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Punjab Engineering College SAE Mini BAJA ASIA 2010

Preliminary Design Report

Harjinder S. Brar, Puneet Pal S. Sarabha, Harish Puri
4th year Mechanical

Kamal Garg, Rohan Garg, Mohit Garg, Harmanpreet S. Maan, Prince Malhotra
3rd year Mechanical

ABSTRACT race due to wear . So we have decided to use standard

axle of Maruti 800 because its not possible to
The objective of SAE BAJA ASIA 2010 competition is to manufacture a single component with accurate
simulate real world engineering design projects and precision. The team has done a detailed study of our
their related challenges. The aim of TEAM RPM from previous vehicle and we have found our shortcomings.
Punjab Engineering College is to win the BAJA 2010 by
making not only the best performing vehicle but also the As a whole, the main objective of the team is to reduce
rugged and economical vehicle that will comply all the the weight of the vehicle, augment the performance and
SAE BAJA design requirements. To achieve our goal minimize the power loss. Each part is being designed
the vehicle has been divided into subcomponents and using CATIA, OPTIMUM K, LOTUS, ANSYS software
each member is assigned a specific subcomponent. The by keeping in mind these objectives. A detailed analysis
team is focused to, design the vehicle by keeping in is being done on each part using CATIA and ANSYS
mind the SAE BAJA requirements, driver’s comfort and software to remove the unnecessary and extra material.
safety, and to increase the performance and driveability. An iterative process is being used for the same.
Benchmarking will be done for selecting each
INTRODUCTION component. A special attention will be given to
manufacturing process to improve the quality of final
SAE BAJA ASIA event is organized by SAE INDIA. The product.
teams are given the challenging task to design and
fabricate a single seat, off-road, rugged, recreational MAIN SECTION
and fun to drive, vehicle which will intended for sale to
weekend off road enthusiasts. The goal of TEAM RPM CHASSIS
is to make the best performing car that will comply all
the SAE BAJA requirements. To achieve our goal the STRUCTURAL DESIGN
has been divide into various groups and each group is
assigned a specific component of the vehicle (Chassis, The PEC BAJA chassis is designed by keeping in mind
Suspension, Wheel Assembly, Steering and Brakes, some objectives like SAE BAJA requirements, driver’s
Power transmission). comfort and safety, compact size, weight reduction,
minimum stress concentration and a competing design.
For designing, analysis and optimization of the vehicle The chassis team did a detailed analysis of our previous
components various software like CATIA (design and year’s chassis and we have successfully reduced the
analysis), ANSYS (analysis and simulation), Optimum K length till firewall by 280mm approx. A special
(suspension design), Suspension Analyzer (for consideration is given to safety of the occupants, ease
suspension analysis), ADAMS (vehicle dynamics), of manufacturing, cost, quality, weight, and overall
LOTUS (steering and suspension design) are available. attractiveness. Other design factors included durability
and maintainability of the frame
In previous year the team mainly focused on custom
designing rather than using some standard parts. But Material Selection
this year the team has decided to use some standard
parts. For example: in previous the axle was custom
made and there was too much play in the splines after
The material used in the vehicle must meet the
requirements set by SAE. And as the vehicle will be
used for racing so weight is a crucial factor and must be
considered. The proper balance of fulfilling the design
requirements and reducing the weight is crucial to a
successful design. We are allowed to use only steel
members in our frame. The available materials that fulfill
the requirements are AISI 1018, 1020, 1026 and 4130.
Benchmarking was done to select the material by
comparing various properties of each material.

Material Modulus of Yield Elongation

Elasticity Strength at break
(ksi) (ksi)
Fig 1 Stress analysis of chassis
AISI 1018 29,700 53.7 15%

AISI 1020 29,700 42.7 36%

AISI 1026 29,700 60.12 15%

AISI 4130 29,700 63.1 25.50%

As we know the increase in Yield Strength affects the

bending strength of a material. And bending strength is
not only affected by cross sectional moment of inertia
but also by radius of material. Thus CHROMOLY i.e.
AISI 4130 having maximum yield strength will allow the
usage of large diameter tubing with smaller wall
thickness. This will in turn reduce the weight of our
chassis. Also 4130 Chromoly is more ductile than other
materials so it will deform more before its ultimate
failure. So considering the above said factors we have
chosen chromoly 4130 pipes to be used for our chassis.

