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1. What is a subnet?

A subnetwork, or subnet, is a logically visible subdivision of an Internet Protocol (IP) network.


All computers that belong to a subnet are addressed with an identical common, most-significant
bit-group in their IP address, which is called their routing prefix.

2. Explain clearly and discuss subnetting.

Subnetting is a set of techniques that you can use to efficiently divide the address space of a
unicast address prefix for allocation among the subnets of an organization network. The fixed portion of
a unicast address prefix includes the bits up to and including the prefix length that have a defined value.
The variable portion of a unicast address prefix includes the bits beyond the prefix length that are set to
0. Subnetting is the use of the variable portion of a unicast address prefix to create address prefixes that
are more efficient (that waste fewer possible addresses) for assignment to the subnets of an organization
network.
Breaking a network into smaller realms, a process called subnetting, may use an address space
more efficiently, may enhance routing efficiency, or have advantages in network management when
subnetworks are administratively controlled by different entities in the larger organization. Physical
separation of network traffic may prevent excessive rates of Ethernet packet collisions in a larger
network. The subnets may be arranged logically in a hierarchical architecture, partitioning the
organization's network address space into a tree-like routing structure. Routers are used to interchange
traffic between subnetworks; they constitute logical or physical borders between the subnets, and
manage traffic between subnets based on the high-order bit sequence (routing prefix) of host addresses.
A routing prefix is the sequence of leading (most-significant) bits of an IP address that precede the
portion of the address used as host identifier. Routing prefixes are expressed in CIDR notation. A
routing prefix in CIDR notation is the first address of a network followed by the bit-length of the prefix,
separated by a slash (/) character. For example, 192.168.1.0/24 is the prefix of the IPv4 network
starting at the given address, having 24 bits allocated for the network number, and the rest (8 bits)
reserved for host addressing. The IPv6 address specification 2001:db8::/32 is a large network for
2 hosts, having a 32-bit routing prefix.
96

In IPv4 networks, the routing prefix is traditionally expressed as a subnet mask, which is the
prefix bit mask expressed in quad-dotted decimal representation. For example, 255.255.255.0 is the
subnet mask for the 192.168.1.0/24 prefix.
All hosts within a subnet can be reached in one routing hop, implying that all hosts in a subnet are
connected to the same link.
A typical subnet is a physical network served by one router, for instance an Ethernet network,
possibly consisting of one or several Ethernet segments or local area networks, interconnected
by network switches and network bridges or a Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN). However, subnetting
allows the network to be logically divided regardless of the physical layout of a network, since it is
possible to divide a physical network into several subnets by configuring different host computers to use
different routers.
While improving network performance, subnetting increases routing complexity, since each locally
connected subnet must be represented by a separate entry in the routing tables of each connected router.
However, by careful design of the network, routes to collections of more distant subnets within the branches
of a tree-hierarchy can be aggregated by single routes. Existing subnetting functionality in routers made the
introduction of Classless Inter-Domain Routing seamless.

3. Draw or illustrate and explain, do research for the following:

a. Known Address
b. Known Address, Different Subnet
c. Unknown Address
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