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Version 1.

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An e-book by Kenneth Ng
SMK KOLOMBONG
KOTA KINABALU
2008

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Disclaimer:

This e-book is meant to be used as a guide to help teachers


prepare their students to sit for the SPM exams. It is provided
free of charge on a ‘best intention’ basis. The author shall not
be held responsible for any inaccuracies contain therein or
any outcome arising from the use of this e-book.

Condition of use:

This e-book may be distributed in its original form free of


charge. It is not to be sold for any profit.

Kenneth Ng

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BIOLOGY 1

1. Read the entire question and all the answer choices


before deciding on the answer.

2. Mark your answer clearly on the Objective Answer


Sheet.

3. If you cannot answer a question, go on to the next


question. Remember to come back to this question
later. This will prevent you from wasting precious
time.

4. Go through your answers after you have finished.


You might want to change some of your answers.

BIOLOGY 2 - STRUCTURED QUESTIONS

1. Write neatly and clearly.

2. Be brief and to the point – it is not necessary to


repeat the question.

3. Show your working for any calculation work. (Write


down the formula, substitute the values into the
formula, complete the calculation)

4. Use a pencil to draw diagrams or graphs.

5. Label diagram and graphs clearly.

6. Use the marks allocated to determine how much you


should write. One mark is allocated for one point.

7. Use the instruction guide to answer the questions.


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BIOLOGY 2 - ESSAY QUESTIONS

1. Read all the questions before choosing those that


you want to answer.

2. Re-read the chosen questions carefully to make sure


you are interpreting them correctly.

3. You may explain your answer using appropriate


diagrams (be sure to label all diagrams), equations,
graphs, tables or any other suitable methods.

4. Give your answers according to the key instruction


words. Use the INSTRUCTION GUIDE below.

5. You may give your answer in point form. Check the


number of points in your answer with the number of
marks allocated for the question. (One point is
usually allocated one mark). If possible give one or
two more points than the maximum marks allocated.

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INSTRUCTION GUIDE AND RESPONSE

Key instruction word Answer

What is …? Give the actual name. Spelling for


scientific terms and names must be
accurate.

How many Give the quantity, no need for


calculation

calculate Show the workings of your


calculation and the final answer

Name Give the correct name, scientific


names must be underlined

State Just give the fact. No explanations or


descriptions needed.

List State the facts in point form.

Define Define the term clearly and


completely.

Why Give the reasons

How Explain step by step how it takes


place

Compare Give the similarities and differences


explicitly. Use a table.

What are the differences Give the differences explicitly. Use a

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table.

Describe Tell the story, an account of, state


the main points of the topic. No
elaborate explanation of why and
how is necessary

Discuss Give your opinion from different


aspects, viewpoints or arguments.

Contrast / Distinguish Give the differences only.

Evaluate Give the positive and negative


aspects.

Explain Clarify what, how or why. State the


fact followed by a few sentences to
elaborate it.

Illustrate Explain or clarify by using diagrams,


drawings or figures.

Outline Briefly give the important points.

Summarize Present concisely all main points.

Tick () in the box Tick () in the box, DO NOT use a
cross ().

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Example for Describe and Explain

Describe the graph

As the temperature increase from 0 oC to 40 oC , the rate of


enzyme activity also increases. The rate of enzyme activity is
maximum at 40 oC . As the temperature increases above 40
o
C , the rate of enzyme activity decreases.

Explain the graph

As the temperature increase from 0 oC to 40 oC , the rate of


enzyme activity also increases . At these temperatures, the
enzyme is more active as the temperature increases because

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the rate of collision between the enzymes and the substrate
molecules increases with the increase of temperature. The
rate of enzyme activity is maximum at 40 oC because this
temperature is optimum for the enzyme to function. As the
temperature increases above 40 oC, the rate of enzyme
activity decreases because the enzymes begin to denature
due to the high temperature.

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PAPER 3 : QUESTION 1

The following scientific skills are tested in Question 1:

1. OBSERVATION

QUESTION : State two observations….

ANSWER : Write down what can be observed only. Do not do


any analysis, comparison or conclusion. For most
experiments, the observation can be written in the form:

The ….(responding variable) ….. at …..(manipulated


variable)… is (state reading of measuring instrument)

( Write the observation for the highest and lowest value of


the responding variable.)

Example:

The time taken for the starch to be completely hydrolysed at


5 oC is 45 minutes.

The time taken for the starch to be completely hydrolysed at


40 oC is 5 minutes.

2. INFERENCE

State one inference which corresponds to each observation.


An inference is a brief explanation of the observation, based
on scientific knowledge which you already know.

Example:

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The time taken for starch to be completely hydrolysed at 5 oC
is 45 minutes because the low temperature causes the
enzymes to react slowly with the substrate.

The time taken for starch to be completely hydrolysed at 5 oC


is 5 minutes because the higher temperature causes the
enzymes to react quickly with the substrate.

3. MEASURING AND USING NUMBERS

Record the reading of thermometer, stopwatch, ruler etc.


from the given diagram.

4. COMMUNICATING

Construct the table with the manipulated variable as the first


column and the responding variable as the second column.
Data derived or calculated from the second column can be
added to the third column. Show the calculations in the third
column itself. Units of measurements should be written
together with table titles, not with readings.

