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13 Tile Social Stratification of (r) in New York City Department Stores

William Labov

As this letter is but a jar of the tongue, ... it i~ themost imperfect of all the. consonants,

(J ohn Walker, Princrpies of English PrmwncraliOlJ, l791)

Anyone who begins to study language in L~S social context immediately encounters the classic methodolcgical problem: the means used to gather the, data interfere wi lh the d~Uil to be gnrhered, The primary means of obtsinlng .. I large body or reliable data (1) the speech of one person is the individua] tape-recorded interview. Interview speech is formal speech - not by any a bsolu te measure, but bycomparlscn with the vernacular of everyday Hf~. Oil the whole, the Interview is public spJ)c'Ch - monnored and controlled ln response to t.he presence or an outside observer, 13m even within tb~j; definition, the investigator may wonder if the responses in a tape-recorded interview are not a special. product 0[ the interaction between the interviewer and the subject. One way of controlling for this is to study the subject in his own natural social context - interactlng with his fO'lmily Or peer group (Labev, Cohen; Robins, and Lewis 1.968), Another way is to observe the public use of language in everyday lire apart from iU1Y interview situation _ to sec how people use Janguage in context when there is no expliclt observation, This chapter is an account or the: systematic use or rapid and anonymous observations [0 a study or the socicllngnlstlc st ructure of the

I . I

speee ,1 community.

Ibis chapterdeals primarily with the soclollnguisne study of New York City. The main base for that study (Laboy 1966) wns ~L secondary random sample of the Lower East Side, But before the aystcmmlc study was carded out, there Was fill extensive series of preliminary invesrlgauons, These

$O!lrce:'The Social St;lIliHc;!tiQIl of (.r) [11, New York City Department Stores', iii L1bQv, W. (1972) S()dorblg!li;l'rfc Pattem: (Philadelphla, PA: Uni\'mity of P~nnS~IIV<lIl[iL Press) PI'. 43-54. A lso publishl.l<u ill J 9il.! (O;.:rOl'd: Baall m~lckw~ll).

included 10 individual i niervicws and a: grea: ma ny anonymous observurions in public places. These preliminary studies kd to the definition or the major phonotogical variables which were to be studied, including (r): the presence or absence of consonantal [r] in postvccalic position i.n CoJl', card, four. /(wrth. etc. This particular variable appeared to be extraordi na rily scnsi ti w to any measure of social or stylistic strati 6.calion, On the basi" of l h(' exploratory interviews, it seemed possible to C, rry om an eiJ1piril;[ll test M two general notions: first, that the linguistic variable (r) is A social oiffcr~:ntiator in ,~H levels or New York City speech, and second, th.u rapid and anonymous speech events could be used as the basis J'O r ;l sysrematlc study of language, The study of(r) in New York City deparuucru stores which J wi 11 report here was conducted [n November 1962 as a iest of

these [dens. .

We can hardty eonsiderthe social distribution of language in New York City without encountering the pauern of social stratification. which pervades the life of tnt) city, This coneept i.~ analyzed in some detail In the major ~l~i.dy of the Lower Etlst Side; hCI.'lC. we may briefly consider the deflnlticn given by Bernard Barbel': social stratifica lion is the product or social. diflercntiation and social evaluation (1957: 1-3) The use or th'j~ term docs riot imply am' specific type of class or C:ist~i but simpl)' that the [ .... :o:r~ing~ o r s~WL~1 y have produced systcmauc differences between certain mstttuuons or pI:0plc, and that these differentiated forms have been r~ll ked in .5tiHUS or pres: igl~ by ~ene r al ag ree me n r.

We begin with tbe general hypothesis suggested by explora tory in tcrvlcws: ij' an)' two UlogrOllps of New York City sp,c(Jken are ranked in (I scalf! ofsocia! 5Irat[ficaricm, (fum tlH'Y' writ be ranked in tlw .mnie order V)' their dij!cn>mi,j/' 1151" vi (r) .