FEA Analysis Fig 2: Displacement after front impact

In order to maximize the strength and durability of

chassis and minimize the weight ANSYS was used to
model and analyze the chassis under predetermined SUSPENSION DESIGN
loading conditions. Using this analysis the dimension of
the tubing was found to be 1.25” OD and .065” wall The sole purpose of the suspension is to reduce shock
thickness. This tubing was modeled as line structure in loads acting on the car, while providing optimal wheel
ANSYS and the material properties of chromoly i.e. contact when operating under dynamic conditions.
Young’s modulus= 205GPa and Poisson Ratio= .3, When designing a suspension there are a number of
were applied on that line model. First of all chassis factors that influence the behavior of the suspension
without truss was analyzed in ANSYS. results for stress and a lot of these factors also interact among each other
and displacement analysis are shown below. in one way or another. Along with these factors (shown
in the fig) various constraints put forward by
The vehicle was analyzed for frontal impact. Taking the compromises like chassis design, transmission and
worst conditions the stress in various parts was engine placement etc play a huge role in the design of
calculated. Results for stress and displacement after suspension. Having the experience of two cars our aim
front impact are shown below. is to work on the shortcomings of our previous designs
and thrive towards augmenting the design this time
After the front impact analysis weak points and around. So we have already chosen to go with
deformed points in chassis were found and after independent double- wishbone arm type suspension
calculations the required truss were added wherever system along with gas shockers as this type is
necessary preferable in the case of rough terrain because they
provide better resistance to steering vibrations and
reduce un-sprung mass.
To objectives of this year’s suspension are:

Wheel Longer wheel • Maximizing the wheel travel

base-softer Both
springs. influence • Maximize ride height for easy navigation
Shorter wheel the
base-smaller amount through roughest terrain.
turning radius of load
for same transfer • Maximizing traction and surface contact.
steering input. b/w the
&rear • Minimizing camber gain and bump steer.
Influences during
Track vehicle
ion &
• Adjustable roll center height.
cornering &
width tendency to braking
roll. and load To achieve these objectives we are working on various
transfer software like LOTUS, SUSPENSION, OPTIMUM K, and
S curve CATIA for designing and analysis purpose.
U Larger track
width-less inner to
S curve
P lateral load Considering the above said criterion, last year’s analysis
transfer but outer
E wheels
and various constraints put forth by other parts of the
N King more lateral vehicle we conclude the following:
movement of during
S pin cornerin
I the vehicle is
axis& g. So
O needed to Characteristics Optimum Last This year
N scrub avoid both
should range year’s expected
radius obstacles.
be kept values value

Wheel Base 60” 68” 60”

Larger the Track Width Max 64” 56” 54”

king pin
Scrub radius is kept
small so that the
more the car
car is easier to
is raised-
handle &reduces King Pin 0°-10° 6° 9°
leading to
the risk of sudden
increase in the
loss of traction. Inclination
moment at the
steering Scrub Radius 0-10 mm 15mm <10mm

Castor Has +ve effects during

& trail cornering but too much Castor Angle 3°-7° 6° in 6° in front
castor causes weight front
transfer that will have
an over steering effect.
The roll centre
establishes the Roll Center Front 0-11” Front Should be
force coupling Height 10.6” within
point between the Rear 0-13” Rear optimum
sprung and the The higher the roll
unsprung masses centre is the smaller 13.5” range
of the car. When the rolling moment
the car corners the around the roll
Inst centre. Center of Depends 21” 19”
Centre centrifugal force
acting on the Gravity height on roll
& Roll
centre of gravity moment
can be translated If roll center must
to the roll centre be raised up
and down to the from the
Wheel Travel Front 10” Front 9” Front 10-
tires where the ground, it is 12”
reactive lateral influenced the Rear 8” Rear 7”
forces are built most by the angle
up. Rear 8-10”
of the plane made
up by the lower A-
arms in the front

Minimizing bump steer (change in toe

Tie rod location angle due to wheel travel)-locating tie
rod in same plane as either A-arms.

The primary objective for steering team was to decrease

steering effort, decrease the amount of steering wheel
travel and increase the steering responsiveness. To
achieve this objective first of all a bench marking was
done between all possible steering systems on a scale
of 0-9.

