaNymcsifaNym raNymcsifvJaeawmh}}
ydkifpkusifrSm pdwfr&SnfEdkifawmhonfhtwGuf avoHrmrmESifh cyfNywfNywf aNymvdkufonf/
]]tif ; aygh a v ... tck a wmh uRef r xuf yd k c if r if w G , f w m&r,f h o l &S d a eNyD q d k a wmh uRef r ud k
ta&;rpdkufawmhbl;aygh}}
þpum;aMumifh ydkifpkusif pdwfvSKyf&Sm;oGm;&onf/ olr\ rsufESmrSmvnf; eDa&miforf;oGm;onf/
]]csif;csif; ... eifhpum;u bmoabmvJ? ighudk &Sif;&Sif;aNymprf;}}
&Sufpdwfudk zkH;uG,faNymvdkuf&onfhtwGuf ydkifpkusif\ pum;oHrSm ydkí rmvmonf/
]]rrav; wu,f pdwfqdk;oGm;ovm; ... [if}}
csif;csif;u r0Hhr&Jav; ar;onf/
csif;csif;onf ydkifpkusifudk i,faMumufNzpf\/ ydkifpkusif pdwfqdk;oGm;rSm tvGefpdk;&drf\/
]]eifu taESmifhrvGwf toGm;rvGwf pum;awG aNymaewmudk;}}
]]aumif;ygNyD rrav;&,f? uRefr pum;aumif;aumif; aNymhygr,f}}
]]aNym ...}}
25
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
]][kdav ... [kd}}
csif;csif;\ rsufESmrSm NyKH;NzJNzJNzpfvmonf/
]]aumifrav; b,fvdkNzpfaewmvJ? aNymifpyfpyfeJY}}
]]rrav;uvnf; [kd[myg? tpfudk&SD;[kef[m cHhnm;w,faemf? acsmaum racsmbl;vm;vdkY aNymrvdkYyg}}
ydkifpkusifrSm rsufarSmifav;MuKwfoGm;um ...
]]tJ'g igeJY bmqdkifvJ}}
]][m ... odyfudk qdkifwmaygh rrav;&JU}}
csif ; csif ; \ pum;u yd k i f p k u sif \ &if x J w G i f vQKd U 0S u f x m;aom ork ' , aES m if M ud K ;wpf r Qif u d k
ouf0ifvSKyf&Sm;vmapcJhonf/
csKdNraom yDwdt[kefudkvnf; wdwfwcdk;av; cHpm;rdvdkuf\/
]]tck rrav;&JUtouf b,favmuf&SdNyDvJ}}
csif;csif;u ar;vmNyefonf/
]]q,fh&SpfESpf &SdNyD}}
]]tif; ... q,fh&SpfESpf ... q,fh&SpfESpf? toufq,fh&SpfESpf qdkawmh tif; ...}}
csif;csif;onf vufnSKd;uav;udk ar;ay:wGif axmufum wwGwfwGwf a&&GwfaNymqdkaeonf/
csif;csif;u wnfhwnfh raNymaomfvnf; bmudkqdkvdkaMumif; ydkifpkusif aumif;aumif; tuJcwfrdonf/
ydkifpkusif\ ESvkH;om;wHcg;csyf yGifh[vmawmhrnfuJhokdY Nzpfaeonf/
ydkifpkusif\ pdwftm&kHwGif &SD;[kef\ &nfrGefacsmarmaom &kyf&nfudk Nrifa,mifvmonf/
[ef M uLNrd K UwG i f awG U qk H c J h & yk H r sm;rS p um avmf y ef N rpf t wG i f ; avS i ,f \ aygif ; rd k ; atmuf ü
yl;yl;uyfuyftwl&SdcJhykHrsm;txd NyefpOf;pm;rdonf/
opömxkHrTrf;aom arwåmpum; tvSrsm; oDaMuG;aeonfh[efukdyif ydkifpkusif pdwful;,Of xifNrifvmrdonf/
e*g;NzLa*[mrS xGufcGmvmcsdefrSpum rSKdifcsnfwpfcg ai;csnfwpfvSnfh NzpfaecJhaom ydkifpkusifrSm
,cktcgwGif wdrfpifavESif 0if;yvsuf prf;a&ES,f Munfvifívmonf/
tcspfaMumifh wkESKdif;uif;aom csrf;aNrYMunfEl;rSKudk &SmawGUavonf/
tcspfaMumifh t&m&mudk &ifqdkif&Jaom &Jpdwf&JrmefawG ay:aygufvmonf/
csif;csif;onf rNrifpzl; xl;uJpGm 0if;yMunfvifaeavaom ydkifpkusif\ rsufESmudk tHhMopGm ai;Munfhrd\/
tawG;Nzifh MunfEl;aeaom ydkifpkusif\ rsufESmu tvGefyifvSyaeonf/ NyKH;&Tifaeonf/ 0if;vJhaeonf/
e*g;NzLa*[mwGif taNcGt&Hrsm;ESifh rawmifhrw raMumifhrMu aecJh&pOf tcsdefuyif onfvdk
MunfEl;aysmf&Tifonfh rsufESmoGifNyifrsKd; rNrifcJh&ay/
,ckrS yxrqkH;tMudrf awGU&Nrif&ay&m csif;csif; taeNzifh tHhMornfqdkygu tHhMoavmufayonf/
touf q,fhaNcmufESpft&G,fom &Sdao;aom csif;csif;onf tcspfpdwfaMumifh MunfEl;aysmf&Tifaeonfh
rdef;rysKdwpfa,muf\ cHpm;rSKudk &kwfw&uf em;rvnfEdkifay/
rnfokdYyifqdkap ydkifpkusifudk ,ckvdk &Tif&Tifvef;vef; awGU&aomtcg csif;csif;vnf; tvdkvdkyif
aysmf&Tifvm&onf/
]]rrav; ...}}
tawG;tm&kHxJwGif ESpfarsmum MunfEl;aeavaom ydkifpkusifrSm csif;csif;\ ac:oHaMumifh vefYoGm;onf/
]]bmvJ[,f ... eifuvJ ... tvefYwMum;eJY}}
]]uRefrac:vdkufwm toHwkd;wkd;av;yg? uRefr ac:oHudk vefYoGm;&atmif rrav; bmawG pdwful;aerSef;rS
rodbJ}}
]]aumifrav;aemf ... r[kwfwmawG avQmufaNymraeeJY? uJ ... uJ ... eif bmaNymcsifvdkYvJ}}
]][kdav ... tpfukd&SD;[kefudk Munfh&wm rrav;tay: pdwf0ifpm;aeovdkyJaemf}}
csif;csif;u aoG;wdk;prf;um r&Jw&J aNym\/

26
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
]]'gawG ig em;rvnfbl;? pdwfvnf; r0ifpm;bl;? tcktcsdefrSm [kdifeefuRef; vufig;acsmif;awmifudk
oGm;zkdYyJ pdwf0ifpm;w,f}}
]][m ... rrav;uvJ q&mrMuD; 0lpifu uRefrwdkYudk tac:vTwfvdkufwmrS r[kwfbJ? uRefrwdkYbmom
oGm;r,fqdkNyD; xGufvmcJhwmyJ r[kwfvm;? 'Dawmh uRefrwdkYtaeeJY [kdifeefuRef;udk roGm;bJ aevdkYvnf; &wmyJ?
uRefrwdkY ESpfa,muf[m i,fi,fav; &Sdygao;w,f? [kdifeefuRef;udk oGm;NyD; q&mrMuD; 0lpifvdkyJ wpfoufvkH;
aeoGm;&rSmvm;}}
0lpifonf tdrfaxmifvnf;rNyK? tNcm; taysmftyg;vnf; r&SdbJ [kdifeefuRef; vufig;acsmif;awmifay:wGif
aexdkifaeonf/
0lpifwGif wynfhwyef;rsm;pGm &Sdaomfvnf; xdkwynfhrsm;onf rdef;rom;rsm;omNzpfNyD; cspfolr&Sm
tdrfaxmifrNyKbJ wpfukd,fa& wum,om aexdkifMu&onf/
csif;csif;u xdktcsufudk &nf&G,fum ydkifpkusiftm; aNymvdkufNcif; Nzpfonf/
ydkifpkusifrSm csif;csif;udk wkHYNyefaNymqdk&ef pum;vkH; &Smr&Edkifatmif Nzpfaeonf/
]][if; ...}}
pdwfxJwGif wif;usyfovdk NzpfvmaomaMumifh ydkifpkusifonf oufNyif;armwpfcsuf rSKwfxkwfvdkufonf/
]]ightaeeJY q&mrMuD;0lpifvdk cspfolr&Sm tdrfaxmifrNyKbJ aeEdkifyghrvm;? iguaeEdkifw,fxm;OD;?
csif;csif;twGufudk xnfhpOf;pm;&r,f? ol[m ighudk oHa,mZOf odyf&SdwmaMumifh ighaemufudk vkdufrSm trSefyJ?
olY&JU i,f&G,fEkysKdwJhb0udk txD;usefNzpfoGm;atmif igvkyfovdk Nzpfae&if NzpfaerSm}}
ydkifpkusifrSm trsKd;rsKd;awG;um pdwfarmaerdonf/
pdwftusOf;tusyfusolwdkY\ xkH;pHtwdkif; oufNyif;wpfcsuf csvdkufNyefonf/
]]at;av ... eifaNymwmvJ [kwfygw,f? 'Dawmh igaoaocsmcsm pOf;pm;OD;r,f}}
pum; qufraNymNzpfMuawmh/
olwdkYESpfa,mufonf c&D;yef;vmMuaomaMumifh tdyf&mxJ0ifum vJavsmif;tem;,lvdkufMuavonf/
rdk;rSm wdwfawmhrvdkvdkESifh wpdrfhpdrfh &GmoGef;aeqJyifNzpfonf/
ydkifpkusifESifh csif;csif;wdkYrSmvnf; rdk;at;at;wGif tawG;yifv,fa0aeMuonf/
aemufwpfaeYeHeuf rdk;vif;onfESifh ydkifpkusifwdkY wnf;cdkaexdkif&modkY &SD;[kef a&muf&Sdvmonf/
&SD;[kefonf tat;rd[efNzifh ESmwacsacs Nzpfaeonf/
]]nDrwdkY aeaumif;Muw,faemf? raeYu rdk;rdwmaMumifh nDrwdkYESpfa,muf zsm;emaeMurvm;vdkY wkdYNzifh
wpfnvkH; awG;ylaerdw,f}}
ykdifpkusifwdkYudk awGY&onfESifh &SD;[kefu pkd;&drf[efNzifh aNymonf/
]]uRefrwdkY[m omrefrdef;rom;awG r[kwfygbl;? twGif;tm;avhusifhxm;wJh odkif;ynm&SifawGyg?
odkif;ynmwwfxm;wJh vlawGtzdkY rdk;rdwmavmufudk ta&;xm;p&m r[kwfygbl;}}
csif;csif;u NyKH;&,fum NyefaNymonf/
þtcgwGifrl &SD;[kefonf rdrdtaeNzifh tat;rdum acsmif;qdk;ESmacs NzpfcJh&rSKtwGuf tawmfyif tm;r&Edkif
NzpfoGm;onf/
]]aMomf ... [kwo f m;yJ [kwo f m;yJ? nDrwdYk u wdYk xuf odik ;f ynmawG trsm;MuD; omaewmyJ? rd;k rdwmavmufukd
ta&;xm;p&m rvdkygbl;? wdkYu tpkd;&drfvGefNyD; 'gudk arhoGm;w,fav}}
&SD;[kefu t&SufaNyNyKH;&,fum aNymvdkufonf/
]]olYvdk a,mufsm;MuD; wpfa,mufawmif tat;rdNyD; ESmacsaewmqdkawmh igwdkY rdef;rom; ESpfa,muftzdkY
ydt
k aNctae qd;k r,fqNkd yD; pk;d &drrf &d mS [ef wlyg&JU? tif; ... ol[m tawmhu f kd ud,
k cf sif;pmNyD; MuifemwwfwhJ vlygyJvm;}}
ydkifpkusif\ pdwfxJ awG;vdkufrdonf/
]]tpfudkuom xD;ray;cJh&if uRefrwdkYESpfa,mufvnf; tat;rdrSm trSefygyJ? uRefrwdkYudk xD;ay;xm;cJhNyD;
tpfudku rdk;a&xJrSm onftwdkif; NyefoGm;awmh tat;rd&wmaygh? tpfudkYudk trsm;MuD; aus;Zl;wifygw,f}}
ydkifpkusifu t&nfvJhaeaom rsufvkH;&GJMuD;rsm;ESifh &SD;[kefudk MunfhNyD;aNymonf/
27
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
ydkifpkusif\ pum;aNymh &SD;[kefrSm MunfEl;pdwfrsm; t&dyfa0NzmoGm;rdav\/
]]'Dvdk tao;tzGJ udprö sKd;av;twGuf taxGtxl; aus;Zl;wifraeygeJY nDr&,f? nDrwdkY&JU tultnDaMumifh
wdkY&JU toufwpfacsmif; 'DaeYtxd &Sifoefae&wmyg? 'Daus;Zl;udk b,fvdkqyf&rSef;awmif rod&ao;ygbl;?
'DMum;xJrSm nDru aus;Zl;wifpum; qdkvmawmh wdkYNzifh rsufESmb,fvdkxm;&rSef; rodawmhbl;}}
pum;wwfaom &SD;[kefu &Tef;&Tef;a0atmif NyefaNymvdkufonf/
]]uJ ... tpfudk&SD;[kef rrav;eJY pum;aNymaecJhOD;? tpfudk &SD;[keftwGuf pm;p&mwpfckck uRefr
oGm;rSmvdkufOD;r,f}}
csif;csif;u þodkYaNymNyD; tcef;tNyifodkY xGufoGm;awmhonf/
trS e f p pf p pf wnf ; cd k & d y f o m vk v if w pf a ,muf a ,muf u d k vS r f ; ac:um pm;aomuf z G , f & mrsm;
rSmMum;vQifvnf; &Edkifayonf/
&SD;[kefESifh ydkifpkusifwdkYudk ydkrdk&if;ESD;oGm;apvdkaomaMumifh csif;csif;u pm;aomufzG,f&mrsm;udk
udk,fwdkifrSmMum;&ef qdkNyD;wrif a&SmifxGufoGm;Ncif; Nzpfonf/
ydkifpkusifuvnf; csif;csif; wrifa&Smifay;rSef; odaomfvnf; [efYwm;Ncif; rNyKcJhay/
csif;csif;onf ydkifpkusifudk cspfvnf;cspf\/ aMumufvnf;aMumuf\/ &SD;[keftay: ydkifpkusif
pdwf0ifpm;aeaMumif; csif;csif;odonf/ i,f&G,fol csif;csif;onf &SD;[kefESifh cspfMudKufoGm;vQif ydkifpkusif\ b0
pdkNynfat;csrf;vmrnf[k &dk;pif;pGm awG;rdonf/
xdkYaMumifhvnf; t&JpGefYum a&Smifay;vdkufonf/
ydkifpkusif pdwfqdk;rSmudkvnf; awG;ylaeao;\/
tcef;xJwGif wdwfqdwfaeonf/
ydkifpkusifa&m &SD;[kefyg awmfawmfESifh pum;raNymNzpfMu/
&SD;[kefonf wzufom;usavmufatmif pum;y&d,m,f toG,foG,fNzifh pDumywfukH; aNymqdkwwfonf/
ydkifpkusifESifh ESpfa,mufcsif; awGU&vQif rnfokdYrnfykH aNymqdkvdkufrnf[lívnf; MudKwifí pdwful;xm;cJhNyD;
Nzpfonf/
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pum;pum aNym&rnfudk &kwfw&uf pOf;pm;r&bJ ESKwfqdwfíaeonf/
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acgif;av;udkom ikHYxm;rdonf/
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]]t[rf; ... tJ ... nDr ... pkusif}}
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toHrSmrl ododomom wkef,ifaeonf/
]][kdav ... nDrudk wpfckavmuf tJ ... ar;csifvdkY}}
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csif;csif;r&SdbJ rdrdwpfa,mufwnf; Nzpfaecdkuf &SD;[kefu cspfpum; MudKufpum;awG aNymvmvQif [laom
tawG;aMumifh ydkifpkusifrSm aNczsm;vufzsm;awG at;pufvm&onf/
]]nDr csif;csif;&JU odkif;ynmu wu,fudk xufNrufwmyJaemf? olawmif 'Davmufawmfae&if nDrpkusifqdk
t&rf;udk tpGrf;xufvdrfhr,fvdkY wkdY ,kHMunfw,f}}
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rsufESmtrlt&mudkvnf; ododomomyif pl;pdkufavhvmonf/
28
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
&SD;[kef\ ay:ay:xifxif csD;rGrf;vmaom pum;ESifh tMunfhaMumifh ydkifpkusifrSm &SKd;wdkY&SefYwefYNzpfum
rsufESmtxm;& cufoGm;onf/
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wpfoufwmrSm odkif;ynm Nrifhrm;wJh rdef;rysKdawG trsm;MuD; Nrifzl;ygw,f? 'gayr,fh nDrwdkYavmuf odkif;ynm
Nrifhrm;wmawmh rawGYzlao;ygbl;/ wdkYwu,faNymaewmyg? aNr§mufyifhNyD;vJ raNymwwfygbl;}}
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vQmay: wHawG; rwifatmifyif aNymEdkifonf/
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ESpfNcKdufaerdonf/
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f cdk sifaom odik ;f ynmrsm;udk oifMum;ay;vdpk w d f
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odkYaomf &SD;[kefu rdrdxuf toufMuD;aeonfhtwGuf oifay;&ef roifhavsmfrnfudk pOf;pm;rdNyefum
csDwkHcswkH Nzpfaeonf/
]]tpfudku uRefrxuf toufMuD;aewmqdkawmh ...}}
ydkifpkusifu pum;pvdkufonfESifh &SD;[kefonf ydkifpkusif\ pum;rqkH;rD Mum;0ifNyD; ...
]]wdkYu nDrxuf toufenf;enf; ydkMuD;ayr,fh nDroifMum;ay;wmudk aumif;aumif;rGefrGef oif,lyghr,f?
wdkYudk odkif;ynm oifay;ygaemf}}
ydkifpkusifrSm tirf;r& awmif;qdkaeaom &SD;[kefudk rnfodkYtaNzay;&rnf rodbJ tusyfawGYaeonf/
xdktcsdefrSmyif csif;csif;\ acgif;xJwGif pdwful;wpfck ay:vmonf/
qdk;qdk;qwfqwf vkyfaqmifwwfaom csif;csif;onf pOf;pm;rdaom pdwful;udk csufcsif;yif taumiftxnf
azmfvdkufonf/
29
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
]]tpfudk &SD;[kef ... cP? tMuHwpfck ay;p&m&SdvdkY}}
csif;csif;onf xdkodkYaNym&if; &SD;[kefudk tcef;tNyifokdY ac:oGm;onf/
}}csif;csif; ... eifbmawGavQmuft&l;xaewmvJ}}
ydkifpkusifu csif;csif;udk vSrf;atmfaNymonf/
csif;csif;u ydkifpkusif\ atmfaNymoHudk rMum;[efNyKum &SD;[kefukdom tcef;tNyifokdY ac:xkwfoGm;onf/
cPtMumwGif &SD;[kef wpfa,mufwnf; tcef;xJodkY Nyef0ifvmonf/
&SD;[kef\ trlt&mrSm wkefwkef,if,if Nzpfaeonf/ pdwfvSKyf&Sm;aeaMumif; odomonf/
]]nDr ... pkusif ... [dk ... [kd}}
&SD;[kefu pum;ponf/
ydkifpkusifu bmrQNyefraNym/ &SD;[kefu qufaNymrnfh pum;rsm;udkom apmifhvifhaeonf/
&SD;[kefu pum;udk qkH;atmifraNymao;aomfvnf; ydkifpkusif\ pdwfxJwGifrl &SD;[kef bmaNymrnfudk
odaeovdkvdk Nzpfaeonf/
ydik pf u
k sif\ &ifxw J iG f vSKyf&mS ;aeonf/ ESv;Hk u w'de;f 'de;f ckeaf eonf/ rdr\
d ud, k cf E¨monf a0,HtNrifo h Ydk
vGifhaNrmufwufoGm;ovdkvdk cHpm;ae&onf/
xdktcsdefrSmyif &SD;[kef\ pum;oHrsm; qufvufay:xGufvmonf/
tem;uyfum cyfwdk;wdk; aNymaeNcif;Nzpfaomfvnf; a0;vHoDacgifaom t&yfrSm atmf[pfaNymMum;oHvdkvdk
ydkifpkusif\ pdwfxJwGif xifrdonf/
]]nDrukd ... wdkYcspfw,f? nDrudk wpfoufvkH; apmifha&SmufoGm;csifw,f? twlwlvufwGJNyD; b0vrf;rSm
avQmufvSrf;cGifhNyKygaemf ...}}
]]tdk ...}}
ydkifpkusif\ ESKwfzsm;rS toHav;wpfcsuf xGufoGm;onf/ &SD;[kefxHrS þpum;rsKd; aNymvmawmhrnfudk
Mud K wif o d x m;vsuf E S i f h y if wu,f w rf ; em;ES i f h q wf q wf Mum;vm&aaomtcgwG i f u m; &if x J w G i f
wif;qnfawmifhcHEdkifpGrf; r&Sdatmif vSKyf&Sm;oGm;&awmhonf/
xdkw'*Ftcsdefav;twGif;ü &SD;[kef\ arwåmaw;oHonf rdrdudk tkyfrdk;vTrf;NcKHvdkufaMumif; ydkifpkusif
od&avonf/
ydkifpkusif\ pdwftpOfrSm avNynfavnif; wdkufcwfrSKwGif ,drf;EGJUvSKyf&Sm;aeaom Mumyef;av;ES,f
NzpfoGm;awmhonf/
tcspfonf xl;qef;vSonf/
tcspfaMumifh qifNcifwkHw&m; avsmhyg;Edkifonf/
tcspf p d w f vT r f ; NcKH v mvQif bmud k r Q rod E d k i f a wmh / rd r d c spf o l o nf vk H ; 0 tNypf u if ; um
taumif;qkH;tawmfqkH;[k xifwwfonf/
tcspfpdwf vTrf;NcKHvmvQif bmudkrqdk &ifqdkif&Jonf/
cspfoltwGuf avmuMuD; wpfckvkH;udk qefYusif&efvnf; 0efrav;/
&SD;[kefonf ydkifpkusifudk awGYpuwnf;uyif tydkifMuHvdkpdwfrsm; ay:aygufvmcJhonf/
ydkifpkusif\ tcspfudk vdkcsifonf? ydkifpkusif\ okdif;ynmrsm;udk t"du&,lcsifonf/
tcGifhtcgudkMunfhum ydkifpkusif\ odkif;ynmudk &,l&ef yxrtqifh taeNzifh tpysKd;cJhonf/ &if;ESD;rSK
cdkifNrJvmrS arwåmawmif;cHrnfh tpDtpOfudk cs&ef wGufcsufxm;cJhonf/
odkYaomf csif;csif;u tMuHay;aumif;NyD; rdrduvnf; pGefYpm;aNymqdkMunfhvdkuf&m wdkawmif;vSaom
tcsdefav;twGif;rSmyif arQmfvifhxm;onfxuf ydkrdk tqifacsmoGm;&awmhonf/
&SD;[kef aysmfrqkH;awmhay/
ydkifpkusifESifh csif;csif;wdkYrSmvnf; olwdkY wGufudef;ESifholwdkY MunfEl;aysmf&TifaeMuonf/
tu,fí ydkifpkusifESifh csif;csif;wkdYonf zsHMuD;&SD;[kef\ taMumif;udk odrnfqdkygvQif .../

30
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif

tcef; (5)
ezl;pm; &Gmvnfonf[k qdk&rnfavm rod/
ydkifpkusifESifh &SD;[kef arwåmrQum tMuifvifr,m; tNzpfvufxyfaygif;oif;vdkufonf/
[dkifeefuRef; vufig;acsmif;awmif odkYoGm;a&mufNcif; rNyKawmhyJ usef;MudK;NrdKUwGifyif taNccsum
aexdkifvdkufMuonf/
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aq;0g;ukorSKwGifvnf; tqifhNrifhonf/
ydkifpkusifonf zcifxHrS odkif;ynmudkomru aq;0g;ukorSK twwfynmudkyg tarGqufcH&&Sdxm;cJhonf/
csif;csif;onfvnf; ydkifpkusif\ &Ha&Gazmf rdef;uav;wpfa,mufNzpfonfh tm;avsmfpGm aq;azmfpyfrSK?
aq;ukoNyKpkrSKwdkYwGif uRrf;usifwwfaNrmufonf/
&SD;[kefESifhvufxyfNyD;aemuf ydkifpkusifonf ygvmonfh vuf0wfvufpm; tcsKdUudk a&mif;csum
tdrfi,fav;wpfvkH;0,fí aq;qdkifwpfqkdif zGifhvSpfcJhonf/
xdkaq;qdkifudk ]xl;cRefaq;qdkif} [k trnfay;vdkufavonf/
ydkifpkusiftzdkY udk,fydkifaetdrf? udk,fydkifvkyfief;ESifh taNcusaeNyD[k xifrSwfum txl;yifauseyfaysmf&Tif
aeonf/
ydkifpkusifonf &dk;om;onf/ tawGUtMuKHvnf;enf;vSonfhtwGuf &SD;[kefaNymorQudk ,kHMunfcJhonf/
&SD;[kefudkvnf; aiGaMu;rMuG,f0aomfvnf; pdwfxm;aumif;rGefonfh rsKd;aumif;&dk;aumif; vl&G,fwpfa,muf[k
xifrSwfxm;&Smonf/
[efaqmifaumif;NyD; pum;y&d,m,f MuG,f0vSaom &SD;[keftwGuf tMuHatmifum acwåcPawmh
[efusaeonf[k qdk&ayrnf/
&SD;[kefonf ydkifpkusif\ cspfarwåmudk t&,lEdkifNyD;aemuf ydkifpkusifxHrS odkif;ynmrsm;udk oif,lEdkif&ef
qufvufMudK;pm;Nyefonf/
31
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
tMuifvifr,m;tNzpfyif vufxyfaygif;oif;aexdkifMuNyD NzpfonfhtwGuf &SD;[keftzdkY ydkifpkusifxHrS
tqifhNrifh odkif;ynmrsm; oif,lEdkifa&;tawGuf cufcufcJcJ MudK;yrf;ae&ef rvdkawmhay/
ydik pf u
k siu f rdro
d nf e*g;NzLa*[mrS ydik u f siv f \
Hk orD;NzpfaMumif; cifyeG ;f onf &S;D [keu f kd xkwaf zmfaNymonf/
xdkYaemuf e*g;NzLa*[m\ rsKd;qufodkif;ynm Nzpfaom e*g;NzL u0draemodkif;ynmudk &SD;[keftm; oifMum;ay;onf/
e*g;NzL u0draemokdif;ynmonf okdif;avmu\ xdyfwef;odkif;ynm&yfMuD;Nzpfaom u0draem odkif;ynm\
tudkif;tcuf wpfckNzpfayonf/
u0draemodkif;ynmwGif odkif;uGuf q,fh&SpfuGuf&SdNyD; usifhpOftm;Nzifh ckepfrsKd;uGJNym;onf/
usifhpOfwpfrsKd;pDudk odkif;avmu\ xdyfoD;odkif;orm;MuD; ckESpfOD;u wpfOD;vQif wpfrsKd;pD cGJa0um
wwfaNrmufxm;Muonf/ xdkodkif;orm;MuD; ckepfOD;udk e*g;u0d ckepfql[k wifpm;ac:qdkMuonf/
vG e f c J h a om ES p f a ygif ; rsm;pG m u od k i f ; avmuwG i f u0d r aem*d k P f ; [l a om tif t m;MuD ; rm;onf h
odkif;tzGJUMuD;wpfck &SdcJhonf/
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yaysmufa&;twGuf wwfEdkifonfhbufrS yg0ifMuonf/
odkif;ynmudk tvGJokH;pm;vkyfum udk,fusKd;&Sm tNrwfxkwfaeMuonfh vrf;vGJodkif;orm;qdk;rsm;onf
u0draem*dkPf; ysufpD;&m ysufpD;aMumif; qefYusifvkyfaqmifcJhMuonf/
u0draemodkif;orm;rsm;uvnf; Nynfolvlxkudk taESmifht,Sufay;aeMuonfh vrf;vGJodkif;orm;qdk;rsm;udk
vdkufvHacsrSKef;Muonf/
þokdYNzifh vrf;vGJodkif;orm;rsm;wGif tiftm;pGrf;yum; tMuD;rm;qkH;Nzpfaom rdpämraem*dkPf;ESifh
u0draem*dkPf;wdkY xdyfwdkif&ifqdkif wdk;rdMuavawmhonf/
þodkY&ifqdkifawGUrSKonf taumif;ESifhtqdk;wdkY\ tm;NydKifrSK[lívnf; qdkEdkifonf/
rdpämraem*dkPf;u qdk;oGrf;&rf;um;rSKudk udk,fpm;NyKonf/ u0draem*dkPf;u aNzmifhrwfwnfMunfrSKudk
udk,fpm;NyKonf/
rd p ä m raem*d k P f ; 0if od k i f ; orm;qd k ; rsm;\ rd k u f r J &rf ; um;rS K rsm;ud k u0d r aemod k i f ; orm;rsm;u
vdkufvHacsrSKef;ESdrfeif;onf/
u0d r aemod k i f ; orm;rsm;\ trsm;tusKd ; aqmif r S K vk y f i ef ; rsm;ud k rd p ä m raemod k i f ; orm;rsm;u
vdkufvHaESmifh,Sufwdkufcdkufonf/
u0d r aemod k i f ; \obm0ES i f h rd p ä m raemod k i f ; \ obm0wd k Y uvnf ; wpf c k E S i f h w pf c k
qefYusifbufNzpfaeMuav\/
u0draemodkif;\ usOfYpOfckepfrsKd;tay:wGif taNcNyKum e*g;NzLa*[m? e*g;euf*dkPf;? e*g;eD*dkPf;?
e*g;0g*dkPf;? e*g;pdrf;*dkPf;? rdk;e*g;*dkPf;ESifh aNre*g;*dkPf;[lí *dkPf;tzGJU ckepfck uGJNym;cJhonf/
xdk*dkPf;ckepfck\ acgif;aqmifrsm;udkvnf; ]e*g;u0dckepfql} [k ac:cJhMuonf/
e*g;u0dckepfqlwkdY tygt0if u0draem odkif;orm;rsm;onf pnf;vkH;nDnGwfzdkYvdktyfaMumif;udkum;
a,bk,stm;Nzifh vufcHMuonf/
od k Y & mwG i f u0d r aemod k i f ; tEG , f 0 if t aygif ; ud k cd k i f r muspf v spf p G m pnf ; &k H ; acgif ; aqmif a &;wG i f r l
twårmersm;&SdaeonfhtwGuf vufawGUpnf;vkH;nDnGwfrSK&atmif rvkyfEdkifcJhMuay/
pnf;&kH;OD;aqmifrnfh acgif;aqmifae&mudk ol&xdkufonf ig&xkdufonf[lí tNiif;yGm;aecJhMuonf/
aemufqkH;wGifrl aysmufqkH;aeaom u0draemodkif;usrf;ESifh e*g;u0dtrdefYawmf ausmufpdrf;Nym;wdkYudk
vuf0,f&&Sdatmif vkyfaqmifEdkifoludk u0draemodkif;tEG,f0ifwkdY\ OD;pD;acgif;aqmiftNzpf todtrSwfNyK&ef
oabmwlcJhMuonf/
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e*g;u0dtrdefYawmf ausmufpdrf;Nym;wdkYudk MuKd;pm;&SmazGcJhMuonf/
*dkPf;tzGJY ckepfckwdkYonf rdrdwdkY\*dkPf;0ifrsm;udkom rdrdwdkY\odkif;usifhpOfrsm; oifMum;avhusifhay;Muonf/
tNcm;aom*dkPf;rsm;rS u0draemodkif;tEG,frsm;udkrl oifMum;ay;Ncif;rNyKbJ txl;yifvQKdU0Sufxm;Muonf/
32
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
þod k Y Nzif h u0d r aemod k i f ; tEG , f 0 if r sm;onf u0d r aemod k i f ; ud k usif h p Of w pf r sKd ; pD N zif h o m
wwfaNrmufaecJhMuonf/
u0d r aemod k i f ; onf tpG r f ; xuf v S o nf h tqif h N rif h ok d i f ; ynmNzpf a y&m usif h p Of w pf r sKd ;
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u0draemodkif;usrf;ESifh e*g;u0dtrdefYawmf ausmufpdrf;Nym;&SmazG&&Sdxm;ol ay:aygufvmvQif xdkoludk
u0draemodkif; tEG,f0ifwdkY\ OD;pD;acgif;aqmiftNzpf wnDwnGwfwnf; wifaNr§mufMu&ef *dkPf;ckepf*dkPf;rS
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ay:aygufvmcJhonf/
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rdpämraemodkif;udk acsrSKef;tEdkif,lEdkifonfh odkif;ynmqdkí u0draemodkif;wpfckwnf;om&Sdonf/
u0draemodkif;udk usifhpOfckepfrsKd;ESifh NynfhNynfhpkHpkH wwfaNrmufonfh odkif;ynm&Sifr&Sdonfh taNctaewGif
rd p ä m raemod k i f ; usrf ; ud k &&S d N yD ; avh u sif h a tmif N rif o l o nf ok d i f ; avmuud k cg;apmif ; wif u m
pkd;rkd;Nc,fvS,fEdkifrnfNzpfonf/
xdkYaMumifhvnf; rdpämraemodkif;usrf;udk taotvJvdkufvH &SmazGaeolrsm; ay:aygufvmNcif;Nzpfonf/
rdpämraemodkif;usrf;ESifh u0draemodkif;usrf;wdkY ay:aygufvmMuNyD [laom owif;rsm;vnf; rMumcPyif
Nzpfay:vmonf/
xdkodkif;usrf;ESpfckESifh ywfoufí odkif;orm;tcsif;csif; wdkufckdufowfNzwfrSKrsm;uvnf; renf;awmhay/
u0d r aemod k i f ; tEG , f 0 if r sm;tMum;wG i f v nf ; wNcm;aom u0d r aemod k i f ; tEG , f 0 if * d k P f ; rsm;\
odkif;usifhpOfrsm;udk t&,lEdkif&ef enf;vrf;trsKd;rsKd;Nzifh MuKd;yrf;rSKawG ydkrsm;vmonf/
&SD;[kefonf xdkokdYaom MudK;yrf;rSKwpfck\ Zmwfaumifwpfaumif Nzpfae&ayawmhonf/
&S D ; [k e f t zd k Y e*g;NzLu0d r aemod k i f ; ynmud k oif M um;cG i f h & Ncif ; onf xl ; uJ v S a om
tcGifhtvrf;MuD;yifNzpfayonf/
y&d,m,ftoG,foG,f? ta,mifaqmifrSKtrsKd;rsKd;Nzifh yJhrygonfhavS? ZufMudK;rJhNrif;vdk xif&mpdkif;um
vkyfaqmifcJhrSKonf Mum&SnfzkH;uG,fí rxm;EdkifcJhay/
tvQHnD;nD; awmufavmifaeonfh rD;udk puúLESifhxkyfumxm;í r&ovdk ta,mifaqmifrSKrSmvnf;
Mum&SnfrNrJEdkifcJhay/
ta,mifaqmifrSK ay:aygufvmaomtcgwGifrl .../
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vufwGJavQmufvSrf;cJhonfrSm okH;vcefYyif tcsdefMumNrifhvmonf/
obm0"r® w mtwd k i f ; yd k i f p k u sif x H w G i f &if a oG ; i,f w pf a ,muf y#d o aE¨ & S d a eonf r S m vnf ;
ESpfvMumNrifhaeayNyD/
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MudK;pm;yrf;pm; oif,lavhusifhcJhonfhwdkif olYtzdkY e*g;NzLu0draemodkif;uGuf q,fh&SpfuGufwGif &SpfuGufudkom
em;vnfao;onf/
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avhusifhae&qJNzpfonf/

33
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
wpfnaewGif aq;qdkifodrf;NyD;aemuf &SD;[kefESifh ydkifpkusifwdkYESpfa,muf odkif;ynmavhusifhoifMum;rSK
NyKvkyf&ef Nyifqifaecdkuf csif;csif;onf tcef;xJodkY taNy;tvTm;yif a&muf&Sdvmonf/
]]bmNzpfwmvJ ... csif;csif;}}
csif;csif;\ trlt&m xl;Ncm;aomaMumifh ydkifpkusifu ar;Nref;vdkufonf/
taNy;tvTm;vmcJh&aom csif;csif;onf arm[kdufae[efNzifh toufudkNyif;pGm&SLae&onf/ ydkifpkusif\
tar;udkvnf; taNzray;ao;bJ rsufvkH;MuD; tNyL;om;Nzifh ydkifpkusifudk Munhfaeonf/
ydkifpkusif\ &ifxJwGif xifhceJNzpfoGm;onf/
csif;csif;\ taMumif;udkvnf; ydkifpkusif aumif;aumif;odxm;onf/
csi;f csi;f onf aysmaf ysm&f iT &f iT af ewwfonf/ pum;udk a[ma[m'dik ;f 'kid ;f aNymwwfonf/ rnfonf&h efou l rkd qdk
&J&J&ifh&ifh &ifqdkif&Jonf/
,ckcsif;csif;onf trlt&mysufavmufatmif Nzpfae&m xdwfvefYp&maumif;vSaom tNzpfwpfckck
MuKHawGUvmaMumif; raNymbJESifh odEdkifonf/
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34
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35
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36
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37
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]]csif;csif; NrefNrefvmcJhprf;}}
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þZ&yfwGif vlolpnfum;Ncif; odyfr&SdvSay/ ,ckvdk reufydkif; tcsdefrsKd;wGifawmh vlwpfa,mufwavrQyif
vmavhr&Sday/
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Z&yfay:okdY &SD;[kef wufvdkufonfESifh &e,fwdkifrsm;ay:rS 0g;OD;xkyfMuD;rsm; udk,fpD aqmif;xm;onfh
ykyk00 vlwpfa,mufESifh ydefydefyg;yg; vlwpfa,mufwkdY ckefqif;vmMuonf/

