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VISVESVARAYA

TEX
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ACKNOWLEDGMENT

We acknowledge Prof.Dr.S.S.Ramatal, Principal,


Govt.S.K.S.J.T.I,Bangalore, our thanks and indebted gratitude for guidance at every
stage while bringing out this report.

Also we would like to thank our induction buddies for their constant support
throughout our training period. Their guidance, support and help have made it possible to
finish our training successfully.

We would like to thank Mr.MAHADEVEGOWDA, H.R. Manager and

Ms.PAVITHRA of Shahi Exports Pvt.Ltd. for allowing us to do the training at


Unit 4.

We would like to specially thank Mr.JAMEEL AHAMED IED, & IED


ASSISTANTS, for guiding us to observe all the functions in various departments.

We express our heart full thanks to all the STAFF and WORKERS of the

Shahi Exports Pvt. Ltd., Bangalore.

Lastly, we would wish to express our sincere thanks to all those who have directly
and indirectly helped in bringing out this report successfully.

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CONTENTS

 Acknowledgment

 Introduction

 HR department

 Merchandizing and Planning

 Stores

 Fabric

 Sampling and CAD

 Cutting

 Production

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 Kaja button

 Finishing and Packing

 Testing

 Washing

 Maintenance

INTRODUCTION

The garment industry has emerged as a dynamic and booming industry. This trade
has got socio-economic importance as it is essentially a labor in extensive industry and
has the potential to generate wide spread employment particularly of rural and backward
areas. It is a young and thrust industry having made its presence felt only from last two
decades. The rapid growth of this industry in the last few years revealed the massive
export potential.

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The entrepreneur are setting up new factories and trying to employ more and
more professional to take care of senior positions of their organization. At present as
there is huge competition in the garment industry; there is need for trained workers at
basic product level. Hence massive training programs are required at gross route levels.
To teach the various technical stages of garment making. Companies should also gear up
with sophisticated machineries and proper infrastructure with pleasant environment to
take care of the required quality standards and to meet the stiff competition in the
international market.

Shahi Exports Pvt. Ltd has been started at 1992. Shahi at present have 21
branches in Bangalore only. It has its main unit (3) in Faridabad (Delhi) and newly
opened unit is in Hyderabad.
It has separate units for woven and knits. It stands 1st position for profit and stand
4th in overall rating. It has divided its units based on the nature of garment production.
They are:
 LFD ( Ladies Fashion Division)
 LSD ( Ladies Standard Division)
 MNB ( Men and Boys)

Now the clothing has not only remained as a means of cover the body but
become Fashion, a Dignity.
In this era of transition and Globalization, Garments Industries are becoming
highly competitive in the Global Market & heading towards adopting quality standards
norms to improve the productivity, profitability to grow in the market & to satisfy the
customer requirements in every aspect.
This training work is a small step to study the “Process Flow in Garment
Industry”. Shahi Exports Pvt. Ltd., granted permission to carry out the training in Unit 7
one of its 16 exports Units in Bangalore.
Finally, the intention of training is to understand to deal with various processes
and practically work.., methodologies that are followed in Garment Industry.

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Garment flow:
Buyer order

Spec sheet

Manual pattern and digitizing

Computer pattern

Sample

Approved pattern

Grading

Marker plan

Fabric

Fabric inspection

Laying

Cutting

Numbering and bundling

Production

Finishing

Packing

Dispatching

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Organization Hierarchy:

General Manager

Factory manager H. R team

 Merchandising Senior H R

 Planning
 Executive
 Production
 Fabric and cutting/ fusing Administration Accounts
 Sampling and CAD
 IED
 Quality
 Maintenance
 Finishing
 Stores

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HUMAN RESOURCE DEPARTMENT

H.R. PLANNING is the planning of forecasting, developing and controlling


by which a firm ensures that it has the right number of people and right kind of people at
the right places at the right time doing work for which they are economically most
usefully. The recruitment of workers is done according to the need.
Human Resource Planning or Man Power Planning is synonymous. It
incorporates all Human being at all stages in the organization. It is essentially concerned
in the process of estimating and projecting the supply and demand for different categories
of personal in the organization for years to come.

STAFF :
HR manager – 1
Senior executive HR – 3
HR executives – 7

PERSONNAL AND ADMINISTRATION:


RESPONSIBILITIES:

1. Recruiting qualified personnel, as and when the need arises from departments (as
directed by management).
2. Identification of training needs in co-ordination with functional heads.
3. To appraise the top management about work environment, infrastructure.
4. To ensure effectiveness of training for the employees.
5. To ensure safety requirements.
6. To ensure safety welfare aspects.
7. Crèche for the children of workers is been well maintained.
8. Dispensaries are been in the company to treat the sick workers.

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9. Well maintained canteen is been run.

AUTHORITY:
1. Representing CDEL with external bodies such as Govt. Departments, such as
EPF, ESI Labor department, LIC and inspector of factories.
2. Finalizing staff welfare-privileges such as loan, recurring deposit accounts, and
vehicle loans.
3. Signing of ESI, PF, monthly returns, bonus returns.
4. Signing of Appointment letters, confirmation letters, Notices, etc relating to
employees.
5. Renewal of factory licenses safety devices such as fire extinguishers.
6. Signing of monthly statement.

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MERCHANDISING

INTRODUCTION:
Merchandising is the term used to signify articles for sale. Fashion merchandising
includes all the planning and activities necessary to supply the fashion wants and needs of
retail
Customers, in the past fashion merchandising was usually associated only with
woman’s apparel and accessories. The main activities of retailing are to buy and sell
goods simply put the detail activities performed by a retail executive a buyer who plans
and sells.

Merchandisers must be capable of calculating the cost of producing each garment,


determining selling prices, preparing statistical forecast based upon incoming sales data
analyzing spreadsheets that are used to follow the status of fabric and production orders
and evaluating financial statements.

Merchandising includes the following process:


• Prospecting
• Sampling
• Order processing
• Buyers styles, fabrics, accessories and trims
• Production planning and control
• Load planning, production, quality control
• Inventory production units and job workers
• Shipment and logistics
• Letter of credit processing, quota, dispatch
• Banks and Currency Shipping Clearing Agent
• Management

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• Order Status
• Costing
• Profit and Loss
• Delivery Schedule
• Capacity Utilization
• Buyers Status
• Quality and Rejects
• Finance and Personnel

NEGOTIATION:
The Negotiation is like updating of data between buyer and manufacturer. After
procuring the buyer, the manufacturer will give the sample according to the buyer
specifications and then he will quote the price for the product. Here the buyer thinks
the right quality with low price; the manufacturer thinks best quality with affordable
price.

After getting the buyer, the supplier should commit with him. He should not start
the production until the buyer gives an order. First the supplier will prepare the
samples according to his PROTO SAMPLES. The buyer/buying agent should
approve every thing in sample. Supplier must take care that all the samples approved
by the buyer should be kept in written format signed by the buyer.

After samples approval from the buyer/buying agent, the buyer will give an order
to the manufacturer, at the same time shipment date also mentioned. Some of the
buyers will de explained neatly regarding garment manufacturing. The manufacturer
should go through the buyer’s manual; if they satisfied with their standards then he
should proceeds further otherwise he can drop the order.

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Buyer manual consist of from beginning to the end how to communicate with
them (buyer) from sampling to delivery, each and every thing will be written.

Example:
Type of stitches should be in the garment, where should be lab Testing should be
done , how the lab reports to be sent, how packing of all the samples should be sent,
type of packing materials be used , sizes of the packing cartoons, quality checking
parameters, etc. After getting approval from the buyer the supplier will go ahead for
bulk production. Then the productions will starts.

Merchandising:

 Planning
 H R team
 Purchase
 Accounts
 Stores
 Documentation
 Sampling
 Production

PLANNING:
Production planning and control is the first and most important process which
involves scheduling and smooth processing of the departments that includes all
processes used in production of the garment till shipment.

There are 2 types of planning:


• Central planning
• Unit planning

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A central department is needed to collect & analyze the control information from each
production unit in order to report on individual and overall achievements. The production
department has to control every major stage of producing the garments up to this entry
into the ware house.

Unit planning is concerned with planning in each and every department in a unit.