Steering Cost Weig Availa Efficie Total

System ht bility ncy

Rack 7 8 8 5 28
Pinion Fig 4: Graph between steering angle vs Turning angle
Cam and 6 6 7 6 25
Worm 5 5 5 6 21
and Ergonomics of the driver will be considered for both
Sector steering wheel position and its rotation for maximum
wheel angle. In the last year’s design there was a bend
Recircula 5 6 4 8 23 in the steering column and it created an obstruction in
ting Ball driver’s legs but this year to increase the leg space for
driver we have kept the steering column straight upto
Worm 7 5 6 7 25
pinion. This year the rack and pinion will be placed
below the cockpit base. A special mounting is provided
in chassis for the same to increase the free space in
cockpit.2: Angle between steering angle vs Turning
Rack and Pinion Steering System is chosen after angle
benchmarking. After the detailed analysis of previous
vehicle we found that in previous year’s steering design
the driver had to turn the steering wheel by 450° to bring
the wheels from center to lock. So the driver had to
remove his hand from steering wheel while turning from
center to lock. Our goal is t reduce this angle by
achieving 7:1 steering ratio by calculating Ackerman

A rack and pinion with rack travel .1889mm per degree

rotation of steering wheel is chosen. Rack travel at
different steering angles is calculated and different
turning angles are calculated using simulation on CATIA
corresponding to different steering angles.

Fig 5: CATIA design of steering system

For all wheels to pivot about a common point, the inner

wheel must turn at a sharper angle than the outer
wheel. In reality, the tires must slip to generate lateral
forces, so the outer tire should be steered at slightly
Fig 3: Turning angle at max steering angle higher angles than inner wheels which is predicted by
Ackerman geometry. This year we aim to improve the
Ackerman geometry to 120% from previous year’s 90%.
Bump and roll steer will be minimized by adjusting
distance between inner tie rod pivots, through analysis it
is found 14.7”. Location of the outer end of tie rod will be Overview of Wheel Assembly Design:
fixed by spindle geometry, thus only inner pivot location
can be adjusted and so bump and roll steer.

Small and light weight
with simple design &
The wheel assembly has a very important contribution easy to manufacture
towards vehicle’s weight. So to achieve our main with ample strength.
objective of reducing the overall weight of our vehicle
we have to reduce the weight of wheel assembly. We Thus we
have a detailed study of previous year’s wheel finally
assembly. In previous year’s vehicle the wheel Knuckle achieved
Lighter & easily
assembly was custom made. But this year we have available with low
decided to use Maruti 800 standard axle because in machining cost , AISI
s of
1026 steel alloy has
previous year’s vehicle the axle was custom made. And the higher utility than
there was too much play in the splines due to spline Knuckle compact
AISI 1020 & AISI 1018.
and Hub ness,
wear out. To avoid this kind of situation we are using weight
standard axle of Maruti 800. The knuckle will be custom reductio
designed and an iterative analysis will be done on n, easy
knuckle to remove the unnecessary material make it assembl
Wheel Hub is y and
lighter. In previous year’s vehicle AISI 1018 material designed to disasse
was used for wheel assembly but this year as our aim is accommodate brake mbly,
to reduce weight so a benchmarking was done between Hub assembly which with
gives efficient & minimize
available materials for our wheel assembly.
compact packaging d
without stresses
Param Hardn UTS TYS Machi Dens Utilit Wheel compromising hub’s
eters ess (w= (w= ning ity y Assembly strength.
(w=.21 .21) .21) (w= . (w= . (∑p*
) 21) 17) w)
Spherical Standard spherical rod
end can adjust camber
Materi (p*w) (p*w (p*w (p*w) (p*w) (p*w Rod end
angle and make shock
al ) ) ) loads ineffective to a
(steel greater extent.
alloy) Rim
1018 .5943 .571 .615 .932 1.36 4.07 &
Tyre 25” Polaris tire which
provides better grip on off
1020 .498 .456 .564 .576 1.36 3.45 road surfaces.

1026 1.89 1.89 1.89 1.8 1.53 9 Axle

Axle should have no wear out
of splines & have sufficient
strength to handle the load
As the AISI 1026 has the highest utility so it has been
selected for the knuckle and hub material.

Brake System

The purpose of the braking system is to increase the

maneuverability by locking all the four wheels in a time
of less than a second. This year our aim is to reduce the
weight of wheel assembly so after studying various
available options and to get effective braking we have
decided to use hydraulic disc brakes on all the four
wheels. And Honda Aviator’s disc and caliper has been
chosen for the same. Hydraulic disc brakes have high
performance, easy replacement, and comparatively less
weight than other available options.