It would be easy to test this hypothcsls by comparing occupntlonnl groups, which are among the most important indexes of social st ru tifica 1 ion . We could, ror example, rnke a group of lawyers, a group of me clerks, find a group of jantrors, But this would hardly go beyond theindlcutions of the exploratory .imcrvilc\Ys,Ll nd such an extreme example of dilrel'cllti~~ ion wo U ld not pro vid e it ve rl' ex neU n g ~ es t 0 f the h /'P() t b csi $. J t s 110 til d be possible to show tha t the hypothe:sls is so general, and the ditTerentitll use of (r) pervades New York City so thoroughly, thnt fine social dlffcrencl::> will be reflected in the index as well as gross ones.

It therefore seemed best to construct a very severe test by lindlng a subtle Ci'lSC or stnHi ficatieu within 11 single occupational group: in this case, the sales people of large departmen L stores in Manhattan, J f w..: select three large department Slams, from th<l lop. middle, and bottom of the price and fashion scale, we can. expect that the customers will 0'0' soela 11 V stratified, Weuld 'we expect th~ sales people to show a comparable sua tlricatlon? Such a position would depend upon two correlations: between the ~hUu.~ l'anklng of the' stores and the nwkillg of

. ,

Sodal S(ratfjicaHofl 0/ (.1') in Mm York DqJ(.lrtmefU SU!f'!J.1

pamNeJ jobs in the three stores; and. between the jabs and the behavior of [',h~ persons ,who h,okl (l~()se jobs: Tbm arc not mU'casoctablc assllmp. ~IQnS, C. Wn,gh[ MlrJs pcmts out that in large department stores tend to borrow prestige Irom ¢bcir customers, or 'It least make <lit eflort in that dlrect[on,2 It appears that iii person's own occupation is more closely cotrelated with his lhiguistic behavior - for those working actively - than any other single social characteristic. Tho evidence presented here indicates that the stores are cbjecuvely diflerentiated in ~. fixed order, and that jobs in . these stores nre evatus ted by cmp!or,ecs It! 'that order, Since the product of social djfl~rentin'lLQn lind evaluation, no matter how minor, is social .stmtHlcntion of the employees in. the three stores,' . the hypothesis will predict the. rQI,iowing tC5U It salespeople in the hl,i:lhc5HlIl1ked store will have the highest values of (r); those in (he middle-ranked store will haw interrncd iate values ~Jf (r); and those in the Jowesr-ranked store will show the lowest values, If this result holds true, ,the bypOlhcs'is will have received connnl1ation in proportion to lh~ seventy of the test,

. The. three S!'O,f:S whi:ch were .. ~elec~cd are Saks F[fth A venue, M aey's, and S, Klein, The ciL.A,erentl1Lt ranking o! these stores m.ay be illust rated lit manv ways, Their locations are one important point: .

No, of pages of advertisil'ill October 24":27, 1962

NY Times

Daffy News

SA.b y..,lncy's S. Klein


2: lj4

o IS lO

We ruay ,1I[SO consider the prices of the goods advertised during til()s~ (Ol days, Since Sales usually does not list prices, we can .only compare pri .cs (, all three stores on one item: women's coats. Saks: .$90" M.1CY\; $19.9 Kleins: $23, On [om items, we CHn compare Kleine and M HCY'~~

dresses girls' coars SW~kiriS·s men's SUits

S. Klain

S l4_95


$~U9 $49,95-$,[\.4,9 S

:$5,00 $l~,QO $0.45

S:2G.OO~S 66,00

Theem ph asl son p rices is also d iffe rei} l, Sa ks ci ther do es not rn em] 0 n p r"k¢.' or bude5 the figure. in small type at the fool or the page. Macy's Jeuru res 1 h, prices in large type, but olten adds the slogan, 'You get more than kv,\ prices." Kleins, on the other hand; ts often content to let the prices speak J\11 themselves. The form of the prices is also different: Saks gives prices i r round figures, such as $120; Macy's always shows a rev,' cents off the dollar $49,95; K.ldns usuatlypriees its goods in round numbers, a1I'lJ adds the rctui price 'which is always much higher, and shown in Matis style: '.$23.00, marked down from $49,95:

The physical plunt or the storesalso serves 10 differentintc them. Sak.~ is the most spacious, especially On [he upper floors, wNh OJ!: J.C'I.';,t .~mounr p/ goods displayed, Many of rho frOQfS an,~ Clltpr:lcd, imd on SO}1W or au:m, :1 receptionist is stationed W .Brett the custome-rs .. Klelns, at the other extreme,

is 1.1 maze of annexes, sloping concrete noors, low ceHings; it has the maximum amount of goods displayed at the least possible expense.