Example

Temperature / Time for starch to be Rate of reaction


o
C completely hydrolysed / / min -1
min

5 10 1/10 = 0.1

15 5 1 / 5 = 0.2

30 2 1 / 2 = 0.5

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5. INTERPRETING DATA

Explain / state the relationship between manipulated and


responding variables as obtained from a graph of the results.

Example: As the temperature increases from 5 oC to 45 oC,


the time taken for the complete hydrolysis of starch
decreases from 45 minutes to 5 minutes.

6. CONTROLLING VARIABLES

Variables Describe how you control the variables

State the variable Use action words and name the instruments used

MANIPULATED Use / ….

Temperature Use a thermometer to measure the temperature of


the water bath and add ice or warm water to
maintain the temperature of the water bath. Place
the test tubes in the different water baths.

RESPONDING Record / measure using ….

Time taken for Record the time taken for the enzyme substrate
complete mixture to lose its blue colour.
hydrolysis of starch

CONTROLLED Use the same…/ Maintain …

Concentration of Use the same amount of enzyme ( 1 ml) in each of


enzyme the experiment.

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7. MAKING HYPHOTHESIS

Able to state the hypothesis correctly based on the following


criteria:

• State the manipulated variable

• State the responding variable

• Relate the manipulated variable and the responding


variable (do not use vague relationships like ‘affects’
or ‘influence’ or ‘changes with’). Commit to using
terms like: ‘increases with’ / ‘decreases with’ .

8. PREDICTING

QUESTION : If the experiment is repeated ….., predict the


observation ……

ANSWER : Give a value or relevant statement e.g. the


(responding variable) will be higher / lower than (the value in
the first experiment) followed by a the reason …

EXAMPLE: What will the rate of transpiration be at fan speed


3, if the experiment is repeated in the dark?

The transpiration rate at fan speed 3 will be less then (value


recorded) because the stomata is closed in the dark and less
water will be loss through them.

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9. DEFINING OPERATIONALLY

Give a definition based on the context of the experiment.

EXAMPLE 1: An experiment is carried out to investigate


photosynthesis and the number of bubbles released is
counted. The operational definition of photosynthesis would
then be:

Photosynthesis is the process where green plants release


bubbles in the presence of light, carbon dioxide and water.

EXAMPLE 2: An experiment is carried out to investigate


photosynthesis and leaves are tested with iodine solution for
the presence of starch. The operational definition of
photosynthesis would be:

Photosynthesis is the process where green leaves in the


presence of light, carbon dioxide and water, produce starch
which turns iodine solution dark blue.

EXAMPLE 3: An experiment is carried out to investigate


transpiration under different fan speeds. The operational
definition of transpiration would be:

Transpiration is the process where a plant loses water to the


surrounding which is indicated by the movement of water or
air bubble in the capillary tube and is affected by speed of
the air current.

(You should include the variables in the context of the


experiment / experimental conditions and .)

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10. CLASSIFYING

Group the materials or apparatus listed using a table with the


headings provided. Group them according to their function in
the experiment.

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11. USING SPACE-TIME RELATIONSHIP

State the changes of the responding variable with time. Use


relationship words like increases with / decreases with /
remains constant with / increases proportionately with / etc.
Do not use neutral relationship terms like affects / influences
/ changes with.

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PAPER 3 : QUESTION 2

This question tests student’s ability to plan an experiment


in a given format. Students must have all of the following :

1. Problem statement

2. Aim of investigation

3. Variables

4. Hypothesis

5. List of apparatus and materials

6. Technique used

7. Experimental procedure or method

8. Presentation of data

9. Conclusion

1. PROBLEM STATEMENT

Must be written in the form of a question – End with a


question mark.

Eg. Does pH affect the activity of amylase?

2. OBJECTIVE

Write down the objective as given in the question.

Eg. To investigate the effect of pH on the activity of amylase?

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3. VARIABLES :

Write down 3 variables. (Manipulated variable, responding


variable and controlled variable. The controlled variable
must be one that will affect the outcome of the experiment if
not kept constant.)

4. HYPOTHESIS

Able to state the hypothesis correctly based on the following


criteria:

• State the manipulated variable

• State the responding variable

• Relate the manipulated variable and the responding


variable

5. MATERIALS AND APPARATUS

List down all the materials and apparatus used.

6. TECHNIQUE

In a complete sentence, write down what is observed or


measured (include the instrument used). State the specific
name of the technique where applicable.

Example :

(i) Measure and record the volume of fruit juices needed to


decolorize blue DCPIP , using a syringe.

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(ii)Measure and record the initial and final temperature of
the water in the boiling tube using a thermometer.

7. PROCEDURE

Write down each step clearly and systematically. Your steps


should include:

Steps where you describe how apparatus and materials are


handled.

Steps where you describe how the controlled variable is


maintained

Steps where you describe how the manipulated variable is


altered

Steps where you describe how the responding variable is


measured and the instrument to be used.

Precautionary steps which ensure safety / improve accuracy


of readings.

(write the steps as a set of instructions or direct speech and


not in passive speech)

8. PRESENTATION OF DATA

Construct the table with the correct titles and units. Leave
the table blank. The experiment is not carried out yet, so the
results are not yet available.

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9. CONCLUSION

Repeat or modify the hypothesis sentence. You may then


write whether the hypothesis is accepted or rejected.

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The roots of education are bitter, but the fruit is sweet.

Aristotle

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