Fig 6: Exploded view of wheel assembly In previous year’s design we used hydraulic disc brakes
with two different master cylinders for brake fluid, one
for front wheels and one rear wheels. The main depending on the RPM at which they spin and the
drawback of this design is that if any of the 2 cylinders amount of torque required.
stops working the respective brakes will fail. To
overcome this drawback we have decided to use dual
master cylinder. In dual master cylinder there are two
chambers but they have the common circuit of brake
fluid for all the four wheels. So if any one chamber fails
we can still apply the brakes to all the four wheels.


Engine and Transmission

Fig: 8


The goal of the design for this year’s driveline is to

eliminate as many losses, in transfer of power from
engine to the wheels, as possible. To accomplish this
goal the drive train consist of CVT, two speed reverse
Fig 7: Layout of Power Train gear box with reverse and a chain driven open

As we are all provided with the same LOMBARDINI As the engine reaches its governed rpm limit 3600 rpm,
LGA 340 engine so a lot of emphasis has to be placed the gear reduction across the CVT have been
on the design of power train. This year our objective is determined to be 0.76:1 and thus serving as an
to harness the power of 10HP engine and efficiently "overdrive" for the car. At low engine speeds the CVT
deliver this power to the tires for peak performance. In produces a reduction of 3.83:1 providing necessary
design of the drive train the optimization of several torque. The
desired characteristics are being kept in mind including CVT is assisted by a two speed with reverse gear box.
towing capacity, acceleration, top speed, and durability. The two speed gear box enables the vehicle to achieve
As it is known internal combustion engine have a both high torque and high speed. With the cockpit
power band (range of speeds) at which the engine mounted shift lever in low gear the driver has a torque
produces the maximum torque. Below or above this available for towing heavy load, climbing steep gradients
power band the engine does not provide enough torque and driving through mud and sand. The high gear is
to overcome the resistance torque and accelerate the designed for top speed and acceleration. The
vehicle. Since with such a small amount of power we do final gear reduction for the drive train comes from
not have much room within our power band for the sprocket sizes on the gearbox output shaft and the
performance we need. Therefore we either have many driven sprocket located on axle. Several combinations of
gear speeds or we use a CVT (Continuously Variable drive and driven sprockets were analyzed. The analysis
Transmission). Continuously variable transmission (CVT) was performed with the goal of maximizing the
belt drive is a device that is much smoother than a relationship between vehicle top speed and torque
conventional transmission and also has the ability to output. A low friction O-ring 520 series motorcycle chain
harness peak engine power during operation. The CVT will be used to power the axle from the output shaft of
transmits power from the engine to drive train in place of the transmission. The yield strength of the chain is listed
a conventional clutch dependent multi-gear transmission from the manufacturer to be 8100lb. Estimated forces on
that requires constant shifting to change reduction the chain will not exceed forces greater than 3800lb,
ratios. It consists of two variable pitch pulleys, the drive providing a 2.1 factor of safety for the chain. Constant
and driven, that semi-dependently change their ratios Velocity (CV) joints will be considered for the half shafts
because of their ability to transmit torque through a
higher range of suspension articulation.
These features will create a vehicle that utilizes all of its
power in a smooth, quick transition from rest to top
speed, and insures minimal maintenance.


This project has provided the students a platform to

explore their designing and technical skills. TEAM RPM
is considering every possible aspect while designing
every single part. And we are very sure that the
approaches used by us will bring innovation to our
vehicle. Major innovations would include:

• Light weight chassis.

• Improved steering system.

• Shorter wheel base and track width.

• CVT coupled to high-low-reverse transmission.

• Double-A suspension arms in both rear and


• Custom designed and CNC manufactured hub

and knuckle.

We hope that this year’s vehicle will outperform the

previous year’s vehicle in every aspect.


1) Fundamentals Of Vehicle Dynamics by Thomas

D. Gillespie
2) Book By Carol Smith – Tune to win on vehicle
3) An Introduction to Modern Vehicle Design by
Julian Happian Smith
4) MAN – Vehicle Calculations
5) The Automotive Chassis : Engineering
6) Vehicle Body Layout and Analysis by John


OD: Outer Diameter

UTS: Ultimate Tensile Strength

TYS: Tensile Yield Strength

Fig 9: Fig 10:

Fig 11: Fig 12: