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SESSION 1 – PART 1

 Main Steam Flow at Superheater outlet.


 Auxiliary Steam Consumptions before stop valve.
 Main Steam Pressure at superheater outlet.
 Main Steam Temperature at superheater outlet.
 Feed Water Temperature at Economiser Inlet.
 Main Steam Flow at Superheater outlet.
 Auxiliary Steam Consumptions before stop valve.
 Main Steam Pressure at superheater outlet.
 Main Steam Temperature at superheater outlet.
 Feed Water Temperature at Economiser Inlet.

 Steam flow at reheater outlet.


 Steam pressure at reheater inlet.
 Steam pressure at reheater outlet.
 Steam Temperature reheater outlet.
 Feed Water Temperature at Economiser Inlet.
 The heat to be transferred to steam would change
as per HP heater water outlet temperature

 If there are long term instances for HP heater –


out of service- same to be specified.
 Steam coil preheating requirement
 Soot blower steam requirement.
 Drum coil preheating.
 Furnace coil preheating.
 Furnace oil heat tracing
 Steam atomization.
 Deaerator steam requirement
 Ejector steam requirement
 HP / LP gland sealing - generally taken care of
turbine maker.
 TAKE CARE OF THE PRESSURE DROP
BETWEEN BOILER TERMINAL POINT TO THE
FARTHEST TURBINE INCASE CROSS OVER
PIPING / COMMON STEAM HEATER SYSTEM IS
CONSIDERED.
Pr drop for ID<152 Delta P = 122.364 x 10^6 x F^1.85 x V x TEL / ID^4.97

Pr drop for ID>152 Delta P = 89.254 x 10^6 x {1 + (91.44/ID) } F^2 x V x TEL / ID^5

V - Specific volume, m3/kg


TEL - total equivalent length, m
F - flow in a circuit , kg/s
ID - inside diameter of tube / pipe , mm
DARCY'S EQUATION
Pr drop: (3.36E-6 x FF x F^2 x EL x SP.V / (ID^5) )

Friction
Tube ID inch Di mm
Factor
Darcy friction factor(FF) no 12.7 0.028
Flow(F) lb/h 19.05 0.025
Equivalent length(EL) ft 25.4 0.023
38.1 0.021
Specific volume(SP.V) cft/lb 50.8 0.02
Pressure drop psi 63.5 0.018
76.2 0.018
101.6 0.017
127 0.016
203.2 0.014
254 0.013
No off
length metre
ID
entry no 20
exit no 40
squeeze bend no 75
180 bend no 50
90 short rad bend (R<3d) no 32
90 std radius ( r = 3d) no 26
90 long rad bend ( R>3d) no 20
45 short rad bend ( r<3d) no 15
45 long rad bend ( R >3d) no 12
reducer no 120
expander no 100
Tee - entering run no 60
Tee- entering branch no 90
 Generally 5 – 10 deg C drop is expected in main
steam line.
 Selection and proper application of insulation is
important to ensure not much temperature is
dropped across the steam piping.
 Stepped over insulation and sagged insulation are
causes for temperature drop.
HP turbine exhaust pressure – IP turbine inlet pressure

Generally the reheater pressure drop is


designed for 50 % of allowable total
pressure drop
 Fuels to be fired
 Fuel ultimate analysis. (Element Constituents.)
such as – C,H,N,O,S etc.,
 As fired fuel moisture
 Calorific value of fuel – as fired
 Ambient temperature
 Relative humidity
 Type of combustion system
 Boiler exit gas temperature as dictated by flue
gas composition
Boiler Heat Output / Duty =
Steam Flow x (Main Steam Enthalpy – Feed Water Enthalpy)
If the HP Heater is out then the Boiler heat output has to
increase by 9.6% since the Feed Water temperature is lower.
Importance of GCV
Ways of Reporting