38
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
]]b,frSmvJ ypönf;}}
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&SD;[kefu xdkodkYaNymNyD;aemuf tusÐtdwfxJrS txkyfav; wpfxkyfudk xkwf,lum urf;ay;vdkufonf/
00ykyv k ul xdt k xkyu f kd vSr;f ,lvu
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xdkolESpfa,mufonf rdrdESifhcsdef;qdkxm;olrsm; r[kwfEdkifaMumif; tuJcwfrdvdkufonfhtwGuf &SD;[kefu
urf;xm;aom vufudk Nyef&kyfvdkufNcif; Nzpfavonf/
0wfykHpm;ykHESifh udk,fvkH;udk,fxnfcsif; wlnDaomfvnf; xdkolESpfa,mufonf &SD;[kef wpfcgrQ rNrifzl;aom
rsufESmpdrf;rsm; Nzpfaeonf/
]]cifAsm;wdkY b,folawGvJ}}
&SD;[kefu ar;vdkufonf/
]][m; ... [m; ... [m; ... [m; ... &SD;[kef? rif;u tawmftuif;yg;wmyJudk;}}
00ykykvlu aNymaNymqdkqdk "m;&SnfudkqGJxkwfí &SD;[keftm; okH;csufqifhum ckwfydkif;vdkufonf/
&SD;[kefrSmvnf; owdNzifh toifh&SdaeolNzpfonfhtwdkif; "m;csufrsm;udk vGwfatmif a&SmifvdkufEdkifonf/
ydefydefyg;yg;vluvnf; "m;&Snfudk qGJxkwfNyD; wdkufyGJ0ifvmonf/
&SD;[kefrSm aq;Nrpf0,f&ef[laom taMumif;NycsufNzifh tdrfrSxGufvmcJhaomaMumifh vufeufygrvmcJhay/
"m;orm;ESpfa,muf\ wdkufcdkufrSKudk vufeufrJhNzifhom &ifqdkifckcH&onf/
"m;&dyf"m;a,mifrsm;u &SD;[kefudk vTrf;rdk;xm;onf/
wpfzufvlESpfa,muf\ odkif;ynmrSm &SD;[kefxuf omvGefonf/ xdkYNyifvufeufudk,fpDvnf;
udkifaqmifxm;Muonfh twGuf wpfyef;omaeonf/
&SD;[kefrSm "m;csufrsm;tMum;wGif tvl;tvJyif cHae&onf/
rdrdtaeNzifh wpfzufvl ESpfa,muf\ "m;csufrsm;udk ckcH&ef rvG,fawmhaMumif; &SD;[kefem;vnfonf/
xdkYaMumifh &SD;[kefrSm rwwfomawmhyJ e*g;NzLu0draemodkif;ynmudk xkwfokH;&avawmhonf/
e*g;NzLu0draemodkif;ynmwGif odkif;uGufq,fh&SpfuGuf &Sdonfhteuf &SD;[kefonf odkif;uGuf&SpfuGufudkom
em;vnfxm;onf/ ydkifydkifEdkifEdkifum; avhusifhEdkifNcif; r&Sdao;ay/
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&SD;[keftaeNzifh odyfydkifydkifEdkifEkdif r&Sdao;aom okdif;uGuf&SpfuGufNzifhyif wpfzufvl ESpfa,muf\ wdkufppfudk
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]][kwfw,f ... [kwfw,f}}
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apmapmuESifh bmrQrqdkifawmh/ Nyif;xefMurf;wrf;vSaom "m;csufrsm;u rdk;oD;rdk;aygufawGvdk
wpfcsufNyD;wpfcsuf &SD;[kef\ udk,fay:odkY usa&mufvmMuonf/
&SD;[kef tusOf;tusyf awGY&NyD/
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tokH;rcsEdkifao;ay/
39
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]][dwf ... &yfvdkufMuprf;? &SifwdkYu b,folawGvJ}}
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toHrSmrl csif;csif;\toHNzpfaMumif; &SD;[kefodvdkufonf/
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xkdokdYaNym&if; OD;xkyfudkvnf; ydkí cyfidkufidkufNzpfatmif qGJcsvdkufonf/
xdkYaemuf ykyk00ESifh ydefydefyg;yg;vlwdkYonf vSpfceJyif aNy;xGufoGm;Muonf/
ydefydefyg;yg;vlonf Z&yftNyifodkY aNy;txGufwGif nmvufudk qwfceJ vSKyf&Sm;vdkuf&m ]0Spf} ceJ
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qkwfcGmxGufaNy;ukefMuNyD[k xifum owdayghavsmhaeonf NzpfaomaMumifh rnfokdYrQ a&Smifwdrf;Ncif; rNyKEdkifay/
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ydkifpkusifrSm tvGefyif pdwfxdcdkufae&onf/
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ydkifpkusifu ysmysmovJ ar;vdkufonf/

40
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csif;csif;u NyefaNzonf/
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csif;csif;onf &SD;[kefudk tdyfcef;xJodkY xrf;ac:oGm;&m ydkifpkusifvnf; aemufrSvdkufygoGm;onf/
tdyfcef;xJ&Sd ckwifay:wGif &SD;[kefukd oufawmifhoufom vJavsmif;vsufom;&Sdatmif wifay;NyD;aemuf
csif;csif;u NzpfysufykHudk aNymNyonf/
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41
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e*g;NzLa*[mokdY oGm;a&mufum aNzaq;udk wdwfwqdwfcdk;,l&ef ydkifpkusif pOf;pm;rdao;onf/

42
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
odkYaomf ...
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ydkifpkusif tvGefyifpdwfysufoGm;onf/
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a&Smifvifausmif;awmf wnf&Sdaom aumufqef;awmifokdY xGufcGmvmcJhavawmhonf/

43
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif

tcef; (6)
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44
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vJusoGm;&mrS x&yfvdkufonf/
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a&Smifvifausmif;awmf\ taqmufttkHrsm;udk cyfa&;a&; Nrif&onf/
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tm;opfavmif;vdkufbdouJhokdY Nzpfvm&onf/
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A[kdaq;pyfcef;raqmifteD;okdY ydkifpkusif a&mufvmcJhonf/

45
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
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46
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aq;yifrsm;udk tdk;rsm;Nzifh pepfwus pDpD&D&D wifxm;onf/
aq;trnfrsm;udk cGJNcm;odEdkif&ef tdk;rsm;ay:wGif puúL NzL eD 0g ndK ta&miftrsKd;rsKd;uyfum trnfrsm;
a&;xm;onf/
ydkifpkusifonf pifNrifhwpfckNyD;wpfck vSnfhMunfhum 0dnmOfcsKyftoufu,f tqdyfaNzaq;udk vdkuf&Smonf/
pifrsm; wpfckNyD;wpfck ausmfvGefoGm;onf/
0dnmOfcsKyf toufu,f tqdyfaNzaq;udkum; rawGU&ao;/
þaq;pyfcef;rSaqmifxJwGif 0dnmOfcsKyf toufu,f tqdyfaNzaq; &Sdonfudkum; ydkifpkusifodonf/
odkYaomf pifawG trsm;tNym;&SdNyD; tdk;awGuvnf; axmifESifhaomif;eJYcsDum &SdaeaomaMumifh rnfonfhpif
rnfonfhtdk;xJwGif 0dnmOfcsKyf toufu,ftqdyfaNzaq;&SdaMumif; wdwdusus rod&/
ydkifpkusiftzdkY t&Sm&cufaeonf/
aumuf&kd;ykHxJ usaeonfh tyfwpfacsmif;udk vdkuf&Sm&onfh taNctaersKd; Nzpfaeonf/
tcsdefuvnf; odyfr&/
EdkiforQaom tcsdefav;twGif; wufokwf&dkufum vdkuf&Smae&onfhtwGuf pifwpfpifrS wpfpifodkY
ul;vm&wdkif; ydkifpkusifrSm pkd;&drfpdwf ydkírsm;vmonf/
xdktcsdefrSmyif aNcoHcyfoJhoJhMum;rdaomaMumifh ydkifpkusif\ &ifxJwGifxdwfceJY NzpfoGm;onf/
]]bk&m; ... bk&m;? wNcm;uif;orm;awGrsm; a&mufvmMuNyDvm;}}
ydkifpkusifrSm þodkYawG;rdrS ydkí xdwfvefYoGm;onf/ ezl;wGif acR;oD;acR;aygufrsm;yif pdkYvmonf/
ydkifpkusifonf Nywif;ayguftem;odkY vSpfceJ aNy;uyfoGm;um Nywif;aygufwGif wyfqifxm;aom
w&kwfuyftMum;rS tNyifodkY acsmif;Munfhvdkuf\/
aNcoHrSm tNcm;uif;orm;rsm;\ aNcoHr[kwfay/ tayghtyg;oGm;&ef apmapmu xGufoGm;onfh
tapmifhokdif;orm; Nyefvmonfh aNcoHNzpfonf/
xdktapmifhodkif;orm;onf at;at;vlvlyif avQmufvSrf;vmaeonf/
ydkifpkusifonf tcsdefqdkif;raebJ olr\ qHxkH;wGif xdk;xm;onfh qHxdk;wpfckudk NzKwf,lum
cyf[[Nzpfaeaom w&kwfuyf tMum;rSaeí tapmifhokdif;orm;&Sd&modkY vSrf;ypfvdkufonf/
]]0Spf ...}}
teD ; uyf tyd k i f t Ed k i f ypf c wf v k d u f o nf h ypf c wf c suf N zpf a omaMumif h tapmif h o d k i f ; orm;rS m
rnfokdYrQa&Smifwdrf;Ncif; rNyKEdkif/ qHxdk;txdcH&um toHyif wpfcsufrQrNyKEdkifbJ acGvsufom; vJusoGm;avawmh\/
ydkifpkusifonf 0dnmOfcsKyf toufu,ftqdyfaNzaq;udk qufvuf&SmazGonf/
wpfpifNyD; wpfpif .../
47
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
wpftdk;NyD; wpftdk; .../
aoaocsmcsm aphaphpyfpyf vdkufvH&SmazGMunfhaomfvnf; bmrQtaMumif;rxl;ay/
]]0dnmOfcsKyf toufu,ftqdyfaNzaq;udk &SmvdkY&Edkifyghrvm;/ &SmvdkYr&cif a&Smifvif*dkPf;om;awG
a&mufvm&if tcufygyJ? bk&m; ... bk&m;}}
ydkifpkusifonf pdwfxJwGif tMuD;tus,fyif awG;ylvmrdonf/
pdwfylyifrSKrsm;vmonfhtwGuf &SmazG&mwGifvnf; tavmwMuD;Edkifvmonf/ tavmwMuD; &SmazGrSKaMumifh
rsufpdvQef;um vdkcsifaom tqdyfaNzaq;udk rawGUbJ Nzpfrnfudkvnf; pdk;&drfrdonf/
odkYaomf pdwfudkwnfNidrfatmif rnfodkYrQ xdef;ír&/
tcsdefMumav pdwfuydkvSKyf&Sm;av/
]]'l ... 'l ... 'l}}
0dnmOfcsKyf toufu,f tqdyfaNzaq;udk &Smr&Edkifao;í pdwfrsm;aecsdefrSmyif tcsufay;armif;oHrsm;
pDpDnHnH ay:vmonf/
ydkifpkusifpdwfxJ xdef;csKyfí r&avmufatmif wkefvSKyfí acsmufcsm;vmonf/
tcsufay;armif;oHrsm;ESifhtwl a&Smifvif*dkPf;om;rsm; atmf[pfaNy;vTm; vSKyf&Sm;vmMuonf/
]][m ... 'ku©yJ? iga&mufaewm odukefNyDxifw,f}}
ydkifpkusifu tvefYwMum; a&&Gwfvdkufonf/
xdktcsdefrSmyif ydkifpkusif\ rsufvkH;rsm;onf teDa&mifpuúLuyfxm;onfh tdk;ESpfvkH;Mum;wGif &Sdaeonfh
eHYomNzLaowåmNym;av; wpfckay:odkY a&muf&SdoGm;onf/
uHw&m;u ydkifpkusifudk rsufESmomay;vdkufonfxifh/
eHYomNzL aowåmNym;av;ay:wGif atmufygpmrsm; a&;om;xm;onfudk ydkifpkusif awGYvdkuf&onf/
]]a&Smifvif0dnmOfcsKyf toufu,faNzaq;awmf ...}}
ydkifpkusif\ tm;&0rf;omNzpfrSKrSm rnfokdYrQyif ESdKif;qír&/ eHYomNzLaowåmav;udk aumuf,lum
tusÐtwGif;tdwfxJodkY xnfhvdkufonf/
a&Smifvifausmif;awmf y&0kPfxJwGif tcsufay;armif;oH w'l'l? aNy;vTm;oHrsm;? atmf[pfoHrsm; wnHnHESifh
txl;yif vSKyf&Sm;aeonf/
ydkifpkusiftzdkY txl;vdkcsifaeaom 0dnmOfcsKyf toufu,f tqdyfaNzaq;udk &SmazGawGU&SdNyD Nzpfonf/
odkYaomf a&Smifvifausmif;awmfxJrS tNyifodkY xGuf&efrSmrl vrf;pr&Sdoavmuf Nzpfaeonf/
olrtNzpfum; NzKef;ceJ0rf;om uysmu,m 0rf;enf;&onfh tNzpfrsKd;aywum;/
]]tckqdk&if a&Smifvifausmif;awmfrSm &SdorQodkif;orm;awGtm;vkH; tdyf&muEdk;ukefavmufNyD? 'Davmuf
vlpkvla0; aumif;aumif;eJY vSKyf&Sm;aeMuwJh a&Smifvif*dkPf;0if okdif;orm;MuD;awGxJu ightaeeJY b,fvkdvkyfNyD;
tNyifudka&mufatmif xdk;azmufxGufEdkifrSmvJ? 'ku©ygyJ}}
ydkifpkusifrSm tMuD;tus,f tcufMuKHae&onf/
cJ a vorQ oJ a &us Nzpf c J h & awmh r nf [ l a om tawG ; Nzif h tm;avsmh u m 'l ; rsm;yif acG a ysmh v suf
rwfwwf&yfae&mrS ,dkifvJusvkrwwf NzpfoGm;&onf/
a&Smifvifausmif;awmf\ A[kdaq;pyfcef;rxJrS b,fvdkxGufEdkifrvJ .../
xdktcsdefwGif ...
csif;csif;rSm xdkifae&rnfvm;? xvrf;avQmufae&rnfvm; bmvkyf&rnfrSef; rodEdkifbJ txl;yif
pdwfvSKyf&Sm;um rNidrfroufNzpfae&onf/
,aeYqdkvQif &SD;[keftqdyfoifhcJhonfrSm okH;&ufwdwd &SdayNyD/
e*g;pG,fvufeufykef; txdcH&onfhtcsdefrSm eHeufydkif;q,fem&DcefYwGifNzpf&m xdktcsdefausmfvGefvQif
&SD;[keftzdkY toufaoqkH;&awmhrnfom Nzpfonf/
,ck eHeufudk;em&Dyif ausmfvmNyD/
&SD;[kef\ touf&Sifa&;twGuf aq;ukoEdkifrnfh tcsdefrSm wpfem&DNynfhatmifyif rusefawmh/
48
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
0dnmOfcsKyf toufu,ftqdyaf Nzaq; t&,l&ef a&Smifvifausmif;awmfoYkd xGucf mG oGm;aom ydik pf u k sifvnf;
Nyefa&mufrvmao;/
ydkifpkusifwpfa,muf tqdyfaNzaq; &SmazG&if; a&Smifvif*dkPf;0if odkif;orm;rsm;ESifh wdk;um zrf;qD;Ncif;rsm;
cHae&vQif ...
csif;csif; qufrawG;0Hhawmhay/
&SD;[kef\ taNctaerSmvnf; tvGefyif qdk;&Gm;aeavNyD/
wpfukd,fvkH; NymESrf;um tom;ta&uvnf; rD;uifxm;onfhES,f NcpfNcpfawmuf ylíaeonf/
csif;csif;rSm tqdyo f ifah eaom &S;D [ket
f wGuf yl&onfuwpfrsKd;? a&Smifvifausmif;awmfoYkd xGucf mG oGm;aom
ydkifpkusiftwGuf pkd;&drf&onfu wpfoG,fESifh &l;vkrwwfyif Nzpfrdonf/
tcsdefuawmh bmudkrQ rapmifhbJ rSefrSefom ukefvGefa&GUvsm;aeonf/
tcsdefukefvGefvmavav csif;csif;rSm ydkí pdwfvSKyf&Sm;Asmrsm;vmavav Nzpfaeonf/
xdktcsdefrSmyif tdrfa&SUrS Nrif;cGmoHudk Mum;vdkuf&onf/
csif;csif;onf uref;uwef; tdrftNyifodkY vSrf;Munfhvdkuf&m acR;awGoHawG t&TJom;Nzpfaeaom
Nrif;udkpD;vsuf tdrfa&SUodkY a&mufvmaom ydkifpkusifudk awGYvdkuf&onf/
csif;csif;\ tm;wuf0rf;omrSKu rnfokdYrQ xdef;r&awmhacs/
ydkifpkusifonf wpfukd,fvkH; zkeftvdrf;vdrf;ESifh npfayaeonf/ qHyifrsm; &SKyfyGaeNyD; rsufESmrSmvnf;
acsmifusaeonf/
csif;csif;onf tdrfNyifokdY taNy;av;xGufvmNyD; ...
]]b,fvdkNzpfvmwmvJ rrav;&,f? aNzaq;aum &cJh&JYvm;[if}}
ydkifpkusifonf Nrif;ay:rSqif;&if; tusÐtdwfxJrS eHYomNzLaowåmNym;av;udk xkwfay;onf/
]]wpfvkH;udk a&at;at;eJY azsmfwdkuf? aemufwpfvkH;udk trSKefYMudwfNyD; 'Pf&may:vdrf;ay;}}
ydkifpkusifu aq;nTef;udkom wdkwdkwkwfwkwf aNymqdknTefMum;onf/ pum;tydk raNymEdkifatmif arm[kdufum
toufudk Nyif;Nyif;&SLae&onf/
csif;csif;taeNzifh 0dnmOfcsKyf toufu,f tqdyfaNzaq;udk rnfodkYrnfykH &vmaMumif; ar;vdkaomfvnf;
tcsdefodyfr&Sdawmhonfu wpfaMumif;? ydkifpkusif tvGefc&D;yrf;vmaMumif; odonfu wpfaMumif;aMumifh
ar;Nref;Ncif;rNyKawmhbJ tdrfxJodkY tNref0ifa&mufum ydkifpkusif nTefMum;onfhtwdkif; &SD;[kefudk NyKpkvdkufav\/
0dnmOfcsKyf toufu,ftqdyfaNzaq;onf wu,fyif tpGrf;xufvSonf/
aNzaq;wdkufauR;NyKpkay;NyD; rMumrDrSmyif &SD;[kef\ taNctaeonf ododomom aumif;rGefvmonf/
rD;uifxm;ovdk ylavmifaerSK avsmhyg;oGm;onf/ tom;ta& NymESr;f aerSKvnf; wpfpp oufomoGm;onf/
ydkifpkusif\ pdk;&drfylyefrSK? armyef;EGrf;e,frSKwdkYuvnf; aNyavsmhoGm;onf/
þtcgwGifrS ydkifpkusifu a&Smifvifausmif;awmfodkY rdrdoGm;a&mufcJh&mwGif MuKHawGU&ykHrsm;udk csif;csif;tm;
NyefaNymNyonf/
a&Smifvifausmif;awmf y&0kPfxJodkY wdwfwqdwf 0ifa&mufcJh&ykH? A[kdaq;pyfcef;raqmifxJodkY
a&muf&SdoGm;ykH? 0dnmOfcsKyf toufu,ftqdyfaNzaq;udk vdkuf&Sm&ykH? &SmazGawGU&SdcsdefwGif a&Smifvifausmif;awmf
y&0kPfxJwGif tcsufay;armif;oHrsm; qlnHum odkif;orm;rsm; vSKyf&Sm;um vmMuykHrsm;udk aNymNyonf/
xdkYaemuf qufvufí a&Smifvifausmif;awmfrS xGufcGmvmEdkifcJhykH taMumif;rsm;udk aNymNyNyefonf/
a&Smifvifausmif;awmf y&0kPfxJwGif vSKyf&Sm;qlnHaeaomaMumifh ydkifpkusifrSm tNyifodkYxdk;azmufxGuf&ef
rNzpfEdkifawmh[kawG;um pdwfysuftm;avsmhrdonf/
]]&efol taemufbufudk aNy;NyD? vdkufMu ... vkdufMu}}
]]Nrwfynmcef;raqmifbufudk tNrefoGm;Muprf;}}
]]0dkif;a[h ... 0dkif; ... 0dkif;}}
]]rvGwfapeJY}}
a&Smifvif*dkPf;0if odkif;orm;rsm; tcsif;csif; atmf[pfaNymqdk tcsufay;oHrsm;udk ydkifpkusifMum;ae&onf/
49
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
]]olwdkYu taemufbufudk aNy;oGm;wJh vlaemufvdkufMuzdkY atmfaeMuwmygvm;? igtcka&mufaewJh
A[dkaq;pyfcef;raqmifu a&Smifvifausmif;awmf y&0kPfawmifbufydkif;rSm &SdwmyJ? iga&mufaewmudk odoGm;vdkY
tcsuaf y;armif;xkNyD; vSKyf&mS ;aeMuwmawmh r[kww f efb;l ? Nrwfynmcef;raqmifxu J ypön;f wpfcck u k kd 0ifc;kd wJv
h u l kd
awGUvdkY vdkufMuwmyJNzpfr,f? tif; ... awmfygao;&JU}}
taNctaerS e f u d k awG ; rd a omtcg yd k i f p k u sif r S m tawmf y if pd w f o uf o m&m&oG m ;onf /
tm;vnf;wufvmonf/
atmf [ pf o H r sm; twef i ,f a0;oG m ;aomtcg yd k i f p k u sif o nf A[d k a q;pyf c ef ; raqmif x J r S
tomxGufvdkufavonf/
a&Smifvifausmif;awmf Nrwfynm cef;raqmif&Sd&mbufESifh ausmif;awmfy&0kPf taemufbufydkif;wdkYwGif
rD;wkwfrD;pnf;rsm; udkifxm;onfh a&Smifvif*dkPf;om;rsm; aNy;vTm;vSKyf&Sm;aeMuonfudk ydkifpkusif vSrf;Nrif&\/
olr a&mufaeonfh A[kad q;pyfcef;raqmif&&dS m ae&mwpf0u dk w
f iG rf l rnfonfv h KS yf&mS ;rSK r&Sad o;bJ Nidro f ufaeonf/
ydkifpkusifonf tcsdefrqdkif;awmhyJ awmifatmufodkY aNy;qif;vmcJhav\/
a&Smifvif*dkPf;om;rsm;onf Nrwfynmcef;raqmif 0ef;usifudkom tm&kHpdkufí vdkufvH&SmazGaeaomaMumifh
ydkifpkusifrSm arQmfvifhxm;onfxufyif vG,fulacsmarmpGm awmifatmufodkY qif;vmEdkifcJhonf/
Nrwf y nmcef ; aqmif x J o k d Y 0if a &muf u m ypö n f ; wpf c k c k ck d ; ,l c J h o nf h ol c d k ; aMumif h yd k i f p k u sif r S m
a&Smifvifausmif;awmfrS tvG,fwulyif xGufvmEdkifcJhonf[k qdk&rnf/
aumufqef;awmifaNcodYk a&mufonfEiS hf ydik pf u k sifonf ud, k af zmhynmudo k ;Hk um tm;ukeaf Ny;avawmhonf/
yxrqk H ; awG U &onf h & G m wG i f Nrif ; ok H ; aumif ; 0,f u m Nrif ; wpf a umif N yD ; wpf a umif v J p D ; í
aetdrfodkYta&muft&yftem;r&Sd c&D;Nyif;ESifum NyefvmcJhavawmhonf/
tqdyaf Nzaq;udk tcsed rf D wku d af uR;um cifyeG ;f onf\ toufukd u,fwifvu kd Ef ikd o
f nft h wGuf ydik pf uk sirf mS
tvGefyif 0rf;omaysmf&Tifaeonf/
odkY&mwGif okH;&ufvkH;vkH; r&yfrem;bJ pdwfarmvlarm vSKyf&Sm;cJh&onfhtwGuf yifyef;EGrf;e,faeaomaMumifh
ydkifpkusifonf &SD;[kef\ tem;wGif aevdkaomfvnf; raeEdkifbJ tem;,ltdyfpuf&onf/
csif;csif;uom &SD;[kef\ taNctaeudk apmifhMunfhay;ae&onf/
]]ocif M uD ; [m e*g;tpG , f v uf e uf y k e f ; ud k tok H ; NyKcJ h w ,f ? qd k ; &G m ;rd k u f r J v G e f ; wJ h v l a wG u d k & ,f
tNywfacsrSKef;ypf&r,fh vlawGudk&,frS e*g;tpG,fvufeufykef;eJY ypfcwfwdkufckdufcdkif;w,f? tckvnf; 'Dvludk
tNywf&Sif;ypfcsifwmaMumifh e*g;tpG,f vufeufykef;eJY ypfcwfckdif;wm Nzpf&r,f? rrav;u tqdyfaNzaq;&atmif
pGefYpm;&SmazGNyD; toufu,fvdkufwmudk ocifMuD;odoGm;&if xyfNyD; wdkufcdkuf&ef&SmvmOD;rSmyJ? 'DtaMumif;udk
rrav;udk aNymNy&ifaumif;rvm;? tck rrav; odyfudkyifyef;ae&Smw,f? em;em;aeae tem;,lygapOD;? aemufrSm
igaNymNyr,f? 'DMum;xJrSm e*g;NzLa*[mu odkif;orm;awG a&mufrvmMuygapeJYvdkY qkawmif;&rSmyJ}}
csif;csif;rSm Nyóem\ taNccHrsm;udk qufpyfum NzpfEikd o f nfwYkd ukd tusKd;oift h aMumif;oifh awG;aerdonf/
touft&G,f i,fEkao;aomfvnf; b0c&D;Murf;udk avQmufvSrf;ae&NyDrdkY csif;csif;\ tawG;tac:rsm;u
,xmblwusvmonf/
c&D;yef;vmaom ydkifpkusifonf wpfaeYvHk; wpfnvkH; ESpfNcdKufpGm tdyfaysmfaeNyD; aemufaeYeHeufwGifrS
Edk;vmonf/
tdyfa&;00 tdyfvdkuf&NyD NzpfonfhtwGuf ydkifpkusifrSm tm;Nynfhum vef;qef;ívmonf/
xdkYaeYeHeufydkif;wGifyif &SD;[kefonfvnf; tqdyf'PfrS oufomum owdNyef&vmonf/
ydkifpkusifESifh csif;csif;wdkYu &SD;[kefudk tvSnfhusNyKpkay;Muonf/ vdktyfonfh NyKpkrSKrsm; vkyfay;aomfvnf;
pum;awmh odyfraNymMuay/
ydkifpkusifESifh &SD;[kef\ tMum;wGif taepdrf;ovdk Nzpfaeonf/
&SD;[kefrSm tawmfyif tae&txkdif& cufaeonf/ rdrdtay: ydkifpkusifESifh csif;csif;wkdYu wu,fyif
apwemxm;MuaMumif;udk aumif;pGm odem;vnfcJh&NyD Nzpfonf/

50
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
onfvdk pdwfxm;NzLpifaom rdef;uav;ESpfa,muftay: ta,mifaqmifum vSnfhpm;rdcJhonfhtwGufvnf;
aemifw&aeonf/
xdkYaMumifh rdrdtaMumif;udk tukeftpif xkwfazmfaNymMum;&ef tMudrfMudrfyif MudK;pm;cJhonf/ okdYaomf
ydkifpkusifESifh csif;csif;wdkYu cyfwef;wef;om aeMuaomaMumifh &SD;[keftzdkY pum;rpombJ &Sdaeonf/
&SD;[kef owdNyef&vmNyD; aemufwpfaeYwGif Nzpfonf/
ol\ aemifw&&SdrSK taMumif;udk xkwfazmfaNymNyEdkif&ef &SD;[keftzdkY tcGifhtvrf; ay:aygufvmonf/
xdak eYeeH ufu csif;csif;onf &S;D [ke\ f tcef;xJwiG f vSn;f usif;oefYpifay;NyD;aemuf &S;D [keu f kd vSr;f Munfuh m
]]aeaumif;&JUvm;}}
csif;csif;onf &SD;[kefudk pum;rqdkbJ olvkyfp&m&SdwmawGudkom vkyfoGm;NrJNzpfonf/
,ckrl ESKwfqufovdkvdk pum;qdkvmaomaMumifh &SD;[kef tenf;i,f tm;wufvmonf/ tcGifhtvrf;
ay:aygufwkef; rdrdtrSm;udk 0efcHzkdY tvsiftNrefyif pum;vrf;cif;vdkufonf/
]]csif;csif;&,f ... tckvdk Nzpf&wmudk ...}}
&SD;[kef\ pum;rqkH;rD csif;csif;u Mum;Nzwfí ...
]]bmrS &Sif;NyraeygeJYawmh? uRefrwdkY tm;vkH;odNyD;ygNyD? wpfckyJ aNymcsifw,f? NzpfEdkifr,fqdk&if
&yfwef;u&yfyg? iJhnm§ p&m oHa,mZOfawGvnf; xyfwdk;vmawmhrSm r[kwfvm;}}
]][kwfygw,f ... [kwfygw,f? wdkYvnf; aumif;aumif; aemifw&oGm;ygNyD? wdkYukd,fwkdY rSm;rSef;odygNyD}}
xdktcsdefrSmyif ydkifpkusifvnf; tcef;xJodkY avQmufvSrf;0ifa&mufvm&m &SD;[kefaemufqkH;aNymvdkufaom
pum;rsm;udk aoaocsmcsmyif Mum;oGm;onf/
]][if ... wu,faNymwmvm; tpfudk}}
ydkifpkusifu vSKdufvSJpGmar;vdkufonf/ 0rf;omMunfEl;rSKudkvnf; ydkifpkusif xdef;csKyfrxm;Edkifawmh/
]]wu,faNymwmyg nDr&,f? tpfukdYtay:rSm nDrwdkY apwem b,favmufxm;w,fqdkwmudkvnf;
aumif;aumif;MuD; odygNyD? tpfudk wpfukd,faumif;pdwfeJY rSm;rdwmawGtwGufvnf; aemifw&NyD; 0rf;enf;vdkY
rqkH;ygbl;}}
&SD;[kefu ydkifpkusifudk vSrf;MunfhNyD; aNymonf/
&SD;[kef\ toHrSm aMuuGJqdkYepfaeonf/ rsufvkH;wGifvnf; rsuf&nfrsm; &pf0Jaeonf/
olYaNympum;rsm;onf &ifxJtonf;xJu ay:xGufvmonfh pum;rsm;NzpfaMumif; ydkifpkusifa&m csif;csif;yg
tuJcwf od&SdvdkufMuonf/
]]tpfuakd NymwJh pum;awGtwdik ;f wnfygapvdYk uRefrqkawmif;ygw,f? tpfuYkd &UJ toufukd u,fEikd af tmifvYkd
rrav;crsm b,favmufpGefYpm;cJh&w,fqdkwmudk tpfukd od&JUvm;}}
csif;csif;u rdrdudk ,cifu ac:a0:aeustwdkif; ]tpfudk} [k NyefvnfokH;ESKef; ac:a0:vmaomaMumifh
&SD;[kefrSm tawmfyif 0rf;aNrmuftm;wufoGm;onf/
]]wdkYvnf; owdvpfoGm;NyD;wJhaemuf bmudkrS rodawmhbl;? wdkYod&atmif aNymNyygvm;}}
&SD;[kefu csif;csif;udk ar;onf/
]]csif;csif;&,f ... eifhtpfudku tckrS owdNyef&cgpyJ &Sdao;w,f? acgif;at;at;eJY tem;,lygapOD;?
eifaNymp&m&SdwmawGudk aemufrS at;at;aq;aq; aNymvnf;&ygw,f}}
ydkifpkusifu Mum;0ifumaNymonf/
]]ud p ö r &S d y gbl ; nD r &,f ? tpf u k d tawmf a eaumif ; aeygNyD ? NyD ; awmh nD r b,f a vmuf ' k u © c H
vkyfaqmifcJh&w,fqdkwmudkvnf; tpfudkodcsifygw,f? csif;csif;udk aNymcGifhay;vdkufyg}}
&SD;[kefu cGifhawmif;vm&m ydkifpkusifrSmvnf; rwwfomawmhbJ csif;csif;udk tomacgif;qwfNyvdkufonf/
þwGif csif;csif;u a&Smifvif*dkPf;odkY ydkifpkusif pGefYpm;oGm;um 0dnmOfcsKyf tqdyfaNztoufu,faq;udk
t&,lcJhykH taMumif;rsm; &SD;[keftm; aNymNyvdkufonf/
]]nDrpkusifu tpfuYkd twGuf odyu f pkd eG Yf pm;vkyaf qmifc&hJ wmyJu;kd ? nDr&JU aus;Zl;aMumifh tpfukd 'kw, d tMudrf
quftouf&Sifae&NyefNyD? trsm;MuD; aus;Zl;wifygw,fuG,f}}
51
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
csif;csif; aNymNyí taMumif;pkH Mum;od&NyD;aemuf &SD;[kefu ydkifpkusifudk vSrf;Munfhum vSKdufvSKdufvSJvSJ
aus;Zl;wifpum; aNymonf/
]]uJ ... tpfudkYtaMumif;udkvnf; uRefrwkdY tpkHtvifod&atmif aNymNyygvm;}}
csif;csif;u &SD;[kefudk ar;vdkufNyefonf/
]]tpfudk[m e*g;euf*dkPf;u odkif;orm;wpfa,mufygyJ}}
&SD;[kefu olYtaMumif;udk pwifaNymNyonf/
e*g;euf*dkPf; [laom pum;udk Mum;vdkuf&aomtcg ydkifpkusifESifh csif;csif;wdkYonf wpfa,mufrsufESm
wpfa,muf MunfhrdMuavonf/
e*g;euf*P kd ;f \ *dP k ;f csKyfrmS vnf; e*g;u0d ckepfqwl iG f wpfa,muftygt0ifNzpfonf/ e*g;euf*P kd ;f onf
pnf;pdrfOpömudk rufarmum vrf;rSm;udk a&mufvkqJqJ taNctaewGif &Sdaeonf/
]]*dkPf;csKyfMuD;u wNcm;e*g;u0d aNcmufqlwdkY&JU odkif;ynmudk vdkcsifwmaMumifh enf;vrf;trsKd;rsKd;okH;NyD;
MudK;pm;w,f? nDrpkusif[m e*g;NzL ydkifusifvkH&JU orD;NzpfNyD; tdrfuae xGufvmwmudk odwmaMumifh pkusifeJY
&if;ESD;atmifvkyfNyD; e*g;NzLu0draem odkif;ynmudk t&,lay;zdkY tpfudkYudk wm0efay;apcdkif;vdkufwmyJ}}
&SD;[kefu ydkifpkusifESifh &if;ESD;cGifh&&Sd&eftwGuf [efMuLNrdKYwGif [efaqmifwdkufyGJqifcJhykH? 'Pf&m&atmifvkyfí
u0dewfbk&m;ausmif;wGif vJaecJhykH? avmfyefNrpfxJwGif avSwpfpif;ESifh apmifhaecJhykHrsm;udk xkwfazmfaNymNy\/
ydik pf u
k siEf iS hf csi;f csi;f wdYk onf rnfoYkdrQ Mum;0ifum raNymbJ &S;D [keaf Nymonfrsm;udo
k m em;axmifaeMuonf/
]]tpfukdYtay:rSm nDrpkusifeJY nDr csif;csif;wdkYu wu,fhudkpdwfaumif;apwemaumif; xm;cJhMuwmudk
tpfudk odcJhwm MumygNyD? *dkPf;csKyfMuD; apcdkif;vdkufwmudk vnf; pdwfygvufyg vkyfray;csifawmhwm MumygNyD?
'gayr,fh trSeftwdkif;aNym&&if *dkPf;csKyfMuD;udk rqefYusif&JcJhbl;? 'gaMumifhvnf; olYqDu vufyg;ap
odkif;orm;ESpfa,muf a&mufvmMuwJhtcgrSm wdkYwwfxm;orQ e*g;NzLu0draemodkif;uGuf &SpfuGuf a&;rSwfxm;wJh
pmtkyfudk oGm;ay;cJh&wmyg? 'gayr,fh a>rewfom;Z&yfudk a&mufawmhwdkYeJY csdef;qdkxm;wJh vlESpfa,mufr[kwfbJ
wNcm;vl E S p f a ,muf Nzpf a eNyD ; wd k u f c d k u f a eMuwk e f ; csif ; csif ; a&muf v mawmh w myJ ? tck a wmh tpf u d k
,wdNywfq;Hk Nzwfvu kd yf gNyD? vrf;rSm;udak &mufawmhr,fh e*g;euf*P kd ;f eJYvnf; tqufNzwfypfvu dk rf ,f? a&SUavQmufNyD;
nDrwkdYeJY twlwlvufwGJvdkY vrf;rSefrSmyJ avQmufawmhr,fvdkY qkH;NzwfvkdufygNyD}}
&SD;[kefu ol\aemifw&rSKudk vSKdufvSJpGm xkwfazmfaNymvm&m ydkifpkusifrSm txl;yif MunfEl;yDwdNzpf&onf/
csif;csif;rSmvnf; tawmfyif auseyf0rf;omoGm;awmhonf/
]]uRefr wpfckaNymcsifw,f rrav;}}
csif;csif;u ydkifpkusifudk vSrf;Munfh&if;aNymonf/
]]aNymav ...}}
ydkifpkusifu acgif;ndwfum cGifhay;vdkufonf/
]]e*g;tpG,f vufeufykef; txdcH&ayr,fh tpfukd&SD;[kef toufraowJhtaMumif;udk ocifMuD;wdkY
Mum;odoGm;&if xyfNyD; &efrlvmEdkifw,f? 'gaMumifh uRefrwkdYwawG 'Dae&mrSm qufraeawmhbJ a&Smifwdrf;oGm;Mu&if
aumif;r,fvdkY xifygw,f}}
csif;csif;u olr\ pkd;&drfylyefae&rSKudk xkwfazmfaNymvdkufonf/
]]tif; ... [kwfw,f? tpfudk&SD;[kef&JU usef;rma&;taNctae ydkaumif;vm&if 'Dae&mu a&TUaNymif;Muwmaygh?
b,fvdkoabm&vJ[if tpfudk}}
ydkifpkusifu &SD;[kefudk vSrf;Munfhum oabmxm;awmif;cHvdkufonf/
]]aumif;ygw,fuG,f? nDrwdkY oifhavsmfovdkom pDpOfMuyg? tif; ... e*g;u0dckepfazmfwdkY[m udk,fwwfwJh
u0draem okdif;ynmusifhpOfudk wNcm;e*g;u0dawG&JU wynfhawGudkyg oifNyay;vdkuf&if u0draemodkif;usifhpOf
ckepfrsKd;vkH; wwfaNrmufwJh odkif;tausmftarmfawG ay:vmrSmyJaemf}}
&SD;[kefu tMuHay;ovdk aNymMum;onf/
]]tpfudkaNymwJh tpDtpOfrsKd;udk uRefrwdkY&JU bdk;ab;bDbifawGu prf;vkyfMunfhcJhMuNyD;ygNyD}}
ydkifpkusifu NyefaNymonf/
52
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
]]tJ'Dvdk prf;vkyfMunfhMuawmh ratmifNrifbl;vm;}}
]]ratmifNrifcJhygbl;}}
]][if ... bmaMumifh ratmifNrifwmvJ}}
]]twdkqkH;aNym&&if wpfa,mufudkwpfa,muf ,kHMunfpdwfcsrSK r&SdMuvdkYaygh tpfudk&,f}}
]][kdt&ifwkef;u rNzpfEdkifayr,fh tck tpfudkwkdY acwfus&if Nzpfatmif MudK;pm;MunfhMuwmaygh?
e*g;euf*dkPf;twGuf tpfukdu MudK;yrf;Munfhr,f? nDrwdkY e*g;NzLa*[mtwGuf nDrwdkYu MudK;pm;Munfhaygh}}
]]rvG,yf gbl; tpfu&kd ,f? e*g;NzLa*[meJY e*g;euf*P kd ;f wdYk oabmwlnrD KS &MuNyDyxJ m;? usew f hJ e*g;0g*dP
k ;f ?
e*g;pdrf;*kdPf;? e*g;eD*dkPf;? rdk;e*g;*dkPf;ESifh aNre*g;*dkPf;awGu oabmwlMuzdkY rvG,fygbl;? vGefcJhwJh
ESpfaygif;ig;q,fausmfavmufu odkif;ynmcsif;zvS,fzdkY e*g;u0dESpfa,muftMum;rSm oabmwlcJhMuzl;w,f?
'gayr,fh wNcm; oabmrwlwJh tkyfpkig;pku qefYusifNyD; 0dkif;wdkufcdkufMuvdkY aoG;acsmif;pD;wdkufyGJawG NzpfcJhzl;w,f?
'DaeY tpfudku tJ'DtpDtpOfrsKd; vkyfzdkY MudK;pm;&if wpfcguvdkyJ wdkufcdkufowfNzwfrSKawG NzpfvmEdkifw,fqkdwm
xnfhpOf;pm;ygOD;}}
&SD;[kefrSm ol\rdkufNypfrsm;udk aemifw&aeNyDNzpfaomfvnf; odkif;ynmESifh ywfoufírl avmb&r®ufudk
rxdef;Edkifao;ay/ xdwfxdwfMuJ odkif;orm;wpfa,muftNzpf ausmfMum;vdkrSKu &Sdaeao;onf/
olYpum;rqkH;rD csif;csif;u Mum;0ifí ...
]]'Dr,f tpfudk&SD;[kef? u0draemodkif; usifhpOfckepfrsKd;vkH; wwfaNrmufzdkYudpu ö dk cPab;z,fxm;vdkufygOD;?
tck avmavmq,f ta&;MuD;aewJhudpöudk t&ifvkyfzdkY aumif;w,f? tEÅ&m,fu uRefrwdkYtay:rSm tcsdefra&G;
usa&mufEdkifw,f? tJ'DtEÅ&m,fudk a&Smifwdrf;EdkifzdkYtwGufyJ t"duxm; pOf;pm;zdkYoifhw,f}}
]]tif; ... tif; ... [kwfygw,f ... [kwfygw,f/ aemufwpf&ufESpf&ufavmufqdk&if wdkYvnf;
aumif;aumif;aeaumif;aeNyD? 'Dae&muae ta0;udk a&Smifwdrf;xGufoGm;Muwmaygh}}
csif;csif;\ pum;u taNctaeESifh vdkufavsmnDaxG NzpfaeonfrdkY &SD;[kef acgif;ndwfvdkuf&awmhonf/