OBJECTIVES:
• Planning helps in smooth functioning of all processes of company.
• It gives estimation of appropriate time consumption of each and every process till
the shipment.

ACTIVITIES:
The production planning & control involves the following steps,

1). Planning
2). Routing
3). Schedule
4). Dispatching
5). Follow up
6). Inspection

• PLANNING: Planning is the first step to be taken for looking ahead or


anticipating difficulties and taking next steps. It is an essential pre-requisite to
production control.

• ROUTING: Routing is the planning activity which is undertaken to determine


the best route for manufacturing a certain product.

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• SCHEDULING: The next phase of production planning and control is
scheduling, which involves the assignment of starting and completion times for
the various operations to be performed.

• DISPATCHING: The dispatching function involves the actual granting of


permission to proceed according to plans already laid down.

• FOLLOW UP OR EXPEDITING: Once production has been set in motion it is


necessary to check that it is proceeding according to the plan. The follow up
function of the production planning & control ensures that production proceeds
along expected lines.

• INSPECTION: Production control is not only relating to the goods produced on


time, but also to see that goods are of good quality. This is maintained through out
of the product of the manufacturing of the manufacturing process. Inspectors must
inspect the material process, some finished product, fixtures used either at the
work station or testing room.

SLAB FOR PLANNING:


0-1500 30%
1500-3000 40%
3000-5000 45%
5000-8000 50%
8000-12000 55%
12000-30000 60%
30000 & above 65%

FORMULA:

Productivity @ 100% = 480min * no. of machines required


Operator samp

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Fabric record details:
• Buyer:
• Style:
• Item:
• Code & color:
• Order quantity %:
• TOQ:
• Conquered:
• Required in mts:
• Balance:
• Fabric issued:
• Sample:
• O/unit:

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STORES DEPARTMENT

ACCESSORY STORES:
The main objective of Stores is to supply the trims or accessories & other
necessary items and equipments needed for the productivity of the garment for each &
every section in the unit. Stores department will make sure that all the items, accessories
are present in right quantity with right quality. 5% of extra quantity will be issued to the
stores.

Stores keep an account of all the materials that comes in or goes out of the unit.
Stores have to keep watch on every department in the unit to access the consumption of
the material.

Worker details:
Store in charge: Krishna
Workers: 4

Flow:
Buyer spec

Merchandiser

Dispatching Trims & Accessories

Stores

Inspection

As per the folder for 1 garment is calculated

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Calculated for bulk production

Approval by merchandiser

Issued to the department

Stores Keeping:
The store keeping staff is basically responsible for the receiving, storage and issuing
of materials. The chief storekeeper is expected to:

1. Receive goods inwards and check them according to procedures specified by the
purchasing department.

2. Issues the material and trimmings according to calculated amount & if required in
rounded-up figures.

Stock transfer note:


• Issued #:
• Issued date:
• To

Item Item Item UOM (Unit Quantity No of Location Lot


code name description of bales / number
measurement) bags

Store issue slip:


Style & Color Description Reference Quantity Remarks

FABRIC STORES:
The fabric stores are storage of fabrics and fusible fabrics. The procedure followed
here is same as accessory stores. Then as soon as the fabric comes to the stores it goes to

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inspection and after inspection again it is stored in separate rack. It is then dispatched to
the cutting department.

Fabric section:
Fabric audit:
The main object of fabric section is to inspect, defect checking & shade
segregation. Fabric to the fabric section is received in the form of bale or rolls. 1 bale
consists of 5 to 6 taka. Fabric storage capacity is up to 1lakh meters either in bale or roll
forms.

Process flow:

Inspection

Checking

Shading

Report

Storage

Distribution

Employees detail:
Fabric in charge – 1 (Annadanesh)
Quality checker – 1

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Workers – 4
Data operator – 1
Total – 7

Table Dimension:

Length – 190 inch


Breadth – 60 inch
Height – 38 inch

Fabric storage capacity: up to 1lakh meter


Storage height: 5.5ft or 66inch

Productivity:
On table up to 5000mts & on machine up to 1000 to 1500mts.

Machines used:
Checking machine: RAMSONS
CHFCK 6605
Shade matching machine: PARAMOUNT Spectra vision
An ISO 9001 Route

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Layout plan:

Buyers:
 AEO (American Eagle Outfitters)
 OLD NAVY
 H&M (Hennits & Movits)
 HOLISTER

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 TARGET
 WALMART
 PVH
 KOHILS
 C.K.JEANS (Calvin & Kelive Jeans)

Weaving defect:
• Burl mark • Thin place
• Drop pick • Floats
• End out • Dobby defect
• Wrong splicing • Pattern defects
• Slub • Double ends/ fillings
• Foreign material • Holes
• Stop mark • Weft bars
• Warp & weft float • Oil & soil stains
• Bowing • Burl mark
• Mixed yarns • Streak
• Iron stains & water mark • Miss pick

Dyeing / Finishing / Printing / Embroidery defects:

• Center to selvedge & selvedge to selvedge color variation


• Roll to roll variation
• Stains
• Dark print
• Missing embroidery
• Miss prints
• Starting marks

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• Patches
• Un even print
• Wrong design pattern

FABRIC INSPECTION
The first step to be carried out when received from the supplier is to inspect the
fabric.
In the fabric inspection department four point system is been used for bales, rolls
& Piece Goods Inspection.

PRINCIPLE:
The main principle of 4 point system is that the penalty points given to the max defect is
4.
4 point system:
Length of defects Points Indication
Up to 3inch 1 Yellow
3 – 6inch 2 Green
6 – 9inch 3 Navy blue
> 9inch 4 Red
Any holes 4 Red

For 100mts more than 40 points defect fabric is rejected.

Point Calculation:
Imperial:
In this textile material is evaluated on a square yard.
Points per sq yard = (Total points * 3600) / (Inspected yard *Cut table fabric width inch)

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Metric:
In this textile material is evaluated on a square meter.
Points / 100m sq = (Total points *10000)/ (Inspected meter *Cut table fabric width cm)

Acceptable level computation formula:


= (total points*3300) / (width in inch* length
Procedure:
• As soon as the fabric received, the fabric inspection department inspects the
fabric.
• From the supplier the fabric is received in the form of Takas or Rolls.
• According to the order placed, they place 5% extra order to the supplier to meet
the requirement.
• Fabric received in the form of Takas may be of length usually 100 meters, but it
can be 45 or 65 meters also.
• Every fabric has to be inspected 100% incase 15% with the consent of concerned
merchandiser approvals.
• Then the Takas or Rolls are inspected in full width on the table or machine under
the good light for defects analyses.
• They are following Four Point System, in which total 100 meters of fabric is
inspected and, if the points allotted for 100 meters are
Less than (<) 40 points is Accepted
More than (>) 40 points is Rejected
• Check the fabric length & width & compare against the length declared by the
supplier.
• Fabric width 1½’’ to 2’’ tolerance of specified width is accepted.
• For every lot / every fabric order keep 1mts of fabric for lab testing & for quality
standard reference.
• Inspection reports are produced. Copies of the report are presented to concerned
merchandiser & department.

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Grading of fabric depending on points:
Points Grading Colour
Up to 44 Standard fabric Green
44 to 60 Sub standard fabric Yellow
Above Defect fabric Red (reject)
Shade segregation:
• 100% shade segregation is done. 1/4th meters strip is cut across the width of each
roll or takas.
• Colour matching is done by using, PARAMOUNT colour matching cabinet.
• Shade band of 10 * 10 swatch is prepared.
• Shade bands are send to concerned merchandiser, sourcing & cutting department
for approval.
• Then they are sort for the shades and the Takas or rolls are sorted according to the
shade variation.
• They ensure that same shade is been loaded to cutting.
• After inspection fabric is packed in bundle form as per the shades and width, and
then issued to the cutting department.