The principal .mulifylllg effect upon the employees j,s the prestige' or (he store, and the working eondltlons. WlIges do not stratify the employees In the same order. On the contrary, there i.s ,e'Ver~ JlldiclIlaOII [hat h.fgb·presll_gc stores such as Saks pay lowerwagesthan Moncy's.

Saks is a non-union store, and the general wage structure Is nota matter or public record, However, conversatlcns wj~h~, J1umbe~ Orm~!ls.J1d wome',n who have worked in New York department. stores, tllclw:llllg Sa~s and

Highest-ranking: Saks Fifth Avenue

at. 5~th St <lind :Sth Av(;, , near the OCI1.le. of the high fashion shcpplng district, along with ether high'·'prestige stores such as Bonwit Teller.Henri Bendel, Lord and Taylor

Middle-ranking: M aev's

H~nltd, Square, 34th ~t and Sixth Ave" ncar the garment district, along with .GLHlbel~ and Snks,34[h St" other middle-range SlOfCS in price arid presuge,

Lowest-ranking: S. Klein

Union. Square, 14th.'5l and Broadway, not fill' fran, the Lower East Side.

The LidverHsing and price POliCLCS of the stores are very clearly stratified. Perhaps no ether clement of class behavior is so sharply dificl'cnUaJed itl. New Yo~rk City as that ()~thenew~paper which people read;m,my surveys hav~ ,Shown that the f)a~ty News IS tl:c paper read flm and foremost by workT~lg.clnss pe~p!:e, while the New York Times draws its readership from the m~ddlc.c-lau. J 1 hese two newspapers were examined for the advertising copy It) October 24-27, 1962; Saks and Maey's ad vertlsed in the NrM York Times, where Klems was represented only by a very small item: in the New«, however, Saks does not appear at all, while both M acv's and Klcins are

heavy advertisers. ..


Macy's, show general agreement OTl the direction or the wage differential.' Some' Dr tb~ incidems reM,CC[ il willi ngness of s~lcs people to accept much lower W<!gfS from the store with greater, The executives of the prestige stores pay a great deal of atlet~tloll to. employee relaucns, and tate many unusual measuses to ensure that Ihe sales people fc:cl tl1M they share' iii the genera] PI!i!$tugc of ihe atore, $ One or the Lower Bnst Side Informanu who worked a: Suks wus chiefly impl.'~$scd with the fact rhat she could buy Saks clothes at. a 2.5 percent diseaunt. A similar concession Irom It lowerprestige store would 'ba\l"l been of little IIHen:H to her.

From the pOlm of v iew or ~hr;y's employees, a Job in Kleins is well below he horizon, V.lorkiliQ; conditions and wages are generally considered to be worse, nnd the prcsligc of Kl.eins IS, very low indeed. As we will see, the ethnic composition of the store employees reftects these diffcrernC'e~ quite accurately.

A sociceecncmlc index whi h ranked New Yorkers on occnpnticn would show the employees of the three stores nt the level; an income S!l:a!e would probably find Macy's employees somewhat flLghLlr than the others; cdU{:,(tt~on is the only cbjective scale which might dl:ff~rcfltiale .he in ihe same order ,as the prestige of the stores; though (here is 1'10 evidence on lhis poirn. H owever, the working condi ticns of sales jobs ill the three stores s,nHify them in the order: Saks, M;lCY'S, Kleins: the: prestige of Ihe; stores leads to D. social evaluaucn of these' jobs ill lh~ ~rlme order. Thus the two aspects or social nrf!tif,calio11l - ditTererltinliol\ and evaluation - arc to be see", in tne relations of the three stores and their employees.

. The aormal approach to a survey of department-store employe's r~q'llifol;s thal one enumerate the sales people of each store, draw random samples in ~a(h ~lOl1e, make ilppointmcn.t~~ to' speak with cacb employee at home, l!1h:n,l'n'~w lhe respondents, then segregate the uative New' Yorkers, analyze ~m~ resarnple thenonrespeuderas, and so on, This is an expensive and timeconsuming procedure, btl! .rQf most purposes there is no short t which wi!! ,give accurate and reliable results, Jl' this ease, a simpler method which relies upon the extreme generality of the linguistic behavicr of the subjects \V,aS used to galh~:r iI \'e:r~ IhnUcd t}'lle or dati'!. This method is dependent upon the s)!,st,e,ma'LLc sam'Pl~ng of casual and afliOnYIilO1JS speech events. Applied in a p()od~' defillcd efl''III~01.'imCiU. such a method is open La milO)" iases and it would be dimClll~ to s~)' v(hill populatton had been studied, In this case, om popu!I1iIJon i~ well-deflned as; the sales people (or mere general,")', ~U~l' employee whese mi~ht be hC::Ird by It cunomer) on- three spccifi~ srcres at t\ ~pocitlc time. '!h~ f~sUH. wiUhe a vieW' or the role that spee~h wOl.lldpl,ay In, 'thlJ overall soclallmpmu Ornli; employees upon the customer, It is :mrprJs:ing, that this simple and economical npprcach achieves results with a high degree or consistency and re~uladty, and !II llcws us to test the (l,ri,gi·nat bypothcsis in a number of subtle ways.


The applicnticm or the study or casual an~ Il.lwnymom spced~ C\lC!~L~ to the dcpartmcnt.swrc situation wus rc!altvely .~Implc, _ "Th: L[\t~rYH!,WCr 'lpproachcJ the II rorm~tlU in ,he role or a customer as~mg lor directions [0 a particular dl!pl'':;'nt. The department was one which wa located OB r~hC' fourth floor, Wbell rhe interviewer asked, 'Excuse: me, where ue the women's shoes?' the al~~WOI: would normally be. 'Eourth floor,'

The interviewer then leaned forward and said, 'Ex;_cll~e me?' He wO\lld us\: ally then obtain alloLh~r rue rnnce, • Fow·,h floor,' !ipol<elt In careful ~tylc

.. - Ii

under ernphauc stress, .,'

The l n te fviewe r would the n move a I om g l he ars le 0 r U1JC store to a p oint

nmnc:dilltdy beyon.d the inrorman~"s,~'icw. and ~~lIi1::ca wriuen not~ ofthe data. The following lndependern ~'arl<lbl'es were included:

the store

~oo, witliin lhe store '7


age (estimated in UL'.ilS or five ycnfs~

occupntion (floorwalker. silks, cashier. s'Lockhoy)


fmeign or rcgioul accent, if any

ldte depcndcnl\'iUiab~e is the use or (r) in four cecusrenccs'

casual: rou~th floo!:, emphatic: fO!I~til JlO()~

Thm we ha \'C: pTccon~ol'lal1l~,1. and .fi.nal position. in both c.~sual and emphatic styles of speech. In addition. <1.11 oth~r US?S of (~) by t,he interment were noted, from remarks overheard or contalned rn !.l:Ie mten'tcw. For _each plainly eoastricted value of the variable. (r- ~)wa!i entered: for uI1conSl~I_ ~ed schwa" lengtiu!n.cdi vowel, or no rCpfe$Cnta~M:mi (r-u) was entered: Doubtful cases (;I r p a rt i al co nst ricrio n ~ve re s~' m bol ized d iii nd wcren ot used In the fl nat


Also noted were instances of affricatcs or steps used ill the wordfarlr!~1 for

then,nat COI\!;OrHlIlt, and ,i\'I:lY ether examp es of mmsla.'Ild.ud ('1.11) varHllUS

used by the, spcnker. . .

This method or iruervicwing was upplied ill each aisle on the, ;\oor a~

many tiH'LCS <'IS possible before tbc- ~p!ldl'Lg of lhei.nrormat1lls Iocc[t[l~c so close thaI it W8.~ noticed thal tile same question had been asked before. Each floor or the store was ill\lc~tigated in th,~ same 'way, On the lourth floor, thC' form

of the question was, necessarily different:


Following rlus methcd, 68 interviews were obtained in Saks, 125 in Macy's, and 71 in Kleins, Total intcl:viewing time for the: 264 subjccis \1,'il5. approxtnu lely 6.5 hours.

At. this point, \\"C might. consider thcneture of these 264 intel"ltiewsi in more general terms. They were speech f\ICtUS which had cntLr,ely diffcrent S'OcD,\! signincanc,e for the two participanrs, As far H~ the iMormarlt W!l~ cancer ned. the exc hll ng~ was, a nor rn a I sa les mall-C ustomer ill te r ac t io n, almost below the level of conscious attention, in wh~ch relanens of lhe speake rs were so C!I sua I an a no Iliym OUi th a l they rn R y 11 3 rd I!r' h ave been said to have mel. This teIU.!ousrt:!]p WlIS the minimum lntrualcn upon tho behavior or the subject; langll.age and the use or language never

a.p pea.rcd at all. .

From. the point of view 0,( the int,e:rviewer, the exchange WH,S, a systematic )ilicit4!ltion of the exact fculns required, in the desired ecrucxt, the desired order, and with 'the desired contrast of style.


The results of the study showed dear and cOb1si~tent stratificalio],l of (r). in the three $ ores, In Figure i. 3.1 i the lSI:' of (r) by employees or S:!Iks"bc)!,,'s and Klcills is compared by means of a bar graph. Slilce the datu for most informan s con~,iS,l of only four items, We will not use a ,conlil'lu<;JII,~s numerical index for (1"). but Father divide all informants into three categories,

flU (r-I): those whQSI~ records show ol'i~)" (r- i) and no (r.O)

some {r.l}: those whose rec ord s she W 11l le au 0 ne (r-l) and 0 ne (r-O) no (r-I): those whose records showed orlly (r.O)

S. !<leijli
30 20 ~
N", 6a 125 71 Figure' 13.1: Overnll MJiUifklilioll of (r) by ~~ore. Shaded ,IlHli.i "" % aU (r _ I); umha.i\d'Ed area = % ~om¢ (r ~ .), % 110 (r -I) net sbowl'l_ N"" tOiti.l nunlber of CBSC".$


4th floor 41h floor
63 64 I




1:<::..5 __ -_-

o Figure 1 J.2: J>cr~ntl!g;c of <iill (r - I) by Uo~ for four POSillon$ (S = :;i,llks, M ."". T\{:u::y'~,. K ... KI!CliiS)



1 um indebted to Frank Anshcn ul'ld MMllinMtl',,!::rick Hurris fer refercnce \0 illumin ting repliciHiofiS Df' ~hi~ stLLdy (AUe 1 1968, H~rri5 .196R)

C. Wright Mills, Wfcill! CI>(lar(Nr.,w York: Oxford UT\I\'er:!iH)' Press, 1~56), p: l n. Sec also p, 243: 'The 1~lldcnc}' (If white-coUar people tQ berrow siaurs I rnm hLgh~L. tkm~nls, is SD ~UDrI~ thlH ~q hOl~ ~jHnC[! over lCi ai~ 50t~;]Jl conUr;ts and (C;L~~r..:~ at lh~ Sa]e~p~oplc in dcpartn1cnl sWrC3 , . _ rrcqucL1ltl~' ;HccmpL, ~1thCllll~h afl~1'i umm:iCcss[ully, W borrow pr~s~IBc rmm lh~;r ~OIH;~'Cl \~'!l~ C\~$IOm~r~, .L~tL' to c'llSh it in I~ni[)n!! work ct'lne[I!!\lc~ 1IS \\leU ns rnctid; olT ~h~ lOD [n th' 'I;i~!l ~I\): the girl who works Onl _l4th Strcet ClLnnm successfully duim as much Nemg,!! us