53
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif

tcef; (7)
uGrfwkef;ESifh zkusifhNynfe,fwdkYudk qufoG,fxm;onfh c&D;a0;vrf;rMuD;ay:wGif Nrif;vSnf;wpfpD;onf
cyfoGufoGuf c&D;ESifvsuf&Sdonf/
xdkNrif;vSnf;rSm &SD;[kefwdkYwpfawG iSm;&rf;xm;aom Nrif;vSnf;Nzpfonf/
&SD;[kefwkdYonf usefMudK;NrdKYaetdrfudk &onfhaps;ESifh a&mif;csNyD; vloluif;a0;&mwGif ykef;atmif;aexdkif&ef
c&D;ESifvmMuNcif; Nzpfayonf/
olwdkYokH;a,mufonf rlv&kyfoGifrsm;twdkif; r[kwfMu/
ydkifpkusifESifh &SD;[kefwdkYonf oufvwfydkif;t&G,f tvkyfMurf;orm; aus;awmom ZeD;armifESHtoGif
&kyfzsufxm;NyD; csif;csif;url toufq,fhaNcmufESpft&G,f orD;i,ftoGif &kyfzsufxm;onf/
okH;a,mufvkH;onf aeylrdk;&Gmra&Smif tvkyfMurf;rsm;udk vkyfaqmif&olrsm;uJhodkY tom;ta&mif
ndKndKrnf;rnf; cyfMurf;Murf;Nzpfatmif &kyfzsufxm;Mu&m rlvu oefYNyefYacsmarmaom &kyf&nfrsm;ESifh
vkH;0qefYusifbuf Nzpfaeayonf/
xd k N rif ; vS n f ; ud k armif ; ES i f o l r S m þvrf ; c&D ; wG i f ES p f a ygif ; ok H ; q,f a usmf a usmf MumNrif h a tmif
Nrif;vSnf;armif;orm; vkyfpm;aeNyD; c&D;pOfwpfavQmufwGif vlodrsm;vSonfh avmufrmqdkolNzpfonf/
avmufrmonf toufig;q,fcefY&o dS nf/ Nrif;vSn;f armif; uRrf;usifonf/ pum;aNymvnf; aumif;onf/
xd k Y aMumif h pum;rsm;wwf a om csif ; csif ; ES i f h Nrif ; vS n f ; armif ; orm;MuD ; avmuf r mwd k Y rS m
rdwfa[mif;aqGa[mif;ozG,f pum;awG aNymrqkH;atmif NzpfaeMuawmhonf/
csif;csif;onf avmufrmESifh [dktaMumif; onftaMumif; a&mufwwf&m&maNymqdk&if; c&D;vrf;yef;e,fy,f
taNctaeudk rodrom ar;Nref;pl;prf;Munfh&m avmufrmu þc&D;vrf;wGif e*g;euf*dkPf;u MuD;pkd;AdkvfusaeykH
taMumif;udk csif;csif;tm; aNymNyrdonf/
]]tckwavm e*g;euf*dkPf;u tawmfhudk aomif;usef;&rf;um; vmw,fuG,fh? 'DaumifawG[m
vlowf"m;NywdkufeJY raumif;rSKawGudkvnf; tawmfhudk vkyfaeMuw,f}}
avmufrmu aNymonf/
]]'DtaMumif;awGudk OD;OD;u udk,fwdkifawGYvdkY aNymaewmvm;}}
54
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
csif;csif;u avmufrmxHrS pum;rsm; ydkíxGufvmap&ef pum;axmufum ar;Nref;vdkufonf/
]]tukev f ;Hk ud,
k af wGUcsn;f yJawmh r[kwb
f ;l aygh? olrsm;aNymwmvnf; yg? uk, d w
f ikd af wGU&wmvnf; &Sw d maygh}}
]]OD;OD;&JU udk,fawGUtaMumif;udk aNymNyprf;ygOD;}}
]]qdkygpdkYuG,f ... a[m'D c&D;vrf;rSm t&ifuqdk&if usKyfwdkY pdwfwdkif;usoGm;vmEdkifw,f? tckawmh
Nrif;vSnf;c&JU okH;ykHwpfykH[m e*g;euf*dkPf;udk qufaMu;tNzpf ay;ae&w,f}}
]]olwdkYawmif;wdkif; OD;OD;wdkYu ay;&ovm;}}
]]bk&m; ... bk&m; ... ray;vdkY b,f&rvJuG,f? olwdkYudk uvefuqefvkyf&if aeYcsif;ncsif; aumif;aumif;
'ku©awGUoGm;rSmaygh? [m ... aNym&if;qdk&if; [kdrSmvmukefMuNyD}}
avmufrmu xdkokdYaNymNyD; Nrif;vSnf;aemufbufodkY vufnK§ d;xdk;Nyonf/
csif;csif;onf avmufrm vufn§Kd;nTefNy&modkY vSnfhMunfhvdkuf&m olwdkY\ Nrif;vSnf;aemufbuf
cyfvSrf;vSrf;wGif zkefvkH;MuD;rsm; xvmaeonfudk awGU&onf/
xdkzkefvkH;MuD;rSm Nrif;pD;orm;wpfpk Nrif;rsm;udk tNyif;pkdif;ESifvmaomaMumifh xvmonfh zkefvkH;MuD;
Nzpfayonf/
ydkifpkusifESifh &SD;[kefwdkYonf xkdzkefvkH;MuD;udk NrifawGUMu&onf/
cJreS zf ;l aom pmoli,fvkd Nzpfaeonfukd ydik pf u k sifonf tawmfyif xdwv f efYomG ;um t0wfNzifx h yk x
f m;onfh
"m;&Snfudk tomprf;Munfhvdkufonf/ ta&;MuKHvQif wdkufcdkuf&efvnf; toifhNyifxm;vkdufonf/
c&D;vrf;ESifh ywfoufí tawGUtMuKH&ifhusufaeol avmufrmonf Nrif;vSnf;udk qufrarmif;awmhbJ
vrf;ab;odkY tomcsum &yfwefYvdkufonf/
zkefvkH;MuD;u wNznf;Nznf; eD;vmonf/
Nrif;cGmoHrsm;udkyif aumif;pGm Mum;&NyDNzpfonf/
Nrif;pD;orm;rsm;onf tawmfyif tiftm;rsm;Nym;onf/ udk,fhvdyfNym udk,frvkHovdkNzpfaeMuaom
ydkifpkusifwdkYvlpkrSm tawmfyif pdwfvSKyf&Sm;um xdwfvefYwkefvSKyfaeMuonf/
Nrif;pD;orm;rsm;onf eD;onfxufeD;vmonf/ vltiftm;okH;q,fcefYrQ &Sdrnf/ vufeufrsKd;pkH
udkifaqmifxm;Muonf/ [ef[dwfuvnf; cufxefvSonf/
onfvrf;c&D;wGif onfvdk tiftm;rsKd;Nzifh vufeufudkifaqmifum [ef[dwfxkwf oGm;vmaeolrsm;rSm
e*g;euf*dkPf;0if odkif;orm;rsm;om NzpfzdkYrsm;onf/
e*g;euf * d k P f ; 0if r sm;u rd r d u k d rS w f r d o d & S d o G m ;vQif [ l a om tawG ; u yd k i f p k u sif w d k Y ud k
wkefvSKyfacsmufcsm;vmaponf/
Nrif;pD;orm;rsm;onf vrf;ray:wGif &yfwefYvdkufMuonf/ Nrif;pD;orm; tcsKdUu vrf;ray:rS zJMuOfum
Nrif;vSnf;udk 0ef;&HvdkufMuonf/
]]a[m ... q&mwdkYygvm;? uRefawmfu aNrbDvl;q&mMuD; &efwdwf&JU vufatmufu avmufrmyg cifAs}}
Nrif;vSnf;orm;MuD; avmufrmu ysmysmovJyif qD;MudKaNymonf/
]]&efwdwf&JU cGifhNyKrdefYtvHNyprf;}}
Nrif;vSnf;udk 0ef;&HvdkufMuaom Nrif;pD;orm;rsm;teufrS acgif;aqmifNzpf[efwlolu aNymonf/
]][m ... &Sdygw,f? &Sdygw,f? q&mMuD; &efwdwf&JU cGifhNyKrdefYtvH rygbJ uRefawmfu b,fc&D;oGm;&JrSmvJ}}
avmufrmu aNymvnf;aNym Nrif;vSn;f xdik cf akH tmufrS aowåmav;wpfcu k v
kd nf; qG, J v l u kd o
f nf/ xdYk aemuf
aowåmudkzGifhNyD; tvHwpfckudk xkwfNyonf/
tvHrSm rnf;eufaom taumif;pm; ykd;pNzifh NyKvkyfxm;NyD; tvHay:wGif tNzLa&mif ydk;csnfNzifh
]c&D;oGm;cGifhNyKonf} [laom pmwef; a&;xdk;xm;onf/
xdktvHudk awGY&aomtcg avmufrmudk ppfaq;ar;Nref;aom vlMuD;\ rsufESmtrlt&m tenf;i,f
aysmhaysmif;vmonf/
]]at; ... [kwNf yD? tvHukd Nyeford ;f xm;vdu k ?f wpfcyk J ar;csiw f ,f? toufi,fi,f rde;f racsmav;ESpaf ,mufeYJ
&kyfoefYoefY vli,fwpfa,muf 'Dc&D;vrf;rSm awGUrdovm;}}
55
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
]]uRefawmfu 'DaeY c&D;xGufvmom vrf;rSm q&mwdkYeJYyJ qkHrdygao;w,f? wNcm;b,folYudkrS rawGUrdygbl;}}
]]cifAsm;&JU vSnf;ay:rSmaum b,folawGygvmovJ}}
]][m ... olwdkYu &yfa0;c&D;oGm;Mur,fh aus;awmom; tvkyfMurf;orm; rdom;pkyg? q&mwdkY
aNymwJhvlawGeJYawmh wNcm;pDygyJ}}
ppfar;aeaom vlMuD;u Nrif;vSnf;xJodkY tuJcwfovdk wpfcsufMunfhvdkufonf/
&k y f z suf x m;aom yd k i f p k u sif w d k Y u d k rnf o k d Y r Q oH o ,rNzpf a wmh b J auseyf o nf h toG i f N zif h o m
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]]at; ... usKyfwYkd omG ;r,f? apmapmu aNymwJh vlo;Hk a,mufuakd wGU&if usKyfwYkd qu D kd csufcsif;taMumif;Mum;}}
]]pdwfcsygq&m? uRefawmfu q&mwdkYudk trSDNyKNyD; vkyfudkif&SmazGpm;aomufae&wJholyg? q&mwdkYtay:
opöm&Sdygw,f}}
]]taNymeJY tvkyfnDyapaemf? r[kwf&if 'ku©aumif;aumif; awGY&r,f}}
]][kwfuJhyg q&m ... [kwfuJh}}
avmufrm\ Nrif;vSnf;udk 0ef;&Hxm;Muaom Nrif;pD;orm;rsm;onf vrf;ray:&Sd Nrif;pD;orm;rsm;ESifh
Nyefvnfaygif;pnf;um Nrif;rsm;udk tNyif;pdkif;ESif xGufoGm;Muavonf/
Nrif;pD;orm;rsm; tawmfa0;a0;okdY a&mufoGm;rS avmufrmonf Nrif;vSnf;udk vrf;rMuD;ay: Nyefwifum
c&D;qufonf/
]]e*g;euf*dkPf;om;awG b,favmuf armufrm&rf;um;Muw,fqdkwm tck rif;udk,fawGYNrifNyD r[kwfvm;}}
c&D;qufESif&if; avmufrmu csif;csif;udk aNymonf/
]][kwfw,faemf OD;av;ygayvdkYyJ? EdkYr[kwf&if uRefrwdkYawmh rvG,fbl;}}
csif;csif;u Zufuav;ykum NyefaNymonf/
xdkokdYNyefaNym&if; olrpdwfxJwGif e*g;euf*dkPf;om;rsm;u vltiftm; tvkH;t&if;Nzifh rdrdwdkYokH;a,mufudk
vdkufvH&SmazGaerSKudk awG;ylaerdonf/
rnfonfhtwGufaMumifh vdkufvH&SmazGae&oenf;/
xd k t aMumif ; ud k &S D ; [k e f od a umif ; od a yrnf / od k Y aomf &k y f z suf t a,mif a qmif u m
c&D;ESifae&csdefNzpfaomaMumifh csif;csif; taeNzifh &SD;[kefudkvnf; rar;omay/
ol w d k Y o k H ; a,muf o nf e*g;NzLa*[m od k i f ; orm;rsm;\ tEÅ & m,f u d k a&S m if w d r f ; Ed k i f & ef ,ck v d k
xGufvmNcif;Nzpfonf/
e*g;euf*dkPf;om;rsm;uyg olwdkYokH;a,muftaMumif;udk vdkufvHpkHprf;aeNyef&m olwdkYtzdkY bl;av;&m
z&kHqifhqdkonfh taNctaersKd; qdkufaeonf/
csif;csif;onf pdwfxJwGif awG;ylrdaomfvnf; avmufrmESifhrl axG&mav;yg; pum;rsm;udk trQifrNywfatmif
aNymqdkvmcJhonf/
csif ; csif ; onf avmuf r m\ Nrif ; vS n f ; Nzif h uG r f w k e f ; Nrd K Yod k Y oG m ;Murnf / xd k N rKd U rS w qif h
enf;vrf;wpfrsKd;aNymif;um c&D;qufMurnf Nzpfonf/
rdrdwdkY\ c&D;oGm;vmrSKudk tNcm;olrsm; r&dyfrd&avatmif trsKd;rsKd;aNymif;vJoGm;&ef &SD;[kefu
pDpOfcJhNcif;Nzpfonf/
]]uGrfwkef;NrKdUuae &kefcRef;NrdKUudk qufoGm;&wJh vrf;c&D;rSm "m;NyawG tawmfaomif;usef;aeMuw,f?
'gaMumifh owdxm;NyD;awmh oGm;zkdYawmh vkdvdrfhr,f}}
pum;pNrnf aNymqdkae&if; Nrif;vSnf;orm;MuD; avmufrmu csif;csif;udk a&SUqufoGm;&rnfh vrf;c&D;ESifh
ywfoufí owday;pum; aNymMum;onf/
]]"b,fvdk "m;NyawGvJ OD;OD;&JU}}
csif;csif;u pdwf0ifpm;[efNzifh pl;prf;onf/
]]ypönf;vkwJhtNyif vludkyg Nyefay;qGJMuwJh "m;NyawGvdkY owif;Mum;&wmyJ? usKyfu tJ'Dbufudk
c&D;roGm;zl;awmh wdwdusus raNymwwfbl;}}
56
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
]][m ... 'Dvdkqdk&ifawmh tcufyJ}}
csif;csif;u aMumufvefYonfhtoGif vkyfNyvdkuf\/
aus;awmolav; wpfa,muftoGif ta,mifaqmifxm;rSK yDyDNyifNyif &Sdap&efom csif;csif;rSm
aMumufvefYonfh trlt&m NyKvkyfvdkuf&aomfvnf; pdwfxJwGifrl aomif;usef;aeaom "m;Nyrsm;ESifh awGYygu
aumif;aumif;qkH;rvdkufrnf[k usdwfí MuKH;0g;aeonf/
csif;csif;onf toufi,f&G,fNyD; odkif;ynmvnf; wwfaNrmufolNzpf&m vlqdk; vlrdkufrsm;udk qkH;r&ef
vuf,m;aeolav; Nzpfonf/
]]odyaf MumufomG ;ovm;? c&D;oGm;&wm 'Dvakd yghu, G ?f a&mh rif;twGuf tumtuG,&f atmif 'gav;,lomG ;}}
avmufrmu xdkokdYaNym&if; vufokH;vkH;omomcefY&Sdonfh 0g;pdrf;Nym;av;wpfckudk xkwfay;vdkufNyD; ...
]]'D0g;pdrf;csyf[m usKyf&JUrdwfaqG wpfa,muf ay;xm;cJhwmyJ? uGrfwkef;NrdKYeJY &kefcRef;NrdKUtMum;rSm
ta&;taMumif; wpfcck Mk uKH&if 'D0g;pdr;f csyfav;udk xkwNf yzdYk rSmxm;w,f? tumtuG,o f abmawmh &Edik yf gvdrrhf ,f}}
]][m ... aus;Zl;ygyJ OD;OD;&,f}}
csif;csif;u tvGefyif aus;Zl;wif0rf;omonfh toGifrsKd;NyKum avmufrmay;onfh 0g;pdrf;csyfav;udk
,lxm;vdkufonf/
csif;csif;ESihf ydik pf u
k sifwYkd onf avmufrm\ aysmfaysmf&iT &f iT f aewwfoavmuf wzufom;udk ulnw D wfonfh
pdwf"mwfudk pdwfxJrS usdwfum csD;rGrf;rdonf/
tcuftcJ tusyftwnf;ESifh &ifqdkif&onfh tcsdefwGif wwfpGrf;orQ ulnDyhHydk;olomvQif ppfrSefaom
rdwfaqGaumif; Nzpfonf/
xdkaeYnaeydkif;avmufwGif ydkifpkusifwdkYonf uGrfwkef;NrdKUokdY a&muf&SdoGm;Muonf/
uGrfwkef;NrdKUü wpfnwm&yfem;NyD; aemufwpfaeYwGif c&D;qufum xGufvmcJhMuonf/
ydkifpkusifwdkYvlpk uGrfwkef;NrdKUrS c&D;qufvufxGufvmcJhMuonf/
olwdkYonf uGrfwkef;NrdKUodkY vmpOf toGiftNyifrsKd; r[kwfMuawmh/
&kyfzsuf ta,mifaqmifNcif;rNyKMuawmhbJ rlv&kyfoGiftwdkif;yif Nrif;udk,fpD pD;um xGufvmMuonf/
uGrfwkef;NrdKUrS &kefcRef;NrdKUodkY oGm;&mvrf;c&D;onf vufeufudkif vlqdk; "m;Nyrsm; aomif;usef;aeonfh
ae&mNzpfonf/
&dk;&dk;ukefonf yGJpm; c&D;oGm;rsm; &ifwxdwfxdwfESifh oGm;vmMu&onf/ oGm;vm&mwGifvnf; wpfa,mufp
ESpfa,mufp vlenf;pkNzifh roGm;&J? vlpkvla0;aumif;aumif;Nzifhom c&D;oGm;0HhMuonf/
ydkifpkusifwdkY okH;a,mufrSmrl bmudkrQ aMumuf&GHUNcif;r&SdbJ Nrif;rsm;udk cyfoGufoGufpD;um c&D;ESifí
aeMuonf/
]]uRefrwdkYaemufudk e*g;euf*dkPf;uvlawG bmaMumifh owif;teHYcHNyD; vdkuf&SmaeMuwmvJ ... [if}}
csif;csif;u olr odvdkaomfvnf; ar;Nref;&ef tcGifhromcJhaomaMumifh rsKdodyfxm;&onfh udpöudk
xkwfar;vdkufonf/
]]t&if w k e f ; uawmh wd k Y b,f u d k o G m ;oG m ; b,f v d k v S K yf & S m ;vS K yf & S m ; e*g;euf * d k P f ; ud k
vQKdU0SuftaMumif;Mum;cJhw,f? tckawmh olwdkYudk b,fvdkrS taMumif;rMum;bJ xGufvmwmaMumifh olwdkYeJY
vrf;cGJoGm;w,fqdkwm &dyfrdNyD; vdkufpkHprf;&SmazGMuwm NzpfEdkifw,f}}
&SD;[kefu NyefaNymonf/
]]'gqdk&if uRefrwdkY[m e*g;NzLa*[mu odkif;orm;awGudk a&Smifwdrf;&&kHomrubJ e*g;euf*dkPf;udkyg
a&Smifwdrf;&awmhrSmaygh? tif; tEÅ&m,f ydkrsm;vmNyDaemf}}
]]'gawGudk awG;NyD; ylyefraeygeJY rrav;&,f? vloluif;a0;wJh ae&m wpfae&m&mudk a&G;cs,fNyD;
tomykef;atmif; Zmwf`r§Kyfaevdkuf&if 'D&efawG at;oGm;rSmyg}}
csif;csif;u tm;ay;pum; aNymonf/
tm;ay;pum;om aNym&onf? e*g;NzLa*[mESifh e*g;euf*dkPf;wdkY\ pufuGif;rS a&Smifwdrf;ykef;atmif;aezdkY
rvG,faMumif;udk csif;csif; aumif;aumif;odonf/
57
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
olwdkYonf pum;qufraNymbJ tawG;udk,fpDESifh NidrfoufpGm c&D;ESifvmcJhMuonf/
c&D;ESifvmí twefMumaomtcgwGif tEÅ&m,f\ a&SUaNy;tcsufNyrSKwpfckudk awGUMu&avawmhonf/
]]0SD; ...}}
avxkukd cGi;f um Nyif;xefaom t&Sed t f [keNf zifh rD;`r§m;wpfpif; ay:xGuv
f monf/ rD;`r§m;onf ydik pf u
k sifwYkd \
acgif;ay:rSNzwfum opfNzLyifMuD;wpfyifwGif oGm;pdkufaeonf/
ydkifpkusifwkdY okH;a,muf Nrif;rsm;udk ZufwkHYum&yfvdkufMuonf/
]]a[m ... 'gu b,fvkd[mvJ}}
&SD;[kefu xdwfvefY[efNzifh a&&Gwfvdkufonf/
]]'Dvrf;c&D;rSm aomif;usef;aew,fqdkwJh "m;NyawG NzpfEdkifw,f}}
ydkifpkusifu aNymonf/
]]"m;NyawGudk bmrsm;aMumufaep&m&SdvJ rrav;&,f}}
csif;csif;u bmudkrQ rrSKonfhtoGif Nzpfaeonf/
olwdkYokH;a,mufonf rD;`r§m;Nzifh ypfcwfum tcsufNyonfudk b,fvkdrS ta&;rxm;MubJ Nrif;rsm;udk
tompdkif;um qufvufc&D;ESifMuonf/
rMumyg/
]]0SD; ... 0DS;}}
rD;`r§m;ESpfpif; qufvufay:vmNyefonf/ apmapmuenf;wl ydkifpkusifwdkY okH;a,muf\ acgif;ay:rSNzwfum
opfyifMuD;wpfyifwGif oGm;pdkufonf/
ydkifpkusifwdkYu xdkrD;`r§m;ESpfpif; xGufay:vmonfudk ta&;yif rvkyfMubJ Nrif;rsm;udk [efrysuf
qufESifaeNyefonf/
]]t&Judk;NyD; a&SUwdk;r,f MuHwmvm;? Zufaumif;vdkY "m;awmif;w,f rSwfw,f}}
ydkifpkusifwdkY\ at;pufpufESifh tav;rxm;onfh tNyKtrludk cHNyif;onfhtvm; atmf[pfNcdrf;aNcmufoH
ay:vmonf/
]]b,fuMuGufpkwftoHvJ rrav;? toHyJMum;&NyD; bmudkrS rNrif&ygvm;? trSKdufykHMum;rSm ykef;aew,f
xifyg&JU}}
csif;csif;u ydkifpkusifudk aNymovkdvdkESifh toH&Sifudk ESdrfcsum qdkvdkufonf/
]]MuGufpkwftoH r[kwfygbl;uG,fh}}
ydkifpkusifu NyefaNymonf/
]]'gNzifh bmoHvJ}}
]]xrif;usef [if;usefawG cdk;pm;aewJh acG;0Jpm; tloHyg}}
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]]awmuf ... w,fvnf; ESKwfp tmp aumif;Muwmudk;? avmuMuD;rSm touf&Sifae&wm NiD;aiGYNyD;
i,fi,f&G,f&G,feJY aocsifaeNyDxifw,f? uJ ... ighvlawG taMumif;NyvdkufMuprf;}}
xdkvl\ pum;oHtqkH;wGif teD;0ef;usif opfyifMuD;rsm;ay:rS "m;Nyrsm;onf arsmufvGJausmfrsm;vdk
opfyifopfukdif;rsm;ukd wGJcdkum wpfa,mufNyD;wpfa,muf atmufokdY ckefqif;vmMuonf/
xdkvlpk pum;wpfpkHwpf&m raNymbJ ydkifpkusifwdkYudk 0ef;&Hxm;vdkufMuonf/
]]wpfaumif ... ESpfaumif? tJav ... wpfa,muf ESpfa,muf okH;a,muf ... tr,f tm;vkH;
okH;q,fhig;a,mufawmifygvm;}}
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ceJYwJhwJh aNymvdkufonf/
xdktcsdefrSmyif "m;Nyacgif;aqmif Nzpf[efwlaom t&yfNrifhNrifh rkwfqdwfarG;xlxlESifh vlMuD;wpfa,muf
vufESpfzufudk aemufypfum aNcvSrf;rSefrSefESifh ydkifpkusifwdkY&Sd&modkY avQmufvSrf;vmonf/

58
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
]]okH;q,fhaNcmufa,muf&SdNyD? wpfa,muf vdkaeygao;vm;? bmvdkY xGufrvmwmvJ}}
csif;csif;u toHus,fus,fESifh aNymonf/
]][kwfw,f ... 'gayr,fh vdkaewJhwpfa,mufu tNyifxGufvmrSm r[kwfbl;}}
ydkifpkusifu aumufcsufcsonf/
]][if ... bmNzpfvdkYvJ}}
]]taNctaeraumif;&if rD;Nr§m;eJY igwdkYudk vSrf;ypfEdkifatmifvdkY ykef;atmif;NyD; acsmif;aewmav}}
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wpfa,mufrsufESm wpfa,muf MunfhvdkufMuonf/
ydik pf u
k sifwYkd rmS twGi;f tm;aumif;NyD; tMum;tm&kH xufNrufonft h wGuf wpfzufvrl sm;\ touf&LS oHrsm;?
vSKyf&Sm;oHrsm;udk Mum;&&kHNzifh vloltiftm; rnfrQ&Sdonfudk twdtus aNymEdkifNcif; Nzpfayonf/
]]rrav; aNymwm NzpfEdkifygw,f? NyD;awmh olwdkYvlawG r[ef&if a&SUqkH;u xGufaNy;EdkifatmifvdkY
ykef;atmif;usefcJhwmaum rNzpfEdkifbl;vm;}}
csif;csif;\ csufusvufus aNymvdkufaom pum;aMumifh ydkifpkusifESifh &SD;[kefwdkYrSm w[m;[m;
&,farmvdkufMuonf/
olwdkYokH;a,mufonf 0ef;&Hxm;aom "m;Nyrsm;udk zkwfavonfh ig;yd &Sdonf[kyif rxifonfhoabmrsKd;
aNymqdkaeMu&m "m;Nyrsm;rSm tawmfyif &SdefoGm;Muonf/
od k Y aomf i,f & G , f a om rd e f ; uav;ES p f a ,muf E S i f h vk v if y sKd w pf a ,muf tm;vk H ; aygif ;
okH;a,mufrQom&Sdonf[laom todNzifh aoG;rsm; NyefMuGvmMuonf/
]][dwf ... rif;wdkYudk "m;NywdkufaewmuG? awmaNymawmifaNym avQmufaNymraeeJY? toufraocsif&if
Nrif;ay:u qif;vdkufMuprf;}}
rkwfqdwfarG;xlxlESifh vlMuD;u cyfqwfqwfaNymvdkuf\/
]]uRefrwpfoufrSm 'Dvdk&dkif;&dkif;pdkif;pkdif; awmif;&rf;wwfwJhvlrsKd; rMuKHzl;ygvm;? 'Dvdk a[mha[mh&rf;&rf;
awmif;pm;aevdkYuawmh b,folu pGefYMuJrSmvJ}}
csif;csif;u "m;Nyrsm;udk ESdrfum aNymvdkufNyefonf/
rk w f q d w f a rG ; xl x l E S i f h "m;Nyacgif ; aqmif r S m pd w f r &S n f E d k i f a wmh b J ol Y vl r sm;ud k wd k u f c d k u f & ef
atmf[pftrdefYay;vdkufavonf/
]]'DvlokH;a,mufudk wpfa,mufrS t&Sifrxm;eJY? tukefowfypfMuprf;}}
"m;Nyacgif;aqmifu atmf[pf trdefYay;vdkufonf/
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pum;rsm;Nzifh pGmus,fpGmus,f taNymwwfqkH;Nzpfonfh csif;csif;udk Nrifpuwnf;u aw;rSwfxm;cJhMuonf/ ,ck
olwdkY\ "m;Nyacgif;aqmifu trdefYay;vmaomtcg tuGufaumif;qdkufNyD[k xifrSwfvdkufMuonf/ olwdkY\
wdkufcdkufrSK OD;wnfcsufu csif;csif;qDodkY/
vufeufudkif "m;NyokH;a,mufu csif;csif;udk 0dkif;0ef;xdk;ckwf wdkufcdkufMuonf/
csif;csif;onf olr\ udk,fcE¨mudk nmbufokdY &kwfw&ufwdrf;í tomt,m vSKyf&Sm;NyD; "m;Ny\ vufxJrS
"m;&dk;udk qwfceJ qkyfzrf;vdkufonf/
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"m;NyESpfa,muf\ vufrS vufeufrsm; vGwfxGufoGm;onf/
csi;f csi;f onf xdrk QEiS hf &yfwefYraebJ aNcysu H efcsurf sm;Nzifh "m;Nyok;H a,mufukd qufwu kd u
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vufxJodkY a&mufoGm;avNyD/
&dk;&dk;c&D;oGm;rsm;tay:wGif Ncif;xJrS Muufuav; iSufuav;rsm;udk tEdkifusifhovdk pdwfxifwdkif;
ESdyfpufowfNzwfaecJhMuaom "m;Nyrsm;rSm olwdkYudk EdkifonfhvlESifh awGU&onfwGif tvdkvdk xdwfvefYum
aemufqkwfukefMuawmhonf/
59
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
]]b,fvdkNzpfukefMuwmvJ? a&SUwdk;av ... vmMuprf;yg}}
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]]rif;wdkY b,folawGvJ aNymprf;}}
rkwfqdwfarG;xllxlESifh "m;Nyacgif;aqmifu csif;csif;wdkYudk rsufarSmifMuKwfum MunfhNyD;ar;\/
]]w,f[kwfygvm;? bmvJ ... uRefrwdkYemrnfawG odNyD;&if &Sifu aemiftcGifhMuKHwJhtcg NyefwkHYNyefr,f
bmnmaNymNyD; a&Smifwdrf;xGufaNy;rvdkYvm;}}
csif;csif;\ csufusvufus aNymvkdufrIaMumifh "m;Nyacgif;aqmifrSm t&SufMuD; &SufoGm;onf/
csif;csif;aNymovdkyif olYtaeESifh a&Smifwdrf;&ef pdwful;xm;NyD;vnf; Nzpfonf/
]]a[haumifawG wdkufMu ... tukef0dkif;wdkufMu}}
"m;Nyacgif;aqmifu &Su&f rf;&rf;um atmf[pftrdeYf ay;aeaomfvnf; usef"m;Nyi,fom;wdYk rmS wpfa,mufrQ
a&SUodkYrwdk;0HhMuacs/ csif;csif;udkom aMumufvefYpGm MunfhaeMuonf/
]]'Dr,f ... 'Dr,f &Siuf "m;Nyacgif;aqmify?J vk,ufvYkd&wJh ypön;f awGqkd &Siu
f trsm;qk;H ,lwmyJ r[kwv f m;?
'Dawmh &SifyJ t&ifqkH;wufvmcJhprf;yg}}
csif;csif;u "m;Nyacgif;aqmifudk pdef;pdef;MunfhNyD; aNymvdkufonf/
"m;Nyacgif;aqmifrSm yxrwGifawmh wGefYqkwfwGefYqkwf Nzpfaeao;onf/
]]vmyg&Sifh b,fvdkvJ? "m;Nyacgif;aqmifvkyfNyD; 'Davmufawmif owådenf;&ovm;}}
csif;csif;u xyfrHaNymvdkuf&m "m;Nyacgif;aqmifrSm t&SufMuD; &Suf&rnfh taNctaewGif rxl;awmh[k
&Suf&rf;&rf;onfh taeNzifh "m;&Snfudk qGJxkwfum csif;csif;udk 0ifa&mufckwfydkif;avawmh\/
"m;Nyacgif;aqmifonf i,fom;rsm;a&SUwGif &Suf&SufNzifh &rf;orf;wdkufcdkufNcif;om Nzpfonf/ olYtaeNzifh
csif;csif;udk r,SOf&Jay/
xdkYaMumifh csif;csif;u "m;&Snfudk0ifhum Nyefvnfwdkufcdkuf&ef NyifvdkufonfESifh "m;Nyacgif;aqmifrSm
"m;csif;yif rqdkif&JbJ aemufodkY ckefqkwfoGm;\/
]]cpf ... cpf ... cpf ... uRefru &Sifhudk Nyefrwdkufao;ygbl;? odkif;uGufwpfuGufwnf;eJY ta&;edrfhoGm;&&if
&SifhtzdkY odu©musp&m r[kwfvm;? uJ ... uJ ... MudK;pm;Munfhprf;ygOD;&Sif}}
csif;csif;u avSmifaNymif&,farmum aNymvdkufonf/
olr\ pum;rSm "m;Nyacgif;aqmifudk oufnm§ ovdkvdkrsKd; xif&aomfvnf; wu,fawmh tMuD;tus,f
t&Suf&aprnfh pum;rsm;Nzpfayonf/
"m;Nyacgif;aqmifrSm a&SUwdk;&cuf aemufqkwf&tcufESifh bmvkyf&rnfrSef;rodbJ csif;csif;udkom
rsufvkH;tNyL;om;ESifh pdkufMunfhaeonf/
olonf csif;csif;wdkY okH;a,mufudk tvG,fwul wdkufcdkufvk,ufEdkifrnf[k xifcJhonf/ ,ckawmh
txifESifhtNrif ygpifatmif vGJ&acsNyD/
a&a>rtxifESifh zrf;cJh&m tqdyfNyif;onfh a>rayG;NzpfaeaMumif; ,ckrS od&avNyD/
csif;csif;u Nrif;ay:rS qwfceJ ckefqif;vkdufonf/
"m;Nyacgif;aqmifonf tvefYwMum;yif aemufodkY ckefqkwfoGm;onf/ tvefYwMum; qkwfvdkufonfrdkY
[efcsufudkEdkifatmif rxdef;EdkifbJ udk;&dk;um;,m; NzpfoGm;onf/
"m;Nyi,fom;rsm;rSmvnf; aemufokdY aNcESpfvSrf;qD qkwfoGm;MuNyefonf/
]][dwf ... aNy;r,f rMuHMueJYaemf? wpfa,mufrS toufcsrf;om&m&rSm r[kwfbl;}}
csif;csif;u Mudrf;armif;vkdufonf/
"m;Nyi,fom;rsm; aNcvSrf;wkYHoGm;um qD;&Gufavmuf rsufESmav;rsm;ESifh aMumufvefYpGm &yfaeMuonf/
"m;Nyacgif;aqmif udk,fwdkifrSmvnf; ausm&dk;wpfavQmuf pdrfhcsrf;oGm;atmifyif aMumufvefYae&Smonf/
"m;Nyacgif;aqmifonf csif;csif;udk ,SOfrwdkuf&Jawmh/ okdYaomf "m;Nyi,fom;rsm;a&SUarSmufwGif
vufaNr§muft&HI;ay;&rnfukdvnf; rvkyfvdk/

60
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
acR;tNyefom; rsufvkH;tNyL;om;ESifh csif;csif;udk Munfhaeonf/
ydkifpkusifu taNctaeudk &dyfrdaomaMumifh Mum;0ifum xdef;ay;vdkufonf/
]]uJ ... uJ ... 'Davmufqdk&if awmfavmufa&maygh? &SifwdkY b,ftzGJUuvJ qdkwmudkom rSefrSefaNym}}
ydkifpkusifonf csif;csif;udk [efYwm;NyD; "m;Nyacgif;aqmiftm; qufí ar;cGef;xkwfvdkufonf/
"m;Nyacgif;aqmifrSm ydkifpkusif\ pum;aNymifh tawmfyif touf&ªacsmifoGm;um ...
]]uRefawmfhemrnf xefcsDqdkif;vdkY ac:ygw,f? tvkyftudkif tayguftvrf; rwnfhwmaMumifh MuHrdMuH&m
vk,ufwdkufcdkuf pm;aomufaeMuwmyg? *dkPf;tzGJY&,fvdkYvnf; r&Sdygbl;}}
ydkifpkusiftaeNzifh vufaMumwif;atmif vkyfudkifNcif;rNyKbJ olwpfyg;tay: tEdkifusifhvk,ufrIudk
b0ifrusEdkifay/
]]&SifwdkYu b,f*dkPf;tzGJUurS r[kwfbJeJY bmaMumifh 'Davmufawmif vltiftm; vufeuftiftm;
awmifhwif;aeMuwmvJ}}
ydkifpkusif ar;Nref;rnfqdkyguvnf; ar;Nref;p&myif/
"m;Nyrsm;\ tiftm;onf tawmfyifrsm;Nym;onf/ pkpkpnf;pnf;vnf; &Sdonf/ udkifaqmifMuonfh
vufeufawGuvnf; tawmfpkHvifonf/
Nzpf o vd k aygif ; pyf u m vk , uf w d k u f c d k u f a eMuonf h "m;Nyvl p k E S i f h rwl b J *d k P f ; tzG J Y wpf c k \
*dkPf;cGJwpfcGJtoGifrsKd; &Sdaeonf r[kwfygvm;/
]]'De,fw0dkufu taNctaerJhwJhvlawGudk uRefawmfupkpnf;NyD; acgif;aqmifaewmyg? vufeufawGuvnf;
'DvdkyJ wNznf;Nznf; pkaqmif;&&Sdxm;Muwmyg? c&D;vrf;rSm toGm;tvmursm;awmh tawmftvkyfNzpfwmaMumifh
tiftm;ydkrsm;vmcJhwmygyJ}}
]]vk,ufwu kd cf u
kd w
f hJ tvkyaf wGukd &yfwef;u&yfNyD; aumif;a&mif;aumif;0,f vkypf m;Muyg? uRerf wdYk &Siw f Ykdukd
&uf&ufpufpuf owfNzwfNyD; 'Pfrcwfcsifbl;}}
]]rrav;&,f ... uRefawmfu 'DtvkyfudkyJ vkyfwwfygw,f? 'gav;rS rvkyf&&if uRefawmfwdkY iwfNywf
aoMuzdkYyJ &Sdygw,f? uRefawmfwdkYudk wcgwnf;om owfoGm;ygawmh}}
"m;Nyacgif;aqmifu rsufESmi,fav;Nzifh c,awmif;yefonf/
csif ; csif ; u "m;Nyacgif ; aqmif \ tNyKtrl u d k Nrif N yif ; uwf a omaMumif h a&S U od k Y v S p f c eJ w d k ; um
"m;Nyacgif;aqmifudk yg;ydwf&dkufypfvdkufonf/
]]Nzef; ...}}
]][dwf ... rvkyfeJYav}}
ydkifpkusifu vSrf;atmf[efYwm;aomfvnf; r&awmh/
vufNrefvSaom csif;csif;rSm "m;Nyacgif;aqmifudk yg;&dkufvdkufNyD; Nzpfonf/
a'goNzpfNzpfESifh tm;xnfh&dkufvdkufcsif;NzpfonfhtwGuf &dkufcsufrSm tawmfNyif;onf/
"m;Nyacgif;aqmif xefcsDqdkif;\ yg;NyifwGif vuf0g;&mMuD;xifum EIwfcrf;ab;pGef; wzufwcsufrSvnf;
aoG;rsm; ,dkusvmonf/
]]&SifwdkY w,fcufygvm;? uRefru &SifwdkYudk vrf;rSefa&mufapcsifvdkY aNymaewm&Sifh}}
ykdifpkusifu xefcsDqdkif;udk aNymvdkufNyefonf/
]]rrav;&JU apwemudk uRefawmfwdkY em;vnfygw,f? 'gayr,fh uRefawmfwdkYrSm bmynmrS rwwfMuygbl;?
'Dawmh b,fvdkvkyfNyD; toufarG;0rf;ausmif;NyK&rSmvJ cifAsm}}
xefcsDqdkif;\ pdwfysuftm;avsmhpGm aNymaompum;aMumifh csif;csif;rSm a'goNzpfoGm;um wpcef;
xvmNyefonf/
]]xDG ... cE¨mudk,fu usm;udk;pD;pm;rukefwJh a,mufsm;MuD;NzpfNyD; 'Dpum;rsKd; aNym&ovm;? &Sif[m
xef;vnfqpfusKd; tkef;cg;v,fywfvdk tokH;ruswJh vlpm;yJ}}
csif;csif;u xefcsDqdkif;udk txifao;aomtMunfhESifhMunfhNyD; pufqkyfpGm aNym\/

61
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
ydkifpkusifuawmh bmrQraNymbJawGa0 pOf;pm;ae\/
raumif;rIESifh ywfoufí pD;yGm;Nzpfaeaom vlpkudk aumif;a&mif;aumif;0,f vkyfudkifpm;aomuf&ef
MudK;pm;azsmif;zs&Ncif;rSm vG,fulaomudpöawmh r[kwfay/
wcsdev f ;Hk rnfonfph um;rQ raNymbJ Nidrí f aecJo
h l &S;D [keo
f nf rdrw d Ykd twGuyf g tusKd;&SEd ikd rf nfh tMuHwpfcu
k kd
pOf;pm;rdaomaMumifh ,ckrS Mum;0ifum ...
]]'DvdkvkyfMu&if raumif;bl;vm;}}
&SD;[kefu þodkYpum;pvkdufonfESifh xefcsDqdkif;u ysmysmovJyif ...
]]trdefY&Sdyg q&mav; ... aumif;r,fxifwJh tMuHOmPfudk ay;ygcifAsm? q&mav;udk uRefawmfwdkY
tm;udk;ygw,f}}
]]cifAsm;wdkY pcef;csaexdkifwJhae&mudk t&ifoGm;MunfhMur,f? NyD;rS cifAsm;wkdY aumif;aumif;rGefrGef
vkyfudkifpm;aomufEdkifr,fh enf;vrf;udk tMuHay;r,f}}
]]aumif;ygNyD ... aumif;ygNyD? tckyJ uRefawmfwdkY&JU pcef;udk vdkufcJhMuyg}}
xefcsDqdkif;onf &SD;[kefwdkY okH;a,mufudk olwdkY\ pcef;odkY vrf;Nyac:aqmifoGm;onf/
xefcsDqdkif;wdkY\ pcef;onf c&D;oGm;vrf;rMuD;ESifh ig;rdkifrQa0;onfh awmifukef;av; wpfckay:wGif
wnf&Sdavonf/
xdkawmifukef;udk vl&dkif;awmifukef;[k ac:Muonf/
xd k a e&monf opf M uD ; 0g;MuD ; rsm; tk y f t k y f q d k i f ; qk d i f ; ayguf a &muf a eaom t&yf N zpf í
rsuf u G , f a umif ; vS o nf / taMumif ; rod v Qif vl & d k i f ; awmif u k e f ; ay:wG i f vl a epcef ; wpf c k & S d a eaMumif ;
odEdkifrnfr[kwfay/
pcef ; &S d t d r f r sm;onf Nzpf u wwf q ef ; aqmuf v k y f x m;aomf v nf ; opf M uD ; 0g;MuD ; rsm;Nzif h
aqmufvkyfxm;oNzifh ckdifcHhvSonf/
]]&S i f w d k Y aexd k i f w J h td r f a wG u d k a wmh awG U &ygNyD ? &S i f w d k Y Nyef a y;qG J x m;wJ h vl a wG u d k b,f r S m
csKyfaESmifxm;w,fqdkwm Nyprf;ygOD;}}
þ"m;Nyrsm;onf vk,uf&kHomru Nyefay;qGJrIrsm;vnf;NyKwwfaMumif; avmufrmu aNymMum;cJhonfudk
owd&aomaMumifh csif;csif;u xefcsDqdkif;udk ar;vdkufNcif;Nzpfayonf/
]][m ... rdef;uav;u uRefawmfwdkY&JU twGif;a&;awGudkawmif odaewmudk;}}
xefcsDqdkif;u tHhMo[efNzifh aNymonf/
]]&SifwdkY Nyefay;qGJxm;wJh vlawGudkom vkdufNyprf;yg}}
xefcsDqdkif;onf csif;csif;wkdYtm; Nyefay;qGJxm;olrsm;udk csKyfaESmifxm;&modkY ac:aqmifoGm;onf/
xdkae&monf obm0 ausmuf*lwpfckNzpfNyD; cdkifcHhaomopfom;wef;rsm; &dkufum tcsKyfwpfcktNzpf
zefwD;NyKNyifxm;onf/
tcsKyfcef;xJwGif vlq,fa,mufcefY csKyfaESmifxm;\/
tcsKyf c ef ; xJ r S vl r sm;onf xef c sD q d k i f ; wd k Y wpf a wG a&muf v monf u d k awG U &aomtcg
tvGefaMumufvefYvsuf acgif;yifrazmf0HhMuay/
]]tcsKyfcef;udk zGifhay;yg}}
ydkifpkusifu xefcsDqdkif;udk avoHat;at;Nzifh aNymvdkufonf/
]][kwfuJh rrav;}}
xefcsDqdkif;onf csufcsif;yif trdefYemcHum tcsKyfcef;wHcg;udk zGifhvdkufonf/
xd k o k d Y tcsKyf c ef ; wH c g;ud k zG i f h v d k u f a omtcg twG i f ; &S d vl r sm;onf ol w d k Y ud k
tNyifxkwfowfNzwfawmhrnf[kxifum NyL;wl;ysmwmESifh awmif;yefMuav\/
]]uRefawmfwdkYudk rowfMuygeJY cifAsm? uRefawmfwdkYtdrfu rMumcif aiGawG vmydkYygvdrfhr,f? q&mMuD;wdkY
awmif;qdkxm;wmxufawmif ydkay;MurSmyg}}

62
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
xkdoltm;vkH;rSm rsufESmi,fav;rsm;ESifh NzpfaeMuonf/ tcsKyfcef; tNyifbufokdYyif rxGuf&JMuay/
]]bmrS aMumufvefYraeMuygeJY? &SifwkdYudk owfzdkYr[kwfygbl;? NyefvTwfay;rvkdYyg}}
ydkifpkusif\pum;udk Mum;&aomtcgwGifrS tcsKyfcef;xJrSvlrsm;onf 0rf;omtm;wufukefMuonf/
ydkifpkusifudk vIdufvIdufvSJvSJyif aus;Zl;wifpum;rsm; aNymMuonf/
xef c sD q d k i f ; u Nyef a y;qG J o l r sm;ud k Nyef v T w f a y;a&;twG u f pD p Of & ef ol \ vuf a xmuf
"m;Nyacgif;aqmifi,fwpfa,mufudk wm0efay;tyfvkdufonf/
xdYk aemuf ydik pf u k siw f Ykdukd olaexdik &f m tdro f Ykd ac:aqmifomG ;NyD; pm;aomufz, G &f mrsm;ESihf wnfcif;{nfch o H nf/
]]cifAsm;wdkY[m vltiftm;awmifhwif;&kHrubl;? rdom;pkawG bmawGeJY tawmfodkufodkuf0ef;0ef; &Sdw,f?
'Dae&mrSm &Gmav;wnfNyD; vkyu f ikd pf m;aomuf&if toufarG;0rf;ausmif; aumif;aumif; NyKEdik w f ,f? uRefawmfwYkd vnf;
wNcm;udk c&D;rqufMuawmhbJ cifAsm;wdkYeJY twlwl taNccsaezdkY pdwful;xm;w,f? b,fvdk oabm&vJ}}
pm;aomufzG,f&mrsm;udk pm;aomuf&if; &SD;[kefu pum;pvdkufonf/
þae&monf vloluif;a0;NyD; acsmifvnf;usaomaMumifh rdrdwdkYwpfawG taNccsaexkdifvkdufygu
aemufa,mifcH vdu k &f mS aeolrsm;udk vSnphf m;xm;Edik rf nfNzpfaMumif; awG;rdaomaMumifh ,ckvkd aNymvdu k Nf cif; Nzpfonf
]]q&mav;wkdYu OD;pD;vrf;Ny vkyfay;r,fqdk&if uRefawmfwdkYu aemufuvdkufvkyfzdkY toifhygyJ?
uRefawmfwdkYwpfawGuawmh bmtvkyfrS vkyfukdifwwfwm r[kwfbl;}}
xefcsDqdkif;u NyefaNymonf/
xdYk aemuf olwYkd wawGonf xdak e&mwGif vkyu f ikd Ef ikd rf nfh toufarG;0rf;ausmif;rI vkyif ef;rsm;ESihf ywfoufí
aNymqdkwkdifyifMuonf/
xdo k Ydk aNymqdw k ikd yf ifaeMuqJwiG f vufaxmuf"m;Nyacgif;aqmifi,fwpfa,muf a&;MuD;okwyf sm trlt&mESihf
a&mufvmonf/
]]bmrsm; ta&;MuD;vmovJ a&Smuf0rf}}
xefcsDqdkif;u qD;í ar;vdkufonf/
]]vufeufukdif Nrif;pD;orm;wpfpk uRefawmfwdkYe,fxJudk 0ifvmygw,f tpfudkMuD;}}
a&Smuf0rfqdkolu NyefaNymonf/
xefcsDqdkif;u rsufarSmifMuKwfvkdufNyD; ...
]]b,folawGvJ ... b,fvdktaMumif;udpöeJY 0ifvmMuwmwJhvJ}}
]]'gudkawmh uRefawmf rodao;ygbl;? olwdkYudk Munfh&wmawmh odkif;orm;awG NzpfykH&w,f}}
a&Smuf0rfaNymaom vufeufudkif Nrif;pD;orm;wpfpkqdkonfrSm rdrdwdkYudk vdkufvH&SmazGaeMuonfh
e*g;euf*dkPf;0ifrsm; NzpfEdkifaMumif; awG;rdonfhtwGuf ydkifpkusifwkdYrSm pdwfvIyf&Sm;oGm;Mu&onf/
wpfa,mufrsufESmvnf; wpfa,muf MunfhrdMuonf/
]]tJ'D Nrif;pD;orm;awG taMumif;udk pkHpkHvifvifod&atmif oGm;NyD;pkHprf;cJh? 'DvlawG b,f*dkPf;uvJ?
bmud p ö a Mumif h 'D u d k a &muf v mwmvJ ? igwd k Y u d k &ef & S m wd k u f c d k u f z d k Y v m;? 'grS r [k w f ol w d k Y b mom ol w d k Y
c&D;oGm;aeMuwmvm; qdkwmawGudk ig odcsifw,f}}
xefcsDqdkif;u a&Smuf0rfudk nTefMum;trdefYay;onf/
]]aumif;ygNyD ... tpfudkMuD;}}
a&Smuf0rfonf xefcsDqdkif;\ trdefYudk emcHum pkHprf;axmufvSrf;&ef xGufcGmoGm;onf/
]]rrav;? tckudpöeJY ywfoufNyD; b,fvkdvkyf&if aumif;rvJ}}
a&Smuf0rf xGufcGmoGm;NyD;aemuf xefcsDqdkif;u ydkifpkusifudk tMuHawmif;onf/
]][kdvlawGtaMumif; a&a&&m&modatmif &Sifu pkHprf;cdkif;vdkufwm aumif;ygw,f? olwdkYb,folawG
Nzpfw,f? bm&nf&, G cf sufeYJ a&mufvmMuw,fqw kd mudk aoaocsmcsm od&awmhryS J b,fvq kd ufvyk o f ifw
h ,fqw kd m
aNymMuwmaygh}}
tcsdeftenf;i,fMumNyD;aemuf a&Smuf0rf Nyefa&mufvmonf/

63
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
]]tJ'Dvlpku e*g;euf*dkPf;om;awGyg tpfudkMuD;? tiftm; ig;q,f&Sdygw,f? usm;ol&J &efzef[kdqdkwJhvlu
acgif;aqmifvmygw,f/ a[m'De,fy,fa'oudk uRrf;usifwJh uRefawmfwdkYvlpkudk olwdkY&JU MoZmcHtNzpf odrf;oGif;zdkY
a&mufvmMuwmyg}}
a&Smuf0rfu rdrdpkHprf;od&SdvmcJh&onfrsm;udk xefcsDqdkif;tm; NyefaNymNyonf/
xefcsDqdkif;onf e*g;euf*dkPf;taMumif;udk aumif;aumif;odxm;onf/ rdrdwdkYtaeNzifh usm;ol&J
&efzef[kdqkdol OD;aqmifvmonfh e*g;euf*dkPf;om;rsm;udk &ifqdkifEdkifrnf r[kwfonfudkvnf; em;vnfonf/
xdkYaMumifh xefcsDqdkif;onf ydkifpkusifwdkYudk tm;udk;wMuD;yif Munfhvkdufrd\/
]]wpfzufval wGtaMumif;udk od&NyDqakd wmh ckct H Edik ,f zl Ydk qufvyk Mf uwmaygh? bmrSawG;NyD; aMumufraeygeJY?
b,fv&kd ifqikd &f r,fqw kd mudk uRerf aNymNyyghr,f? &Sief YJ &Siv hf al wGuom uRerf aNymwJt h wkid ;f 0dik ;f 0ef; ulnvD yk af qmifzYdk
vdkw,f}}
ydkifpkusif\ pum;ukd Mum;&aomtcg xefcsDqdkif;rSm tvGefyif 0rf;omtm;wufoGm;um ...
]][m ... 'DtwGufawmh pdwfcsyg? rrav;wkdY pDpOfwJhtwdkif; uRefawmfwdkYwpfawG vdkufemaqmif&Gufyghr,f}}
]]aumif;NyD ... 'gqdk&if 'Dvkdvkyf}}
ydkifpkusifu vkyfaqmif&rnfh tpDtpOfrsm;udk aNymNyonf/
]]uJ ... &SifwkdYt&ifoGm;NyD; e*g;euf*dkPf;om;awGudk awGYqkHayawmh? tcsdefukdawmh wwfEdkiforQ
MumMumqGJxm;? usefwJhtpDtpOfawG vkyfNyD;wmeJY uRefrwdkY vkdufvmcJhr,f}}
vkyfaqmif&rnfh tpDtpOfrsm;udk wkdifyifMuNyD;aemuf ydkifpkusifu xefcsDqdkif;udk aNymonf/
xefcsDqdkif;vnf; olYvlrsm;udkac:um cyfokwfokwf xGufcGmoGm;Muonf/
yd k i f p k u sif ? &S D ; [k e f E S i f h csif ; csif ; wd k Y vnf ; &k y f a Nymif ; &k y f v G J N yKum &k y f z suf N yif q if r I r sm;ud k
tNrefqkH;vkyfaqmifMuavawmhonf/
þtpDtpOf tm;vkH;udk ykdifpkusifu OD;aqmifum pDrHcefYcGJonf/
yd k i f p k u sif o nf e*g;NzLa*[mwG i f aexd k i f c J h p Of u zcif M uD ; yd k i f u sif v k H pD r H c ef Y cG J o nf r sm;ud k
tNrJawGYodMum;Nrif&um OD;pD;vkyfaqmifrIwGif tavhtusifh&cJhonf/
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64
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65
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66
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ÄÄÄ

68
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NzpfysufykH taMumif;pkHrSm .../

69
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif

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70
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71
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csif;csif;ESifhtwl xefcsDqdkif;\ wynfhwpfa,mufvnf; tazmftNzpf vkdufygvmcJhonf/
csif;csif;onf a,mufsm;av;wpfa,muftoGif &kyfzsufum xefcsDqdkif;\ wynfhwpfa,mufudk tazmfNyKNyD;
uGrfwkef;NrKdUodkY c&D;xGufvmcJhonf/
olrtay: tpdk;&drfMuD;um aoaocsmcsm rSmMum;vdkufonfh ydkifpkusif\pum;udk csif;csif; wpfoa0rwdrf;
em;axmifonf/
c&D;wpfavQmufwGif rnfonfh taMumif;udpöudkrQ *&krpdkufcJhay/
72
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
uGrfwkef;NrdKUokdYta&muf tNrefqkH;oGm;NyD; vdktyfonfh aq;trnfrsm; 0,f,l\/ udpöNyD;onfESifh
vl&dkif;awmifukef;odkY NyefvmcJhonf/
þokYd csi;f csi;f u rnfonft h &mudrk Q *&krpku d b
f J c&D;ukod mESicf rhJ aI Mumifh rvdv
k m;tyfaom taMumif;udprö sm;
qufwdkuf ay:aygufvmcJhNyefonf/
ydkifusifvkHonf e*g;NzLa*[mrS odkif;orm;rsm;udk ae&mtESHYapvTwfum ydkifpkusifwdkYtaMumif;
vdkufvHpkHprf;apcJhonf/
xdkokdY vkdufvHpkHprf;aeonfh tpkwpfpkonf uGrfwkef;NrKdUodkY a&muf&Sdae&m csif;csif;udk trSwfrxif
awGUNrifoGm;Muonf/
csif ; csif ; onf a,muf s m;av;wpf a ,muf t oG i f &k y f z suf N yKNyif x m;aomf v nf ; e*g;NzLa*[mrS
odkif;orm;rsm;u vIyf&Sm;rItoGifESifh pum;aNymoHrsm;rSaeí csif;csif;NzpfaMumif; rSwfrdoGm;onf/
tu,fí csif;csif;om ywf0ef;usifudk *&kpdkufMunfh&Iaernfqdkygu e*g;NzLa*[mrS odkif;orm;rsm;udk
awGUNrifrdrnf rvGJay/
,ckrl csif;csif;onf bmudkrQ *&krpdkufbJ aq;trnfrsm;udkom 0,f,lcJhonfhtwGuf tEÅ&m,fudk
rodrNrifvdkuf&awmhay/
csif;csif;ESifhtwl ygvmcJholu ywf0ef;usifudk tuJcwfMunfh&IaecJhaomvnf; e*g;NzLa*[mrS
odkif;orm;rsm;udk rodonfhtwGuf csif;csif;tm; MudKwifowday;EdkifNcif; r&SdcJhay/
csif ; csif ; ud k aNc&maumuf r d M uaom e*g;NzLa*[mrS od k i f ; orm;rsm;onf csif ; csif ; rod a om
rdrdwdkYvlESpfa,muftm; csif;csif;wdkYaemufodkY aemufa,mifcH vdkufoGm;Mu&ef wm0efay;vdkufMuonf/
þokdYNzifh ydkifpkusifESifh &SD;[kefwkdY vl&dkif;awmifukef;wGif Zmwfûr§yfum cdkatmif;aerItaMumif;pkHudk ydkifusifvkH
od&SdoGm;avawmhonf
]]awmuf ...}}
yd k i f p k u sif E S i f h ywf o uf o nf h owif ; pk H u d k Mum;&aomtcg yd k i f u sif v k H o nf a'gowMuD ; yif
awmufacgufvdkufonf/
]]awmuf ... rdkufvkH;MuD;vdkufwJh aumifrav;? vlrdkuftm;ay; vkyfw,f? tvdkvdkuf trdkufapmfum;eJY?
a&Smifvif*dkPf;eJY NyóemNzpf&atmifvnf; vkyfvkdufao;w,f? oif;udk owfypfzdkYyJ aumif;w,f}}
ydkifusifvkHu qufvufNyD; qlylMudrf;armif;aeonf/
]][if; ...}}
xdkokdY qlylMudrf;armif;ae&mrS oufNyif;&SnfMuD;wpfcsufcsNyD;aemuf qifpG,fxdkifckHay:wGif aNcypfvufypf
xdkifcsvdkufonf/
cef;raqmifxJwGif e*;gNzLa*[m\ okdif;orm;wpfcsKdU&SdaeMuaomfvnf; rnfolurQ toHrNyK&JMu/
tm;vkH; wdwfqdwfNidrfoufvsuf &SdaeMuonf/
ydkifusifvkHudk ydkifpkusifwdkYtaMumif; owif;vma&mufay;ydkYol odkif;orm;rSmvnf; acgif;razmf0Hhay/
e*g;NzLydkifusifvkHonf omreftcsdefwGif pdwfoabmxm;aumif;rGefum aysmfaysmf&Tif&Tif aewwfolNzpfonf/
okdY&mwGif pdwftvkdrusí a'goNzpfNyDqdkvQif e*g;MuD;wpfaumif rmefxovdk cufxefMurf;wrf;vSonf/
,ck ydik u f sifvt Hk zdYk a'grmefymG ;aecsdeNf zpf&m cef;raqmifx&J dS odik ;f orm;rsmonf wkww f w k yf if rvIy0f MhH uay/
ydkifusifvkHtzdkY Mum;&onfh owif;rsm;rSm cHNyif;p&mawGcsnf; Nzpfaeayonf/
aysmufcsufom;aumif;aeaom ydik pf u k sifonf ud, k 0f eft&ifth rmESihf &Sad eaMumif; owif;Mum;od&Nyefonf/
ydkifusifvkH\ tonf;udk "m;xufxufESifh wpfppDNzpfatmif vSD;onfhtvm; tcH&cufvSonfh taMumif;rSm
ydkifpkusifonf e*g;tpG,ftqdyf vufeufykef;Nzifh ypfcwfokwfoifNcif;cH&ol e*g;euf*dkPf;om; &SD;[kef\toufudk
a&Smifvifausmif;awmf\ 0dnmOfcsKyftqdyfaNz toufu,faq; oufpGefYqHzsm; cdk;,lum u,fwifay;NyD; twlwuG
aygif;oif;aeonfqkdonfh owif;yifNzpfonf/
e*g;euf*dkPf;onf e*g;u0dckepfazmfteuf aAGazmufum vrf;rSm;udkvdkufaeonf/ xkdYNyif ydkifpkusifESifh
aygif;oif;aeol &SD;[kefrSmvnf; zsHMuD;&SD;[kef[lí trnf&avmufatmif uvdefusaeol wpfa,muf NzpfaeNyefonf/
73
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
&S D ; [k e f o nf yd k i f p k u sif u d k cspf c if M uif e m Nrwf E d k ; aomaMumif h r[k w f b J yd k i f p k u sif x H r S
e*g;NzLu0draemodkif;ynmudk e*g;euf*dkPf;twGuf &,lvdkaomaMumifh Nzm;a,mif;aoG;aqmifaygif;oif;aeNcif;
Nzpf&rnf[k ydkifusifvkHu wGufqonf/
rnfonfah e&mrQ ra&mufz;l aom ydik pf u k sio f nf zsMH uD;&S;D [kevf kd vlvnfwpfa,muf\ y&d,m,fqifuu G uf rkd S
wdk;0ifrdoNzifh orD;Nzpfoltay: ydkifusifvkH *&kPma'go Nzpfae&onf/
ydkifusifvkHonf ZeD;onf aoqkH;oGm;NyD;aemuf rdwqdk;orD;av;tay: tppt&m&m tvkdvkdufum
,k,xm;cJhonf/
tcspfMuD;vQif trsufMuD;onfqdkaom pum;vdk orD;tay:cspfrdorQ ,ckawmh ,rf;ykHrD;us a'goawG
xGufae&awmh\/
&ifxkremvnf; Nzpfae&onf/
ydkifusifvkHonf xdkif&mrSxum rdrd\ oD;oefYpmMunfhcef;xJodkY avQmufvSrf;0ifa&mufvmcJhonf/
a'gopdwfuawmh raNyaysmufao;/
]]okdif;avmurSm 'Davmuf orÇm&ifhvSwJh a&Smifvifausmif;awmfxJudkrS oGm;NyD; vQKdU0Sufypönf;eJY
tqdyfaNzaq;udk cdk;,l&owJh? [kdaumif zsHMuD;u wywfvSnfheJY cdkif;vdkufvdkY vQKdU0Sufypönf;udk ckd;,l&wmNzpfvdrfhr,f?
tckawmh a&Smifvifausmif;awmfeJY igeJY rsufESmysufp&m Nzpfae&NyD? om;orD;raumif; rdbacgif;qdkwJh pum;rsm;
w,frSefygvm;}}
ydkifusifvkHonf wpfa,mufwnf; wwGwfwGwf a&&GwfaNymqdk&if; a'goxGufaeonf/
xdkokdY a'goxGufae&aomfvnf; wpfzufwGif 0rf;enf;ylaqG;um ,lusKH;r&vnf; Nzpfae&Nyefonf/
ydik uf sifvo Hk nf rdwqd;k av; ydik pf u k siftay: zcifvw kd pfrsKd? rdcifvwdk pfo,
G f Munf&h aI pmifah &SmufvmcJ&h onf/
rdcifrJhae&Smonfh orDav;tay: tcspfawG ykHcJh&onf/
]]tif ; ... orD ; av; yd k i f p k u sif u d k ol U tarqk H ; yg;oG m ;NyD ; uwnf ; u igud k , f w d k i f yd k ; arG ; ovd k
apmifha&SmufNyKpkvmcJh&w,f? ol[m igh&JU taoG;tom;om rubl;? igh&JU toufudk,fyGm;vdkawmif NzpfaeNyD?
pkusif tckvkd rvdrrf ;kd rvdrm® eJY rdu k rf &J wm[m ightNypfvnf; ruif;bl;? igh&UJ qk;H ryJNh yifrI ayghavsmhwmaMumifv h Ykd vnf;
qdkEdkifw,f? olwdkYt&G,fu yJNym;yifvdk av,l&m,drf;wwfwmyJav}}
þodkY pOf;pm;rdNyefaomtcg orD;rdkuftay: a'grmefyGm;aerIrsm; avsmhyg;oGm;um 0rf;enf;ylaqG;rIu
ydkvmcJhonf/
]][l; ...}}
ydkifusifvkHonf avylMuD;wpfcsuf rIwfxkwfvkdufonf/ olYtawG;xJwGif zsHMuD;&SD;[keftaMumif;
0ifa&mufvmonf/ xdktcgwGif ydkifusifvkH rsufESmxm; wif;rmoGm;um vufoD;ESpfzufudk cyfwif;wif;
qkyfvdkufrdonf/
aqG;&dyfoef;aeaom rsufvkH;rsm;rSm a'goa&mifNzifh rD;0if;0if;awmufvmonf/
]]oif;toufu i,fawmhwm r[kwfbl;? ynmvJwwfxm;wmyJ? OmPfvnf;aumif;w,f? 'geJYrsm;awmif
trSm;trSef rqifNcifEdkifbl;wJhvm;? olwpfyg; aoG;aqmifNzm;a,mif;wkdif; ,kHMunfNyD; vkdufvkyf&owJhvm;?
oif;ukd,fwkdifuaum tvdkwltvdkyg rNzpfEdkifbl;vm;}}
ydkifusifvkH\ tawG;rsm; cufxefvmovdk rsufESmxm;uvnf; ydkíwif;rmvmonf/
csif;csif;onf ydkifpkusif&Sd&m rD;aecef;xJ 0ifoGm;vkduf? tNyifokdY NyefxGufvmvdkufESifh tvGefyif
tvkyfrsm;aeonf/
,aeYonf ydkifpkusifwpfa,muf &ifaoG;i,fudk vlYavmuxJokdY arG;zGm;oefYpifay;awmhrnfhaeY Nzpfonf/
aq;0g;rStp vkdtyfonfrsm;udk toifhNyifqifxm;NyD; 0rf;qGJMuD;wpfa,mufvnf; &Sdaeonfhwdkif
csif;csif;onf om;OD;arG;zGm;&awmhrnfh ydkifpkusiftwGuf pdk;&drfruif; Nzpfaeonf/
pk;d &dryf yl efpwd rf sm; Nzpfaeonfeh nf;wl wpfzufwiG v f nf; 0rf;omaysmf&iT af eonf/ rMumrD tcsdet f wGi;f rSmyif
olrudk ]a':av;csif;csif;} [kac:rnfh vlwpfa,muf vlUavmuMuD;xJokdY a&muf&Sdvmawmhrnf r[kwfygvm;/

74
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
csif;csif;onf rD;aecef;xJwGif &Sdaeaom ydkifpkusiftwGuf 0rf;qGJonf ckdif;orQudk rqdkif;rwGyif
vkyfudkifaqmif&Gufay;aeonf/
&SD;[kefrSmrl tdrfa&SUcef;wGif xdkifaeonf/
vlu tdrfa&SUcef;xJwGif xdkifaeaomfvnf; &SD;[kef\ pdwfurl tdrftwGif;buf rD;aecef;xJ&Sd ydkifpkusifxHodkY
a&mufaeonf/
&SD;[kefonf xdkifaevdkuf? xvrf;avQmufvkduf NyK&if;tdrftwGif;bufqDrS Mum;&onfh nnf;nLoHrsm;udk
em;pGifhaxmifum pdwftvGefvIyf&Sm;aeonf/
tcsdefu wNznf;Nznf; ukefvmonf/
eHeufydkif;upí AdkufemaecJhaom ydkifpkusifrSm naeapmif;onfhwdkifatmif rD;zGm;oefYpifNcif; r&Sdao;ay/
arSmif&dyfyif orf;vmavNyD/
tdrftwGif;bufqDrS ay:xGufvmaom ydkifpkusif\ nnf;oHrsm;u ydkíus,favmifvmavovdkvdk
&SD;[kef\pdwfxJwGif xifrdonf/
apmifhpm;&vGef;í pdwfvIyf&Sm;aeaom &SD;[kefonf tdrftwGif;buf&Sd rD;aecef;xJokdY 0ifa&mufoGm;&efyif
pdwful;rdum aNcvSrf;Nyifvkdufonf/
odkYaomf csufcsif;yif owdNyef0ifum aNcvSrf;udk xdef;vdkufonf/
]][m ... r[k w f a o;bl ; ? ig txJ u d k 0if o G m ;ygNyD w J h ? igu bmvk y f a y;Ed k i f r S m vJ ? tvum;
taESmifht,Sufawmif NzpfaeOD;r,f}}
þokdYawG;um &SD;[kefonf xdkifckHwpfckwGif Nyefxdkifcsvdkufonf/
]]tm; ... tD; ... uRwfuRwf ... uRwf ...}}
ydkifpkusif\ nnf;oHu cyfus,fus,f ay:vmonf/
&S D ; [k e f \ &if x J w G i f 'd e f ; ceJ Nzpf o G m ;onf / a&qmovd k v d k &S d a omaMumif h a&xaomuf o nf /
a&aomufvdkufaomfvnf; &ifxJwGif wif;usyfaerIum; aysmufroGm;cJhay/
]]tif; ... ig[m pkusifudk tpu y&d,m,feJY [efaqmifNyD;cspfcJhayr,fh aemufydkif;usawmh wu,fudk
cspfvmcJhrdNyD? tckqdk&if ig[m pkusiftwGuf odyfudk pkd;&drfylyefae&NyD? arG;vmr,fhuav;[m om;vm; orD;vm;
rod E d k i f a o;ayr,f h pk u sif a rG ; vmr,f h &if a oG ; av;uawmh igh E S v k H ; om;ud k ypf c G i f ; vd k u f w J h
oHa,mZOfNrm;wpfpif;ygyJvm;}}
þodkYawG;&if; &SD;[kef\&ifxJwGif wpfMudrfwpfcgrQ rcHpm;&zl;aom MunfEl;yDwdt[kefudk &kwfw&uf
cHpm;vdkuf&onf/
]]pkusifu ightwGuf bmav;rsm; arG;zGm;ay;rvJ rodbl;? a,mufsm;av;qdk&if igeJYwlrSmyJ? NzLNzLazG;azG;
wpfwpf&pf&pfMuD; NzpfaerSmyJ? rdef;uav;qdk&ifawmh olUtarvdk &Tef;vufaewJh rsuf0ef;MuD;awG? ESmwHay:ay:
EIwfcrf;tdtdav;eJY odyfudkcspfp&m aumif;rSmyJ}}
&SD;[kefonf arG;zGm;vmawmhrnfh uav;ESifhywfoufí trsKd;rsKd; pdwful;,Ofaerdonf/
]]*D; ... *pf ... *pf}}
xdktcsdefrSmyif iSufqkd;wpfaumif tdrfay:rSNzwfysHoGm;&if; atmfNrnfvkdufonfh tr*FvmtoHudk
&SD;[kefMum;vkduf&onf/
&SD;[kef\&ifxJwGif xifhceJ NzpfoGm;onf/
]]bk&m;bk&m; ... iSufqkd;xkd;oGm;ygvm;? pkusiftaNctaeaumif;yghrvm;? tdk ... aq;0g;vnf; NynfhNynfhpkHpkH?
0rf;qGJMuD;vnf;tem;rSm &SdaewmyJ? bmrS ylyefp&mrvkdygbl;? pkusif usef;usef;rmrm &Sdygap? acsmacsmarmarm
arG;zGm;Edkifygap}}
&SD;[kefu pdwfxJrSusdwfum pdk;&drfylyef&if; qkawmif;vkdufrdonf/
rD;aecef;xJwGif ydkifpkusifonf 0rf;AdkuftwGif;&Sd uav;i,fvIyfwdk;rIaMumifh emusifrIa0'emudk
Nyif;Nyif;NyNyyif cHpm;ae&onf/ Nyif;NyvSaom a0'emcHpm;rIESifhtwl aoG;aMumrsm; yGifhuefaygufuGJvkeD;yg;yif
Nzpfaeonf/
75
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
ydkifpkusif tvGefyiftm;i,faeonf/ olronf rdcifudk wrf;wcsifonf/ odkYaomf vlrSef;rodcifuyif
olr\rdcifu uG,fvGefoGm;cJhonfNzpf&m ydkifpkusif\pdwftm&kHwGif rdcifudk rnfokdYrnfykHNzpfrnfudk rodcJhay/
xdkYaMumifh zcifudkom wrf;wvdkuf&&Smonf/
]]tm; ... azaz&,f ...}}
ydkifpkusifrSm rdcifr&SdawmhonfhtwGuf zcifudkom rdcifvdk wpfrsKd;? zcifvkdwpfoG,f wG,fwmcJh&um
zcifudkyif EGJUqkd;qkd;vsuf MuD;Nyif;vmcJh&olNzpfonf/
zcifESifh pdwftcefYroifhonfhtwGuf tdrfa*[mrS xGufcGmvmcJh&aomfvnf; ydkifpkusifrSm zciftay:wGif
oHa,mZOfrNywf EdkifcJhay/ ,ckvdk a0'emcHpm;&um tm;i,faeonfhtcsdefwGif zcifudk wrf;wrdonf/
xdkokdY wrf;wrd&mwGif zcifESifh &SifuGJ uGJuGmaeonfhtNzpfudk owd&um &ifxJwGif qkdYeifhaMuuGJvm&onf/
]]bmrS aMumufp&mrvdkbl; orD;? arG;zGm;cgeD;rSm 'DvdkyJ cHpm;&wm "r®wmygyJ? uJ ... uJ nSpftm;enf;enf;ay;vdkuf?
arG;awmhrSmyg? arG;awmhrSmyg}}
0rf;qGJMuD;u ydkifpkusif\ 0rf;Nyifudk yGwfoyfay;&if; tm;ay;pum; aNymMum;onf/
csif;csif;rSm olr\wpfoufwmwGif þwpfMudrfom rsuf0g;xifxif awGUNrif&aom rdef;rwdkY\
obm0'ku©udk NyL;aMumifaom rsufvkH;rsm;NzifhMunfhum olr\ rrav;udk oem;aerdonf/

-------------------------------------------------------------

ydkifpkusif\ emusifrINyif;NypGm atmf[pfoHrsm;aMumifh &SD;[kefonf ZeD;onfxHokdY pdwfa&mufíaeavonf/


rMumrD arG;zGm;vmawmhrnfh om;vm; orD;vm;rod&ao;onfh &ifaoG;i,ftaMumif;udkawG;um
pdwful;,Ofí aerdonf/
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tNcm;tcsdefrsm;wGifqdkvQif &SD;[kefonf ac:oHMum;onfESifh aemufokdY csmceJvSnfhMunfhrdayrnf/
,cktcgwGifrl &SD;[kef\ pdwftm&kHonf a0'emcHpm;ae&aom ZeD;onf ydkifpkusiftwGuf pdk;&drfylyefrItNyif
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&SD;[kef owdrNyKrdao;/
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ZeD;onfESifh arG;zGm;vmawmhrnfh &ifaoG;i,ftaMumif;udk awG;awmaeaom &SD;[kefonf ac:oHudk
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&SD;[kefu cyfayghayghom Nyefxl;vdkufonf/ yg;pyfu xl;vdkufaomfvnf; aemufodkY vSnfhrMunfhEdkifay/
ol\pdwftm&kHu ydkifpkusifxHwGif a&mufaeNrJNzpfonf/
tu,fí &SD;[kefonf ydkifpkusifxHodkY pdwftm&kHa&mufaeNcif; r&SdvQif ac:oH\xl;Ncm;csufudk
owdNyKrdayvdrfhrnf/
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[k ac:Muonf/

76
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
olYudk ]&SD;[kef} [k ac:onfhol[lí vl&dkif;awmifukef;wGif wpfOD;wpfa,mufrQ r&SdcJhay/
ZeD;onfESifh arG;zGm;vmawmhrnfh &ifaoG;i,fwdkYtay: tm&kHa&mufaeaom &SD;[kefonf ac:oHxl;Ncm;csufudk
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ydkifusifvkHonf acgif;udk wpfcsuf,rf;um ydkifpkusifudk MunfhvdkufNyefonf/
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81
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82
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85
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86
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif

tcef; (9)
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wu,fawmh ydkifusifvkHonf csif;csif;udk owfNzwf&ef r&nf&G,fay/ pdwfxJwGif MudwfrEdkifcJr&&SdaerIrsm;
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[kd,kqef\trlt&mrSm ta&;MuD;onfhtoGifrsKd; Nzpfaeonf/
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87
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88
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
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89
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-----------------------------------------------------------

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90
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tcef; (10)
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91
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92
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93
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94
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csif;csif;tzdkY ra&&maom b0vrf;c&D;wGif wpfukd,fwnf; avQmufvSrf;&ayOD;awmhrnf/

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tcsdefonf wNznf;Nznf; ukefvGefvmcJhonf/


aeYNyD;vQif na&mufonf/ nukefqkH;Nyefaomf aeYopfwpfck wpfzef Nzpfay:vmNyefonf/
&ufwkdYonf vrsm;Nzpfum vrsm;u ESpfNzpfvmavonf/
wpfESpfNyD;wpfESpf tcsdefukefvGefoGm;&m q,fESpfwmumvyif &SnfMumcJhayNyD/

95
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif

tcef; (11)
uGrfeefNrdKUonf uGrfwkefNynfe,fwGif wnf&Sdonf/ om;a&trsKd;rsKd;ESifh aq;yifaq;Nrpfrsm; trsm;qkH;
a&mif;0,fazmufum;onfh ae&mvnf;Nzpfonf/
&Sif;wmhcsefonf uGrfeefNrdKU\xif&Sm;aom aNrydkif&Sif olaX;MuD;wpfa,mufNzpfonf/
&S i f ; wmh c sef a exd k i f & m td r f a *[monf MuD ; rm;us,f 0 ef ; vS o nf / a>c&H o if ; yif ; rsm; tygt0if
vlaygif;wpf&mausmf acsmifacsmifcsdcsd aexdkifEdkifonf/
toufig;q,ft&G,f&Sd &Sif;wmhcsefonf pnf;pdrf,pfrl;olwpfa,mufNzpfonf/ w&m;0ifZeD;r,m;
ig;a,muf&Sdonf/
ti,fqkH;ZeD;av; 0rf;csdefYzdefonf toufESpfq,fhig;ESpfrQom &Sdao;onf/
&Sif;wmhcsef\ tdrfa*[mwGif aMu;pm;odkif;orm;okH;q,fudkvnf; vufoyfarG;íxm;onf/
xdkYNyif rdrd\ol&if;iSm;tcsKdUudk tdrfa*[mwGif vufwdkvufawmif;cdkif;ap&ef ac:,lxm;ao;onf/ xdkodkY
ac:,lxm;onfh ol&if;iSm;rsm;wGif viftdwdk;vnf; yg0ifonf/ toufq,fESpfom;t&G,f&Sd vifxifcsdwfonf
viftdwkd;ESifh twlaexdkifonf/
vifxifcsdwfqdkaomtrnf\ t"dyÜm,frSm bk&m;uay;aom viftrsKd;tEG,f[lí Nzpfonf/
vifxifcsdwfonf rsufvkH;0dkif;0dkif;? ESmwHay:ay:ESifh &kyf&nfrGef&nf oefY&Sif;onf/ toufi,faomfvnf;
odwwfonf/ pum;udk rsm;rsm;raNym/ cyfwnfwnf cyfrSefrSefaewwfonf/
uRef0,f&mwGif tqpfygqdkouJhokdY viftdwdk;udk tdrfa*[mwGif ac:,lcdkif;apaomtcg twlaeol
vifxifcsdwfvnf; tvdkvdkyif tdrfa*[m\tvkyfrsm;udk vkyfaqmifay;&avawmhonf/
vifxifcsdwf\ t"dutvkyfrSm 0rf;csdefYzdef\ a0,sm0pörsm;udk vkyfaqmifay;&efNzpfonf/
96
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
apcdkif;orQudk ckduwfNcif;r&SdbJ pdwfygvufyg wm0efausyGefpGm vkyfaqmifay;wwfaom vifxifcsdwfudk
0rf;csdefYzdefu txl;yifoabmus\/ vifxifcsdwf\ tcuftcJ&SdvQif apmifhrMunfh&Iavh&Sdonf/
0rf;csdeYf zed o
f nf csrf;omMuG,0f aom rsKd;&d;k rSaygufzmG ;vmol r[kwaf y/ &Si;f wmhcsef\ ol&if;iSm; 0rf;tm;csD\
orD;Nzpfonf/
0rf;tm;csDonf &Sif;wmhcsefxHrS twkd;MuD;ESifh aiGacs;,lcJh\/ acs;aiGudk Nyefray;qyfEdkifonfhtwGuf
&Sif;wmhcsefu 0rf;tm;csD\orD;udk odrf;,lvkdufonf/
aNr&SifwdkYMuD;pkd;&m ordkif;wpfacwfwGif 'DvdkaMuuGJzG,f&m tNzpfrsKd; trsm;tNym;yif ay:aygufcJhonf/
v,form;rdom;pkrS aygufzGm;vmcJhaom 0rf;csdefYzdefonf vifxifcsdwftm; b0wlwpfa,muftNzpf
pmemonf/ armifi,fwpfa,mufvdk oabmxm;um cspfcifonf/
xdkokdY 0rf;csdefYzdefu rsufESmomay;rIudk pdwfoabmxm;usOf;aNrmif;aom tdrfa*[m tvkyform;tcsKdUu
rauseyfMuay/ vifxifcsdwftay:wGif tvum;ae&if; remvdk0efwkdNzpfaeMuonf/
0rf;csdefYzdef\rsufESmomay;rIudk cH&onfhtwGuf vifxifcsdwftzdkY uHaumif;onf[k qdk&ayrnf/
vifxifcsdwfonf uHaumif;aomfvnf; rmefapmif;rwufcJhay/
vlwdkif;udk om,macsiHpGmaNymqdkum vkyfp&mudkifp&m&Sdonfrsm;udk pdwfygvufygESifh wm0efausyGefpGm
aqmif&Gufay;onf/
þonfudkyif raumif;NrifoltcsKdUu rsufESmom&atmif tvkyfvkyfNyonf[k xifaecJhMuonf/

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,aeYonf aNrydkif&SifolaX;MuD; &Sif;wmhcsef\ toufig;q,fNynfh arG;aeYNzpfonf/


arG;aeYr*FvmyGJudk &Sif;wmhcsefu crf;em;MuD;us,fpGmyif qif,ifusif;yonf/
'DvdkyGJrsKd;usif;yvQif tdrfa*[m&Sd tvkyform;wkdYrSm vufrvnfatmifyif tvkyfrsm;Mu&onf/
tvkyform;wdkY tvkyfrsm;aecsdefwGif &Sif;wmhcsef txl;zdwfMum;xm;aom rsufESmMuD;{nfhonfrsm;onf
{nfhcef;aqmifxJwGif pm;aumif;aomufzG,frsm;udk pdwfat;vufat; pm;aomuf&if; pum;aNymqdkaeMuonf/
&S i f ; wmh c sef o nf ok d i f ; ynmwG i f 0goemxk H u m od k i f ; orm;rsm;ES i f h rd w f a qG z G J U aygif ; oif ; aeol
wpfa,mufNzpfonf/ odkYNzifh ol\arG;aeYr*FvmyGJwGif uGrfeefNrdKUteD;0ef;usifrS emrnf& odkif;orm;tcsKdUvnf;
{nfhonftNzpf yg0ifav\/
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rSJUrsm;? trSwfrsm;onf xl;Ncm;aom uHMur®m\ edrdwfvu©Pmrsm;NzpfaMumif;udk wpfa,mufu pum;pvdkuf&m
usef v l r sm;uvnf ; rd r d w d k Y M um;zl ; em;0&S d o nf h rS J Y r sm;? trS w f r sm;\xl ; Ncm;yk H u d k wpf a ,muf w pf a yguf
aNymqdkMuukefonf/
]]pum;pyfrdvdkY Ny&OD;r,f? usKyfrSm xl;Ncm;wJhrSJU ESpfvkH;&Sdw,fAs}}
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a&mufoGm;Muonf/
]]aNymprf;ygAsm? cifAsm;rSm b,fvdkxl;Ncm;wJh rSJYESpfvkH;&SdwmvJ}}
{nfhonfwpfa,muf pdwf0ifpm;[efNzifh ar;onf/
]]usKyf&JU aNcz0g;wpfckpDrSm arG;&myg rSJYeufMuD;wpfvkH;pD &Sdw,fAs? 'g[m csrf;omMuG,f0r,fh vu©PmyJ?
'DrSJUeufMuD;ESpfck&SdwmaMumifh usKyf[m tckvdkcsrf;omMuG,f0&wmygyJAsm}}
&Sif;wmhcsefu cyfMuGm;MuGm; aNymonf/
]]tJ'D rSJYeufMuD;awGudk NyygOD; olaX;rif;&JU}}
]][kwfw,fAsm ... xl;Ncm;wJhrSJUeufMuD;awG Munfhyg&ap}}
{nfhonfrsm;u wpfa,mufwpfayguf awmif;qdkMuonf/
]]Munfhcsif&if Ny&wmayghAsm}}
97
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
&Si;f wmhcsefu xdo
k Ydk aNymNyD;aemuf xdik cf w
Hk pfcaHk y:wGif NrdeYf NrdeYf MuD;xdik u
f m aNcz0g;ESpzf ufukd vSeNf yvduk o f nf/
{nfhonfrsm;onf olYxufigOD;atmifyif &Sif;wmhcsef\ aNcz0g;rsm;udk 0dkif;MunfhMuonf/
&Sif;wmhcsef\ aNcz0g;ESpfzufwGif a&G;aphcefY&Sd rnf;eufaeaom rSJYeufMuD;wpfckpD xif&SmpGm&Sdaeonfudk
awGUMu&onf/
xdkaeUu usif;yNyKvkyfaom &Sif;wmhcsef\ arG;aeYyGJwGif &Sif;wmhcsef\ aNcz0g;rS rSYJeufESpfcktaMumif;onf
vlwdkif;pdwf0ifpm;um aNymrqkH;Edkifonfh xl;qef;aom taMumif;t&mwpfcktNzpf yGJodrf;vdkufawmhonf/
nOD;ykdif;wGif {nfhcHyGJNyD;pD;oGm;aomtcg aMu;&wwf{nfhonfrsm;ESifh odkif;orm;{nfhonfrsm;onf
&Sif;wmhcsefudk EIwfqufpum;qdkNyD; arG;aeUqkrGefaumif;rsm;awmif;í toD;oD; NyefoGm;Muonf/ &Sif;wmhcsefvnf;
ol\oD;oefYcef;xJodkY 0ifa&mufum auseyfpGm tem;,lav\/

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&Sif;wmhcsefonf ol\oD;oefYcef;xJwGif wpfa,mufwnf;auseyfpGm tem;,laeonf/


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&Sif;wmhcsefonf tawmfyif yDwdaomreóNzpfaeonf/
xdktckdufrSmyif oD;oefYtcef;xJodkY vlwpfa,muf t&dyfyrm vSpfceJ 0ifa&mufvmonf/
&Sif;wmhcsefonf tcef;xJodkY 0ifa&mufvmoudk tHhMo[efNzifh MunfhvdkufNyD; ...
]][m ... ausmufa0vkHygvm;? NyefoGm;NyD;rS wpfacgufNyefvSnfhvmykHaxmuf&if taMumif;xl;&Sdr,fxifw,f?
vmAsm xdkif}}
tcef;xJokdY 0ifa&mufvmolrSm e*g;0g*dkPf;rS odkif;orm;ausmufa0vkH qkdolNzpfonf/
e*g;0g*dkPf;onf xdke,fy,fa'owpfvTm;wGif tiftm;aumif;onf/ odkif;ynm0goemygonfhtNyif
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d vkyif ef;udik if ef;rsm;twGuf e*g;0g*dP k ;f \ t&Sed tf 0gudk tok;H csvdak omaMumifh &Si;f wmhcsefonf e*g;0g*dP k ;f wGif
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]][kwfuJh? taMumif;xl;&SdvdkY wpfacgufNyefvSnfhvmcJhwmyJ}}
ausmufa0vkHu NyefaNymonf/
apmapmu EIwfqufum NyefoGm;Muonfh okdif;orm;{nfhonfrsm;wGif ausmufa0vkHvnf; ygonf/
NyefoGm;NyD;rS wul;wu NyefvSnfhvmNcif;onf trSefyif xl;Ncm;ayonf/
]]b,fvkdtaMumif;vJAsm? aNymprf;ygOD;}}
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98
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
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Mum;rdovm;}}
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rSJU&SpfvkH;&Sifudk vdkuf&Smaew,f}}
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99
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
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&Sif;wmhcsefrSm odkif;ynm 0goemygaomfvnf; odkif;avmu A[kokwenf;olNzpfonf/ rSJY&SpfvkH;&Sifudk
awGUatmif&SmEdkifygu NydKifbufuif; odkif;ynm&SifNzpfEdkifaMumif; owif;udk rMum;rodcJhay/
,ckrS taMumif;wdkufqdkifum ausmufa0vkHxHrS xdkowif;udk Mum;odcJh&m txl;yif pdwf0ifpm;oGm;onf/
rSJY&SpfvkH;&Sifukd &SmazGawGU&Sd&atmif rdrdukd,fwdkifMudK;pm;pkHprf;&efvnf; pdwful;rdonf/
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J ikd v
f yI &f mS ;rnfh rSYJ &pS v
f ;Hk &Sif ay:ayguf&ef tpysK;d cJNh cif;[k
qdk&ayrnf/

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&Sif;wmhcsef\ toufig;q,fNynfharG;aeYr*Fvm usif;yNyD; aemufwpfaeY eHeufydkif;wGif Nzpfonf/


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xdkYaMumifh vifxifcsdwfa&mufvmonfudk Nrif&onfwGif ceJYwJhwJhESifh qD;íaNymonf/
]][m ... ukd,fawmfav;ygvm;? b,fvdkta&;taMumif;&SdvdkY usKyfwdkY&JU EkHcsmwJh pm;zdkacsmifudk
udk,fwdkifMuGcsDvmcJh&wmvJ}}
vifxifcsdwfonf þokdYceJYwJhwJhaNymrIudk rESpfoufaomfvnf; pum;rrsm;vdkaomaMumifh rod[efNyKum
0rf;csdefYzdef rSmMum;vdkufonfudkom cyfwnfwnfESifh aNymvdkufonf/
]]ocifrav; 0rf;csdefYzdefu zufxkyfaMumf pm;csifvdkYwJh? tJ'g zufxkyfaMumf wpfyef;uefvkyfay;zkdY
vmaNymwmyg}}
usef;xdu t&GJUwdkufum OD;nGwfí t&dktaoay;vdkufNyD ...
]]aumif;ygNyD udk,fawmfav;cifAsm;? udk,fawmfav; trdefY&SdwJhtwdkif; aqmif&Gufay;yghr,f}}
vifxifcsdwfonf vli,faomfvnf; pdwfxm;Nynfh0onf/ rdrdtay: rvdkwrmpdwfNzifh ceJYwJhwJhaNymqdkNcif;?
ESdrfcsuJh&JUNcif;wdkYudk twwfEdkifqkH; onf;cHcJhonf/
xdkokdY rvkyfMu&efvnf; aNy&maNyaMumif; aNymqdkawmif;yefcJhonf/
,ckvnf; vifxifcsdwfonf pm;zdkrª;usef;xdtm; &nfrGefpGmyif aNy&maNyaMumif; awmif;yefaNymqdkonf/
]][m ... OD;OD;&,f ... uRefawmf[m OD;OD;wkdYvkdyJ 'Dtdrfa*[mu tvkyform; wpfa,mufygAsm? uRefawmfhudk
'DvdkraNymMuygeJY? ocifrav; 0rf;csdefYzdefu taNymckdif;vdkufvdkYom uRefawmfu vmaNym&wmyg}}
xdktcsdefwGif tNcm;pm;zdkaqmif tvkyform;rsm;uvnf; vifxifcsdwfESifh usef;xdwdkYudk tuJcwfum
MunfhaeMuonf/
usef;xdonf tNcm;pm;zdkaqmif tvkyform;rsm;udk [efygygMunfhvdkufNyD; ...
]]tvdkav;av; ... uRefawmfrsKd;MuD;u udk,fawmfav;udk wef;wlrqufqH&Jygbl;Asm? 'Dvdkawmh
rdefYawmfrrlvdkufygeJY cifAsm}}
usef;xd\ aNympum;tqkH;wGif pm;zkdaqmif tvkyform;rsm;u 0g;ceJ0dkif;&,fvdkufMuonf/
]]uRefawmf awmif;yefygw,f OD;OD;&,f? uRefawmfhudk 'DvdkrsKd; raNymMuygeJY}}
vifxifcsdwfu awmif;yefNyefonf/

100
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
rnfokdYyif aNy&maNyaMumif; awmif;yefaNymqdkaomfvnf; usef;xdwkdYu aNymavuJav Nzpfae\/
trsKd;rsKd;aNymqdk ceJYaeonf/ cvkwfyif wdkufzefrsm;awmh eJYvmonfqdkonfh pum;vdk vifxifcsdwfrSmvnf;
rcHcsifNzpfvmum tHhMudwfvdkufrdonf/
]][m; ... [m; ... [m; ... udk,fawmfav; pdwfqdk;vmNyDa[h? igawmh aMumufygw,f? b,frSm
MuGufwGif;&SdvJa[h? &Smay;Muyg? 0ifNyD; ykef;csifvdkY}}
pm;zdkaqmif tvkyform;wpfa,mufu toHudk cyfpmpmNzpfatmif zsufí rdef;roHESifhaNymvdkufoNzifh
vifxifcsdwfrSm onf;cHpdwfudk rrsKdodyfEdkifawmhbJ &Sufa'goNzpfvmí ausmufcJwpfvkH;udk aumuf,lum
ypfaygufvdkufonf/
]]a'guf ...}}
]]tm; ...}}
ausmuf c J o nf pm;zd k r ª M uD ; usef ; xd \ nmbuf r suf v k H ; pG e f ; ud k xd r S e f o G m ;onf h t wG u f usef ; xd
tvefYwMum;yif atmfvdkufonf/
,cifuqdkvQif olwdkYaemufaNymiforQudk vifxifcsdwf onf;cHpNrJNzpfonf/ ,ckvnf; rdrdwdkY\ w&m;vGef
aemufaNymifrIudk vifxifcsdwftaeNzifh ,cifuvkdyif cHaeOD;rnf[k olwdkY xifxm;cJhonf/
vifxifcsdwfuvnf; wwfEdkiforQ onf;cH&Smygonf/
odkYaomf aNymqdkaemufaNymifrIu w&m;vGefvGef;ru vGefvmonfhtwGuf rcHEdkifawmhonfh tqkH;wGif
vkyfrdvkyf&m vkyfvdkufNcif;om Nzpfonf/
cJtxdcH&onfhtwGuf usef;xdrSm tMuD;tus,f a'goxGufoGm;onf/
]]Munfhprf; ... acG;aumifav;? ighudk aoG;xGufoH,dk Nzpfatmifvkyfw,f? tckyJ ightaMumif; od&apr,f}}
usef;xdonf a'gowMuD; atmf[pfMudrf;0g;&if; vifxifcsdwfxHokdY aNy;0ifvmonf/
vifxifcsdwfonf wdrf;a&SmifxGufaNy;&ef MudK;pm;ao;onf/
odkYaomf vGwfatmif raNy;Edkif&Sm/
pm;zdkaqmif tvkyform;rsm;u vifxifcsdwfudk 0dkif;0ef;zrf;qD;vdkufMuonf/
usef ; xd o nf vif x if c sd w f \ qH y if u d k vS r f ; qG J u m ausmNyif u d k vuf 0 g;Murf ; MuD ; Nzif h
ESpfcsufqifh&dkufcsvdkufonf/
vifxifcsdwf ausmaumhoGm;onf/
usefpm;zdkaqmif tvkyform;rsm;uvnf; wpfa,mufwpfcsufqkdovdk 0dkif;0ef;&dkufESuf uefausmuf
MuNyefonf/
vifxifcsdwfcrsm vlMuD;rsm;\ 0dkif;0ef;xdk;Mudwf&dkufESufrIudk r&IrvScHae&&Smonf/ aovkaNrmyg;
Nzpfaeonf/
rsufESmrSm zl;a&mifvmonf/ rsufvkH;rsm;yif rzGifhEdkifawmh/ wpfukd,fvkH;wGifvnf; tndktrnf;uGufawG
xifaeonf/
xdkokdY pm;zdkrªMuD;ESifh pm;zdkaqmiftvkyform;rsm;u vifxifcsdwfudk 0dkif;0ef;&dkufESufxdk;MudwfaeMupOf
rdef;rysKdav;wpfa,muf\ pl;pl;0g;0g; atmf[pfvdkufoH ay:xGufvmonf/
rdef;rysKdwpfa,muf\ atmf[pfvdkufoH ay:vmonf/
]][dwf ... &yfvkdufMu? bmaMumifh uav;udk 0dkif;ESdyfpuf aeMu&wmvJ}}
atmf[pfvdkufolrSm 0rfcsdefYzdef\&Ha&Gazmf rdef;uav; vdefvdefyif Nzpfonf/
vdefvdef\atmf[pf[efYwm;oHaMumifh usef;xdwdkYvlpk udk,f&Sdef owfoGm;Muonf/
pm;zdkaqmifbufokdY vifxifcsdwfxGufoGm;onfrSm MumaeonfhtwGuf vdefvdefuvdkufvm&mrS ,ckvdk
0ifa&muf[efYwm;EdkifNcif; Nzpfonf/
vdefvdefom a&mufrvmvQif vifxifcsdwfrSm ,ckxufydkí r&IrvScH&ayrnf/
,ckawmif aNrMuD;ay:wGif t&kyfMudK;Nywfovdk acGacGacgufacgufav; vJusae&Smonf/ NyefrxEdkif/
]]'Daumifav; odyfrdkufuef;w,f? ighudk ausmufcJeJY aygufw,f? a[m'DrSm Munfhygvm;}}
101
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
usef;xdu OD;atmifaNymNyD; rdrd\ cJrSefonfh'Pf&mudk vufnId;xdk;Nyonf/
vdefvdefu vJusaeaom vifxifcsdwfudk tuJcwfMunfhvdkuf&m rsufvkH;NyL;us,foGm;&onf/
vifxifcsdwfrSm wudk,fvkH; ndKrnf;zl;a&mifae\/ NrifvdkYraumif;awmh/ vIyfvnf;rvIyf/
]][m ... uav;awmh aoNyDxifw,f? &SifwkdY w,f&ufpufMuygvm;}}
vdefvdefonf xdkokdYaNymNyD; vifxifcsdwfudk aNy;ayGYxlvdkufonf/
ESvkH;om;ae&mudk prf;Munfh&m &ifckefaeao;onfudk awGU&onf/ vifxifcsdwf usef;xdwdkYvlpk\
Murf;wrf;vSaom xdk;Mudwf&dkufESufrIrsm;'PfaMumifh owdvpfarhaNrmoGm;Ncif;Nzpfonf/
]]u,fMuygOD;&Sif ... a[m'DrSm uav;udk 0dkif;ESdyfpufaeMuvdkY}}
vdefvdefu atmf[pfvdkufonf/
vdev f ed \
f atmfoaH Mumifh a*[mapmifh odik ;f orm;acgif;aqmif usm;av;a0haxmifEiS hf tapmifo h ikd ;f orm;ESpOf ;D
taNy;a&mufvmonf/
]]bmNzpfwmvJ vdefvdef}}
usm;av;a0haxmifu ar;onf/
]][kdvlawG 0dkif;ESdyfpufMuw,fav? MunfhygOD;&Sif? toufrS&SifEdkifyghrvm;}}
vdefvdefu NyefaNymonf/
usm;av;a0h a xmif o nf vif x if c sd w f u d k zd E S d y f a y;&if ; aNcz0g;ay:od k Y Munf h v d k u f r d & mwG i f
usm;av;a0haxmifrSm rsufvkH;NyL;oGm;&onf/
odkYaomf usm;av;a0haxmifonf csufcsif;yif £aNE´Nyefq,fum usdcsdaoG;aMumudk qufvufESdyfay;onf/
NyD;aemuf em;&Gufaemufzuf&Sd zkefusdaoG;aMumuGufae&mrsm;ukdyg qufvuf ESdyfe,fay;onf/
rMumrDrmS yif vifxifcsdwf owdNyef&vmonf/ usm;av;a0haxmifu vifxifcsdwu f kd tvkyo f rm;taqmif&dS
viftdwdk;\ tcef;okdY xrf;ydkYay;&ef tapmifhokdif;orm;wpfa,mufudk apckdif;vdkufonf/
xdkYaemuf pm;zkdrª;usef;xdwdkYudk tNypfwifpum;qdkonf/
]]cifAsm;wkdY awmfawmf tMuifemw&m; uif;rJhMuygvm;? om;orD;csif; udk,fcsif;rpm uav;i,fudk
0dkif;tEdkifusifhMu&ovm;? cifAsm;wdkY 'Davmuf vufpGrf;NycsifMu&if vm usKyfeJY &ifqkdifprf;}}
pm;zdkrª;MuD; usef;xdwdkYvlpkrSm rsufESmi,fav;awG NzpfukefMuonf/
usm;av;a0haxmifvdk okdif;orm;wpfa,mufudk olwdkY &ifqdkif&ef owdår&SdMuay/
]]usKyf ... usKyfwkdY rSm;oGm;ygw,f q&musm;av;&,f ... awmif;yefygw,fAsm}}
,ckrS usef;xd wkefwkef,if,ifESifh awmif;yefpum;qkd&Smonf/

----------------------------------------------------------

vdefvdefonf NzpfysufykH taMumif;pkHudk 0rf;csdefzdefxH csufcsif; oGm;a&mufaNymqdkonf/


taMumif;pkHudk Mum;&aomtcg 0rf;csdefYzdefonf pdwfraumif;pGmNzifh vdefvdefESifhtwl vifxifcsdwf&Sd&m
tvkyform;aqmif\ tcef;okdY vkdufvmcJhonf/
wpfukd,fvkH; 'Pf&m'Pfcsufrsm;ESifh Nrifraumif;&Iraumif;atmif Nzpfaeaom vifxifcsdwfudk
awGY&aomtcg 0rf;csdefYzdefrSm tvGefyifoem;oGm;onf/
pm;zdkrª;usef;xdwdkYvlpkudkvnf; ac:,lum NypfwifMudrf;armif;onf/
usef;xdwdkYrSm olaX;\ tcspfqkH;ZeD;acsmav; 0rf;csdefYzdefudk NyefraNym0HhbJ Mudrf;armif;tNypfwiforQ
NidrfcHaeMu&onf/
usef;xdwdkYudk NypfwifMudrf;armif;ae&if; 0rfcsdefYzdefonf wpfpkHwpf&mudk awG;rdonf/
onf vlru kd vf &l rf;um;awGukd aNymqdNk ypfwifum tcsdeNf zKef;aernft
h pm; vifxifcsdwu
f kd aq;0g;ukoay;&ef
owd&vmonf/

102
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
]]vdefvdef ... aq;q&mwpfa,muf NrefNrefoGm;ac:prf;? a&mh ... aq;zdk;0g;cvnf; ,loGm;}}
0rf;csdefYzdefu vdefvdefudk aiGtoNymrsm;ay;NyD; aq;q&mac:&ef apvTwfvdkufonf/

--------------------------------------------------------

0rf;csdefYzdefu vifxifcsdwftwGuf aq;q&mac:,l&ef vdefvdefudk ta&;wMuD; apvTwfvdkufcsdefrSmyif


usm;av;a0haxmifonf olaX;MuD; &Sif;wmhcsefudk ESpfa,mufcsif;awGYqkHNyD; rdrdod&SdcJh&onfh owif;xl;udk
wD;wkd;aNymNyonf/
usm;av;a0haxmif aNymNyaom owif;pum;udk Mum;&aomtcg olaX;MuD;&Sifhwmcsef\ rsufESmwGif
tHhMoNcif;ESifh auseyfyDwdNzpfNcif; t&dyfta,mifrsm; a&m,Sufay:vmonf/
]]rif;aNymwm wu,fyJvm; a0haxmif}}
&Sif;wmhcsefu a0haxmifudk ar;vdkufonf/
a0haxmifaNymMum;onfh owif;pum;udk &Sif;wmhcsef tNynfht0,kHMunfygonf/
ok d Y a omf xd k o wif ; rS m xl ; Ncm;vS a omaMumif h pd w f x J w G i f r,k H r &J & S d o nf h t wG u f aocsmatmif
xyfrHar;vdkufNcif;om Nzpfonf/
]]ocif M uD ; ud k uRef a wmf rvd r f n m0H h y gbl ; ? vif x if c sd w f & J U zd e yf u d k c Rwf N yD ; aNcz0g;tv,f u
usdcsdaoG;aMumuGufudk ESdyfay;&if; uRefawmfukd,fwdkif awGUvmcJhwmyg? olY&JU aNcz0g;wpfzufpDrSm rSJYeufav;ckpD
xifxif&Sm;&Sm;&Sdaeygw,f}}
xdkpum;rsm;onf &Sif;wmhcsef\ESvkH;om;udk ysm;&nfavmif;vdkufonfhES,f Nzpfav\/
&Sif;wmhcsef tvGef0rf;omoGm;onf/
rarQmv f ifb
h J rSYJ &pS v
f ;Hk &Siu
f kd vG,v
f ifw
h ul &SmawGUcJah vNyD/ a0;a0;vHvvH nf; r[kw/f olYtrd af *[mxJwiG yf if
&Sdaeonf/
rSJY&SpfvkH;&Sifudk trSDNyKum odkif;avmuwGif rmefaxmif0HhMuGm;Edkifawmhrnf/
&Sif;wmhcsefonf pdwful;,Ofrd&kHESifhyif twdkif;tqr&Sd tMuD;tus,f 0rf;omaeonf/
]]aumif;NyD ... igudk,fwdkif vdkufMunfhr,f}}
&S i f ; wmh c sef o nf xd k o k d Y aNymNyD ; aemuf usm;av;a0h a xmif E S i f h t wl vif x if c sd w f & S d & m
tvkyform;aqmiftcef;av;okdY vmcJhonf/
xdkae&modkY &Sif;wmhcsef a&mufoGm;csdefwGif 0rf;csdefYzdefudkvnf; awGU&onf/
rSJY&SpfvkH;&SifudkMunfh&ef tvGefpdwfapmaeaom &Sif;wmhcsefonf 0rf;csdefYzdefudk bmrQar;Nref;aNymqdkaeNcif;
rNyKbJ vifxifcsdwf&Sd&mokdYom 0ifoGm;onf/
olaX;MuD; &Sif;wmhcsefonf tvkyform;aqmifokdY wpfMudrfwpfcgrQyif vmavhvmx r&Sday/
,ck vifxifcsdwf xdckduftemw&NzpfrS udk,fwdkifa&mufvmNyD; Munfh&Ionfudk awGU&aomtcg
pm;zdkrª;usef;xdwdkYvlpkrSm aNy;p&maNr r&Sdawmhatmifyif aMumufvefYwkefvIyfukefMuonf/
olaX;MuD;u ,ckvdk *&kpdkufrnfrSef;odvQif olwdkYonf vifxifcsdwftm; armfíyif Munfh0HhMurnf r[kwfay/
usef;xdwdkYvlpkonf toufyif Nyif;Nyif;r&ª&JMubJ rsufESmi,fav;awGESifh &SdaeMuonf/
olaX;MuD; &Sif;wmhcsefuom Nyif;Nyif;xefxef ta&;,lcJhvQif usef;xdwdkYvlpkrSm tvkyfNyKwfum
tcsKyfcef;xJokdYyif a&mufoGm;Edkifonf r[kwfygvm;/
vifxifcsdwfrSm vIyfyifrvIyfEdkif/
tdyf&mxufwGif acGacGav; Nzpfae&Smonf/
&Sif;wmhcsefonf vifxifcsdwf\ 'Pf&mrsm;udk MunfhovdkvdkESifh aNcz0g;ESpfzufudk Munfhvdkufonf/
aoaocsmcsmyif awGU&ygNyD/ b,fbufaNcz0g;wGif rSJYeufav;vkH;? nmbufaNcz0g;wGif rSJYeufav;vkH;
pkpkaygif; rSJYeuf&SpfvkH;/
vifxifcsdwfonf rSJY&SpfvkH;&Sif trSefpifppfyif/
103
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
&Sif;wmhcsef tvGef0rf;omoGm;onf/ tu,fí teD;tem;wGif tNcm;vlawG&SdraevQif xckefrdrnftrSef/
usef;xdwdkYvlpkonf &Sif;wmhcsefu rdrdwdkYudk b,fawmh a'gowMuD;ESifh qlylMudrf;armif;avrnfenf;[k
&ifwxdwfxdwfNzifh apmifhum &Sif;wmhcsef\ rsufESm&dyfrsufESmuJudk tvpfray;&JbJ vSrf;MunfhaeMuonf/
&Sif;wmhcsef\rsufESmay:wGif a'got&dyfta,mifrsm;ay:rvmbJ tm;&auseyfonfh t&dyftoGifrsm;om
rodromay:vmonfudk awGU&aomtcg usef;xdwdkYrSm tawG;&cufaeMuonf/
&Sif;wmhcsefonf vifxifcsdwf\ aNcz0g;rsm;udk ppfaq;Munfh&INyD;aemuf tcef;xJrS NyefxGufvmonf/
xdkYaemuf a0haxmifudkvSnfhMunfhonf/
rdrdwdkYtNypfESifh rdrdwdkY vdyfNymrvkHNzpfaeMuaom usef;xdwkdYrSm &ifxJwGifxdwfceJ NzpfoGm;Muonf/
touf&ªyif rSm;ukefMuonf/
]]aumifav;udk *&kpdkufvdkufyg}}
&Sif;wmhcsef\EIwfzsm;rS þrQom aNymvmonfhtwGuf usef;xdwdkYvlpk touf&ªacsmifoGm;Muonf/
&Sif;wmhcsefonf oGufvufayghyg;aom aNcvSrf;rsm;ESifh avQmufvSrf;xGufcGmoGm;onf/
rSJY&SpfvkH;&Sifudk &SmawGYNyD/ qufvufvkyfaqmif&rnfh tpDtpOfrsm;udk &Sif;wmhcsef acgif;xJwGif pDpD&D&D
pOf;pm;oGm;onf/
xkdtpDtpOfrSm .../

104
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif

tcef; (12)
vifxifcsdwf\ aNcz0g; wpfzufpDwGif rSJYeufav;vkH;pD&Sdonfudk awGU&onfhtwGuf &Sif;wmhcsef tvGefyif
0rf;omaeonf/
rSJY&SpfvkH;&Sifudk &SmazGawGU&SdNyDrdkY rdrdtusKd;twGuf qufvufvkyfaqmif&rnfh tpDtpOfrsm;udk acgif;xJwGif
pDpD&D&Dyif pOf;pm;íaeonf/
&Sif;wmhcsefonf xdkaeYntzdkY ol\ ti,fqkH;ZeD;av; 0rf;csdefYzdef\taqmifwGif tcsdefNzKef;aexkdifonf/
0rf;csdefYzdef\ NyKpkrIrsm;udk cH,l&if; rSJY&SpfvkH;&Sifudk tvG,fwul awGU&SdrdoNzifh &&SdrnfhtusKd;tNrwfrsm;udk
awG;awmpOf;pm;um tvGefyiftlNrL;aeav\/
0rf;omvSaomaMumifh &Sif;wmhcsefonf rsKdodyfrxm;EdkifbJ ZeD;acsmav;udk xkwfazmfaNymNy rdav\/
]]'Dr,f 0rf;csdefYzdef ... rif; igeJY a&pufqkH&wmudk *kPf,l0rf;omayawmh}}
&Sif;wmhcsef\ t&if;r&Sd tzsm;r&Sd &kwfw&ufaNymvdkufaompum;udk 0rf;csdefYzdefu em;rvnfEdkifay/
&Sif;wmhcsefudk Za0Z0g Munfhum ...
]]tpfudkMuD; bmudk qdkvdkwmvJ[if}}
&Sif;wmhcsefu 0rf;csdefYzdef\ ar;zsm;uav;udk udkifum ...
]]rif;&JU a,mufsm;[m rMumcifbJ e*g;0g*dkPf;rSm ta&;ygt&ma&mufqkH; 'k*dkPf;csKyf Nzpfvmawmhr,f
od&JUvm;}}
&Sif;wmhcsefwdkY aexdkif&m uGrfeefNrdKUwnf&Sdonfh e,fy,fa'owGif e*g;0g*dkPf;onf tiftm;awmifhwif;um
MuD;pkd;vTrf;rdk;xm;onf/
&Sif;wmhcsefudk,fwkdifu odkif;ynm0goemygonfhtNyif rdrd\vkyfief;rsm;wGifvnf; e*g;0g*dkPf;\
t&Sdeft0gudk tokH;csvdkaomaMumifh e*g;0g*kdPf;\trnfcH *dkPf;0ifwpfa,muftNzpfyg0ifxm;onf/
e*g;0g*dkPf;\ 'k*dkPf;csKyf[laom [ef[dwfonf xdke,fy,fa'owGif tvGefyif t&Sdeft0g MuD;rm;ayonf/
105
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
]][if ... tpfudkMuD;u b,fvdkvkyfNyD; e*g;0g*dkPf;&JU 'k*dkPf;csKyfNzpfrSmvJ? aNymprf;ygOD;}}
0rf;csdefYzdefonf &Sif;wmhcsef\pum;rsm;udk em;rvnfEdkifaomaMumifh ar;vdkufonf/
]]e*g;0g*dkPf;u aNcz0g;rSm rSJYeuf&SpfvkH;ygwJhvludk odyfvdkcsifaew,f? rif;a,mufsm; uHaumif;csifawmh
rSJY&SpfvkH;&Sif[m igwdkYtdrfay:rSmudk &Sdaew,f/ olUudk e*g;0g*dkPf;vuf tyfvdkuf&if rif;a,mufsm;udk aus;Zl;wkHYNyef
csD;NrSifhwJhtaeeJY 'k*dkPf;csKyfae&m ay;rSmayghuG}}
&Sif;wmhcsefu cyfMuGm;MuGm;yif NyeftaNzay;onf/
]]tpfudkMuD;aNymwJh rSJY&SpfvkH;&Sifqdkwm b,folvJ}}
]]b,fol&SdOD;rSmvJ? [dkaumifav; vifxifcsdwfyJaygh? reufNzef reufapmapmrSm e*g;0g*dkPf;csKyfMuD;udk
iguk, d wf idk o
f mG ;awGUNyD; taMumif;pkH aNymNyvdu k rf ,f? tcsdew
f pf&ufawmif aemufusvdYk rNzpfb;l ? wpf&ufaemufus&if
ightwGuf&r,fh tcGifhta&;awG vufvGwfoGm;Edkifw,f}}
]]aMomf ... tif; [kwfuJhyg&Sif}}
0rf;csed Yf zed rf mS acgif;ndwuf m aNymvdu k &f aomfvnf; pdwx f w J iG af wmh vifxifcsw d \ f oem;p&mrsuEf mS av;udk
Nrifa,mifum tawmfyif pdwfraumif;Nzpfrdonf/
pm;zdkrª;MuD;usef;xdwdkYvlpk\ 0dkif;0ef;&dkufESufNcif; cHxm;&aomaMumifh rao&kHwrnfNzpfaeaom
vifxifcsdwfonf e*g;0g*dkPf;okdY zrf;qD;ydkYaqmifNcif; cH&ayOD;rnf/
&Sif;wmhcsef\ MuD;yGm;wkd;wufa&;twGuf ckwkH;tNzpf tokH;cscH&ayOD;rnf/
&Sif;wmhcsefonf rdrdMuD;yGm;wdk;wufawmhrnfh ta&;udkpOf;pm;&if auseyftm;&pGm tdyfaysmfoGm;onf/
0rf ; csd e f Y zd e f o nf b0uH t aMumif ; rvS o nf h t wG u f aNryk d i f & S i f o l a X;MuD ; &S i f ; wmh c sef \
ZeD ; ti,f N zpf a e&aomf v nf ; &d k ; om;vS a om v,f o rm;b0rS ayguf z G m ;vmol y D y D pd w f a eoabmxm;
aNzmifhrSefaumif;rGefonf/
rdrdukd,fwkdifrSm MuD;Edkifi,fnSif;qdkovdk b0ay;uHraumif;cJh&aom tNzpfrsKd;ESifh &ifqdkifae&onfhtwGuf
rdrdvdkb0wlrsm;tay:wGif pmempdwftNrJyif xm;onf/
rdrd\ wwfEdkiforQaom pGrf;tm;av;Nzifh rw&m;rIrsm;udk MudK;pm;wdkufzsufcJhonf/ tm;enf;ol?
tultnDvkdolrsm;udk ay;EdkiforQaom tultnDav;udk ay;cJhonf/
rw&m;tEd k i f u sih f c H & vQif pd w f x J w G i f rnf r Qxd c d k u f u m rnf r Qpd w f q if ; &J & onf u d k 0rf ; csd e f Y z d e f
udk,fawGUNzpfaomaMumifh cg;oD;pGm cHpm;em;vnfxm;onf/
rdrv d kd cg;oD;aom tawGUtMuKHrsKd;; tNcm;vlrsm; rMuKH&apvdo k nfrmS 0rf;csdeYf zed \ f apwemtrSeyf ifNzpfonf/
vlqdkonfrSm rdrd\wdk;wufMuD;yGm;a&;twGuf MudK;pm;vkyfaqmif&rnfrSm rSefaomfvnf; xdkuJhokdY
MudK;yrf;vkyfaqmif&mwGif rdrdtusKd;twGufudkcsnf; a&SUwef;wifum OD;pm;ay;vGef;í r&Edkifay/
olwpfyg; tusKd;udkvnf; Munfh&ayrnf/
wdkif;NynftusKd;udkvnf; rarhtyf/
wkdif;NynftwGufvnf; tusKd;&Sd? trsm;aumif;usKd;vnf;Nzpf? rdrdtzdkYvnf; MuD;yGm;wdk;wufapaom
vkyf&yfrsKd;omvQif aumif;NrwfrSefuefayonf/
okdYrSom Mum&SnfpGm cHpm;&rnfrSm trSefyif/
,ck&Sif;wmhcsef\ tMuHtpnfonf udk,fusKd;udk MunfhvGef;onf/ ]b,folaoao iawrmNyD;a&m} qdkovdk
vifxifcsdwf rnfokdYaom qif;&J'ku©rsKd;a&mufa&muf rdrd\ t&Sdeft0gwdk;wufNyD; pnf;pdrfcsrf;om wdk;yGm;a&;udkom
txl;tav;ay;vGef;aeonf/ wpfukd,faumif; qefvGef;aeonf/
,ckvdk pnf;pdrftNynfh ,pfrl;aeonfudk &Sif;wmhcsef rwif;wdrfEdkifrSef; tuJcwfrdonf/
&Sif;wmhcsefonf rdrd\cifyGef;onf NzpfaomaMumifh &Sif;wmhcsefwdk;wufMuD;yGm;vQif 0rf;csdefYzdef tzdkYvnf;
a&NrifhuMumwifhqdkovdk txdkuftavsmuf tusKd;&SdEdkifayonf/
odkYaomf þodkYaom roefY&Sif;onf pnf;pdrfcsrf;om tusKd;pD;yGm;rsKd;udk 0rf;csdefYzdef rvdkvm;ay/
0rf;csdeYf zed o f nf rdr\ d vkytf m;Nzifh MudK;pm;vkyaf qmif&&So
d nfh tusKd;pD;yGm;wdYk uo kd m NrwfE;kd ckrH if wefz;kd xm;ol
Nzpfayonf/
106
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
xdkYaMumifh 0rf;csdefYzdefonf oem;p&maumif;vSaom b0'Pfudk trsKd;rsKd;cHae&aom &SD;xifcsdwfudk
u,fwifvdkonf/
u,fwifEdkifa&;twGufvnf; usdwfíenf;vrf;&Sm pOf;pm;aeavonf/
&Sif;wmhcsef tdyfarmusoGm;csdefwGif 0rf;csdefYzdefonf tomt,mxum aNcudkzGeif;í tdyfcef;xJrSxGufvmNyD;
vdefvdefudk oGm;EId;onf/
vdefvdefrSmvnf; vifxifcsdwftwGuf pdwfraumif;NzpfaeaomaMumifh aumif;pGmtdyfraysmfbJ&SdaeonfrdkY
0rf;csdefYzdef taeESifh taxGtxl; EId;p&mrvdk/
0rf;csdefYzdef\ toHudkMum;&onfESifh vdefvdefonf tdyfae&mrSxvmonf/
]]vdev f ed f ... igaNymwmudk aoaocsmcsmem;axmifprf;? vifxifcsdwt f wGuf tEÅ&m,fusa&mufvmawmhr,f?
olYukd 'Dtrd Mf uD;uaea0;&mudyk Ykd ay;zdYk ta&;MuD;w,f? eifuyJ wm0ef,al pmifah &SmufNyD; ac:oGm;? tckcsufcsif; 'Dt&yfu
a0;&mudkxGufoGm;? a[m'DrSm vdktyf&ifokH;pGJzkdY toNymawG? igawmh tcef;udkNyef&r,f? [kdvlMuD;Edk;vm&if cufr,f?
eifomydyd&d&deJY NrefNrefqefqefvkyf}}
vdefvdefrSmvnf; vifxifcsdwftay: apwem&Sdolwpfa,mufNzpfonf/
aeYcif;uyif pm;zdkaqmifrS tvkyform;rsm; 0dkif;0ef;ESdyfpuf &dkufESufMuoNzifh vifxifcsdwfuav;
a0'emcHpm;ae&onfudk *&kPmouf? pdwfraumif;Nzpfae&ao;onf/
,ck 0rfcsdefYzdefu qdkif;rqifhAkHrqifh vifxifcsdwf ab;'ku©awGUawmhrnfhtaMumif; aNymvmaomtcg
rnfokdYrnfykH Nzpfrnfudk rar;tm;bJ vIyfvIyf&Sm;&Sm; NzpfoGm;&onf/
xdkYaMumifh 0rfcsdefYzdef ay;tyfaomwm0efudk vdkvdkcsifcsifyif ,lvdkufonf/
]]pdwfcsygrrav;? uRefrtoufpGefYNyD; 'Daumifav;udk ab;uif;wJhae&m ydkYay;yghr,f}}
vdefvdefonf xdkokdYaNymNyD;aemuf vifxifcsdwf&Sd&m tvkyform;aqmif\ tcef;av;okdYvmcJhonf/
xdktcef;av;a&SUwGif csefwdwfaNzmiftrnf&Sd odkif;orm;wpfa,muf uif;apmifhaeonfudk awGY&onf/
vdefvdefrSm &ifxJwGif xdwfceJNzpfoGm;onf/
tapmifhtMuyf&SdaeonfhtwGuf vifxifcsdwfudk ac:,loGm;zkdY NzpfEkdifygrnfvm;/ vdefvdef awG;ylaerdonf/
vdefvdefonf arSmif&dyfxJwGif tomykef;atmif;ae&if; csefwdwfaNzmif\ taNctaeudk tuJcwfMunfhonf/
csefwdwfaNzmiftm; cyfat;at; cyfayghayghyif xdkifaeonfudkawGU&aomtcg pGefYpm;&ef qkH;Nzwfvdkufonf/
vdefvdefonf ausmufwkH;wpfckudk aumuf,lum nmvufwGif toifhudkifNyD; csefwdwfaNzmif\
aemufausmbufrS wNznf;Nznf;csOf;uyfoGm;onf/
csef w d w f a Nzmif r S m xk d t d r f a *[m&S d od k i f ; orm;rsm;\ acgif ; aqmif usm;av;a0h a xmif u
apcdkif;vdkufaomaMumifhom vmapmifh&onf/
'Pf&mrsm;ESihf tdy&f mxJvaJ eonfh csmwdwaf v; wpfa,muftem;wGif uif;apmifah e&onfukd b0ifrusovdk
pdwfvnf;r0ifpm;ay/
xdkYaMumifhyif cyfayghayghqqaeae&m aemufausmbufrS vdefvdefcsOf;uyfvmonfudk vkH;0rodcJhay/
tem;okdY csOf;uyfrdonfESifh vdefvdefonf csefwdwfaNzmif\aemufaphudk vufxJwGif udkifxm;aom
ausmufwkH;Nzifh wtm;&dkufcsvdkufonf/
csufaumif;udk xdrdonfhtwGuf csefwdwfaNzmifrSm wcsufom cyfoJhoJhnnf;EdkifNyD; vJusoGm;onf/
csefwdwfaNzmifom ayghayghqqraevQif ,ckvdk cH&rnfr[kwfay/
vdev f ed o
f nf tdycf ef;xJoYkd vSpcf eJaNy;0ifum 'Pf&mrsm;\ t&Sed af Mumifh rSed ;f aeonfh vifxifcsdwu f akd yGYcsDNyD;
cyfokwfokwfNyefxGufvmcJhonf/
vifxifcsdwfrSm cyfydefydefrdkY vdefvdeftzdkY tvG,fwulayGUcsDEdkifonf/
þtdrfa*[mwGif taeMumcJhí vdefvdeftaeNzifh 0ifaygufxGufayguf? 0ifvrf;xGufvrf;wdkYudk
aumif;aumif;odonf/
vd e f v d e f o nf ok d i f ; ynmwwf a Nrmuf o l wpf a ,muf r [k w f a y/ tu,f í tapmif h o k d i f ; orm;
wpfa,mufa,mufESifh &ifqdkifwdk;rdvQif b,fvdkrQ ckcHumuG,fwdkufcdkufEdkifrnfr[kwf/
107
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
xdktapmifh odkif;orm;vufxJwGif uGdceJaeatmif trdcHvdkuf&rnfom Nzpfonf/
xdkYaMumifhvdefvdefonf tapmifhokdif;orm;rsm;udk a&SmifuGif;um &ifwxdwfxdwfNzifh vIyf&Sm;ae&onf/
vifxifcsdwf\ ukokdvfyJaumif;onfvm;/ vdefvdefuyJ yg;ESyfum tdrfa*[m\ taetxm;udk
uRrf;usifívm;? tapmifhtMuyfrsm;uyif ayghavsmhavonfvm;rod/
vdev f ed o f nf rnfonfh tapmifo h ikd ;f orm;rsm;ESirhf Q &ifqikd &f Ncif;r&Sb d J tdraf *[m tNyifbufoYkd a&Sma&Sm&SL&SL
xGufvmEdkifcJhonf/
tdrfa*[mtNyifbufokdY a&mufaomtcg vdefvdefrSm tvkH;MuD;wpfck &ifxJrSusoGm;ovdk tawmfyif
pdwfayghyg;oGm;onf/
oufNyif;wpfcsuf "[if;" ceJ csrd\/
avSmiftdrfrS vGwfaNrmufvmonfh iSufwpfaumifvdkvnf; pdwfxJwGif cHpm;&onf/
tcsdefrSm noef;acgif,HNzpfonf/
nonf at;Nrwdwfqdwfaeonf/
vdefvdef\ touf&SLoHNyif;Nyif;ESifh nwGif usufpm;aomydk;aumifrsm;\ atmfNrnfoHrSwpfyg;
tNcm;toHAvHrsm;r&Sday/
toufq,fEpS t f &G,f qdak omfvnf; vifxifcsdw\ f cE¨mud, k o
f nf t&G,Ef iS v hf ukd af tmif xGm;usKdi;f Ncif;r&S/d
ra0a&pm pm;aomufum ydefvSDaeonf/
vdefvdefu tvG,fyifayGUcsDum oGufvufaom aNcvSrf;rsm;ESifh aNy;vTm;aeonf/
&Sif;wmhcsef\ tdrfa*[mMuD;rS aNcwpfvSrf;ykda0;atmif aNy;EdkifonfESifhtrQ vifxifcsdwftay:wGif
usa&muf r nf h tEÅ & m,f r S m aNcwpf v S r f ; yd k r d k a0;uG m rnf r d k Y vd e f v d e f o nf arm&rS e f ; yef ; &rS e f ; yif rod b J
aNcvSrf;oGufoGufNzifh aNy;awmh\/
xdktcsdefwGif ...
&Sif;wmhcsefonf ti,fqkH; ZeD;acsmav; 0rf;csdefYzdef\tdyfcef;xJrS zJarGU&mMuD;ay:wGif taysmfarmESifh
tdyfpufaeonf/
tqDtpfí t&ufcdk;rsm; Nyefaeaom &Sif;wmhcsef\ rsufESmyGa&mif;a&mif;MuD;rSm tdyfaysmfae&if;rSyif
auseyf[efNzifh NyKH;a,miforf;ae\/
rdrd\ pnf;pdrfcsrf;om? MoZmtmPmrsm; wdk;wufNrifhrm;vmykHrsm;udk tdyfrufyif Nrifrufíaeonf/
tdyfruf ruf&if; yg;pyfrSyif a,mif,rf;um atmf[pfaNymqdkaerdao;onf/
]][dwf ... ightrdefYudk emcHMuprf;? remcHwJhvlawG aumif;aumif;tNypf'Pfcwfr,f}}
tawG;ESihf tdyrf aysmaf om 0rf;csed Yf zed rf mS &Si;f wmhcse\f a,mifatmfoaH Mumifh &ifxw J iG x f w d cf eJ NzpfomG ;&onf/
&Sif;wmhcsefonf a,mifatmf&kHomru tdyf&mrSvefYEdk;um aigufceJxxdkifNyD; 0rf;csdefYzdefudk pdrf;pdrf;MuD;Munfhvdkuf\/
ukd,fhvkyf&yfESifhudk,f pdwfrvkHNzpfaeonfh 0rf;csdefYzdefrSm vefYzsyfoGm;&onf/
0rf;csed Yf zed f aMumuftm;vefYtm; NzpfomG ;yku H kd Nrif&onfwiG f &Si;f wmhcserf mS rdrad ,mifatmfro d nfukd owd&um
NyKH;vdkufavonf/
]]bmNzpfwmvJ[if}}
0rf;csdefYzdefu r&Jw&J ar;onf/
]]bmrS r[kwfygbl;uGm? [kdaumifav; vifxifcsdwfudk e*g;0g*dkPf;csKyfMuD;&JUvufxJ tyfay;NyD;&if
&r,fhtusKd;tNrwfawGudk tdyfrufrufvdkY a,mifatmfrdwmyg? [m; ... [m; ... [m;}}
&Sif;wmhcsefu aNymvnf;aNym auseyfpGmvnf; tm;yg;w& w[m;[m; &,farmvdkufonf/
]]aMomf ... 'gvm;? uRefrNzifh bmrSef;rod nmrSef;rodeJY vefYoGm;wmyJ}}
0rf;csdefYzdefu tomNyKH;&,fNyD; aNymvdkufonf/
aNymomaNymvd k u f & aomf v nf ; pd w f x J w G i f r l &S i f ; wmh c sef u vif x if c sd w f & S d & mod k Y oG m ;a&muf
ppfaq;Munfh&Irnfudk awG;ylae&onf/

108
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
]]rdk;awmifvif;awmhr,f? NyeftdyfvdkYvJ taMumif;xl;rSm r[kwfbl;? [kdaumifav; taNctae b,fvdk&SdvJ
rodbl;? oGm;Munfh&if aumif;r,fxifw,f}}
pdwfxJwGif ylyefaecsdefrSmyif &Sif;wmhcsefu xkdokdYaNymvmonfhtwGuf 0rf;csdefYzdefrSm pdk;&drfpdwf
ydkrsm;vm&onf/
vifxifcsdwfudk u,fxkwfoGm;aom vdefvdefonf ,cktcsdefwGif c&D;a0;a0;odkY ra&mufEdkifao;ay/
&Sif;wmhcsefom oGm;a&mufMunfh&Iygu vifxifcsdwfaysmufqkH;aeaMumif; odoGm;vQif vdkufvH&SmazGrnfrSm
{uefrvGJyif/
vdefvdefwdkYudk aNc&mcHrdzkdY tcGifhtvrf; rsm;aeonfr[kwfygvm;/
0rf;csdefYzdef awG;ylaecsdefrSmyif &Sif;wmhcsefonf ckwifay:rSqif;í zdeyfudk aumuf,lpD;aeavNyD/
]]'Daumifav;u b,fudkaysmufoGm;EdkifrSmrdkYvJ? NyD;awmh tapmifhwpfa,mufvJ tem;rSmapmifhcdkif;xm;w,f
r[kwfvm;? tvum; tydktvkyfawG vkyfraeygeJY? cktpfudkMuD; tdyf&mxapmapmEdk;vmwmyJ? e*g;0g*dkPf;XmecsKyfudk
apmapmoGm;vdkufaygh? 'DvdkvkyfwmurS tpfudkMuD;twGuf ydktusKd;&SdEdkifw,f r[kwfvm;}}
0rf;csdefYzdefonf tMuHaumif;wpfckudk &kwfw&ufpOf;pm;rdum &Sif;wmhcsefudk aNymqdkvdkufonf/
olr\pum;u &Si;f wmhcseftwGuf tMudKufawGUapaompum; Nzpfovdk vifxifcsdw\ f vGwaf Nrmufrt I wGuf
tcsdefqGJay;vkdufNcif;vnf; Nzpfayonf/
rSJY&SpfvkH;&Sifudk awGUNyDNzpfaMumif; e*g;0g*dkPf;csKyfxHokdY aNymNyvdkpdwf xufoefaeaom &Sif;wmhcsefonf
0rf;csdefYzdef\ tMuHudk oabmuspGm vufcHvdkuf\/ tvdkqE´ Nyif;Nyaeaom &Sif;wmhcsefonf 0rf;csdefYzdef\
pum;y&d,m,fqifuGufxJodkY tvG,fwulyif wdk;0ifoGm;onf/
]]at; ... [kwfw,f? e*g;0g*dkPf;csKyfMuD;qDudk t&ifoGm;wm aumif;w,f? NrefNrefoGm;Edkifav ightwGuf
tusKd;tNrwfawG NrefNrefydk&EdkifavyJ? uJ ... uJ ... ig c&D;xGufzkdY tNrefNyifqifay;prf;}}
e*g;0g*dkPf;\ XmecsKyfpcef;onf uGrfeefNrdKUrS aNcusifc&D;oGm;vQif aeY0ufc&D;tuGmwGif &Sdonf/
xkYd aMumifh &Si;f wmhcseftwGuf axGaxGx;l xl; Nyifqifay;p&mrvd/k 0wfqifomG ;&ef t0wftpm; xkwaf y;um
Nrif;aZmif;odkY vkdufydkYay;vkduf&kHomNzpfonf/
uGrfeefNrdKUrS e*g;0g*dkPf;XmecsKyfodkY aNcusifoGm;rnfqdkvQif aeY0ufcefUtcsdefMumonf/
&Sif;wmhcsefurl Nrif;pD;um cyfNrefNrefvmcJhaomaMumifh ESpfem&DcefYESifh a&muf&SdoGm;onf/
t&kPfrwufrDu uGrfeefNrKdUrS xGufvmcJhonfhtwGuf e*g;0g*dkPf;XmecsKyfteD;odkU a&mufoGm;csdefrSm
rdk;vif;cgptcsdefom &Sdao;onf/
e*g;0g*dkPf;XmecsKyfNzpfaom e*g;0g&JwdkufMuD;onf awmifukef;wpfckay:wGif wnf&Sdonf/
xkdawmifukef;udk e*g;0g*dkPf;XmecsKyf wnf&Sd&mae&mNzpfonfhtwGuf e*g;0gawmifukef;[k ac:onf/
&S i f ; wmh c sef o nf awmif u k e f ; ay:wG i f xD ; xD ; rm;rm;wnf & S d a eaom e*g;0g&J w d k u f M uD ; ud k
vS r f ; arQmf M unf h v d k u f a v\/ t&k P f O D ; a&mif e D o rf ; aeaom rd k ; uk y f p uf 0 d k i f ; aemuf c H N zif h &J w d k u f M uD ; rS m
cHhnm;xnf0gaeonf/
pdwfxJwGif Nzpfay:aeaom 0rf;omaysmf&TifrIaMumifh &Sif;wmhcsef\rsufvkH;rsm;onf ta&mifwvufvuf
awmufyaeonf/
auseyfrIyDwdt[kefaMumifh acgif;udkwpfcsuf ndwfum awmifukef;ay:odkY wufonfhvrf;twdkif;
Nrif;udkpD;vmcJhonf/ xdkvrf;rSm ausmufNym;rsm;cif;xm;NyD; 0J,mwpfzufwpfcsufwGif xif;&SL;yifrsm;
pDpDnDnDpdkufxm;onf/
&Sif;wmhcsefonf e*g;0g&JwdkufokdY rMumcP a&mufzl;olNzpf&m þvrf;udkMudrfzefrsm;pGm oGm;vmzl;onf/
ok d Y aomf ,ck w pf a cguf w G i f r l xd k v rf ; \ tqif t Nyif o nf ,cif u ES i f h r wl b J tvG e f y if v S y
wifhw,faeonf[k &Sif;wmhcsef\pdwfxJwGif xifrSwfrdonf/
]]tif; ... w,fuHaumif;wJh igygvm;? odkif;orm;MuD;awG taotvJvdkuf&SmaeMuwJh rSJY&SpfvkH;&Sif[m
igha*[mrSm ightwGuf a&mufvm&w,f? [J ... [J ... [J ighbkef;wefcdk; w,fMuD;wmyJ? igvdkvl ZrÁLrSm&SdEdkifyghrvm;}}
&Sif;wmhcsefonf udk,fhpdwful;ESifhudk,f NrL;MuGMunfEl;í ae\/
109
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
rMumrDrSmyif e*g;0g&JwdkufMuD;\ yifrt0if0a&SUokdY a&muf&Sdvmonf/
t0if0\ 0J,mwGif tcuf? tcRef? taNymuf? trTrf;rsm;Nzifh &kyfvkH;azmfxm;aom e*g;0gMuD;ESpfaumifudk
&Sif;wmhcsef rsufpdupm;Munfhvkdufonf/
e*g;0g&JwdkufodkY rMumcP a&mufzl;aom olYtzdkY t0if0wGif&Sdaom e*g;0g&kyfMuD;ESpf&kyfonf awGUNrifaeus
&dk;tDaeaom NrifuGif;Nzpfonf/
odkYaomf ,cktcgwGifrl udk,fhpdwful;ESifhudk,f taysmfMuD;aysmfí tarmfMuD;armfaeol &Sif;wmhcseftzdkY
xdke*g;0g&kyfMuD;ESpfckrSm tvGeftouf0ifum cHhxnfvSonf[k xifrdonf/
&Sif;wmhcsefonf e*g;0g*dkPf;0if wpfa,mufNzpf\/ e*g;0g&JwdkfokdY rMumcP oGm;vm0ifxGufaeolrdkY
e*g;0g*dkPf;om;odkif;orm;rsm;u olUudkaumif;aumif; od&SdaeMuonf/
t0if0wGif tapmifw h m0efusaeol odik ;f orm;wpfa,mufu &Si;f wmhcseu f kd qD;MudKíEIwq f uf pum;qdo k nf/
]]a[m ... olaX;MuD; &Sif;wmhcsefygvm;? apmapmpD;pD; bmudpöeJY a&mufvm&wmvJ}}
EIwfqufpum;qdk&if; t0ifwHcg;udk zGifhay;vdkufMuonf/
]]'Dtapmifhodkif;orm;av;awG[m tck&ufydkif;twGif; e*g;0g*dkPf;rSm igb,favmuf ta&;ygvmr,frSef;
odMuykHr&bl;? odrsm;od&if ighudk ysmysmovJ t&dktaoay;MurSmyJ}}
&Sif;wmhcsefonf xdkokdYawG;rdNyD; tapmifhodkif;orm;rsm;udk txifao;aomtMunfhNzifh Munfhvdkufum
[dwf[eftNynfhESifh NyefaNymonf/
]]apmapmpD;pD; a&mufvmqdk odyfudkta&;MuD;wJh udp&ö SdaevkdYyJ ta&;MuD;wJhudpeö JY usKyfa&mufvmw,fqdkwJh
taMumif;udk *dkPf;csKyfMuD;qD tNrefqkH; taMumif;Mum;ay;yg\]]
&Sif;wmhcsefonf Nrif;ay:rS atmufodkY ckefqif;vdkuf\/
xdkYaemuf odkif;orm;wpfa,mufvufxJokdY Nrif;ZufMudK;udk [efygyg tyfvdkuf\/
]]aumif;ygNyD? {nfhcef;aqmifrSm oGm;apmifhyg? *dkPf;csKyfMuD;udk oGm;taMumif;Mum; ay;yghr,f}}
&Sif;wmhcsefonf odkif;ynm aygufaygufaNrmufaNrmufrwwfuRrf;aomfvnf; rdrd\vkyfief;rsm;wGif
e*g;0g*d k P f ; ud k tok H ; csEd k i f & ef t wG u f aiG a Mu;ay;urf ; axmuf y H h r I r sm; NyKvk y f x m;onf h t wG u f
e*g;0g*dkPf;csKyfvltif;0gu olUudktawmfyif tav;ay;onf/
&S i f ; wmh c sef w pf a ,muf ta&;wMuD ; a&muf & S d v maMumif ; od v m&aomtcg e*g;0g*d k P f ; csKyf M uD ;
vltif;0g;onf &Sif;wmhcsefudk ol\oD;oefYcef;xJodkY ac:,lawGUqkHonf/
]]uJ ... aNymprf;ygOD;? bmawGrsm; 'Davmufawmif ta&;MuD;vmwmvJ olaX;MuD;&JU}}
oD;oefYcef;xJ&Sd xdkifckHrsm;wGif toD;oD;ae&m,lum xkdifMuNyD;aemuf vltif;0g;u pum;pvkdufonf/
oD;oefYcef;xJwGif ESpfa,mufwnf;&Sdaeonfhwkdif &Sif;wmhcsefu pdwfrvkHao;[efNzifh ab;bDudk
tuJcwfMunfhNyefonf/
xdkYaemuf toHudkESdrfhum ESpfudk,fMum; avoHNzifh ...
]]odyfudk ta&;MuD;w,f *dkPf;csKyfMuD;a&? rSJY&SpfvkH;&Sifudk usKyf&SmvdkY awGUxm;NyDAs}}
þpum;udk Mum;&onfhtcgwGif vltif;0g;rSm ododomom vIyf&Sm;oGm;onf/ [efraqmifEdkifbJ
xdkifae&mrSyif x&yfvdkufrd\/
]][if ... olaX;MuD;aNymaewm wu,fyJvm;}}
vltif;0g;u tHhMo[efNzifh ar;onf/
xdkYaemuf rdrd£aNE´ysufoGm;onfudk owdNyKrdum xdkifckHwGif Nyefxkdif\/
&Sif;wmhcsefonf e*g;0g*dkPf;csKyfMuD; vltif;0g;wpfa,muf pdwfvIyf&Sm;um wtHhwMo NzpfoGm;&ykHudk
auseyfpGmMunfh&if; NyKH;NyKH;MuD; acgif;ndwfNyvdkufonf/
]]usKyfaNymwm wu,fyJaygh? wu,fr[kwfbJeJY usKyfu *dkPf;csKyfMuD;vdk yk*d¾Kvfwpfa,mufudk
vmNyD ; vS n f h p m;aNymqd k & J y gh r vm;? aNcz0g; wpf z uf p D r S m rS J Y e uf a v;vk H ; pD y gwJ h rS J Y & S p f v k H ; &S i f c smwd w f [ m
usKyf&JUtdrfa*[mrSm tck&Sdaeygw,f? olUtcef;em;rSm odkif;orm;wpfa,mufudk tapmifhcsxm;w,f? aumifav;crsm
olrsm;u &dkufESufxdk;Mudwfxm;vdkY wpfudk,fvkH; 'Pf&m&NyD; tdyf&mxJ vJusaew,f? b,fudkrS xGufroGm;Edkifygbl;}}
110
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
]]'gqdk&if usKyfwdkYe*g;0g*dkPf;[m odkif;avmuudk vTrf;rdk;EdkifzdkY aocsmNyDaygh? 0rf;omp&myJAsm? 0rf;omp&myJ}}
]]aumifav;udk 'D&Jwdkufta&muf *dkPf;csKyfMuD;eJY usKyfESpfa,mufwnf;oGm;NyD; ac:Muwmaygh? tckudpöudk
usKyfaoaocsmcsm vQKdU0Sufxm;w,f? ratmifNrifcif wNcm;vlawG rodapcsifbl;? 'gaMumihfvJ *dkPf;csKyfMuD;qDudk
taMumif;Mum;wmawmif usKyfwpfa,mufwnf; xGufvmcJhwmyJ}}
]][kwfvdkufavAsm? vkyfykHudkifykH odyfaooyfwmyJ? 'gaMumifh uGrfeefNrdKUrSm tcsrf;omqkH; aNrydkif&SifolaX;MuD;
Nzpfaewmaygh}}
vltif;0g;\ csD;rGrf;pum;aMumifh &Sif;wmhcsefrSm NyKH;NyKH;MuD; NzpfoGm;&av\/ vltif;0g;u qufvufí
]]uJ ... uJ tcsdefodyfqdkif;aevdkY rNzpfbl;? tNrefqkH;oGm;MupdkY}}
&Sif;wmhcsef aNymMum;onfrsm;udk em;axmifNyD;aemuf vltif;0g;rSm tvGefyif pdwfvIyf&Sm; aysmf&Tifaeonf/
aNr&SifolaX;MuD; vkyfMuHaNymqdkvdrfhrnf r[kwfEdkifaMumif; tuJcwfrdaomfvnf; r,kHwpf0uf ,kHwpf0ufESifh
Nzpfaeao;onf/
&Sif;wmhcsef twdtus tckdiftrm aNymqkdtmrcHaeoNzifh ,kHMunfvufcHvdkufonf/
odkif;avmuwpfcGifwGif NydKifpH&Sm;onfh odkif;orm;Nzpf&awmhrnf[laom todaMumifh vltif;0g;rSm
£aNE´rqnfEdkifavmufatmif Nzpfaeonf/
a&Smifvifausmif;awmf\ xif&Sm;aom odkif;ynm&SifMuD; wpfa,mufNzpfol [l0Sm;qef;vdefonf
taNrmftNrifMuD;pGmESifh tvGefta&;MuD;onfh vQKdU0Sufypönf;wpfckudk pDrHxdef;odrf;xm;cJhonf/ xdkvQKdU0Sufypönf;onf
rnfokdYaom ypönf;Nzpfonfudk odoltvGefenf;\/ aNcz0g;wpfzufpDwGif rSJYeufav;vkH;pD yg&Sdaom rSJY&SpfvkH;&Sifudk
a&SmifvifpMumtwGif;tm; Nynfh0&&Sdatmifvnf; a&Smifvifausmif;awmfu ulnDvkyfaqmifay;&ef rSmMum;cJhonf/
xk d r S m Mum;csuf o nf a&S m if v if a usmif ; awmf \ vQKd U 0S u f c suf t Nzpf *d k P f ; csKyf w pf q if h r S w pf q if h
vufqifhurf;um aNymqdk rSmMum;xm;cJhMuonf/
þvQKdU0Sufcsufudk a&Smifvif*dkPf;\ xdyfwef;okdif;orm;wdkif;yif rodMuay/
*dkPf;csKyf? pnf;urf;xdef; *dkPf;tkyfESifh odkif;ynmoifMum;a&; *dkPf;tkyfwm0efrsm;udk xrf;aqmifcJh&ol
tpOftqufom wpfqifhwpfqifh aNymqdkrSmMum;xm;cJhMuonf/
xdkokdY&SdcJh&mrS wpfaeYwGif a&Smifvifausmif;awmf\ Nrwfynmcef;aqmifwGif vkHNcKHpGmodrf;qnf;xm;aom
a&SmifvifvQKdU0Sufypönf;udk wpfpkHwpfa,mufu 0ifa&mufckd;,loGm;cJhonf/
xdktcsdefu ydkifpkusifonf cifyGef;onf &SD;[kefwGif oifhaeaom e*g;tpG,fvufeufykef;\ tqdyfudk
aNzazsmufukoEdkif&eftwGuf a&Smifvifausmif;awmf twGif;okdY pGefYpm;0ifa&mufum 0dnmOfcsKyftqdyfaNz
toufu,faq;vk;H udk t&,lcchJ sed Nf zpf&m a&Smifvifoidk ;f orm;rsm;u vQKUd 0Suyf pön;f cd;k ,lomG ;olrmS ydik pf u k siNf zpfrnf[k
txifrSm;cJhMuonf/
xdkYaMumifh a&Smifvif*dkPf;om;rsm;onf ydkifpkusiftaMumif;ESifh rSJY&SpfvkH;&SifwdkY\ taMumif;rsm;udk
vdkufvHpkHprf;cJhMu&m rSJY&SpfvkH;&SifESifh ywfoufonfh vQKdU0Sufcsuf aygufMum;oGm;cJhonf/
þtaMumif;Ncif;&mrsm;onf vGefcJhaomq,fESpfausmfu ay:aygufcJhonf/ a&Smifvifausmif;awmftaeNzifh
,aeYwdkifatmifyif ydkifpkusif\taMumif;ESifh rSJY&SpfvkH;&SifwdkY\ owif;rsm;udk tpteyif pkHprf;r&Edkifao;ay/
wpfa,mufp? ESpfa,mufprS tpNyKí rSJY&SpfvkH;&SifESifh ywfoufonfh taMumif;rsm;onf wpfpwpfp
owif;NyefYyGm;vm\/ ,cktcgwGif odkif;tausmftarmftrsm;pkonf xdkudpörsm;udk od&Sdxm;MuavNyD/
txl;oNzifh e*g;u0dckepfqlwdkYonf rSJY&SpfvkH;&Sifudk tvGefyifpdwf0ifpm;aeMuonf/
ok d i f ; avmuwG i f u0d r aemok d i f ; ynmonf xd y f w ef ; od k i f ; ynmwpf c k t Nzpf xif & S m ;cJ h o nf /
u0draemodkif;ynmwGif odkif;uGufq,fh&SpfuGuf&SdNyD; xdkokdif;uGufq,fh&SpfuGufudk avhusifhonfh usifhpOfckepfrsKd;
&Sdonf/
e*g;u0d c k e pf q l w d k Y onf u0d r aemod k i f ; ynmusif h p Of wpf r sKd ; pD u d k o m wwf a Nrmuf M uonf ?
u0draemokdif;ynmusifhpOf ckepfrsKd;vkH;wwfaNrmufa&;rSm e*g;u0dwkdif;\ pdwful;,Of arQmfvifhcsufwpf&yf
Nzpfayonf/

111
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
u0draemodik ;f ynm usifph Ofrsm;udk rsm;Edik o f rQrsm;rsm;wwfaNrmufEikd af &; twGuv f nf; enf;vrf;trsKd;rsKd;ESihf
MudK;yrf;cJhMuonf/
vGefcJhaom ESpfaygif;rsm;pGmu u0draem*dkPf;\ t&Sdeft0gESifh[ef[dwfonf odkif;avmuwGif
tvGefyifMuD;rm;cJhonf/
u0d r aemod k i f ; orm;rsm;onf trsm;tusKd ; ud k o,f y d k ; aqmif & G u f u m raumif ; rI r sm;tm;
qefYusifESdrfeif;cJhMuonf/
vrf;vGJokdif;orm;qdk;rsm;xJwGif tiftm;taumif;qkH;Nzpfaom rdpämraem*dkPf;ESifh u0draem*dkPf;wdkY
tiftm;NydKifqdkifrI Nzpfay:vmonf/
aemufqkH;wGif u0draem*dkPf;\ *dkPf;csKyfESifh rdpämraem*dkPf;\ *dkPf;csKyfwdkY &ifqdkifwdkufcdkufcJhMuonf/
u0draemodkif;usrf;&SifESifh rdpämraemodkif;usrf;&SifwdkY\ &ifqdkifwdkufcdkufrIonf odkif;avmuwGif
aNymprSwfwGifavmufonfh wdkufyGJMuD;wpfck NzpfcJhonf/
tEdkif&vdkpdwf tvGefNyif;Nyaeaom rdpämraemodkif;usrf;&Sifonf rdpämaNrrsKd twGif;tm;EId;qGenf;Nzifh
rdrdudk,fudk temcHum twGif;tm;rsm; wdk;yGm;vmatmifNyKvkyfNyD; oJoJrJrJyif wdkufyGJ0ifcJhonf/
odkif;uGufaygif;axmifcsDum wdkufcdkufcJhonfh xdkwkdufyGJMuD;tNyD;wGif rdpämraemodkif;usrf;&SifrSm tNyD;wkdif
acsrIef;Ncif;cHcJh&onf/ u0draemodkif;usrf;&SifrSmvnf; rdpämraem*dkPf;csKyf\vufcsufNzifh twGif;'Pf&cJhonf/
rdpmä raem *dP
k ;f csKyfaoqk;H NyD;aemuf rdpmä raemodik ;f usrf;? e*g;rdpmä trdeYf awmfausmufeND ym;? tqdyrf pd mä "m;ESihf
rdpämtqdyfaNzaq;wdkY aysmufqkH;oGm;cJhonf/
rdpämraem*dkPf;rSmvnf; emvefrxlEdkifawmhbJ ysufpD;NydKuGJoGm;cJhayonf/
u0d r aem*d k P f ; csKyf r S m rl &&S d c J h a om twG i f ; 'Pf a Mumif h wpf E S p f t MumwG i f uG , f v G e f c J h o nf /
xdkokdYuG,fvGefNyD;aemuf u0draemodkif;usrf;ESifh e*g;u0dtrdefYawmf ausmufpdrf;Nym;wdkY aysmufqkH;oGm;cJhonf/
u0draem*dkPf;csKyfaoqkH;NyD;aemuf u0draem*dkPf;onf ysufpD;aysmufuG,foGm;Ncif;r&Sdapumrl
0g;tpnf;aNyovdk pnf;vkH;nDnGwfrI NydKuGJcJhonf/
u0draemodkif;wGif odkif;uGufq,fh&SpfuGufESifh usifhpOfckepfrsKd; &Sd\/
u0draemokdif;\ usifhpOfwpfrsKd;pDudk ydkifydkifEdkifEdkifwwfaNrmufxm;Muonfh u0draemodkif;orm;MuD;
ckepfa,mufwdkYonf udk,fpDudk,fpD e*g;NzLa*[m? e*g;euf*dkPf;? e*g;eD*dkPf;? e*g;0g*dkPf;? e*g;pdrf;*dkPf;?
rdk;e*g;*dkPf;ESifh aNre*g;*dkPf;[lí *dkPf;tzGJU ckepfckudk xlaxmifMuonf/
acgif;aqmifckepfa,mufudk e*g;u0dckepfql[k okdif;avmuwGif ac:a0:Muonf/
u0draemodkif;tEG,frsm;tMum; ,kHMunfcsufuif;rJhaomaMumifh rvdkvm;tyfonfh &efapmifrIrsm;vnf;
ay:aygufvmcJhonf/
u0draemodkif;tEG,f0ifrsm;onf rdrdwdkY tcsif;csif;pnf;vkH;nDnGwf&ef vdkvm;Muonf/ okdYaomf
e*g;u0drsm;tMum;wGif rmefrmexm;rIrsm;? rdrdukd,frdrd txifMuD;rIrsm;ponfh pdwfxm;rsm;&SdaomaMumifh
pnf;vkH;nDnGwfrIudk rxlaxmifEdkifcJhMuay/
aysmufqkH;aeaom u0draemodkif;usrf;ESifh e*g;u0dtrdefYawmf ausmufpdrf;Nym;wdkYudk &SmazG&&Sdoludk
u0draemodik ;f tEG,0f if taygif;\ OD;pD;acgif;aqmiftNzpf wnDwnGww f nf; wifaNrSmufMu&efrl e*g;u0dcek pfqEl iS hf
u0draemodkif;tEG,f0if taygif;u oabmwl vufcHxm;Muonf/
u0draemodkif;tEG,f0ifwdkYonf u0draemodkif;usrf;ESifh e*g;u0dtrdefYawmf ausmufpdrf;Nym;wdkYudk
txl;yifMudK;pm;um &SmazGaecJhMuonf/
wpfzufwGifvnf; vrf;vGJodkif;orm;qdk;rsm;u rdpämraemodkif;usrf;udk vdkcsifwyfrufpGm vdkufvHpkHprf;
&SmazGaeMuNyefonf/ rdpämraemodkif;usrf;ESifh ywfoufí odkif;avmutarSmife,fwGif wdkufcdkufowfNzwfrIrsm;vnf;
rMumcPyif ay:aygufaeonf/

112
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
rnfokdYyifNzpfap ...
u0draemodik ;f usrf;? e*g;u0dtrdeYf awmf ausmufprd ;f Nym;wdYk ukd &SmrawGUEdik o f nfeh nf;wl rdpmä raemodik ;f usrf;?
e*g;rdpämtrdefYawmf ausmufeDNym;? tqdyfrdpäm"m;ESifh rdpämtqdyfaNzaq;wdkYudkvnf; rnfolrQ &SmazGr&Edkifao;bJ
&Sdaeonf/
odkif;avmutarSmife,frS vrf;vGJodkif;orm;qdk;rsm;onf rdpämraemodkif;usrf;udk tMudwfte,f
qufvufppHk rf;&SmazGaeMuovdk u0draemodik ;f tEG,0f ifrsm;uvnf; u0draemodik ;f usr;f udk oJorJ rJ yJ if vdu k v
f pH pHk rf;
&SmazGMuavawmhonf/
e*g;u0drsm; taeNzifhvnf; rdrdwdkY wwfaNrmufxm;onfh u0draemodkif;ynm usifhpOftNyif tNcm;u0draem
odkif;ynmusifhpOfwpfrsKd;rsKd;udk xyfqifhwwfaNrmuf&ef MudK;yrf;rIrsm; &Sdaomfvnf; rnfolrQ atmifNrifatmif
rvkyfaqmifEdkifao;ay/
e*g;0g*dkPf;csKyf vltif;0g;uJhodkY tvkdavmbMuD;onfh e*g;u0dtcsKdUonf rSJY&SpfvkH;&Sifudk tNyif;txefyif
MudK;pm;&SmazGcJhMuonf/
,ck &Sif;wmhcsefxHrS rSYJ&SpfvkH;&Sifudk aetdrfwGif &SmazGawGU&Sdxm;NyDNzpfaMumif; owif;Mum;od&onfhtcg
vl t if ; 0g;onf u0d r aemod k i f ; usif h p Of t m;vk H ; ud k vuf 0 ,f y d k i f y d k i f &,l E d k i f a wmh r nf od k i f ; avmuud k
vTrf;rdk;Edkifrnfhta&;udk awG;awmpdwful;,Ofum tvGefyif 0rf;omyDwd Nzpfrdavonf/
&Sif;wmhcsefu olYtawG;ESifhol aysmfaeovdk vltif;0g;uvnf; rdrdpdwful;ESifhrdrd t[kwfMuD;[kwfaeonf/
rdrdpdwful;ESifhrdrd t[kwfMuD;[kwfum 0rf;omyDwdNzpfaeaom vltif;0g;onf ywf0ef;usifudkyif arhavsmhNyD;
EIwfqdwfvsuf Nidrfxdkifaerdonf/
&Sif;wmhcsefrSm Nidrfxdkifaeaom vltif;0g;udk tm;rvdktm;r& NzpfvmNyD; ...
]]*dkPf;csKyfMuD; ... usKyfwkdY c&D;oGm;MuzdkY oifhNyDxifw,f}}
pdwful;ESifh MunfEl;um Nidrfxdkifaeaom vltif;0g;rSm þtcgwGifrS ywf0ef;usifudk NyefowdNyKrdvmonf/
]]aMomf ... tif; ... [kwfom;yJ? usKyfwdkYoGm;MupdkY}}
avmbESifh rmefrmeMuD;aom udk,fusKd;&Smolrsm;onf twåudk a&SUwef;wifwwfMuonf/ rdrdwpfukd,fwnf;
aumif;pm;a&;udkom vkyfaqmifwwfMuonf/
Nzwfvrf;Nzifh atmifNrifrI&&ef MuHpnfwwfMuonf/
&Sif;wmhcsefu e*g;0g*dkPf;csKyfMuD; vltif;0g;udk ol\tdrfa*[modkY wdwfwqdwfyif ac:aqmifvmonf/
olYtMuH atmif&awmhrnf[laom tawG;Nzifh &Sif;wmhcsefrSmtxl;yif tlNrL;aeonf/ olYaNcvSrf;awGu
0zdkifhaomudk,fcE¨mESifh rvdkufatmifyif oGufvufayghyg;aeonf/
&Sif;wmhcsefonf ayghyg;oGufvufaom aNcvSrf;rsm;Nzifh a&SUaqmifum vltif;0g;udk vifxifcsdwf&Sdaeonfh
tcef;av;odkY vrf;Nyac:aqmifoGm;onf/
]]usKyfaNymwJhaumifav; a[m'Dtcef;xJrSm &Sdaeygw,f? *dkPf;csKyfMuD;ukd,fwdkif rsufNrifMunfh&I
ppfaq;ygawmhcifAsm;}}
&Sif;wmhcsefu cyfMuGm;MuGm;aNymNyD; tcef;wHcg;udk zGifhay;onf/
tcef;xJwGif rD;tdrfxGef;rxm;aomaMumifh arSmifrdkufaeonf/ toHAvHvnf; rMum;&bJ wdwfqdwfaeonf/
aq;eHYrsm;uawmh MudKifvIdifvsuf&Sdonf/
bmud k r Q oJ o J u G J u G J rNrif E d k i f a omf v nf ; oif ; Mud K if a eaom aq;eH Y rsm;aMumif h tcef ; xJ w G i f
'Pf&mtemw&Nzpfí aq;xnfhaq;pnf;xm;aom vlwpfa,muf&SdaeaMumif; awG;qxifNrifEdkifonf/
odkif;avmuwvTm;wGif owif;MuD;aeonfh rSJY&SpfvkH;&Sifudk awGUNrif&awmhrnf[laom tawG;Nzifh
vltif;0g;\ &ifxJwGif w'def;'def;ckefae\/
oJoJuGJuGJ rNrif&onfudk tm;rvdktm;r& Nzpfrdonf/
]]rD;av; bmav; xGef;prf;ygOD;As}}
vltif;0g;u &Sif;wmhcsefudk aNymonf/

113
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
&S i f ; wmh c sef v nf ; csuf c sif ; yif rD ; cwf a usmuf u d k xk w f , l u m rD ; cwf N yD ; tcef ; xJ & S d rD ; td r f w G i f
rD;xGef;ñSdvdkufonf/
rD;cGuf\ tvif;a&mifaMumifh tcef;usOf;av;xJwGif vif;xdefoGm;\/
]][m ...}}
&Sif;wmhcsef\ EIwfzsm;rSwtHhwMo a&&GwfvdkufoH ay:vmonf/
ol\ &ifxJwGifvnf; 'def;ceJ ckefoGm;onf/
]]cifAsm;aNymwm 'Dvlvm;}}
vltif;0g;u tcef;tv,favmufwGif cyfauG;auG;av; vJavsmif;vsufom; &Sdaeonfh vlwpfa,mufudk
vufñdI;xdk;NyNyD;ar;\/
tcef;xJwGif vlwpfa,mufawmh &Sdaeonf/ okdYaomfxkdolonf vifxifcsdwfawmh r[kwf/
]][m ... r[kwfbl; r[kwfbl;? tJ'g usKyftdrfu odkif;orm; csefwdwfaNzmifyJ}}
&Sif;wmhcsefu uref;uwef;yif aNym\/
]]'gu b,fvdkNzpfwmvJ olaX;MuD;&JU}}
vltif;0g;u rsufarSmifMuKwfum xyfar;Nyefonf/
&Sif;wmhcsef udk,fwdkifvnf; &SD;xifcsdwf aysmufaeNyD; tapmifhcsxm;onfh csefwdwfaNzmif tcef;xJodkY
a&mufae&onfhtaMumif;udk b,fvdkrQ awG;ír&ay/
xdkYaMumifh aMumiftrf;trf;Nzpfum vltif;0g;\tar;udk &kwfw&ufNyefraNzEdkif/
vifxifcsdwfaysmufqkH;oGm;Ncif;onf &Sif;wmhcseftzdkY arQmfvifhcsufawmifMuD; NydKuGJoGm;Ncif;vnf; Nzpfonf/
&Sif;wmhcsefonf &ifxJwGif w'def;'def;ckefvsuf tcef;usOf;av;xJü vSefavSm&SmazGMunfhrdonf/
rdrd\ rsufpdtMunfh &Sef;aomaMumifh vifxifcsdwfudk rawGU&bJ &Sdaeoavm/ &Sif;wmhcsefrSm rdrd\
rsufpdtNrifudkyif r,kHEdkifovdkNzpfum txyfxyftcgcg &SmazGMunfhaerdonf/
b,favmufMunfhMunfh rxl;Ncm;/
b,favmuf&Sm&Sm vifxifcsdwfudkawmh rawGU&/
tcef;xJwGif 'Pf&mNzifh acGacGav;vJusaeaom csefwdwfaNzmif wpfa,mufwnf;om &Sdonf/
'Pf&m'PfcsufawG wpfudk,fvkH;tNynfhESifh az;rwGJxlay;rSom tEdkifEdkifxEdkifaom vifxifcsdwf
aysmufcsufom;aumif;oGm;&onfh taMumif;udk &Sif;wmhcsefonf trsKd;rsKd;awG;awmpOf;pm;Munfhonf/
b,fvdkrQ pOf;pm;taNz&Smír&cJhay/
&Sif;wmhcsef tvGefyif OD;aESmufaNcmufum tMuHtdkufaeonf/ ol\OD;acgif;rSonf aNczsm;ydkif;odkYwkdifatmif
acR;oD;acR;aygufawG wNydKufNydKufxGufaeonf/
wpfukd,fvkH; a&csKd;xm;ovdk acR;rsm;Nzifh &TJae\/
vltif;0g;udk pum;rqdkEdkifawmhavmufatmif Nzpfaeonf/
csefwdwfaNzmif aoonf&Sifonfudk rod&ao;ay/ Munfhvnf;MunfhzdkY pdwfr0ifpm;/ &Sif;wmhcsefrSm
csefwdwfaNzmif\ aoa&;&Sifa&;udk ta&;rpdkufEdkifay/
vifxifcsdwf b,faysmufaeovJ/ olYbmomol xGufoGm;wmawmh rNzpfEdkif/ wpfa,mufa,muf
vma&mufac:aqmifoGm;Ncif;om NzpfEdkifrnf// xdkokdY awG;rdonfwGif &Sif;wmhcsefrSm ydkíyif pdwfvIyf&Sm;vmonf/
arm[kdufvmonf/
vifxifcsdwf aysmufqkH;oGm;vQif rdrdpdwful;,OfcJhonfh tcGifhta&;MuD; vufvTwfvdkuf&onfESifh
rNcm;aMumif; &Sif;wmhcsefodonf/ pdwful;,OfcJh&orQ avxJwGif wdkuftdrfaqmufonfhES,f NzpfukefMuavNyD/
vltif;0g;uvnf; &Sif;wmhcsef\ rsufpdrsufESmysufNyD; acR;NyefaeykHudkMunfhum taNctaer[efaMumif;
&dyfrdvdkufonf/
]][kdaumifav; b,frSmvJ olaX;MuD;}}
vltif;0g;\ tar;pum;u tenf;i,favoHrmovdk oHo,aiGUvnf; a&m,Sufyg0ifae\/
xdkar;cGef;onf &Sif;wmhcseftzdkY teD;uyf rdk;MudK;typfcH&ovdk wkefvIyfoGm;aponf/
114
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
olukd,fwdkifyif rodonfhudpöudk &Sif;wmhcsef rnfokdYtaNzay;Edkifrnfenf;/
vltif;0g;\ ar;cGef;udk NyeftaNzray;ao;bJ vJusaeonfh csefwdwfaNzmifteD;odkY wdk;uyfoGm;um
cyfMurf;Murf;qGJvIyfEdk;vdkufonf/
]]wdwfaNzmif ... wdwfaNzmif}}
csefwdwfaNzmifxHrS xl;oHxGufrvm/
&Si;f wmhcseo f nf pdwrf &SnEf ikd af wmhbJ owdvpfaeaom csew
f w d af Nzmif\yg;udk cyfMurf;Murf; &du k v f u
kd o f nf/
]]Nzef; ...}}
]]awmuf ... 'DaumifaoNyDxifw,f? 'DavmuftokH;ruswJhaumif aowmyJaumif;w,f}}
&Sif;wmhcsefu rausreyf a&&Gwfonf/
vltif;0g;rSm MunfhraeombJ csefwdwfaNzmif\ &if0&Sd usef;&SD;aoG;aMumrudk tomESdyfay;vdkufonf/
usef;&SD;ESvkH;aoG;aMumronf owdvpfaeNcif;? arm[kdufpGm tdyfaysmfaeNcif;wdkYrS Nyefowd&vmatmif?
NyefEdk;vmatmif NyKEdkifpGrf;&Sdonfh aoG;aMumae&mNzpfonf/
csefwdwfaNzmif Nyefowd&vmonf/
]]tm; ... uRwf ... uRwf ... uRwf}}
owdNyef&vmawmhrS csefwdwfaNzmifonf emusif&rSef;odum pkwfoyfnnf;vdkufrdonf/
&Sif;wmhcsefonf csefwdwfaNzmif\ aemufaphwGif ap;xef;xef; aoG;uGufaoG;prsm; &Sdaeonfudk ,ckrSyif
owdNyKrdonf/
csefwdwfaNzmifrSm aemufausmbufrS tvpfacsmif; t&dkufcH&í owdvpfoGm;&Ncif; NzpfaMumif;
em;vnf&awmhonf/
odkYaomf aNrydkif&SifolaX;MuD; &Sif;wmhcsefonf csefwdwfaNzmif\ 'Pf&mudk tav;xm;Ncif;r&Sd/
olodvkd&mudkom ta&;wMuD;ar;vdkufonf/
]]a[haumif rif;apmifhae&wJh aumifav; b,fa&mufoGm;NyDvJ? NrefNrefaNymprf;}}
csefwdwfaNzmifrSm arhaNrm&mrS Nyefvnfowd&vmcgpNzpfNyD; acgif;xJwGif rl;a0aemufusdaeonf/
vifxifcsdwb f ,fa&mufomG ;í bmawGNzpfysufonfukd rqdx k m;bd? tcef;tNyifbufwiG f apmifMh uyfaeaom
rdrdonf þtcef;xJokdY b,fykHb,fenf;Nzifh a&mufae&onfudkyif roday/
tapmifhwm0efusíom ysif;&dpGm apmifhMunfhaepOf &kwfw&ufaemufaphü rD;yGifhoGm;NyD;aemuf owdvpfcJh\/
,ck owdNyef&vmaomtcg olaX;MuD;&Sif;wmhcsef\ tavmwMuD;ar;aeoHudk &Da0pGm Mum;ae&onf/
ar;onfhpum;udk em;&SdvdkYom Mum;vkduf&aomaMumifh &Sif;wmhcsef\tar;udk csufcsif;NyefraNzEdkif/
aemufaphrS 'Pf&muemaeao;oNzifh wuRwfuRwfom pkwfoyfnnf;rdNyefonf/
]]a[haumif ... rif;'Pf&mu raoEdkifygbl;? igar;wmudkom aNzprf;? [kdaumifav; b,fa&mufoGm;NyDvJ}}
&Sif;wmhcsefu cyfrmrmavoHNzifh xyfar;vdkufonf/
]]uRefawmfvJ 'Dtcef;tNyifbufrmS xdik af pmifah ewmyJ? &kww f &uf rsufv;Hk xJ0if;ceJ Nzpfwmudyk J odvu kd &f NyD;
owdarhoGm;wm? 'Dtcef;xJudkawmif b,fvdkvkyfa&mufvmrSef; rod&ygbl;/}}
vltif;0g;onf csefwdwfaNzmif\ pum;rsm;udk em;axmif&if; pdwfxJwGif NzpfysufykHrsm;udk awG;awmqifNcif
Munfhaeonf/
]]tif; ... 'Daumifuh kd wpfa,mufa,mufu owdvpfatmif &du k Ef uS Nf yD; [kad umifav;udk ac:aqmifomG ;wmyJ
Nzpfvdrfhr,f? igwdkYxuf vufOD;wJhvl &SdaeNyDudk;}}
vltif;0g;onf xdkokdYawG;awmpOf;pm;rdum &Sif;wmhcsefudk vSrf;MunfhvdkufNyD; ...
]]cifAsm;vlawGudk tNrefqkH; apvTwfNyD; vdkuf&Smcdkif;vdkufawmhav}}
xdktcsdefrSmyif tapmifhokdif;orm;acgif;aqmif usm;av;a0haxmif taNy;a&mufvm&m &Sif;wmhcsefu
vifxifcsdwfudk vdkuf&Sm&ef trdefYay;vkdufonf/
usm;av;a0haxmifvnf; trdefYemcHum taNy;yifxGufcGmoGm;onf/

115
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
]]'Dr,f ... &Sif;wmhcsef tckudpu ö dk cifAsm;yJ qufNyD; wm0ef,l&r,f? [kdaumifav;udk awGUatmifvkduf&SmNyD;
usKyfvuftyfyg? rtyfEdkif&ifawmh usKyfudktqdk;rqdkeJYawmh}}
vltif;0g;u &Sif;wmhcsefudk pdef;pdef;Munfhum avoHrmrmESifh aNymonf/
vltif;0g;\ cufxefaomtMunfhESifh wif;rmaom taNymtqdkwkdYaMumifh &Sif;wmhcsefrSm wpfukd,fvkH;
at;pdrfhvkrwwfyif aMumufvefYoGm;um ...
]]*kdPf;csKyfMuD;&,f ... usKyf ... usKyf ...}}
vltif;0g;u &Sif;wmhcsefudk at;pufaom rsufvkH;rsm;ESifh qwfceJ Munfhvdkufonf/
at;puf r mausmaom tMunf h a Mumif h &S i f ; wmh c sef r S m pum;rsm; EI w f r S x G u f r vmEd k i f a wmh b J
vnfacsmif;xJwGifyif aysmufuG,foGm;onf/
&Sif;wmhcsef\ awmif;yefpum;qdk&ef MudK;yrf;rIonf vltif;0g;\a'gorD;udk ydkawmufavmifatmif
vkyfay;rdovdkyif NzpfoGm;onf/
]]awmfNyD? aemufxyfbmrS aNymraeeJYawmh}}
xdkokdYaNymNyD;aemuf vltif;0g;onf aNcoHNyif;Nyif;eif;um tcef;xJrS xGufoGm;onf/
tNyifokdYa&mufonfESifh ol\Nrif;udkoGm;,lum Nrif;ay:wufNyD; cGmoHNyif;Nyif;ESifh pdkif;ESifxGufcGm
oGm;avawmhonf/
&Sif;wmhcsefonf tcef;av;xJwGif wpfa,mufwnf; usefaeonf/
olUtzdkY ayghapvkdí aMumif&kyfxdk; aq;twGufydkav; qkdonfh taNctaersKd; qdkufa&mufaeonf/
olonf MoZmtmPm pnf;pdrfcsrf;om wdk;wufa&;twGuf rSJY&SpfvkH;&Sif vifxifcsdwfudk ckwkH;vkyfí
aumufuspfpGm MuH&G,fvIyf&Sm;cJhonf/
,ckawmh rdr\ d vufcyk x f uJ a&tNzpf tydik w f u
G x
f m;cJah om vifxifcsdwrf mS aysmufNcif;rvS aysmufaeayNyD/
olUtzkdYvnf; rsufESmr& aNcaxmuf&qdkovdk e*g;0g*dkPf;csKyfMuD; vltif;0g;\ trsufawmf&S tNypfqkdNcif;udkyif
cHcJh&acsNyD/
xkdYNyifrSJY&SpfvkH;&Sifudk awGUatmif&SmazG&ef wm0efrSmvnf; olYacgif;ay:odkY ykHusvmNyefonf/
]]ightNzpfu Nyóemudk rD;xGef;&Smovdk taNcqdkufaeNyD? [dkaumifav; b,fvdkvkyf aysmufoGm;wmvJ?
olUbmomol xGufaNy;oGm;wmawmh r[kwfEdkifbl;? 'Pf&mawG 'Davmuf&xm;NyD; tdyf&mxJvJaewJh aumifav;u
olYbmomol b,fvdkvkyfaNy;EdkifrSmvJ}}
&S i f ; wmh c sef o nf Murf ; Nyif a y:wG i f aNcypf v uf y pf y if xd k i f c svd k u f N yD ; vif x if c sd w f t aMumif ;
trsKdrsKd;pOf;pm;aeonf/
vifxifcsdwf\ aNcz0g;ESpfbufrS rSJY&SpfvkH;udkom rsufpdxJwGif Nrifa,mifaerdonf/
vifxifcsdwf\ aNcz0g;wGif rSJY&SpfvkH;&SdaMumif;udk usm;av;a0haxmifu pawGUcJhNyD; rdrdudkvmaNymNycJhonf/
rdrduvnf; xdktaMumif;udk tNcm;rnfolUudkrQ raNym&ef usm;av;a0haxmifudk rSmMum;EIwfydwfcJhonf/
rdrd\tcspfqkH; ZeD;acsmav; 0rf;csdefYzdefudkawmh tlNrL;NrL;ESifh aNymNycJhonf/
a0haxmifonf opömazmuf&Jol r[kwf/ tu,fí opömazmufvkdygu rSJY&SpfvkH;&SiftaMumif;udk
rd r d u k d v maNymp&m taMumif ; r&S d / ol Y b momol vI y f & S m ;vI y f a qmif o G m ;ayrnf / usm;av;a0h a xmif u
taMumif;wpfckckNyum vifxifcsdwfudk tdrfa*[mrS ac:xkwfoGm;vQifvnf; rdrdwdkYu taMumif;rodvQif
wm;qD;rdMurnf r[kwfay? tvG,fyifcGifhNyKvdkufrnfom/
0rf;csdefYzdefrSmvnf; tdrfxJu tdrfNyifxGufavhr&Sd/ pum;enf;um udk,fhbmomudk,f atat;aewwfonf/
xdkYNyif vifxifcsdwf\ aNcz0g;wGif rSJYeuf&Spfckygonfh taMumif;avmufom 0rf;csdefYzdefudk aNymNycJhonf/
a&Smifvifausmif;awmfESifh qufpyfrItaMumif;rsm;udk raNymcJhay/
&Sif;wmhcsefonf ZeD;acsmav; 0rf;csdefYzdeftay:wGifvnf; oHo,rNzpfrday/
]]'Daumifav;udk wNcm;*dkPf;wpfckcku vmac:xkwfoGm;wmyJ Nzpf&r,f}}
aemufqkH;wGif þodkYomvQif awG;awmrdavawmhonf/
xdkodkY awG;rdonfhtcg tvGefyif pdwfysuftm;avsmhum xdkifae&mrS yufvufvefvJus oGm;&Smonf/
116
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
tNcm;*dP k ;f wpf*P kd ;f \vufxo J Ykd usa&mufomG ;aom vifxifcsdwu f kd olUtaeNzifh rnfoYdk Nyefvnf&mS azGum
t&ac:aqmifEdkifrnfenf;/
tu,fí vifxifcsdwfudk Nyefvnf &SmazGac:aqmifNcif; rNyKEdkifcJhaomf ...
&S i f ; wmh c sef o nf awG ; &if ; yif aZmacR;Nyef a tmif xd w f v ef Y v mrd o nf / quf r awG ; 0H h a wmh a tmif
MuufoD;arT;nif; xaerdonf/
e*g;0g*dkPf;csKyfMuD; vltif;0g;\ wif;rmcufxefaom rsufESmMuD;u olYudkaNcmufvSefYaeonf
r[kwfygvm;/

117
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif

tcef; (13)
ta&SUrdk;ukyfpuf0dkif;rS a&mifeDrsm;ay:xGufvmonf/
at;Nrvef;qef;aom t&kPfOD;tcsdef a&mufavNyD/
avmuwpfcGifvkH; om,mvSyae\/
odkY&mwGif vdefvdefrSmrl vifxifcsdwfudk ayGUcsDum aNy;vTm;aeqJNzpfonf/
vdefvdefonf tawmfyif arm[kdufaeNyD Nzpf\/
vifxifcsdwfrSm wpfukd,fvkH; cspfcspfawmuf ylavmifum tzsm;wufaeonf/ vifxifcsdwfonf
pm;zkdrªMuD;wkdYvlpk 0dkif;0ef;xdk;Mudwfuefausmuf xm;Ncif;aMumifh wpfukd,fvkH; 'Pf&mA&yGESifh Nzpfaeonf/
aq;0g;rsm;ukoum em;em;aeae tem;,lzdkYaumif;\/ ,ckawmh vdefvdef\ csDykd;rINzifh toufvk
aNy;ae&onf/
0rf;csdefYzdef\ aus;Zl;aMumifh aq;q&mESifh aq;0g;rsm;wpfMudrfom tukocHcJh&zl;NyD; aemufxyf
bmaq;0g;ESifhrQ rawGU&awmhay/
vdefvdefonf 'Pf&mtemw&Nzpfaeaom vifxifcsdwfwpfa,muf oufawmifhoufom &Sdap&eftwGuf
twwfEdkifqkH; az;az;rr csDydk;vmcJhonf/
odkY&mwGif &Sif;wmhcsef\ ab;tEÅ&m,fpufuGif;rS tvGwf&kef;um aNy;ae&aomaMumifh em;em;aeae
tem;,lEdkifNcif; r&Sday/
aNy;vTm;vIyf&Sm;&onfh'Pf? avwdkufcH&onfh'PfwdkYaMumifh vifxifcsdwf\ taNctaerSm ydkqdk;vmcJhonf/

118
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
toHoJhoJhyif rxGufEdkif/
toufudkvnf; txl;yif MudK;pm;um &SLae&onf/
ol\ touf&SLoHrQOf;rQOf;av;onfyif wNznf;Nznf; wdk;wdwfwdrf0ifvmonf/
vifxifcsdwf 'Pf&m ydkonf;vmaMumif;udk vdefvdef&dyfrdonf/
odkYaomf vdefvdefonf &yfem;Ncif;rNyKbJ w&Murf;om qufaNy;aeonf/
'Pf&monf;xefvmaom vifxifcsdwfudk oem;iJhnSmum em;aeoifhaMumif; vdefvdefem;vnfonf/
acwååem;aevdkufvQif vifxifcsdwf\ taNctaetenf;i,f Nyefaumif;vmEdkifaMumif;vnf; awG;rdonf/
odkYaomf ...
vdefvdefrSm acwåcPav;rQyif tem;r,l&J&Sm/
&Sif;wmhcsef\ vlpdwfuif;rJhum &ufpufMurf;MuKwfvSykHudk vdefvdeftwGif;od tqif;od em;vnfxm;onf/
tu,fí awmeif;&SmazGvmMurnf Nzpfaom &Sif;wmhcsef\aetdrfrS vufyg;ap odkif;orm;rsm;uom rdrdwdkYudk
aNc&mcHum zrf;qD;&rdoGm;vQif rdrda&m vifxifcsdwfyg ESpfa,mufvkH; t&Sifvwfvwf i&JusonfhES,f 'ku©cH&rnfudk
vdefvdefaumif;aumif;MuD; odonf/
þtodu vdefvdef\aNcvSrf;rsm;udk ydkrdkNrefqefoGufvufaponf/
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wu,fawmh vifxifcsdwEf iS hf vdev f ed w
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vufyg;ap odkif;orm;rsm;udk vSnfhpm;aNc&mazsmufEdkifrnf[k vdefvdefwGufxm;onf/
tm;cJum aNy;vTm;cJh&m aerGef;wnfhcsdefavmufwGif awmifukef;NrifhNrifh wpfckem;odkY a&mufvmcJhonf/
xdkae&m0ef;usifonf awmtkyfrsm;zkH;vTrf;aeNyD; vl&dyfvla,mifuif;rJhonf/
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wif;xm;aompdwfrsm;udk avQmhcsvdkufonfESifh avQmufvSrf;aeaom aNcvSrf;rsm;onf ododomomyif
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vIyfEdk;aeonfh vifxifcsdwfudk Nrif&onf/

119
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ae&mrsm;udk Nrif&onf/

120
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
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tawmfyif0rf;omtm;wufoGm;av\/
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wHcg;MuD;onf tawmfa[mi;fEGrf; ysufpD;aeonf/
odkY&mwGif taumif;pm;opfom;opfvkH;rsm;Nzifh tusteaqmufvkyfxm;onfNzpfí ckdifcHhaeao;onf/
vdefvdefu wHcg;ysufMuD;udk tomwGef;vkdufonf/
wHcg;ysufMuD;onf tvG,fwul yGifhoGm;onf/
vdefvdefonf ausmuf*lxJodkY csufcsif;r0ifao;bJ 0ifoifhr0ifoifh pOf;pm;um csDwkHcswkH Nzpfaeonf/
þausmuf*lxJwGif bmawG&Sdrnfenf;/ okdYavm odkYavm awG;awmaerdao;onf/
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oGm;onf/
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aMumufpdwfr&Sdoavmuf Nzpfvm\/
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ausmuf*ltwGif;bufodkY a&mufvmaomtcg vdefvdefu ausmwGifvG,fydk;xm;aom vifxifcsdwfudk
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oludk,fwkdifvnf; rkefYaNcmuftenf;i,f pm;aomufum a&wpfusKdufESpfusKduf aomufonf/
xdkYaemuf vdefvdefonf rD;pGJavmifaeonfh xif;&SL;udkif;wpfudkif;udk tomaumuf,lNyD; xdkifae&mrS
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121
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vdefvdefonf vifxifcsdwf\ ezl;ay:rS qHpav;rsm;udk tomt,m oyfay;um ESpfodrfhpum;aNymonf/
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vifxifcsdwf&Sd&mokdY vdefvdef Nyefa&mufvmonf/
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122
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124
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149
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150
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151
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162
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172
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173
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183
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184
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185
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186
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t"dutokH;csNyD; csefcsif;*dkPf;udk wdkufckdufodrf;oGif; vdkufNyefonf/
csefcsif;*dkPf;udk odrf;oGif;onfh wdkufyGJwGif e*g;NzLa*[m\ vufa&G;pif odkif;orm; (72) a,mufteuf
tawmfrsm;rsm;yif xdckdufaoaMucJhonf/ wpfzef csefcsif;*dkPf;udk odrf;oGif;&mwGifvnf; tawmftoifh
tustqkH;&SdcJhonf/
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avhusifhrINyKvkyfEdkif&eftwGuf tomNidrfaevdkufNcif; Nzpfayonf/
xdk;rnfhqif aemufwpfvSrf;qkwfonfh oabmyif/
vlpm;Nznfh avhusifhrIrsm; NyKvkyfNyD;vQif e*g;NzLa*[monf vIyf&Sm;wdkufckduf vmayOD;rnf/
e*g;NzLa*[m\ vIyf&Sm;rIrsm;onf odkif;avmuwpfckvkH;udk *,uf&dkuf oGm;apcJhonf/
txl;oNzifh tNcm;e*g;u0daNcmufa,mufwdkYrSm *,uft&dkufcH&qkH; Nzpfonf/
e*g;NzLa*[mu xl ; xl ; Ncm;Ncm; tif t m;wd k ; csJ U vmonf r d k U rd r d w d k Y tay: e*g;NzLa*[mu
vTrf;rdk;vmrnfhta&;udk awG;um aMumufvefUukefMuonf/
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e*g;NzLa*[m\ twku, kd u
l m rdrw
d Ykd vufvrS ;f rD&m odik ;f tzGUJ i,frsm;udk odr;f oGi;f í tiftm;pkaqmif;Muawmhonf/
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,cifuqdkvQif e*g;u0d ckepfqlwdkYudk odkif;orm;taygif;u tawmfyifav;pm;cJhMuonf/ odkif;avmu\
OD;pD;em,ursm; oabmNzifhyif ae&may;cJhMuonf/
e*g;euf*dkPf;onf vrf;vGJudk vdkufoGm;cJhoNzifh e*g;u0dwdkUtay: okdif;avmurS txiftNrifaNymif;p
NyKaecsdefwGif e*g;NzLa*[m\ vkyf&yfu rD;avmif&mavyifhqdkovdk NzpfoGm;cJhonf/
tcsKd U od k i f ; orm;rsm;u e*g;u0d c k e pf q l [ l í yif rac:awmh y J e*g;&d k i f ; ck e pf a umif [ l í
aNymif;vJac:a0:Muonf/
od k i f ; ynmNzif h trsm;aumif ; usKd ; ? wd k i f ; Nynf a umif ; usKd ; o,f y d k ; aqmif & G u f v k d N yD ; tcsif ; csif ;
&efNyKwdkufcdkufrIrsm;udk rvdkvm;onfh vrf;rSefokdif;orm;aumif;rsm;\ tNrifwGif e*g;u0dwdkY\ vkyf&yfrSm
wpfukd,faumif;qefonfh &rf;um;aomvkyf&yfrsm; Nzpfaeayawmhonf/

205
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif

tcef; (23)
0rf;tifarmufESifh &SD;xifcsdwfwdkYonf ESpfa,muftwl c&D;xGufvmcJhMu&m [efMuLNrdKUteD;okdY
a&mufvmMuonf/
&d k ; om;yG i f h v if ; NyD ; trS e f w &m;buf r S &yf w nf w wf o l &S D ; xif c sd w f u d k 0rf ; tif a rmuf u
tawmfyifoabmusaeonf/
xdkYaMumifhvnf; twlwl c&D;ESifaeNcif; Nzpfonf/ olwdkYESpfa,mufonf [efMuLNrdKUxJokdY r0ifMuao;bJ
NrdKUNyifNrpfurf;ab;&Sd t&ufqdkifav; wpfqdkifwGif 0ifa&muftem;,lMuonf/
t&ufwpftdk;? vufzuf&nfMurf; wpfu&m;ESifh [if;vsmrsm;udk rSmMum;vdkuf\/
0rf;tifarmufu t&uf? &SD;xifcsdwfu vufzuf&nfMurf; aomufMuonf/
[if;vsmrsm;udk pm;aomuf&if; pum;pNrnf aNymqdkMuonf/
rdk;u wpdrfhpdrfh &GmoGef;aeonfhtwGuf xdkt&ufqdkifxJwGif vl&Sif;aeonf/
pm;aomufaeol[lí 0rf;tifarmufESifh &SD;xifcsdwfwdkY ESpfa,mufom &SdMuonf/
xdkYaMumifh olwdkYESpfa,muftzdkY vGwfvGwfvyfvyf pum;aNymqdkEdkifMuonf/
]]usKyfeJY [kd,kqefwdkY &if;ESD;cifrifcJhMuwm MumygNyD? ol'Davmuf qdk;oGrf;vdrfhr,f rxifcJhbl;}}
0rf;tifarmufu xdkokdYaNymNyD; t&ufcGufudk aumufudkifum armhcsvdkufonf/
ydkifusifvkHESifh [kd,kqefwdkY OD;pD;aom e*g;NzLa*[modkif;orm;rsm;u 0lwef;*dkPf;ESifh csdefcsif;*dkPf;wdkYtm;
wdkufcdkufodrf;oGif;cJhrIudk &nf&G,fum aNymvkdufNcif;Nzpfonf/
]][kww f ,f OD;OD;? [k, d q k ef&UJ aNymif;vJyu
Hk awmh wu,fu
h kd tawG;&cufp&myJ? ol[m pdwx f m;aumif;rGeNf yD;
aNzmifhrwfwnfMunfwhJ vlwpfa,mufvdkY owif;MuD;cJhw,f? a[m ... 'DaeUawmh ol[m odkif;avmuudk vTrf;rdk;zdkY
MuHpnfaewJh avmbom;wpfa,muf NzpfaeNyefNyD? OyrmNy&&if a[m'D [efMuLNrdKUu rdk;vdkyJ? vQyfwNyuf
rdk;om;awGwuf rdk;Ncdrf;oHawGMum;&ayr,fh rdk;u &GmcsifrS&Gmw,f? a[m ... &Gmr,fh&GmawmhvJ rdk;om;rrnf;
vQyfrNyufbJ 0kef;ceJ 'dkif;ceJ &GmcsNyefa&m}}
]]at; ... rif;ay;wJh Oyrmudkawmh igodyfMudKufoGm;NyD}}
0rf;tifarmufu xdkokdYaNymNyD; t&ufarmhaomufvdkuf Nyefonf/
206
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
rdk;uwpdrfhpdrfh &GmaeaomaMumifh 0rf;tifarmufrSm t&ufaomufí tawmfaumif;aeonf/
olu t&ufudk ZdrfqGJumaomufaeovdk &SD;xifcsdwfuvnf; vufzuf&nfMurf;udk t&omcHum
aomufaeavonf/
olwdkYESpfa,mufonf ,cktcgwGif b0wlawGvdk Nzpfaeonf/
&SD;xifcsdwfwGif aexdkif&maetdrf twnfwusr&Sday/ okdif;avmuwGif c&D;vSnfhvnfoGm;&if; A[kokw
&SmazG&rnfNzpfonf/
0rf;tifarmufrSmrl 0lwef;*dkPf;XmecsKyfpcef;wGif tdrfcef;wpfck&Sdonf/ okdYaomf 0lwef;*dkPf;udk
e*g;NzLa*[mu MoZmcHtNzpf odrf;oGif;xm;onfhtwGuf 0lwef;*dkPf;odkYvnf; rNyefvdkawmhay/
okdYtwGuf aetdrfr&Sdawmhonfh oabmrsKd; NzpfoGm;awmhonf/
b0wlawGvkd Nzpfaeaom 0rf;tifarmufESifh &SD;xifcsdwfwdkYonf aNcovkH;tdrfwkdiftNzpf oGm;vm&if;
[efMuLNrdKUokdY a&mufaeMuNcif; Nzpfayonf/
rdk;u wpdrfhpdrfh &GmaeqJ/
aumif;uifwpfckvkH; tkHYqdkif;rIefrIdif;aeonf/ idkawmhrnfh rdef;uav;wpfOD; rsufESmndKaeovdkNzpf\/
rdk;pufrdk;aygufav;rsm; wzGJzGJusvmykHu rsufvkH;tdrfrS xGufvmaom rsuf&nfaygufrsm;ES,f/
0rf;tifarmufEiS hf &S;D xifcsw
d o
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dk ?f [if;vsmrsm;udk pm;vku d f
tawG;udk,fpDESifh NidrfaeMuonf/
&SD;xifcsdwfonf vufzuf&nfMurf;wpfusKdufaomufum MuufaMumfwpfudkuf pm;aomuf&if; Nrpfa&Nyifukd
ai;Munfhrdonf/
rdk;pufrdk;aygufav;rsm;aMumifh Nrpfa&NyifxufwGif a&yGufuav;rsm; yvkHpDatmif xaeonf/
Nrpfa&onfvnf; woGifoGif pD;qif;aeonf/
&SD;xifcsdwf ai;armí aumif;aecdkuf ...
]]zsyf ... zsyf ... zsyf}}
]]pGyf ... pGyf ... pGyf}}
rdk;a&xJwGif aNy;vTm;vmonfh aNcoHrsm;udk Mum;ae&onf/
0rf;tifarmuf em;udkpGifhvdkufonf/
&SD;xifcsdwfurl t&ufqdkifa&SU&Sd vrf;ray:odkY vSrf;arQmftuJcwfMunfhonf/
rdef;uav;wpfa,mufonf wzGJzGJ&GmoGef;aeonfh rdk;pufrdk;aygufrsm;atmufwGif tl&m;zm;&m;ESifh
aNcukefokwf aNy;vTm;aeonf/
xdkokdY aNy;vTm;&if;rS xdwfvefYonfhtoGifNzifh aemufokdY rMumcP vSnfhMunfhonf/
olr\aemufrS &efolrsm;u vdkufaeMuonfh toGifrsKd; Nzpfonf/
rdef;uav;rSm rdk;a&rsm;Nzifh &TJ&TJpkdaeonf/
]]aumifav; ... bmawGNzpfaewmvJ}}
rsufpduef;aeaom 0rf;tifarmufu &SD;xifcsdwfudk ar;Nref;onf/
]]rdef;uav;wpfa,muf rdk;a&xJrSm aNy;vmaewmyg}}
&SD;xifcsdwfu rdrdNrif&onfudk NyefaNymNyonf/
]]tif; ... [kwfw,f? rdef;uav; aNcoHyJ? NyD;awmh tEÅ&m,f wpfckckaMumifh xGufaNy;ae&wJh ykHrsKd;yJ}}
rsufpduef;aeaomfvnf; aomwtm&kH xufNrufvmonfh 0rf;tifarmufu Mum;ae&onfh aNcoHay:wGif
taNcNyKum cefYrSef;aNymMum;onf/
0rf;tifarmufonf qufvufem;pGifh&if; pdwfxJwGif awG;rdonfrSm ...
]]olYaemufu vlokH;a,muf vdkufvmaeygvm;? a,musfm;okH;a,muf Nzpf&r,f? b,fvdk Nyóemrsm;vJ
rodbl;}}

207
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
xdktcdkufrSmyif &SD;xifcsdwf\pum;oHukd 0rf;tifarmuf Mum;&onf/
]][kd ... rdef;uav;aemufu a,musfm;okH;a,muf aNy;vdkufvmaeMuw,f? olwdkYvkdufaewJhykHu
orifaemufudk trJvdkufacG;awG vdkufaewJhykHrsKd;yJ? tJ'D vlokH;a,mufudk Munfh&wm vlaumif;awG r[kwfEdkifbl;}}
]]'gqdk&if rif; oGm;vkdufMunfhvkdufygvm;? ulnDzdkYvdkr,fqdk&if ulnDay;vdkufav}}
]][kwu f ?hJ uReaf wmf vku d Mf unfv h u kd rf ,f? uReaf wmf Mumae&if OD;OD; wnf;cdck ef;NyefNyD; uReaf wmfu h kd tJ'uD aeyJ
apmifhyg}}
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rdef;uav;bufrS oludk,fwdkif yg0ifulnD&ef pdwful;rdao;onf/
,ck &SD;xifcsdwfu vdkufoGm;rnfqdkawmh 0rf;tifarmuftzdkY ab;tEÅ&m,fMuKHaeaom rdef;uav;twGuf
pdwfat;oGm;onf/
]]at; ... at; ... owdawmhxm;aemf}}
]][kwfuJh}}
&SD;xifcsdwfu aNymvnf;aNym qdkifxJrSvnf; taNy;tvTm; xGufoGm;onf/
]]'Daumifav;[m pdwx f m;aumif;NyD; ab;'kua© &mufaewJv h ul kd ulnw D wfw,f? igi,fi,fwek ;f u twdik ;f yJ}}
0rf;tifarmufonf &SD;xifcsdwfudk csD;rGrf;a&&Gwf aNymqdkNyD; t&ufwpfcGuf armhaomufvdkufonf/
rdk;u wpdrfhpdrfh &GmaeqJ/
[efMuLNrdKUNyifwGif awmtkyfwpfck&Sd\/
awmtkyfonf odyfrMuD;vS? opfyifrsm;xlxyfum tkyftkyfqdkif;qdkif;awmh &Sd\/
rdef;uav;onf xdkawmtkyfxJokdY 0ifaNy;oGm;\/ aemufrSvdkufaeMuol a,mufsm;okH;a,mufvnf;
awmtkyfxJodkY aNy;vdkufoGm;Muonf/
olwdkYvlpkaemufrS aemufa,mifcHvdkufaeol &SD;xifcsdwfvnf; awmtkyfxJodkY vkdufyg0ifa&mufoGm;onf/
udk,fazmhynmudk tpGrf;ukefokH;um vdkufrnfqdkvQif xdkvlpkudk tcsdeftenf;i,ftwGif; trDvdkufEdkifonf/
odkYaomf rdef;uav;ESifh xdka,mufsm;okH;a,mufwkdUtMum;wGif rnfonfhNyóemrsKd; NzpfyGm;aeonfudk
&SD;xifcsdwf aoaocsmcsm rodao;ay/
xdkYaMumifh tavmokH;q,f yg0ifpGufzufNcif; rNyKbJ t&dyftNcnfudk apmifhMunfhvdkonfhtwGuf cyfcGmcGmrS
vdkufygaecJhonf/
awmtkyfrSm tawmfyif odyfonf;onf/ opfyifrsm;? csKHEG,frsm;? Nruf&dkif;rsm; xlxyfonf/
awmxJokdY 0ifa&mufrdaomtcg a&SUrSaNy;oGm;onfh rdef;uav;ESifh a,mufsm;okH;a,mufwdkYudk &SD;xifcsdwf
rsufNcnfNywfoGm;onf/
]][m ... [kdvlawG b,fa&mufukefygvdrfh? igu cyfcGmcGmuaevdkufvmrdwmeJY rsufNcnfNywfukefNyD?
rvG,fygvm;}}
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teD;0ef;usifukd rsufpu d pm;vku d \ f / rd;k &Gmxm;rIaMumifh pGwpf adk ysmhtad eaom aNrNyifwiG f aNc&mrsm; xif&mS ;pGm
xifaeonfudk awGU&onf/
]]a[m ... aNc&mawG? awmfygao;&JU? rdk;&Gmwmudkawmif aus;Zl;wif&rvdk NzpfaeNyD}}
&SD;xifcsdwfonf aNcoHudkvkHatmif tomazmheif;um aNc&mrsm;twdkif; vdkufoGm;onf/
aNcvSrf;wpf&mcefY avQmufvSrf;vmcJhNyD;aemuf olawGUvdkaomvlpkudk Nrif&avawmhonf/
a,mufsm;MuD;okH;a,mufonf rdef;uav;udk trdzrf;xm;MuNyD;Nzpfonf/
&S;D xifcsw
d f vSr;f Nrif&csed w
f iG f rde;f uav;onf opfyifMuD;wpfyifaNc&if;&Sd aNruGuv f yfuav;wGif uydu k &dEk iS hf
vJusvsuf a,mufsm;MuD;okH;a,mufu 0ef;&Hxm;Muonf/
rdef;uav;\rsufESmonf usD;vefYpmpm;qdkovdk aMumufvefYonfh trlt&m&Sdaeonf/
a,mufsm;MuD;okH;a,mufurl auseyftm;&onfhtoGifNzifh rm;rm;rwfrwfMuD; &yfaeMuonf/

208
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
&SD;xifcsdwfonf csKHykwfwpfckaemufwGif tom0ifykef;atmif;NyD; rnfokdYNzpfvmrnfudk acsmif;aNrmif;
Munfh&Iaeonf/
]][m; ... [m; ... [m; tvum; tyifyef;cHNyD; aNy;&ao;w,f? igwdkYvufxJu vGwfatmifb,faNy;vdkY
&rSmvJ? uJ ... uJ ... rif;twGuf taNctaerqdk;apcsif&if igwdkYvdkcsifwJh ypönf;udk tomwMunf xkwfay;prf;}}
a,mufsm;MuD;wpfa,mufu rdef;uav;udkaNymonf/
rdef;uav;onf xdka,mufsm;udk aMumufvefYonfhtoGifNzifh armfMunfhum ...
]]bmypönf;vJ[if? uRefr rodygbl;&Sif? uRefrqDrSm bmypönf;rS r&Sdygbl;? csrf;omay;Muyg}}
a,mufsm;MuD;u rckd;rcefY &,farmvdkufNyD; ...
]]rodcsifa,mifaqmifNyD; aNAmifNiif;raeprf;eJY? 'grsKd;awG &kd;aeygNyD? at; ... rif;u rodovdkvdk bmvdkvdk
vkyfaeawmh igu t&dyftNrGuf aNym&wmaygh? igwdkYvdkcsifwmu ,Gef;bl;eufav;yJ}}
rdef;uav;u acgif;w,rf;,rf;Nzifh Niif;qefNrJNiif;qefonf/
]],Gef;bl;eufuav;? uRefr rodygbl;&Sif? uRefrqDrSm bmbl; bmaowåmrS r&Sdygbl;? ,Gef;bl;
teufuav;qdkwm Mum;awmifrS rMum;zl;ygbl;}}
]]awmuf ... aNAmifvdrfraeeJY? tom;emcsifNyDxifw,f}}
a,mufsm;MuD;wpfa,mufu aNymaNymqdkqkd rdef;uav;tm; aNcaxmufNzifh uefonf/
aNcuefcsufaMumifh rdef;uav;rSm aemufNyefvef vJusoGm;\/
rdk;&Gmxm;onfhtwGuf AGufxaeoNzifh rdef;uav;\udk,fwGif &GHUAGufrsm; ayusHukefonf/
]]'Daumifrav;udk MudK;eJUt&ifwkyfvdkuf? NyD;rS aumif;aumif; ppfar;&r,f}}
rdef;uav;udk aNcaxmufESifh uefvkdufonfh a,mufsm;MuD;u olYvlESpfa,mufudk trdefYay;onf/
xdkvlESpfa,mufonf rdef;uav;udk csKyfzrf;um vufNyefMudK; wkyfaESmifvdkufMuonf/
rdef;uav;crsm vufNyefMudK; twkyfcH&oNzifh raNy;EdkifrvIyfEdkifbJ NzpfoGm;onf/
rdef;uav;\ wpfukd,fvkH;rSm wqwfqwf wkef,ifae\/ rsuf0ef;av;rsm; uv,fuv,fESifh
Nzpfae&Smonf/
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Nzpfaeonf/
]]uJ ... aNymprf;? ,Gef;bl;eufuav; b,frSmvJ}}
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rdef;uav;rSm aqmufwnf&mr&atmif aMumufvefYae&mrS ...
]]r ... rodygbl; &Sif}}
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]]uRefr wu,fudk rodvdkYyg&Sif}}
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a,mufsm;MuD;u aNymaNymqdkqdk rdef;uav;\ yg;udk&dkufcsvdkufonf/
]]Nzef; ...}}
yg;&dkufcH&rIaMumifh rdef;uav;rSm acgif;vnfxGufoGm;onf/
yg;NyifwGifvnf; ndKrnf;aom vufig;acsmif;&mMuD; xifoGm;onf/
]]wu,f rodvdkY rodbl; aNymwmyg&Sif}}
rdef;uav;\ aMumuf&GHUxdwfvefYrIu txGwftxdyfodkY a&mufvmonf/
]]awmuf ... w,f acgif;rmwmyJudk;}}
xkda,mufsm;MuD;u Mudrf;0g;&if; nmvufudk aNrSmufvdkufNyefonf/
tNcm; a,mufsm;MuD;wpfa,mufu xdkol\vufudk zrf;qGJxm;vdkufonfhtwGufaMumifh rdef;uav;rSm
aemufwpfMudrf t&dkuftESuf cH&rnfhab;rS vGwfoGm;onf/

209
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
0ifa&mufwm;qD;olonf rdef;uav;udk tomMunfhum avoHcsKdcsKdNzifh ...
]],Gef;bl;eufuav;udk b,frSm0Sufxm;w,f qdkwmom aNymprf;yguG,f? rif;udk csufcsif;NyefvTwfay;rSmyg?
[kwfvm;}}
]]uRefr odudkrodvkdYyg&Sif? uRefr vdrfaewm r[kwfygbl;}}
rdef;uav;u bl;cHNrJ cHaeonf/
apmapmu rdef;uav;udk &dkufESuf uefausmufaeol vlMuD;onf a&SUwdk;vmum aigufirf;aNymqdk Nyefonf/
]]awmuf ... 'Daumifrudk vdSrfh&dkufypfvkduf&if olYyg;pyfu zGifhaNymvmrSmyg}}
xdkokdYaNymNyD; &dkufESuf&ef [efNyifvdkuf\/ avoHat;at;Nzifh aNymaeolu [efYwm;vdkuf&Nyefonf/
]]rif;uvJ aeprf;yguGm? rdef;uav;u igwkdYudk aMumufNyD; raNym&JwmvJ Nzpfygvdrfhr,f? ig
at;at;aq;aq; ar;Munfhprf;yg&apOD;}}
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]][kd ... [kd uRefr wpfckawmh aNymcsifw,f? aNymvdkY&rvm;[if}}
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210
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
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xdkol aNymMum;onfrsm;udk em;axmif&onfuyif rdef;uav;tzdkY tonf;xdwf&ifzdkatmif vefYoGm;onf/
rsufESmwpfckvkH; eD&Jvmatmif &Suf&GHUoGm;onf/
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&SD;xifcsdwfuawmh at;at;aq;aq;yif/

211
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
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NyD;rS at;at;aq;aq; ar;csifwmawG ar;Muaygh}}
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&SD;xifcsdwfrSm "m;&SnfokH;vufukd &ifqdkifae&avNyD/
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qkwfay;vdkufonf/
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212
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
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tcsif;csif;rsuf&dyfNy tcsufay;NyD; &SD;xifcsdwfudk 0kdif;wdkufckdufMuavawmhonf/
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213
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&SD;xifcsdwfu pum;vrf;aMumif; ay;vkdufonf/
]][kdav ... uRefrudk 'D ... 'DvdkyJ xm;ypfcJhawmhrSmvm;}}
rdef;uav;u r&Jw&JaNymonf/
]]wdkYwwfEdkifoavmuf ulnDay;cJhNyD;NyDyJ? tck rif;udk&efNyKr,fh vlawGvJ r&Sdawmhbl;? 'Dawmh
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&SD;xifcsdwfonf xGufoGm;&ef aNcvSrf; vSrf;vdkufonf/
aNcvSrf;om Nyifrdonf/ avQmufvSrf;oGm;Ncif;um; rNyKEdkif/
nSdK;a&mfaeonfh rdef;uav;\toGifESifh toem;cHovdk Munfhaeaom tMunfhwdkYu &SD;xifcsdwfaNcvSrf;udk
qGJxm;ovdk Nzpfaeonf/
rdef;rysKdonf rsufESmwGif ayusHaeaom &THUrsm;udk wwfEdkiforQ vufNzifhoyfcs&if; tm;ukd;wMuD;ESifh
aNymqdkNyefonf/
]]tpfudkav; xGufoGm;&if olwdkYu uRefrudk Nyefzrf;MuOD;rSm&Sifh od&JUvm;}}
]]'gqdk&if wdkYu bmrsm;vkyfay;&rSmvJ}}
]][kdav NzpfEdkifr,fqdk&if tpfukdav;eJYtwl uRefrvdkufcJhyg&ap}}
rdef;uav;onf xdkokdYaNymNyD;aemuf &Sufudk;&Sufuef;ESifh acgif;av;udk ikHYvkdufonf/
214
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
&SD;xifcsdwf tawmfyif tusyfawGUoGm;onf/
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rdef;uav;tm;ac:oGm;í rNzpfEdkifaMumif; aNymcsifaomfvnf; EIwfrSrxGufay/
&THUAGufrsm;tvl;vl;ESifh &kyfyifaumif;pGmray:atmif aya&aeaom rdef;uav;udkMunfhum pdwf&IyfpGm
acgif;udkom cg,rf;rdonf/
&SD;xifcsdwfonf pdwfaumif;&Sdum ulnDwwfolNzpfonf/
rdrdudktm;udk;wMuD;ESifh aNymqdkawmif;yefaom rdef;uav;wpfa,mufudk ypfypfcgcg aNymqdkNcif; rNyK&uf/
aemufqkH;wGif rdef;rysKdudk [efMuLNrdKUokdY ydkYay;&ef qkH;NzwfvdkufNyD; ...
]]tck wkdYu [efMuLNrdKUudkoGm;rvdkY? rif;vkdufcsif&ifvJ vdkufcJhaygh}}
]][m ... 0rf;omvdkufwm&Sif}}
rdef;uav;u tm;wufoa&m aNymonf/
&SD;xifcsdwfonf [efMuLNrdKUbufokdY a&SU&Ium avQmufvSrf;xGufoGm;onf/
rdef;uav;rSmvnf; &SD;xifcsdwf\aemufrS vkdufygoGm;avawmhonf/
rdk;onf apmapmuxufydkí cyfoJoJ&Gmcsvmonf/
rdk;Ncdrf;oHrsm; w*sdrf;*sdrf; ay:xGufvmovdk vQyfpD;rsm;vnf; NydK;ceJNyufceJ vufonf/
&SD;xifcsdwfonf [efMuLNrdKUbufokdY a&S;&Ium aNcvSrf;oGufoGufNzifh avQmufvSrf;oGm;aeonf/
rdef;uav;uvnf; olUaemufrS waumufaumufvkdufyg vmcJhonf/
tumtaqmif;rygbJ oJoJrJrJ &GmoGef;aeonfh rdk;a&xJwGif vrf;avQmufoGm;aeMuaom &SD;xifcsdwfwdkYudk
vrf;wGifawGU&olrsm;u txl;tqef;ozG,f MunfhoGm;Muonf/
&SD;xifcsdwfurl 'gawGudk *&krpkdufEdkifyg/
ol w nf ; cd k a exd k i f & m wnf ; ck d q d k i f o k d Y tNref q k H ; a&muf a tmif o m aNcvS r f ; oG u f o G u f N zif h
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aemufokdYvSrf;íyif rMunfhrd/
wnf;cdkqdkifa&SUokdY a&mufaomtcgwGifrS &SD;xifcsdwfonf aemufokdYvSnfhum rdef;uav;udk Munfhonf/
olUaemufrSvdkufvmonfh &THUtvl;vl; ayusHaeaom rdef;uav;udk rawGU&awmh/
]][if ... [kdrdef;uav; b,fa&mufoGm;ygvdrfh}}
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]]tpfudkav; ... bmudk vdkuf&SmaewmvJ}}
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&SD;xifcsdwfudkar;onf/
rdef;uav;rSm ESmwHay:ay:? rsufvkH;MunfMunf? rsufawmifaumhaumhESifh tawmfyif acsmarmvSyonf/
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ay:vGifaeao;onf/
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obm0tvSonf yDNyifpGm&Sdaeonf/ xdkrdef;uav;\toHrSm rdrdaemufrSvdkufvmonfh rdef;uav;toHESifh
qifqifwlaeaomaMumifh &SD;xifcsdwfrSm tawmfOD;aESmufaNcmufoGm;onf/
]][kd ... rif; ... rif; ... [dk}}
]]tpfudkav; ... b,fvdkNzpfaewmvJ}}
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&SD;xifcsdwf rSwfrdoGm;avawmhonf/
xdkrdef;uav;rSm &SD;xifcsdwf\aemufrS vdkufygvmcJhpOfu wpfukd,fvkH; &THUawGtvl;vl;Nzpfum vl&kyfyif
ray:cJhay/

215
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
okdYaomf oJoJrJrJ&GmoGef;aeaom rdk;a&rsm;u rdef;rysKd\udk,fay:rS &THUEGHrsm;udk a&csKd;ay;ovdk
oefYpifoGm;apcJhonf/
aemufokdYvSnfhrMunfhbJ aNcvSrf;oGufoGufNzifhom avQmufvSrf;vmcJhaom &SD;xifcsdwfrSm xdktNzpfudk
owdrNyKrdcJhay/
wnf;ckdqkdifa&SUodkYa&mufNyD; vSnfhMunfhvdkufaomtcgwGif &THUEGHrsm;oefYpifum yifudk&kyf&nftwkdif;Nzpfaeol
rdef;uav;udk &kwfw&ufrrSwfrdbJ &SdaeNcif;Nzpfonf/
rdef;uav;\tvStyrsm;u &SD;xifcsdwfudk nSdKU,lzrf;pm;vkdufonf/
wuk d , f v k H ; rd k ; a&rsm;pd k & T J u m ausmuf q pf & k y f w pf c k E S , f tvS a wG M uG , f a eaom rd e f ; uav;ud k
ai;pkdufMunfhaerdonf/
&SD;xifcsdwf\&ifrSm w'def;'def;ckefaeonf/ olUwoufwmwGif onfvdktNzpfrsKd; wpfMudrfrQ rMuKHzl;ao;ay/
]]bmNzpfvkdY 'DavmufMunfhae&wmvJ tpfudkav;&JU}}
rdef;uav;u NyKH;NyKH;av;ESifh aNymvdkufNyefonf/
onftcgwGifrS &SD;xifcsdwfrSm owdNyef0ifvmum ...
]][kd ... [kd ... 'gwdkYwnf;cdkaewJh wnf;cdkqdkifyJ}}
]]aMomf ... [kwfuJh}}
rdef;uav;u xdkokdYaNym&if; rsufvkH;av;0ifhum &SD;xifcsdwfudk Munfhvdkufonf/ xdktMunfhonf
&SD;xifcsdwf\ESvkH;om;udk wodrfhodrfhvIyf&Sm;oGm;apcJhonf/
]]MuGMuygcifAsm ... MuGMuyg? uRefawmfwdkY &Tifaysmfaysmf wnf;cdkqdkifu MudKqdkygw,f}}
qdkiftvkyform;wpfa,muf\ MudKqdkoHudk Mum;&aomtcgrS &SD;xifcsdwfonf qdkif0wGifMumNrifhpGm
&yfaerdaMumif; oabmaygufrdum wnf;cdkqdkifxJokdY avQmufvSrf;0ifoGm;onf/
rdef;uav;uvnf; acgif;ikHYvsuf aemufrSvdkufygoGm;\/
&SD;xifcsdwfonf rdef;uav;tm; oliSm;&rf;aexdkifaom wnf;cdkcef;xJodkY ac:oGm;onf/
]]uJ ... wdkYESpfa,mufvkH; rdk;a&awG wpfudk,fvkH;pkd&TJaeawmh t0wftpm;awGvJrS Nzpfr,f? EdkYr[kwf&if
tat;rdNyD; zsm;ukev f rd rhf ,f? wdYk rmS awmh rde;f uav;t0wftpm; r&Sb d ;l ? 'Dawmh wdYk rmS &Sw
d hJ t0wftpm;udyk J vJ0wfaygh?
rif;twGuf tqifaNyyghrvm;awmh rodbl;}}
tcef;xJokdYa&mufaomtcg &SD;xifcsdwfu xdkokdYaNymvdkufNyD; t0wfxkyfxJrS rdrd\0wfpkHwpfpkHudk xkwfum
rdef;uav;udkay;vdkufonf/
]]Nzpfygw,f&Sif? tpfudkav;om tNyifudk cPxGufay;yg? uRefrtckyJ t0wftpm; vJvdkufr,f}}
a&csKd;um t0wftpm;rsm; vJv, S 0f wfqifMuNyD;aemuf &S;D xifcsdwEf iS hf rde;f uav;wdYk onf vufzuf&nfMurf;
ylylaomufum tcsKdrkefYrsm;udk tqmaNy pm;aomufMuonf/
MunfvifoefY&Sif;aeaom rdef;uav;\rsufESmonf 0wfxm;aom0wfpkHNzLESifh vdkufzufvSonf[k
&SD;xifcsdwf\pdwfxJwGif xifrdonf/
0wfxm;aom 0wfpkHNzLonf tenf;i,fyGa&mif;a&mif; Nzpfaeaomfvnf; aMumh&Sif;tcsKd;usaom
rdef;uav;\ udk,fcE¨mtvSuawmh ay:vGifaeygao;onf/
&SD;xifcsdwfonf rdef;uav;udk ckd;Munfhvdkufonf/
rdef;rysKduvnf; &SD;xifcsdwfudk rsufvTmyifhum MunfhvdkufonfNzpf&m tMunfhcsif;qkHoGm;Muonf/
ESpfa,mufom; NyKH;rdMuonf/
&SD;xifcsdwfu &SufNyKH;? rdef;uav;u MunfEl;ESpfodrfhonfh tNyKH;/
&SD;xifcsdwfu tMunfhudk vTJz,fvdkufcsdefwGif rdef;rysKdav;u pum;r&Sdpum;&Smum aNymqdkvmonf/
]]uRefrtaMumif;awGudk aNymNyr,f? em;axmifcsifovm;[if ...}}

216
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif

tcef; (24)
rdef;rysKdav;u pum;r&Sdpum;&Sm aNymqdkvmonf/
]]uRefrtaMumif;awGudk aNymNyr,f? em;axmifrSmvm;[if}}
&SD;xifcsdwfu acgif;ndwfNyNyD; ...
]]tif; ...}}
wu,fawmh &SD;xifcsdwfonf rdef;uav;trnfudk ar;Munfhvdkonf/ rdef;uav;taMumif;udkvnf;
odvdkonf/
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[efusoGm;onf/
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,efzdefzdefu &SD;xifcsdwfudk rsufvTmyifhum MunfhvdkufNyD; ...
]]bmvJ tJ'Demrnfu raumif;vdkYvm;}}
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rsufvTmcsxm;vdkufonf/
,efzdefzdefu vSypGmNyKH;vkdufonf/ auseyfyDwdNzpfaom tNyKH;/
&SD;xifcsdwf\pum;rSm ,efzdefzdefudk Mumyef;av;vdkvSonf[k oG,f0dkufaNymvdkufNcif;Nzpfonf/
rdef;uav;wdkif;onf olwdkYudkvSyonf[k aNymqdkcsD;rGrf;vQif MunfEl;ESpfoufNrJ r[kwfygvm;/
217
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
]]'Du nDrudk wpfckar;csifw,f}}
&SD;xifcsdwfu pum;pvdkufonf/
]]tpfudkuvJ uRefremrnf zdefzdefygvdkY aNymNyD;NyDyJ[m? 'DuawGbmawG vkyfae&ao;w,f? bmvJ?
uRefremrnfudk csufcsif;arhoGm;vkdYvm;}}
zdefzdefu &SD;xifcsdwfudk rsufpav;csDumMunfh&if; ar;vdkufonf/
]]wdkYu rarhwwfygbl;? [kd ... tJ ... zdefzdefuaum e*g;euf*dkPf;uvlawGudk aNymvdkufovdk wu,fyJ
arhwwfovm;}}
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]]cpfcpfcpf ... [kdvlawGudk uRefru oufoufrJh vSnhfpm;vkdufwmyg? 'DvdkrS vSnfhpm;NyD; raNym&if olwdkYu
uRefrudk Ncdrf;aNcmuf&kdufESufMurSm&Sifh}}
]]olwdkY&JUypönf;udkaum rif;u wu,fyJ cdk;,lcJhwmvm;}}
&SD;xifcsdwf\taNymu zdefzdeftm; olcdk;rav;Nzpfonf[k aNAmifzGifh[pGyfpGJNcif; rNyK&kHwrnfrdkY zdefzdefrSm
rsufarSmifav;MuKwfoGm;onf/
]][m ... b,fuvm olwdkY[mudk rcdk;ygbl;aemf? ,l&kHom,lvmcJhwmyg}}
&SD;xifcsdwfrSm ,efzdefzdef\pum;udk em;rvnfEdkifatmif Nzpfrdonf/
]]rif;aNymovdk cd;k vmwmr[kwb f J ,l&u
Hk av;,lwmyJ xm;vdu k yf g? tckow
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xkwfray;&wmvJ}}
]]bmqdkifvdkY Nyefay;&rSmvJ? olwdkYykdifwJh ypönf;rSr[kwfwm? Nyefray;Edkifygbl;}}
]]olwdkY[mr[kwfayr,fh olwdkYu vkdufawmif;aewmudk xkwfay;vdkuf&if Nyóemr&Iyfawmhbl;aygh?
tJ'Dypönf;ydkif&SifeJY olwdkYeJY Nyóem&Sif;p&m&Sdwm &Sif;Muyapaygh? tckawmh Munfhprf; rif;[m Mum;xJuaeNyD;
'ku©a&mufawmhrvdkY enf;enf;av;yJvkdawmhw,f r[kwfvm;}}
]]tdk; ... ray;Edkifygbl;? ydkif&SifvJ r[kwfbJeJY? 'DvdkMum;u 0ifvmawmif;wdkif;ay;&&if uRefravmufrdkufwJhvl
avmurSm&SdawmhrSm r[kwfbl;}}
,efzdefzdefu EIwfcrf;plvsuf toHpmpmav;ESifh aNymonf/
]]at;av ... 'guawmh rif;oabmeJYrif;aygh? wdkYu apwemeJYaNymwmyg? &efawmh awGUraeygeJY}}
,efzdefzdefu cpfceJ &,farmvdkufNyD; ...
]]tpfudkYudk &efawGUwmr[kwfygbl;? pum;aNym NrefoGm;wmygaemf}}
]]'gqdk&if 'Dypönf;u b,folYypönf;vJ}}
,efzdefzdef\ rsufESmtrlt&m wnfMunfoGm;um ...
]]'gudkawmh uRefr rodbl;}}
]]zdezf ed &f ,f ... rif;bmawG avQmufvyk af ewmvJ? 'Dvv dk yk af ewm[m rif;twGuf tEÅ&m,foyd rf sm;w,fqw kd m
oabmaygufOD;aemf}}
&SD;xifcsdwfavoHu &if;ESD;[efygvmonf/ ,efzdefzdefu bmrQNyefraNym/ acgif;av;udkom ikHYxm;onf/
&SD;xifcsdwfonf ,efzdefzdefudk wpfcsufpl;pkdufMunfhvkdufNyD; ...
]]rif; toufi,fi,fav;yJ &Sad o;w,f? bmaMumifrh sm; t&Iyt f &Si;f NyóemawGMum;xJrmS 0ifygcsif&wmvJ?
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,efzdefzdef\udk,frSm qwfceJvIyf&Sm;oGm;onf/ rsufpdrsufESmvnf; ysufoGm;onf/
]]tdk ... rodbl; ... rodbl;? tJ'gawG rar;eJY}}
,efzdefzdefu wl;wl;cg;cg;yif aNymonf/
&kwfw&uf aNymif;vJoGm;aom trlt&maMumifh &SD;xifcsdwfrSm tHhMooGm;&onf/
rd b rsm;taMumif ; ud k trS w f r xif pum;prd o nf E S i f h ,ef z d e f z d e f bmaMumif h þrQavmuf
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218
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
]]Nznf;Nznf;aNymvJ &ygw,f zdefzdef&,f? rif;rMudKufbl;qdk&if 'DtaMumif;udk raNymawmhygbl;}}
&SD;xifcsdwfu aNzodrfhpum;qdkonf/
,efzdefzdefonf rsufESmtrlt&mudk NyefvnfNyKNyif&if; avoHwdk;wkd;Nzifh ...
]][kwfuJh? aemufqdk&if Nznf;Nznf;aNymyghr,f}}
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pum;vrf;aMumif; aNymif;vdkufonf/
]]e*g;euf*dkPf;om;awG vdkcsifwJhypönf;udk b,frSm0Sufxm;rdw,f qdkwmudkaum rif;aNymNyEdkifrvm;?
rif;arhaew,fqdkwm wu,fyJvm;}}
]]b,fuvm arh&rSmvJ tpfudkav;&m? [kdvlawGudk vdrfaNymvdkufwmvdkY aNymNyD;NyDyJ[mudk}}
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]]bmNzpfvdkYvJ? wpfa,mufa,mufu acsmif;em;axmifaerSm pdk;vdkYvm;}}
,efzdefzdefu acgif;ndwfNyonf/
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]]uRefru oHo,rsm;wwfayr,fh tpfuakd v;tay:awmh oHo,r&Syd gbl;? tpfuakd v;udk uRefr ,kyH gw,f}}
rdrdu pdwfaumif;apwemaumif;xm;um ulnDcJhonfhtwGuf ,efzdefzdefuvnf; rdrdtay: wkHYNyef,kHMunfrI
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]]uRefr b,fudkoGm;&r,fqdkwm rodbl;? tpfudkav;eJYyJ twlwlvdkufvdkY&&if vdkufcsifw,f?
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]]tif;av ... rif;vdkufcsifw,fqdk&ifvJ vdkufcJhaygh? wdkYu reufNzefqdk&if c&D;qufr,f? uJ ...
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&SD;xifcsdwfonf xdkokdYaNymNyD;aemuf tcef;NyifodkY xGufoGm;avonf/

-------------------------------------------------------------

0rf;tifarmufonf wnf;cdkcef;odkYNyefvmum rdrd\tcef;xJwGif t&ufxdkifaomuf&if; &SD;xifcsdwfudk


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t0wftpm;rsm;ESifh tNcm;vdktyfonfhypönf;rsm; 0,f,l&ef NrdKUxJodkY xGufvmcJhonf/
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&SD;xifcsdwfrSm aiGaMu;zlzlvkHvkH &Sdaeonf/
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219
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trsKd;orD;wpfa,muf\ aNcoHNzpfaeaomaMumifh olthHMooGm;onf/
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,efzdefzdefu olrukd,folr rdwfqufay;vdkufonf/
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220
wuúodkvf 0if;<u,f rSJ h&SpfvkH;&Sif odkif;Ouif
]]apmapmu OD;OD;0rf; vmoGm;ao;w,f? tpfudkav; Nyefa&mufvm&if olUqDudk vTwfvkdufygwJh}}
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&SD;xifcsdwfu NyefaNymonf/
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t0ga&mif0wfpkHav;udk 0wfxm;onf/
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]]tpfudkav;u uRefreJYvdkufr,fh t0wftpm;awG a&G;t0,fwwfom;yJ? 'DrSmMunfhygOD; OD;OD;0rf;?
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221
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&SD;xifcsdwfonf tvSMuD;vSaeaom ,efzdefzdefudk MunfEl;ESpfodrfhpGm Munfhaeonf/
0rf;tifarmufonf ,efzdefzdef\tar;udk raNzbJ NyKH;&,fíom aeonf/
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]]&Sif ...}}
,efzdefzdefrSm tHhtm;oifhoGm;um &Suf&GHUtm;emonfh trlt&mav;Nzifh 0rf;tifarmufudk Munfhvdkufonf/
]][kwfw,f rdef;uav;&JU? xifcsdwfaNymwm rSefw,f? igu rsufpduef;aewJh vlwpfa,mufyJ? rif;udk
rNrifEdkifayr,fh toHMum;&wmeJY rif;[m vSyacsmarmwJh rdef;uav;wpfa,mufNzpfrSef; igodygw,f? tck0wfxm;wJh
t0wftpm;uvJ rif;eJYvkdufzufrSmygyJ}}
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]][dwf ... tcef;Nyifu b,folvJ}}
aysmf&Tifaeonfh taNctaerSm &kwfNcnf;yif wif;rmat;pufoGm;onf/
,efzdefzdefESifh &SD;xifcsdwfwdkYonf wpfa,mufrsufESm wpfa,mufMunfhvdkufMuonf/
tNyifwGif rnfol a&mufaeoenf;/
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a&SUqkH;uvlonf 00zdkifhzdkifhNzpfum tzdk;wef t0wftpm;rsm;udk om;em;cefYxnfpGm 0wfqifxm;onf/
rsufESmtrlt&muvnf; tawmfyifcsKdonf/
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0rf;tifarmufu ar;onf/
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222
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]]rif;om trSeftwdkif;aNymr,fqdk&if usKyfwdkYuvJ Nyóemudk rD;xGef;r&Smcsifygbl;}}
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&kefvGef\ NyKH;csKdaeaom rsufESmonf csufcsif;yif ndKrnf;oGm;onf/
]]rdk;e*g;*dkPf;u b,fol ,loGm;wmvJ}}
]]rdk;[def;ausmufvG,f ,loGm;wmyJ}}
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223
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224
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225
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tcef; (25)
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226
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227
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