Color matching testing:


Buyer Primary Secondary
H&M TL 83 D 65
TARGET UL 30 D 65
AEO CWF INCA
A&F INCA D 65
OLD NAVY CWF INCA
HOLLISTER CWF D 65
KOHILS U 30 D 65
GYMBOREE INCA D 65
PACSUN CWF D 65

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TOMMY CWF D 65
SEARS UL30 D 65

Acceptable level:

• 30pt/100sq yard for mill made & imported fabric


• 40 pt/100sq yard for power loom fabric
• Check the width & length 3 times separately & mention their average.
• Check the reed & pick, (+_) 2 threads accepted.
• Center to selvedge colour variation is not accepted
• Check the bowing level
Up to 44inch 1 inch level acceptable
45 to 60 inch 1.5 inch level acceptable
60 to 72inch 2 inch level acceptable
Checks & printed fabric cut table width is measured & embroidery fabric
embroidery to embroidery width is measured.
For shrinkage & washing 1meter width is cut. Shrinkage test is carried out by
marking 50 * 50cm.
Fabric & codes:
Code Fabric Code Fabric
A Waffle N 100% polyester
B Waffle O Blended
C Chambray P Twill Y/D
D Denim Q Flax / Lenin
E Seer sucker R Crepe
F Poplin S Lycra
G Velvet T Poly / nylon
H Oxford canvas U GRGT

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I Cheeks Y/D V Damask
J Corduroy W Woolen
K Twill with print X Voile
L Herring bone Y Rayon
M Knitted Z Nylon

Accessories & trims used:

Fabric, trolley, scissors, measuring tape, marker, stand, table, checking machine,
shade matching machine, computer, calculator, sticker, label, hanger, display board.

Reports:

Buyer label:
• Fab code:
• Color:
• Bale no:
• Roll no:
• Meter:
• Width:
• Shade:

Fabric reports:
1. Face side approval
2. Shade band approval
3. Shrinkage report
4. CSCV /MTR to MTR
5. Checking report
6. Defective report
7. Country card

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8. Continuity card
9. Batch cutting label
10. Recutting %

1. Piece goods quality inspection report:


• Supplier name:
• Fabric code / color:
• Po no:
• Style:
• Group of fabric:
• Acceptable points:
• Inspection date:
• Meter age received:
• Meter age accepted:
• Total Accept:
Reject:
Sl Roll MTS Actual Actual Classification Total % Accept Remark
n / in MTS width of points points points / reject
o bale sticker cm 1234 shade
no min &
max

2. Shrinkage report:
• Fabric:
• Taka /roll no:
• MTR;
• L%:
• W%:
• Average:

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• Style no:
• Quantity:
• Buyer name:
• Color:
• Date:

3. Fabric checking report:


• Supplier:
• Fab code:
• Fab color:
• Style #:
• Buyer :
• Item #:
• Order quantity:
• Fabric required:
• Recd fab:
• Balance fab req:
• Inspection fab:

Po wise quantity: Cut table width wise detail: Shade wise detail:

Width MTS Shade MTS Pass Reject


Po no MTS

Total

Defects:
Inspection mts Checking % Total points Average % points

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In process on 7 – 8 – 2007 Thursday;
Code Color Style Buyer
I53AY Pink white R2120 Benetton stripe
I53AY Blue white R2120 Benetton stripe
XC44F Red cream 5830 AEO embroidery
XC44F Blue cream 5830 AEO embroidery
FC87P Blue flower bunch RU 60 Benetton printed
FC88P Blue flower RU 60 Benetton printed
FC89P Blue print RU 60 Benetton printed
PQ57 Thunder grey T 37 CK Jeans check
X431 White T 37 CK Jeans plain
HN933 White 2623 AEO stripe
XC86P Pink butter TW 40 Benetton printed
XC85P Blue bocquet TW 40 Benetton
PP081 Brown 528201 Old navy checks

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SAMPLING

Sampling is the Research and Development section of the garment industry.


In this department the replicas of the bulk is produced. The samples are
produced according to the spec sheet in single size and sent for buyer approval, the
sample is the representative of the whole bulk. This initiates the actual production.
Sampling process is responsible to monitor quality at minimum cost.
The samples garment is prepared in the sampling department with great care
because these samples represent the capability of the company and in order to procure
orders to the company. This is done very cautiously checking every minute thing getting
the sample to perfection as per the buyer’s requirements in the spec sheet.

THE MAIN FUNCTIONS OF SAMPLING:


1. PATTERN MAKING
2. CAD MARKING
3. SAMPLE PRODUCTION
The main objectives of sampling department are:
1. Getting approvals from buyers.
2. Getting pre-production approvals.
3. Checking and analyzing new styles, defining quality terms of new styles to
production department.
4. Sending samples for “Merchandise Review Samples “ (M.R.S), counter, sales
men , pre-production , shipment, and Buyer’s Meeting samples .Buyers ask for
TOP samples (Term production)
The other functions:

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• The sampling department also calculates the consumption of fabric required to
produce the garment.
• The sampling department also access for accessories and thread consumption
for that particular garment.
• Based on the sampled garment the costing is been carried out.

PATTERN MAKING:
The designs according to the tech pack given by buyers including shrinkage are
drawn on the tracing sheet then it is placed on the card board. Then the different parts of
the design are cut using cutters, scissors and trimmed by notch cutters. Then the separated
parts are placed on the digitizer’s board to digitize the parts into the computer. Pattern
making is done only for single size.

CAD MARKING:
The cad marking is done after digitizing. The main function of cad is grading of the
basic size according to the required sizes. The different parts are separated and colored
according to the sizes. The lay marking is done such the waste efficiency percentage is
less. The fabric consumption efficiency in that lay is optimum. The software used is
OPTI TEX.
There are two types of OPTI TEX :
• PDS – pattern ,grading ,correction ,shrinkage and whatever changes required can
be done.
• MARK –only marking is done. No other corrections can be done.
The cad marking is very useful in grading and optimum usage of the fabric.
The buffers are used in the stripes and check fabrics. Shade markers are used for
solids.
The marking is done onto the tracing sheets by plotters. The tracing sheet length and
width are equal to the lay. Then it is sent to the manual cutting.

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The samples are produced according to the patterns according to the procedures
given below.

Hierarchy of workers:
Merchandising manager

Sampling in charge Pattern masters

Co-ordinates QC Supervisors

Tailors Ironers K/B Helpers

In charge – Ramanathan
Total workers – 43
Tailors -25
Pattern masters -2
QC -3
Pattern markers -2
CAD -2 operators
1 helper
K/B -2
Supervisors -2
Cutters -2
Ironing -2

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PROCESS SEQUENCE:

BUYER

SPECIFICATION SHEET

MERCHANDISER

SAMPLING

Flow of the sample:


Developing stage of style

Proto sample

Fit approval

Pre production sample

Sealer sample

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Size set

Pilot run

Garment package test (GPT)

Top sample
IN GPT:
• Show room sample (SMS)
• Fashion show room sample (FSS)
• Add sample (AD)
• Reference sample

TYPES OF SAMPLES:

DEVELOPING STAGE OF STYLE:


It is the own developing of size with respect to the sample given by the
buyer.

PROTO SAMPLE:
1. This is the first sample being prepared contain only substitute fabric.
2. Only in one size is been prepared and sent.
3. This sample is sent to buyer agent if not in some cased to buyer itself.
4. The pattern prepared for proto sample does not contain seam allowances.
5. This sample is prepared for just to get the garment out look and size.

FIT APPROVAL:
1. In this sample stitch construction is mentioned.
2. the grain cutting direction is mentioned as per buyer

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3. the procurement of trims
4. the stitching instructions of the different parts of garment
5. the accurate dimensions of the garment is specified

SALES MEN SAMPLE:


1. In this type sample of 4-6 pieces in each size sent to buyer.
2. The buyer will have certain buying houses or showrooms where the samples are
sent, if the samples are fast moving then the order been placed.
3. The pattern prepared for salesmen sample, will contain seam allowances as lay is
been made for cutting above thirty pieces.
4. Fabric being original with all accessories.

RED SEAL SAMPLE:


1. This sample is not been prepared in reference to all buyers. Only certain buyers
do ask for Red Seal Samples.
2. The sample is been sent with full accessories and details.
3. One sample is been sent in all sizes.

SIZE SET SAMPLES:


1. This sample is been prepared in order to check perfect fit to the garment.
2. In all sizes one sample is sent to the buyer to check the fit.
3. Based on this sample the buyer sends comments regarding the size fit if any.
4. In certain cases the fabric may be of substitute fabric.

PILOT RUN SAMPLE:


1. Here about 30-50 pieces is been prepared.
2. In each size and in each color one garment is been produced.

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3. This trail for production.
4. In certain cases the buyer’s agent will come and inspects the sample and gives
comment.

PRE-PRODUCTION SAMPLES:
1. In this sample all accessories and fabric being original.
2. The Q.C. in the production selects one sample and sends it to the Merchandiser;
the latter checked and then sends it to the buyer.

TOP SAMPLES:
1. This is the sample is been prepared in the production line during production
hours.
2. One or two samples being sent to the buyer to give the knowledge of the garment
how is being stitched in the production line.
3. Only certain buyers do ask for TOP samples.

SHIPMENT SAMPLE:
1. Here one or two samples to be sent to the buyer to give knowledge of what is
being sent to the buyer through shipment.
2. Certain buyers do ask for this type of samples though this sample is not sent
usually.

COUNTER SAMPLE:
1. For all samples there should be preparation of one or two samples, which is for
our reference.

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2. That is for Proto, salesmen, Size set, Pilot run, Pre-production samples and any
other samples being sent to buyer there should be a preparation of counter
samples for our reference.
GARMENT PACKAGE TEST:
1. The checking of the trims of sample at final step takes place according to the
buyer spec sheet
2. color fastness ,strength ,crocking of the sample is testing is done

REPORTS:
Sample Indent:
• Buyer:
• Purpose:
• Style:
• Size:
• Description:
• Quantity:
 Pattern information:
 Cutting information:
 Interlining type & placement:
 Stitching information:
 Washing information:
 Packing information / Accessories:
 Any special information:
 Fabric details:
 Thread details:

1) Bill of materials:
 Stage: Development

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• Buyer:
• Class:
• Type:
• Description:
• Vendor:

Materials
Item code Use content Construction Weight Yield
description finish

2) Folder summary:
 Buyer:
 Main label:
 Additional label:
 Hang tag:
 Logo:
 Final fit approval:

3) How to measure (Grade specification work sheet)

4) Fit image form:

5) Required specification:
 Buyer:
 Company:
 Product type:

38
 Sample size:
 Size class:
 Approval status:
 Approval note:
 Selected range:

POM Description Tol (-) Tol (+) Basic size

6) Sample comments:

 Stage: Production
• Fit evaluation work sheet:
• Grade specification:
• Measurement sheet:
• Production sheet:
 Buyer:
 Buyer P.O.
 Style:
 Fabric:
 Description:
 Wash:
 Consumption:
 Delivery date:
 Country:
 Shipment mode:
 Trims:

39
 Item number:
 Body fabric color:
 Sizes:
 Comments:

7) Sewing program list:


• Program number:
• Stitch shape:
• Number of threads:
• Standard sewing size:

8) Checking:
Fabric defects Direction of biased components
Shade variation Threads used in samples
Holes/ stains/ cuts Trims used in samples
Fused surface appearance All required labels
Biased cut components Label placements/attachments
Button hole stitching quality Iron standard/ quality
Button attachment quality Alteration involved
Bar tuck Specs in samples
Trims attachment Overall quality of sample
Embroidery / printing Presentation of sample
Workmanship in samples Sample check result

Accessories & Trims:


Scissor, measuring tape, scale, pattern sheet, notch cutter, stapler, marker, gum tape,
calculator, fabric, thread, buttons, labels, iron box.

40
In process: 10/08/2007 Friday
Code Color Style Buyer
HNG33 White 2623 AEO
XC447 Red cream 5830 AEO
XC447 Blue cream 5830 AEO
I53AY Pink white R2120 Benetton
I53AY Blue white R2120 Benetton
PQ57 Thunder grey T37 C K Jeans

CUTTING DEPARTMENT
Cutting is the very first process in garment manufacturing. The cutting department
receives the fabric from the fabric department after inspection.
The main objective of cutting section is cutting of garment parts accurately,
economically and in sufficient volume according to the lay record and the parts are
numbered according to the sizes to keep the sewing room supplied with work.
Production is up to 7000 per day.
Machines used:
1. Hand cutting machines
Blue streak Eastman machine company
NY U.S.A

2. End cutting machine


Eastman end cutter Model EC – 3

3. Fusing machine
HASHIMA 1000 ED

41
4. Fussing feel strength checking machine
5. Band Messer machine
Wastema STV 492
Germany

6. Cloth drill hole machine


Nagai Shima
Japan

7. Numbering machine
BLITZ numbering machine
Italy
Employees:
Cutting in charge – Murali
QC in charge – 1 Re cutters – 2
Cutter – 7 Re layers – 9
Cutting helper – 1 Re lay helpers – 1
Cutting issuer – 1 Sorters – 12
Fab assistant – 1 Sorting helpers – 1
Feeding helper – 1 Supervisors – 1
Top sticker – 2 Fabric issuers – 1
Fusing helper – 15 Fabric QC – 1
Marker – 1 Fabric checkers – 4
Production writer – 1 TLR – 3
Laying – 10 QC supplier – 1
Re layers – 9 Helper – 15
QC / checkers – 6 TOTAL = 99

Spreading:

42
The main objective of spreading is to spread the fabric lay accurately as per the
length of the maker with minimum waste at end of a lay.
Two types of spreading:
• Manual spreading
• Auto spreading
MANUAL SPREADING:
In cutting department fabric lays are laid manually as per the marker length, at
the end of the lay the workers cut the fabric with scissors and end cutter.
During spreading they take care of shades in the lays of fabric, they do check the
width and length of the fabric and give report. They maintain a report of how many layers
are been lay and the laying being done by whom.
To get perfection during lay cutting in case of checks and stripes fabric the lay
cutters do follow the design and then cut it off, but in case of plain fabric they cut the
fabric as it is.
They are getting more end bits during spreading but they use these end bits to cut
garment parts.
In certain cases 2 end bits are joined together to make the required length. This is
possible if shades of both the end bits are matched.

AUTO SPREADING:
The automatic spreading is done by machines which hold the fabric rolls in width
wise and fabric is spread along length wise. Only one operator is required.

There are 3 types of laying:


• Folded
• Open width
• Pinning lay

CUTTING:

43
Cutting is very important and necessary process without which the garment
can’t be stitched. Cutting should be done according to the marker & is carried out by
cutting master and cutting in charge.

Here the cutting is done in two stages :

1. Manual cutting
2. Computer pneumatic cutting
Manual cutting:
• Band knife cutting
• Straighter cutting
The procedure followed in manual cutting:

• The fabric is inspected for shade


• The fabric consumption ratio is calculated
• The lay record is prepared
• The lay is spread according to the lay record
• The lay marker is spread over it
• The size labels are placed on the marked parts.
• The straighter cutting is been carried out
• Then it is sent to band knife cutting for accuracy in shape
• The numbering of parts is done based on sizes & lay
• The stripes and check fabrics are sent for relaying where the proper alignment of
stripes & checks of different parts for matching.
• Pinning is done for pockets and darts for proper alignment
• Edge cutting is done for stripe & check fabrics
• The interlinings are also cut
• After cutting the shade checking is done
• Then it goes to auditing
• Re cutting is done

44
Main bundle:
Main bundle consist of small bundles (20 pieces)of each part required to make
one complete garment.

Flow:
Order

Consumption work
↓ Approval
Fabric check

Approved shade

Cutting plan

Laying

CAD marker

Cutting

Numbering

Shade checking

45

Bundling (20)

Check

Batch distribution

Recutting (if required)

Procedure for quality inspection:


• Pattern checking: check if top ply, middle ply & bottom ply comes exactly to the
hard pattern.
• Notches: check weather the locations of the notches had been correct by putting
the hard pattern over the top ply.
• Ragged cutting: check for ragged cutting & if found the part has to be replaced
or the defect has to be rectified.
• Miss cut: check for miss cut or failure of the cutter o split the line.
• Check matching: check if the check matching & the mirror image are been
balanced.
• Any deviation found in the above procedure should be brought to the notice of the
concerned person & ensure rectification.
Checking method for sorting:
• Check the top sticker & all the components are of same cut no.
• Check the no parts ok.
• Check first & last no of all the components is same.
• Check both the opposites of all the components.
• Check notches of all the components.
• Check shade variation of all the components.

46
Shade quality control:
• After the numbering of all the components in a garment, spread all the
components neatly on the table.
• Check top sticker & all the components are of same cut no.
• Ensure by checking the first no & last no of all the components, the no given to
the components is same.
• If any shade variation is observed then check components of 1 no b/w the
components & one above for confirmation.
• If the same lay is cut in different lots of fabric consider each as separate lays
while checking & perform the above procedure separately.

Fusing:
This been carried out after numbering. Fusing fabrics have a gummy layer which
helps in sticking to the fabric when subjected under required temperature & pressure; it
may be of woven & non woven. This is been done to get the roughness of the required
parts of the fabric which helps in smooth process of sewing.
Interlinings are the one which does not have gummy layer. These are also used to
the required parts instead of fusing fabrics.
Parts for fusing or interlinings:
• Shirts: collar, cuff, neck band, flap, front patty, pocket.
• Pants: waist band, pocket, flap.

Different fusing fabrics:


Code Color Temperature Pressure (kg) Time (sec)
(deg c)
FX 1008 Black 132 2.5 12
FX1008 White 132 2.5 12
CH4013 White 132 3 12
NX100 White 132 3 12
FX 12 DP Charcoal 132 3 12

47
CH 3012 White 130 3 12
NX 100 Optic white 132 2.5 12

Process:
• Fusing is done by machine.
• Fusing sandwich temperature to be checked by BI hourly using a thermo stripe.
 Place thermo label sandwich b/w a strip of the fabric & the fusible
 Pass this to fusing machine
 Get the proper temp (at which the thermo label become black)
 Attach temp to this form after testing
• Peel strength to be checked once a day using adhesion tester (standard 450gm or
160oz).
• Dwell time to be checked once a week using stop watch.
• Pressure checking is to be done once a month using a fast colored poplin fabric &
woven microdot fusible interlining.
Fusing Defects:
• Delamination and bubbling due to incorrect fusing.
• Discoloration of fabric due to fusing.
• Strike through and strike back caused by incompatible interlining and shell fabric
or improper fusing cycle.
Fusing defects are avoided using better combination of temperature and pressure.
Testing and fusible interlinings:
• Purpose is to give form and shape and to improve aesthetic of the garment.
• Quality of fusing is tested by actual fusing by taking 12”*12” fabric and 9*9”
fusing fabric at recommended time, temperature and pressure.
This is checked for compatible, shrinkage and bond strength.

REPORTS:
Lay record:

48
 JO/ style#:
 Cut #:
 Lay length and width:
 Start and end time:
 Bale # : thann mts: no. of plies:
 Fabric & color:
 Sizes:
 Shade:
 No of plies/ ways or size:
 Meters required for the day:
 Cut or production date:
Lay mark sticker:
 Style #
 Cut #
 Size:
 Part:
 Shrinkage:
Consumption details:
 Style #:
 Date:
 Buyer:
 Cut table width:
 Shrinkage:
 Fabric:
Size/ratio Ways Length Avg/GMT Efficiency% No. of Total Total
pieces/size mts pcs

Sample report:
 Order no.:

49
 Supplier:
 Model description:
 Sent by:
 Date:
 Measurement list:

Test Size Color Sample Test result Previous test


result on
samples
 Comment:

Fusing lay record:


 PO #:
 Style #:
 Cut #:
 Size ratio:
 Lay length:
 Fabric width & marker width:
 Shrinkage:
 Fabric code & color:
 Fabric swatch:
 Embroidery parts:
 Meterage used of cutting:
 Fabric issued for spread:

Fusing production report:


Date Members Target

50
Parts fused per garment:
PO # Style # Cut # Pcs # Cut Total Parts to be
quantity fused

Numbering:
Shading quality inspection report:
 PO #:
 Style #:
 Cut #:
 Size:
 Color:
 Fabric:
 Lot quantity:

Bundle card:
 PO #
 Style #:
 Cut #:
 Size:
 Part:
 Fabric:
 Bundle #:
 Quantity:
 Shrinkage:

Counting: front and back pieces are counted.


Delivery Chelan:
 D.C. no.:
 Unit:

51
 Batch:
 Date:
 P.O. no.:
 Style:
 Color:
Cut no. Bundle no. Quantity Size Start bundle End bundle

In process: 08/08/2007 Wednesday

Code Color Style Buyer


XC86P Pink butter TW40 Benetton
XC85P Blue bouquet TW40 Benetton
PQ57 Thunder grey T37 C K Jean
IV982 Natural 528201 Old navy
XC44F Blue cream 5830 AEO
IPN92 Brown dark 7600 H&M
PP091 Contrast brown 528201 Old navy
IPN90 Blue dark 7600 H&M
FB720 White embroidery F2517 AEO
XC44F Blue cream 5830 AEO

Fusing in process: 08/08/2007 Wednesday


Style # Color Fusing Temperature Pressure Dwell Parts to be
fabric deg cel Kg time (sec) fused

52
code

528201 Brown NX100 132 3 12 Collar, cuff,


checks White FP,flap, NB
7600 Blue dark CM4013 132 3 12 Collar,
white NB,flap, FP

Followed:
Specification Fabric Contrast fabric Fusing fabric
Code: PP091 IV982 NX100
Color: Brown checks Natural Optic white
Style: 528201 528201 -
Buyer: Benetton Benetton -

Parts: Corduroy:
 Back:1 Neck band:1
 Right sleeve: 1 Cuff:2
 Left sleeve: 1 Flap:2
 Cuff:2
 Front yoke:2
 Pocket:2 Contrast:
 Pocket flap:2 Front contrast:2
 Back yoke:1 Back contrast:1
 Collar:2
 Neck band:2

Main bundle:
In this style main bundle has 480 pieces.
.

53
SEWING DEPARTMENT

In-Process Sewing

Sewing department receives fabric bundles of different pieces or parts of garment


& these bundles are issued to the batch to perform a sewing operation.
Here the sewing department consist of six batches among these four are line batches and
other two batches are assembled. Each line batch consists of 40-45 machines and
assembly batch consists of 60-65 machines, this will vary deepening upon the style of the
garment.

Batch Setting:

Once the sample gets approved from the buyer, batch setting is done for a
particular style of the garment. Batch setting is very critical process if any thing goes
wrong in settings then it directly affects the production and as well as the quality of the

54
garment. Batch setting is done by the floor in-charge with Production Manager’s
guidelines. Batch setting depends on the style of the garment. And the number of
machines set in the batch for each operation depends on the production required per hour
& per day. Batch setting follows zig- zag flow for easy and convenient flow of materials.
Once the batch is set, the actual garment manufacture will begin & the target is set
for each and every operation, which in turn gives the estimated production. Hourly
production target and daily production target is fixed by the Production Manager by his
experience knowledge.
The Target setting depends on:
• Shipment Date
• Style
• Number of workers & no. of machines

Workers Efficiency

After the sewing is completed the garment moves to the trimming section, then to
checking department, then to final checking and dispatch to finishing department.
In production, for each line they’re being one Supervisor who controls the total line and
his main aim is to get the required production with in time. There will be 2 feeding
helpers whose responsibilities are to feed the materials in to the batch from the cutting
department and to maintain the hourly production & daily production reports. There will
be one Q.C. & he checks out for the mistakes/defects.

Quality norms conformity:


1. Incorrect shape 14. End cut thread
2. Open seam 15. Oil stains
3. Puckering 16. Width uneven
4. Pleating 17. Joint stitch
5. Needle holes 18. Improper point
6. Twisted uneven width 19. Raw edge
7. Shading within 20. Skip stitch

55
garment 21. Down stitch
8. Hi- low panel, pocket 22. Line out
9. Looseness 23. Roping
10. Broken stitches 24. Damage
11. Label open 25. Uneven stitch/inch
12. Label reverse 26. Mirror balancing
13. Label centre out

LAYOUT PLAN

ENTRANCE EX
IT

56

EXIT
I
TOIL I
E 1
ET E 107ft
D 2
D CHECKI MODULAR TEAM ft
NG

D
H
A
T
R
A 107ft 1
2
RACK CHECKI BATCH 9
ft
NG
1
COUNTING TABLE 0

17FT
107ft 1
9 2
CHECKI BATCH 10
23ft f ft
AQL AQL NG
t

RACK

1
107ft
2
CHECKI BATCH 11
ft
NG

EXIT

FLOW CHART SEWING SECTION

Loading of cutting parts

Distribution of parts

Setting of workstations

57
Stitching of parts

Inline checking

Assembling of parts

Trimming

End of line checking

AQL

Kaja

Sending to washing/finishing

Operations involved in making of parts:


 Collar:
• Collar top run stitch
• Collar edge cut
• Collar edge turning
• Collar top edge (collar kinari)
• Collar top stitch
• Neck band iron

58
• Collar top and neck band edge cut
• Collar pick ready (collar and neck band attachment)
• Ready collar trim, turn, and iron
• Ready collar edge cut and middle marking.

 Cuff:
• Cuff hem (cuff door)
• Cuff marking (width, length, height)
• Cuff run stitch
• Cuff trim turn
• Cuff iron (cuff ready)

 Back:
• Back dart making
• Back yoke inside piece gathering
• Back yoke inside piece attaching
• Back top yoke ironing
• Back top yoke centre tacking
• Back yoke top stitch
• Fusing for velvet tape attachment (iron)
• Velvet tape attachment marking
• Side tacking for velvet tape attachment and finishing
• Main label attachment.

 Sleeve

59
• Sleeve open
• Sleeve placket edge cut
• Sleeve placket finishing (direct finishing)
• Diamond shape (tacking)
• Sleeve placket diamond shape making
• Sleeve pleat marking
• Sleeve pleat making.

 Front:
• Front marking (line balancing)
• Front trimming (extra margin line)
• Front panel attach
• Front panel over lock
• Front panel top stitch
• Front panel edge cut
• Front yoke inside piece attach
• Front yoke top piece attach
• Front placket edge cut
• Front placket finishing (right and left)
• Pocket hemm surging and pock hemm
• Pocket iron
• Pocket extra margin trim and setting
• Pocket attach
• Pocket pointing
• Flap marking with setting (line balancing)
• Flap run stitch (ready)
• Flap edge cut, turn
• Flap edge stitch (kinari)
• Flap top stitch (pointed)

60
• Flap stay stitch (edge cut)
• Flap attaching
• Flap attach top stitch
• Front panel stay stitch (neck)

Checking:
 Check station-1 ( Parts name: cuff, collar, flap)
• Cuff to cuff line balancing S/B* even
• Cuff door top stitch width uneven N/A*
• Cuff up and down N/A
• Cuff edge straight line and point sharp S/B even
• Collar point up and down N/A
• Collar top S/B mirror balancing
• Collar top down stitch and top stitch width uneven N/A
• Pick shape and pick up and down N/A
• Neck band with uneven N/A
• Both side flap mirror S/B balancing
• Flap D/N* piping and width uneven N/A

 Check station- 2 (Parts name: sleeve and back)


• Sleeve placket length up and down N/A
• Sleeve placket diamond shape off and length up and down
N/A
• Sleeve placket diamond reverse tracking N/A
• Sleeve placket folding line bowing N/A
• Back velvet label attaching cross and centre out N/A
• Size label attaching reverse and raw edge N/A
• Label gap uneven N/A
• Back yoke attaching shape of and margin uneven N/A

61
• Back top stitch D/N down stitch and attaching stitch visible
N/A
• Back yoke point centre out N/A
• Back dart depth width uneven N/A
• Back dart S/B zero finishing

 Check station- 3 ( Part name: front)


• Front yoke D/N puckering and down stitching N/A
• Front yoke S/B mirror balancing
• Front panel attaching line S/B matching
• Front panel D/N reverse and pucker N/A
• Followed pocket to pocket mirror balancing
• Pocket door S/B ½” and pocket straight line S/B CF side
• Followed flap to pocket line matching
• Flap to pocket gap S/B ¼” both side
• Pocket attaching hi-low N/A
• Front placket hi- low N/A
• Front placket top stitch ¼” both side even
• Pocket placement from placket edge

 Check station- 4: (Parts name: collar attaching and back attaching and
sleeve attaching)
• Middle out N/A and label S/B centre
• Collar finishing down and attaching stitch visible N/A
• Label gap S/B 5/8”
• Body, collar and label size S/B in same number
• Shoulder top stitch looseness and width uneven N/A
• Sleeve attaching reverse N/A

62
• Arm hole top stitching width uneven and roping N/A
• Front, back and sleeve S/B same number.
 End of line checking:
• Size label to collar check S/B same of size
• Front shoulder top stitch width S/B even
• Arm hole top stitch width S/B even
• Sleeve attaching reverse and sleeve placket reverse N/A it
S/B even
• Cuff finishing straight line S/B even
• S/B follow sleeve placket up and down and sleeve pleat up
and down
• Side seam D/N loose stitch and puckering N/A it S/B neat
• Follow bottom hem piping, down and puckering
• Font placket hi-low and puckering S/B even
• Pocket to flap line balancing S/B even
• Pocket hi-low and pocket cross attaching N/A
• Front and back yoke D/N puckering shape off N/A
• Wash care label placement S/B 3” above bottom and wash
label reverse N/A
• Front panel D/N reverse and down stitch N/A
• Back dart up and down N/A
• All over garment viewing defects N/A.
 S/B – should be.
 N/A - not acceptable.
 D/N – double needle.
. Acceptable Quality Level (AQL)
After complete checking of garment at the end line checking point the garments
will be sent to AQL (Acceptable Quality Level) for further checking of pieces in random.
AQL checks the garment according to 1.5 systems. I.e. according to this system 8 pieces

63
will be randomly picked form the lot of 150 pieces if any defects found more than
specified the lot will be rejected and sent for rechecking.

Flow in AQL:

Issue from batches

Counting

AQL Fail

Pass Batch

Kaja

Finishing/washing

At last Sampling Plan:

Lot size or AQL

64
quantity being
audited

1.5 2.5 4.0 6.5

Inspect Accept Inspect Accept Inspect Accept Inspect Accept

less than 151 8 0 5 0 13 1 8 1


151-500 8 0 20 0 13 1 13 2
501-1200 32 1 32 2 32 3 32 5
1201-3200 50 2 50 3 50 5 50 7
3201-10000 80 5 80 5 80 7 80 10
10001-35000 125 5 125 7 125 10 125 14
35001-15000 200 7 200 10 200 14 200 14
15001-500000 315 10 315 10 315 21 200 14
500001 & above 500 14 500 21 315 21 200 14

Organization flow:

Factory manager [Karthik]

Q.A. manager [Jude Mannuel]

65
Q.A.I [Mohan]

Floor incharge [Ravi]

Q.C [Chandrika]

Total workers in 1 batch: 35


 Tailors= 18
 Helpers= 5 + 1 trimmer
 Check point= 3 [ 2 inline and 1 end line]
 Supervisor= 1
 Q.C= 1
 Electrician=1
 Maintenance= 2
 IED incharge= 1
 Sampling= 1

Types of machines:
 SNLS ( single needle lock stitch machine)
 DNLS ( double needle lock stitch machine)
 Overlock machine ( 3,4,5) threads
 Single needle edge cut ( SNLSEC)
 Single needle UBT ( uncut thread)
 Feeder form ( FOA)
 Cut pocket machine ( bone pocket machine)
 Collar turn machine
 Kansai machine ( front patty chain lock\ pin tuck machine)

66
 Bar tuck machine (1/2”, 1/4”, 3/8”, 3/4”)

Machine and their make:

1. SIRUBA – L818F- RM1 ( S/N M/C EC)


KAULIN MFG. CO.LTD
JAPAN
2. BROTHER DB2-B736-3 (S/N M/C)
BRTOTHER INDUSTRIES LTD.
CHINA
3. JUKI DDL- 5530N (S/N M/C EC)
JUKE COROPORATION
JAPAN
4. SUNSTAR- KM797
SUNSTAR MACHINARY CO.LTD
CHINA
5. YAMATO CZ6500-A4DF
YAMOTO SEWING MACHINE (NING BO) CO.LTD
JAPAN
6. SIRUBA- 757F-516M2-35 ( OL M/C)
JAPAN
7. COLLAR TURNING MACHINE
CP-313AX
JAPAN

Reports:
Operator’s bulletin:
• Style:

67
• Buyer:
• Parameters:
 Last received by:
 Date of last revision:
 O/P at 65%:
 O/P at 85%:
 O/P at 100%:
 Target / hour:
 Total SM’S:
 Minutes per day:
 No. of operators:
 No. of helpers:
 Pieces per m/c:
 Manpower:
 Operations:

GS m/c work Folder/pr/foot/other Operator No. of Target Target Target


D type aids calculated m/c’s per per per
and required hour @ hour hour
class 70% @ 85%

AQL:
 Batch Audit Slip:
• Batch no.:
• P.O. no.:
• Style:
• Aud
Fresh RE 1 RE 2 RE 3 RE 4
it
status:
• Size:

68
• Quantity:
• Audit start: Audit close:
• Checked: Result:
 Daily batch auditing work sheet:
• Audit:
• Batch no.:
• Style no.:
• P.O. no.:
• Audit status:
• Quantity:
• MSmts:
• Result:
No. of Defects Grand total Grand total Grand total
defects description offered by checked out defective units
• Defective %:
• Passed quantity:

 Daily stitching report:


• Batch:
• Tailors:
• P.O. no.:
• Style:
• Color:
• Size:
Loading on Total Production on Total Balance
date loading date production production

69
Accessories:
Magic pen, white wax marker, white pencil, pattern cards, trimmer, scissors, tape,
thread, fabric, trims, fusing material, machines, checking tables, iron box, ironing tables,
pointer, key type turn stand.

In process: 14/08/2007 Tuesday

Code Color Style Buyer


PP091 Brown checks 52820 Old navy
IPN92 Brown dark 1 H&M
IPN90 Blue dark 7600 H&M
PQ 57 Thunder grey 7600 C K Jeans
FC87P Red, blue flower Y-37 Benetton
FC88P Blue bouquet RU60 Benetton
RU60

70
Kaja section

This is carried out after sewing of garment. Here buttons have been stitched as per
the buyer requirement. Buttoning is done either before or after wash depending on the
type of button used.
Production is 5000 per day.

Workers list:
 Supervisor: Alesh
 Man power:60

Flow:
In case of washing

Washing

Dispatching

Iron

Marking

Kaja

Finishing

In case of non wash

Batch

Dispatch

Marking

Kaja

Finishing

71
Machines:
 Strength checker
IMADA

 Button stitching machine


Brother BE 4380
China
 Kaja hole machine
Brother HE 800A 2
China

 Pneumatic snap button machine


Ngai shing
Hong Kong

In process: 16/08/2007 Thursday

Code Color Style Buyer


IPN92 Brown dark 7600 H&M
PP09 Contrast brown 52820 Old navy
1 1

72
FINISHING & PACKING

Finishing is done before packing. It is been carried out before or after washing as
per the buyer requirement or dependent on the fabric. The garments from the production
section are sent for washing by segregating them on the basis of sizes, shades.
The main objective of finishing is to finish the garment as per buyer requirement
and present more effectively.

Packing is the final stage of garment industry for shipment of goods.


The main objective of packing is easy transportation of goods. It is also done to maintain
the quality norms of the garment. Packing of the garment is done depending on the buyer
requirement.
Production is 3000 per day. Shift production is 6000 per day.

Employee list:

 Finishing incharge: Dilip


 Checking: 35
 Iron: 25
 Packing: 12
 Folding helper: 4
 Helper: 2
 Packing helper: 1
 Embroidery: 1
 Supervisor: 3

 Q.C: 3
 Alteration tailor: 2

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 Washing: 2
 Darner: 1
Total workers: 90
Machine used:
• Needle detector machine:
Hashima HN 740G
• Thread sucking machine
Ramsons
Bangalore
• Spot wash machine
Ramsons stain buster CL1
Bangalore
IN-PROCESS FLOW IN FINISHING
(a) Unwashed Garments
Garments received from the batch audit

Quality and measurement inspection

Button section

Segregation

Trimming

Thread sucking

Rough ironing

Final quality and measurement check

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Final ironing

Presentation checking

Folding as per the buyers specifications

Packing

Pack audit

Shipment

(b) Washed Garments


Garments received from the batch audit

Quality and measurement inspection

Button section

Dispatching (as per size)

Washing

Trimming

Thread sucking

Rough ironing

Final quality and measurement check

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Final ironing

Presentation checking

Folding as per the buyers specifications

Packing

Pack audit

Shipment

SEGREGATION AND DISPACTING:


The garment from batches after button section is segregated and dispatched before
or after washing as per the sizes and shades to different batches for further finishing and
packing processes. In case of washing they use poly bags for dispatching of garments to
washing section.

TRIMMING:
After washing the garments are subjected to trimming section. In trimming loose
threads are cut with the help of a trimmer. Inside out side trimming are done on the
garment. At the time of trimming care should be taken that it should not affect the
stitches in the garment.

INSIDE CHECKING:
The out side of the garment is checked to note if there is any defects in the inside
of the garment. A sticker is pasted inside the wash care label at the time of inside
checking.

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OUTSIDE CHECKING:
In outside checking, the outside of the garment is checked like parts of the
garments, its position, buttons, line matching etc. These are checked based on buyer
identifications.
If there is any defect in the garment or in any part of the garment, a sticker is
placed over the defect. If possible that part is changed or altered. If replacement is not
possible or if stain is not removed in washing, the garment will be rejected. The pieces
are again trimmed and checked if any alteration has done on the garment.
The method of checking is changed according to the style of the garment. The
garment is then placed in the thread-sucking machine. All the trimmed threads and dirt’s
are removed.

IRONING:
After Trimming and Checking, the garment is sent to ironing section. First the
buttons are attached and then the garment is ironed. The steam is connected with the pipe
to the steam iron box. Ironing is done in two stages rough ironing and final ironing.
Rough ironing is helpful for the identification of defects. Only inside ironing is
carried out.
Final ironing bottom setting shoulder setting is done. After ironing the garment is
measured and put on hanger, if required folding is done. Ironing, folding will depend on
the buyer specifications.

WASHING:
Spot washes are done here to remove mud, grease, pen mark, yellow stain, sticker
mark, etc. Here high pressure water and steam is used to wash and dry the garment so
that no water mark is left out. Various chemicals like LOC ( liquid organic cleaner), soap

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oil, acetone, robin, baby soap are used. Only mild chemicals are used such that the feel of
the fabric is not altered.

PACKING:
If the garment is hanger packed, put the size clip on the hanger. The size clip
helps to identify the sizes easily. Then the tag or main label is attached with the hand
machine. The place where the tag is to be attached will depend on the buyer
specifications. Then the garment is placed inside the polybag.
The Size ratio in a bundle will depend on the purchase order. According to the
size ratio, bundles are placed inside the carton. In the purchase order, the number of
bundles that should be contained in a carton will be mentioned. Shipment case number is
put over the carton; all other details are printed over the carton.
The company auditor checks at the time of packing and accepts the garment based
on the purchase order. Then the buyer’s auditor will further check and accept the goods.
Then the shipping is done.

Different types of packing:


Packing is done various types based on buyer requirement. They are
 Stand up pack
 Flat pack
 Hanger packs
 Semi stand up pack
 Roll pack
Types of cartons:
Buyer Size inch lay
H&M 58*40*40 3
Old navy Online 22*16*12 7
22*16*6 7
USA (SP& BP) 24*24*8 3
24*26*6 3
24*18*6 3
MP 6
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AEO 22(1/2)*16(1/2)*4 7
30*11*8
SP: single pre pack
BP: bulk pre pack
MP: multi pre pack

List of major Defects:

• Brand, care or size label missing.


• Shading
• Wrong color
• Fabric flaw defect
• Hole in fabric
• Damage
• Conspicuous repair
• Poor construction
• Conspicuous soilage (inside or outside)
• Conspicuous abrasion marks from wash process
• High/ low pockets
• Exposed zipper tape
• Buttons, snap defect
• Button hole raveling, incomplete, not cut properly/ miss aligned
• Sizing problem
• Poorly trimmed garment threads
• Broken stitches
• Skipped stitches
• Open seam

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• Conspicuous puckering of seam
• Conspicuous wavy stitching
• Fleeing or raveling of material
• Raw edge
• Uneven seam
• Sleeve length uneven
• Sleeves reversed
• Defect sticker all should be removed
• Pressing wrinkle appearance

Garment zone classification:


• Red – zone A critical
• Black – zone B major
• Green – zone C minor

Accessories:
Trimmer, tape, iron table, cartons, trims, hanger, poly bags, scissors, thread,
stickers, trolley, machines, chemicals, gum tapes, stand.

Report:
Final audit report:
Date of inspection buyer Style no. Offered qty Audit result
Internal Buyer

Audit result:
Red – fail
Green – pass

Carton marking:

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 SDC:
 Destiny:
 Made in INDIA
 Color:
 Gross weight:
 Net weight:
 Dimension:
 QTY:
• CTN OF:
• PO#:
• Prepack:
• Style:
• Size code:
• QTY:
• Total packs:

In process: 16/08/2007 Thursday

Code Color Style Buyer


PP03 Brown checks 52820 Old navy
1 Blue dark 1 H&M
IPN90 7600

WASHING DEPARTMENT

The main objective of washing to remove stains, dust, dirt, pencil marks, check for
shrinkage and also to enhance the feel of the garment. Washing of garment is also done to

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give special effects of on the garment. Washing of garment is done in two stages before
bulk production i.e. sampling stage and after bulk production. However the method of
wash given to the garment depends on the nature of fabric, buyer requirement and
specification. Production is 40000 kg per day.

Workers list:
• Incharge – 3 ( Sandil Kumar)
• Data entering – 1
• Checkers – 2
• Sorters – 2
• Workers – 30
Washing is of two types. They are:
1. Dry wash
2. Wet wash
Dry wash:
As the name itself indicates “dry” here water is not used. This is usually done to
give certain effects on the garment. Such washes are more used on denim and jean
fabrics.
Example: stone wash, sand blasting, grinding, etc.

Wet wash:
In this method water is one of the main ingredient used for washing. This is done
to check shrinkage, remove stains, dirt, pencil marks, etc. enhances the feel of the
garment and also to provide required effects on the surface of the garment. Such washes
are widely used for all sorts of garments. However the type of wash depends upon the
nature of fabric, buyer requirement and specifications.

There are different types of washes given to the garment some of them are:

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• Rubber ball wash
• Softener wash
• Plain wash
• Enzyme wash
• Dip and dry
• Stone wash [ dry wash]
• Sand blasting [ dry wash]

Rubber ball wash


Special types of rubber balls are used for rubber ball washing. The balls are put
into the machine at the time of washing. Rubber ball wash is mainly used for thick
fabrics to give flowing appearance or to feel smooth. This type of washing is very
expensive.

Softener wash
Softeners are used for softener wash to give softness to the garment. Amino
silicon is mainly used. For heavier fabrics different types of softeners are used.

Plain wash
Plain wash is done to remove stains, dust etc. and also to get good appearance.

Enzyme wash
Enzymes are used in enzyme wash. These enzymes dissolve the fibers that are
pulled on the surface of the fabrics and gives smooth appearance to the fabric.

Dip and Dry wash


In dip and dry, the garment is dipped in water and dried. This helps to avoid
shrinkage and to remove sizing material.

Stone wash

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Stone wash is mainly used in denim garments to get good luster. Special type of
stones which are said to be pumice stones are used in washing, which improve luster
on the surface of the fabric hence good appearance is obtained. This type of washing
is mainly used for jeans and trousers.

Sand blasting
Sand blasting is mainly done for denim garments to obtain the shaded effect on
the surface of the garment. Aluminum oxide is used for this purpose. The area to be
shaded is marked out and sand under high pressure and force is moved on the marked
area the continuous friction between the surface of garment and sand particles fades
the color of the garment this is done manually. This is mainly used for jeans and
pants, shirts, trousers as per requirement.
Defects
• Hand feel
• Shade
• Puckering( high low effect)
• Pilling or rising level
• Grainy ( denim)
• Back staining
• Patches
• Damages
• Tinting/ bleeding (button, label, pocket, embroidery ,etc.)
• Streaks
• Stains
• Others

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Flow chart of Washing Department:

Segregation

Bulk washing

Hydro extraction

Drying

Checking

Bundling

The important factors to be considered at the time of washing are tinting,


bleeding, open stitch and damage. Tinting means one color spreading on another
color in fabrics. Chemicals are used to avoid tinting.

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Bleeding means color fading by the loss of color from the fabric by the use of low
quality dyes. Dye fixing is done to prevent color bleeding. Some times damage is
occurred at the time of washing. This is due to using high concentrated chemicals or
increase in the duration of washing.

Industrial washing machine is used for washing. The machines are filled with
sufficient quantity of water, chemicals, soap, garments and the machine is rotated, the
quality of water, type of chemicals, detergents, and also the duration of washing will
vary according to the type of fabric and method of washing. Water level indicator,
temperature control devices are present on the machine. Single rotating and double
rotating are available in the machine normally single rotation is used.

From washing machine the garments are transferred to the hydro extractor, where
the water is squeezed out of the garments. Proper drying takes place in the driers.
Tumble drier is used for drying the garments completely. The machine stops
automatically when the door is opened during its working. During time is varied with
the weight of the fabric.
In laundry, random checking is done in a lot before and after washing. The
number of pieces received for washing and delivered after washing is reported in
daily production report.

Machines and their make:


• SECO
Garment processing ED280MP ( front loading)
Thane
Capacity: 100 kg.
• Ramsons (front loading)
Industrial washing machine
Bangalore
Capacity: 60kg

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• Ramsons (top loading)
Industrial washing machine
Bangalore
Capacity: 70kg
• Smartex (front loading)
Industrial washing machine
Bangalore
Capacity: 500kg
• Ramsons
Steam dryer
Bangalore
Capacity: 120kg.
• Ramsons
Hydro extractor
Bangalore
Capacity: 100kg

Report:
 Checking report:
 Style:
 P.O:
 Buyer:
 Garment:
 Color:
 Quantity check:
 Defects:

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MAINTAINENCE:

The main object of this department is the machines of various style & tools
required for the process of garment production is been maintained & made provision of
supplying of required machine & tools.
Break down machines, power cut each & every electrical & mechanical parts are
been maintained. They also supply safety materials which required for process for
workers.

Employee’s details:

In charge: Chikkaiah
Total man power: 26

Electrician: 8
Mechanic: 12
Stores: 1
(2 batch: 1 mechanic
2 floor: 1 electrician)
Machine lubrication is done in once in 3 months (floor wise).

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Requirement of various machine style flow:
Planning

Merchandizing

IED

Analysis & issue the machine to the batch

Machine suppliers:
 Juki – Japan
 Brother – Japan
 Pegasus – Japan
 Eastman – America
 Hashima – Japan
 Ram sons – Bangalore
 Durkopp Adler – Germany
 Sun star – China
 Siruba – China

Machine used:
Machine type Make Make
Straight knife cutting machine Eastman BLSTII 629
Band knife machine Wastema STU 492
End cutter Eastman EC 3
Fusing machine Hashima HP 100 ED
Single needle machine Juki DDL 5530
Single needle machine Brother DB2 B736
Single needle machine end cutter Juki DLM 5200N
Single needle machine end cutter Brother DB2 B777 BA

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Single needle machine end cutter Siruba L818F RM1
Single needle machine UBT Juki DDL 5550 N3
Single needle machine UBT Brother SL 737A 403
Over lock machine Juki MO 3616
Over lock machine Siruba 757F 516M2 35
Feed off form Juki MS 1261
Double needle machine Juki LH 3138
Double needle machine Brother LT 2 B8453
12N chain stitch machine Kansai KS 1412 PQ
Button hole machine Juki LBH 781
Button hole machine Brother LH4 B814 2
Button stitch machine Juki LK 1903
Button stitch machine Brother LK 3 P438E
Bar tack machine Juki LK 1900
Bar tack machine Brother LK3 P430E 2
Key hole machine Juki MEB 3200
Key hole machine Reece S 100

Reports:
Machine requirement for batches:
• Batch :
• Type of machine required:

Goods received note:

Item Item Item UOM Quantity Location Lot


name description number

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