the one who werks rm FiI1h 1""~"lle or 37'Lh Streci.' ,

:3 T IS stiHemCI'l'- is f~llIy c()nfmnetl by iLns,w~rs La 1I. q~ 1:5110n on t1ie~\ SP1LI)(11" r lldlm'bip in the MobihzlHiol'l lo:r Youtll SLlr .. ey of the Le ~'cr E" sl SLd~. The

nmdersnip' 0,( the DClily News L,I\d Dildy Mirro« (noew deflll1!ct) 011 -nLl ond,.m~. ~l'Id the N~w r,,·rk n,jjf/S i'll'!d Hf'T(lrd T',ibrJ'w (now d~ftlncO Oil. uhl.: other hll!l1Ill~

almost complcit\cni{lry ln distribution by social cI;lSS~ . _ ,

4 Mnc~'s seles etltpt('JyC·~s are rcpr~'se:nl!ut by a Mro~g umnn, while SakS. I~ nut ~1 n i 0 niacd, Oil e fa r I'I'N Macy's e mpl oyec cons I d e!'~d. i ~ i\ cJtn t l e r "r. C o mmo n kn oillled gc t hill Sa ks wll,gcs we ee lower lrm n M 1LC-Y's. and l ha t l be ? resuge of! 11 e ~tor~ hclP"!'d ro lHail1~~1TI irs ~flLml"lIOIli position. Il(WUS~5 ?I'IJ other ~I1CrCmGrH~ ~r~ ~:lid 10 erucr into the picture. U li'im ;l is Ilmlr~ dlmcult f~t il)'.OUI1S ~~I'I [(1 get n job ~t Silks than at Macy's, Tbu Sn.s has. mor~ lc=wnYI~ iUring r~hr:~~~, and Ill!.! t~l\di! of the store omci!Lls to select g~rh who speak m l! CC turn Wily will plllY 111. l~;Lrt ill the strati flctltion (if lan[!\t!ige, as woll ns rhe iHiJustmcnt urude by ~h cml,lo) ces ID Iheir sittmtiol'l_ Both influences {:on."'H~~ to prod', ee

Sli[ tir~Cill~on,

.5 A Cormer tacy's ~mplo)'ce told me of un incidelH. that occurred snortly before

Chri:stmos several )'c~n ;Igo. As she WLlS shoppllt:g in lord RIll! Taylor"s, she Scl\\ the preskllcm of the comp<Hl), m.ILking ihe rounds ofc~'cry ai~le and sn,~l.::in~ h'L~l~S with eVi!ry cnlp1{lyce, When she !.Clid lieu rcllow employ~cs ~l M!.~C)' s about this sceee, tlbC n'I' common remark was, ·'Ho·\I,I else de _YOU ge'l someone ~o work fer that kind or mone,y1' One can S~i' thal flol only do the en1ployces of h,ghcr-s~atLis stores borrow pre;!;tiQc from their ,en'ploy~r - it i~ also deliberatel)' 10. ned to

lht!m. . ,

6 Tb in eeviewer in all ClISe'SW[,S, myself. I W.1I5 drcs,,(](i I' middle-class sLyl!:, WIIll

jacket while shirt lind tie, and used I'i'l~' norm i:l I prcnunciatlon as a collegecUIlCl.'!;~d native or New .Icrs~J' (r·pr,Mo\Lncing),

7 Notes wQ'~ also mnde QL1 the do!pa.rtmenl ill WhLCh the ~m]liOl'ce was lo-cated, but ~ ilo Imm be ,s lIor i ndi VLdll,[1 I depa runerus are' no I ~(\r ti~ eno lEn to a Htm

c Dn1 p •. ~ rl so n.

Sah Macy's S. KhM
C,~wlJl £mphwi,r; C(l.m(1/ £1 lprrlll ir Ccm~{jl EI'J~'li,Hic ~
(r) 4fh floor Jj'h jku.rr 4IrIJI(}o~ 41hfloor .Jill fitJor 4tiJ fl(JtJr
(T-] ) 17 31 H, 2.1 33 48 13 )l ;. S 6 7
(1;·0) ]9 18 24 12 &1 62 2(] oJ 59 I~O JJ
d II S 4 4 0 J o ~ ! 3 1
No data" 8 l4 24 31 II 74 ;J I} n 28
To til I 1\0, 68 es 6~ lSi !2S lU 7i i]
~ 71 7' '"The 'no t111,'m' cil,lcgory for Macy" rei ,liv~ly high values under the emphatic I,.egory. Thb discrepancy i~ due' to the facl ih::U lh~' proced ure for req IlC-S t.i ng, rep eti t ion wasnot s,mnd nnhzcd i n Ih~ U nvesi Lilli I Lon 0 r t he g.rol.ll1 d fl OOr .11 M~{:y's. und values (or ~nlphatic response were not rCi,lll.lnrl,y ebtuined, The dfcm of ~ his le ss ~ r~ checked i n Ta b 1 ~ ! 3 _ 2, whe re OIlIY com pie te re spon m a ~~ compared,

Since the numbers in the fourth position arc sornewhai smauer than the second. it might be suspected that those who use lrl in Saks and MfiCI/,S lend to give fullcr I'CSPQIlSeS, l.h\I$ .giviBg rise to • spurious impression of i·ncrcas~ in (r) values in those positions. We can check his poim by comparing only thosewho gave R complete response. Their responses can be symbolized by a r01.!T-digil. number, representing the prcnunciarion in. each of the; Jour positions respectively (sec Table t 3.2).-

Thus we sec th~l the; pattern or differential rankiug In the use of (r) is, preserved in lhLS subgroup of complete responses, and orntsslon of the fI.nal 'f1oo,' by SOI,ll'C, respeadenu was not a f""~lm in. this pattern.

Table /1,2: Distribl.ltiol'l of (r) lor C01t1p']W-, r~!lpOl'lSes

(r) Sales Marys S, ,'''e'rPI
I\H (r.i) l 1 ~ 2~ 22 6
Some (rot) o i ! 46 :17 12
{I Q t
(I .I I) 1 ere.
No (r-I) () Q 0 o 30 41 &2
100 ron 100
N= 33 ... _.4

Allen, p, (196 ) '/[1 Vllriillolc in the Speee lOr New Yorkers in DC,P!LI'til ~iit Srores' Unpublished resocHlrch paper (SUN'.': Stony Brook)-



C Sr. '",



_,,_ I..:,

-.;'I-l-lm'-L~r class :2-4' .... ·orking class

5. .. 6~ 7-tl;: ] ....... vcr ~iliJ,j~e - ~~'J. s: U??er IT,L::ldlf cI.1~:;

-~- ~~.:-=~ai ~F ~-=(_"1

,,: c.;!~,.-lu~ s~ ':';::';:-- d~-;::;,_alo-""....e._.-

::::: ~C,~~:~,.:; ~- ~ ~~~, 'Y-'.~' sat'.(,

D- -,' «rd l: " " ',,' t tc~c... ·"1" -~f>;!~

, .. ,-'~- " ~

~ ~~: ::1i:lir.~~ _ :-'iC. ;'.

rIG ].3 SOO<l.l and ~~ylb[k stratifiranon of p(.J~L"J-r;::Ji;(" 1:-" In :';'_",,' i'ock :~_"., stratlfication of a 1i!"_g- ... i$~~~~~· ~·:!...j:-~I!..:" ;:1 ·~:rc~~5.::: 0:\[ ::h2~g.;.: 'r j::-~ C:'~ :;:;uL~., ~'.,;~'r:'-.1n.L !>-ou~'"fl. e~,,)

... -....-" ... ~ ... - .. _- -_. __ . .,...-....,_ ... _-------"_ ............. _-, ......... ....,. ............. ,-- -- ---.......__._._---_ ..... _-_: .......... __ ._ ..

Middle middl:e' da:s~'

lo~r mkld'ie dMS -

llIp,pe;r wfiiTkiiii9 d.J5.'5 , .Mitiidleworl:E!'I!'J dass :,.- _.

~Qwer 'working '1EiaS1S' :

~n 42 87._ ,95



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. , '-"9::1

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