 Air Dried Basis


 As Received Basis
 As Sampled Basis
 As Fired Basis
 Bone dry basis
 Dry mineral matter free basis
• Samples received at lab are left open
to lab ambient conditions (Usually
Standardized Temp and relative
humidity) for equilibrium moisture.
• Data reported on the air dried sample
basis is called air dried basis (ADB).
• This refers to data reported on the
basis of as received moisture.
• Such samples are received at lab in
properly packed containers.
• At plant conditions, the samples may be
delivered to lab just as sampled
immediately.
• This is very much required to know the
heat content in coal as received from
suppliers.
• Surface moisture burden is usually
deducted as per PO.
 Has relevance to boiler performance.
 The coal gets dried at yard, on handling, on
crushing & screening before it reaches boiler
terminal point.
 The moisture / ash / volatile matter / fired carbon
can change considerably from receipt to firing.
 Data expressed on moisture removed
basis is called dry basis.
 It is also called as “Bone Dry” basis.
• The mineral matter converts to ash on
combustion.
• Some of the minerals may also leave as
vapor form.
• Data expressed on DMMF basis is useful
for coal rank classification.
 Calorific value is the heat produced by the
combustion of a unit quantity of coal in a bomb
calorimeter with oxygen under a specified set of
conditions
 Calorific value is expressed as GCV or HHV
 Alternately expressed as LCV or LHV
 In GCV all the vapor produced in combustion
process is full condensed. The latent heat is
added to GCV and thus GCV is higher to LCV
 Net calorific value informs that the water is
removed as vapor with the combustion products.
 In Bomb calorimeter, the fuel is burnt with oxygen and
the heat is absorbed by water
 Correction to be given for formation of Nitric acid &
Sulphuric acid
 The oxidation of nitrogen and formation of nitric acid
does not occur in actual combustion equipment. This is
an exothermic reaction
 Only 5% sulphur-dioxide is oxidised to SO3 in actual
combustor. In bomb calorimeter all the SO2 is burnt to
SO3 as sulphur oxygen is available and higher pressure
 Heat is liberated additionally when SO2 is oxidised to
SO3 and in formation of Sulphuric acid
 For a reaction carried out in a calorimeter, the heat
evolved by a reaction is absorbed by the calorimeter
and its contents.
qrxn = – qcalorimeter
qcalorimeter = mass x specific heat x △T
 By measuring the temperature change that occurs in a
calorimeter, and using the specific heat and mass of
the contents, the heat evolved (or absorbed) by a
reaction can be determined and the enthalpy change
calculated.
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN AIR DRIED
BASIS GCV & AS FIRED GCV

At LAB, the fuel sample is powdered and dried.


Portion of fuel moisture thus gone.
The fuel GCV is thus called GCV on air dried basis.

(100 – MAFR)
AS FIRED GCV = x GCVADB
(100 – MADB)
MAFR - Moisture as fired (To be done by plant
lab).
MADB - Moisture air dried basis
GCVADB - GCV air dried basis (from Lab report)
DIFFERENCE BETWEEN AIR DRIED
BASIS GCV & AS RECEIVED GCV

At LAB, the fuel sample is powdered and dried.


Portion of fuel moisture thus gone.
The fuel GCV is thus called GCV on air dried basis.

(100 – MAR)
AS RECD GCV = x GCVADB
(100 – MADB)
MAR - Moisture as recd (To be done by plant lab).
MADB - Moisture air dried basis
GCVADB - GCV air dried basis (from Lab report)
 As fired GCV is used for boiler efficiency
calculation.
 As sampled basis is used for paying the
vendor.
 Air dried basis / bone dry basis is used for
knowing the trend of GCV.
Efficiency

 When we convertt Fuel


Wh F l (Fossil)
(F il) Energy
E t Steam,
to St
there are losses

Efficiency
y = Heat liberated by
y Fuel – Losses
Heat liberated by fuel
Loss 1-
1-Heat lost through unburned carbon particles
in the ash removed from the boiler

 Depending
D di upon the
th combustion
b ti mechanism
h i th
the
unburned carbon particles are found in the ash.
 The fuel size, the combustor design, fuel moisture
/ fixed carbon / ash / volatile matter govern this
loss.
 Measured as LOI ( loss on ignition
g or GCV of ash))
 LOI is the weight loss of the ash sample when
reburning is done at lab furnace.
Loss 1:
1: Heat lost through unburned carbon particles in
boiler
bo e ash
as

LOI is different from heat lost through ash


Heat lost though unburnt cannot be calculated on LOI basis
for high GCV ash such as the case of Petcoke ash

Fly ash collected per day = 60 Tons

Petcoke consumption per day = 230 tons


Calorific value of fly ash = 2500 kcal/kg
Calorific value of carbon = 8050 kcal/kg

Fuel GCV = 8010 kcal/kg

HLS1-1, unburnt carbon loss in fly = 100 x 60 x 2500 / (230 x 8010)


ash
= 8.14%
Loss 2:
2: Heat lost towards sensible heat of ash in
fuel

 Depending upon the boiler arrangement the ash


collection rate and ash temperatures vary at
various ash hoppers.
hoppers
 Some of the heat given by the fuel is used up for
letting
l tti the
th ashh att higher
hi h temperature
t t than
th the
th
temperature at which it came into the combustor.
Loss 2:
2: Heat lost towards sensible heat in ash

 Fly ash is let out of system at 140 deg C


 Bed ash is let out at 200 degg C in case a cooler is used.
Loss 3:
3: Heat lost though heating up at atmospheric
moisture

 The water vapor prevalent in atmospheric air also


gets inside the furnace when the fan supplies
combustion air.
air
 Naturally, a part of the heat has to be given for
heating
h ti the
th water
t vapor from
f atmospheric
t h i
temperature to boiler exit temperature.
Loss 3:
3: Heat lost through heating up of
atmospheric moisture
Loss 4
Heat lost through the evaporation of fuel moisture and the
moisture formed during combustion due to fuel constituents
such as hydrogen and hydrocarbons (Methane / Ethane)

 There is always some moisture in fuel.


fuel In agro fuels such
as bagasse, wood it could be as much as 50%
 Part of the heat from the fuel is used up for evaporation of
fuel moisture and the water vapor formed during
combustion of hydrogen, hydrocarbons.
 Depending on the exit temperature, the water vapor
leaves the boiler at superheated condition.
Loss 4:
4: Heat lost through evaporation of fuel
moisture & moisture formed during combustion

 As fired moisture
moist re is a key
ke parameter in this loss
 Manipulation of H2 content can vary the loss
 Since the heat lost through the flue gas through
air moisture are separately estimated, the left
out components is the heat through the dry flue
gas.
 Byy designing
g g the boiler for low exit g gas
temperature the loss can be kept minimum.
 Further the lower the excess air percentage,
Further, percentage
the loss will be lower.
Loss 6: Radiation heat lost to surrounding

 Radiation losses occur due to heat flow from the


h t insulated
hot i l t d / uninsulated
i l t d surface
f off the
th boiler
b il
and accessories.
 A portion of the heat from fuel goes for this . The
condition of boiler insulation will decide this.
Heat loss is unavoidable, but it can minimized,
by choosing to apply insulation in the proper
manner to the required thickness.
 Standard radiation heat loss chart is available to
estimate the heat lost surrounding. The % loss
can be about 0.5%.
Loss 6: Radiation heat lost to surrounding
Boiler Thermal Efficiency
Heat loss due to limestone addition in a boiler

CaCO3 to Co2 & CaO‐ heat required


CaCO3 to Co2 & CaO heat required kcal/kg 436.6
MgCO3 to CO2 & MgO ‐ heat required kcal/kg 284.8
SO2 to CaSO4‐ heat given by reaction kcal/kg 3620.48

 Calcination needs heat input.


 Sulfation gives heat.
 In addition there is moisture added by limestone
which adds to additional heat loss
Heat loss due to limestone addition 

CaCO3 to Co2 & CaO‐ heat required kcal/kg 436.6


MgCO3 to CO2 & MgO ‐ heat required
MgCO3 to CO2 & MgO  heat required kcal/kg 284.8

SO2 to CaSO4‐ heat given by reaction kcal/kg 3620.48

Fuel fed
Fuel fed kg/h = 100
Moisture fed in limestone kg/h = 1.8
Dry Lime stone fed kg/h = 15
Fraction of CaCo3 in limestone kg/kg = 0.75
F ti
Fraction of MgCo3 in limestone
f M C 3 i li t k /k
kg/kg = 0 15
0.15
Inerts in limestone kg/kg = 0.4
GCV of fuel kcal/kg = 7900
Heat loss due to calcination of CaCo3 &  Kcal/kg of fuel = ( 15 / 100 )  x  ( 0.75 x 436.6) + (0.15 x 284.8)
MgCO3
= 55.5255
Sulfur content in fuel kg/kg = 0.007
% SOX capture
% p % = 80
Heat gain from sulfation reaction kcal/kg of fuel fired = 0.007 x ( 80 / 100 ) x 3620.48

= 20.27
Sensible heat addition to limestone
Sensible heat addition to limestone Kcal/kg = ( 15 / 100 ) x 0 24 x 100
( 15 /  100 ) x 0.24 x 100
Kcal/kg = 3.6
Moisture heat loss = (M / F )x [595.4+(Cp1 x Te) ‐Ta] x 100 / GCV
= 10.61
Efficiency loss due to limestone feeding % = 100*(55.5255 + 3.6 + 10.61 ‐ 20.27 )/7900

= 0.63
Fuel Firing Rate
LOSS 1: HEAT LOST THROUGH UNBURNED CARBON 
PARTICLES IN THE ASH
PARTICLES IN THE ASH

 Smaller the fuel size,


size more surface area is exposed
for O2 reaction.
reaction.
 H
However optimum
ti fi
fines are there
th f allll coal
for coal.l. CBFC
accepts more fines as compared to BFBC BFBC.. PF also
needs
d only
l specified
ifi d fuel
f l size.
size
i .
LOSS 1: HEAT LOST THROUGH UNBURNED CARBON 
PARTICLES IN THE ASH
PARTICLES IN THE ASH

 Three ‘T’s, namely, Time, Temperature and


Turbulence are the factors for a complete
combustion..
combustion
 The three factors varyy with the combustion
technology..
technology
 FBC Technology with underbed fuel feeding
arrangement ensures three ‘T’S are available.
available.
LOSS 1: HEAT LOST THROUGH UNBURNED CARBON 
PARTICLES IN THE ASH
PARTICLES IN THE ASH

 Overfed FBC boilers certainly fall behind in this


respect,
p , as the residence time for the fuel to stayy
within the bed is less
less..
 CFBC technology with hot cyclone / cold cyclone /
U beam separator + Cyclone provide adequate
residence time for better combustion unless &
until the size of the fuel / ash is below the cut off
off..
TIP FOR CFBC

 Poor cyclone efficiency can affect the boiler output


due to less p
particle inventory
inventory.
y.
 Particle size distribution at ESP first field ash
hopper should be monitored in CFBC CFBC.. In case the
percentage of 100 microns and above is seen, it
implies deterioration in CFBC performance
performance..
TIP FOR AFBC

In AFBC
 Bed temperature should be minimum 850 deg C.C
 Shallow bed leads to high elutriation loss.
 Denser bed leads to high elutriation loss.
TIP FOR PF

In PF boiler
 High PA leads to more loss.
loss
 Unbalance in fuel piping leads to unburnt loss of
carbon.
b
 Too less O2 leads to poor combustion.
TIP FOR TRAVELING GRATE

In travagrate boiler

 Grit refiring would help.


 Proper secondary air turbulence will reduce loss.
 Particle size control helps
p – more fines more loss.
LOSS 2: HEAT LOST TOWARDS SENSIBLE 
HEAT OF ASH IN FUEL
HEAT OF ASH IN FUEL
 If it is practical, all the ash should be removed from the
flue gas at dust collector before chimney. Depending on
the boiler configurations, ash hoppers are to be provided
wherever the gas takes a turn.
 Ash coolers are used to recover the heat from the ash
particularly where the ash is removed from the furnace.
TIPS FOR CFBC / AFBC

 Stripper coolers separate finer particles and recycle


to furnace alone with hot air.
 fluidized bed HX with condensate heating system
can be used.
used
 Rotary ash coolers are widely used by Chinese,
where only condensate is used for heat recovery
from ash.
LOSS 3: HEAT LOST THROUGH THE EVAPORATION 
OF FUEL MOISTURE & THE MOISTURE FORMED
OF FUEL MOISTURE & THE MOISTURE FORMED 
DURING COMBUSTION

 The
e main
a factor
acto iss tthee fuel
ue moisture.
o stu e CClosed
osed ssheds
eds to p
prevent
e e t
rainwater entry into fuel storage yard would keep the loss
minimum.
 Solar drying of fuel would help in achieving overall economy.
Flue gas drying is being adopted in the case of bagasse.
LOSS 4: HEAT LOST THROUGH HEATING UP 
ATMOSPHERIC MOISTURE
ATMOSPHERIC MOISTURE

 As explained earlier,
earlier the loss is because of the
moisture in ambient.
 One has to ensure the air is not drawn from closed
rooms where the air is saturated with water vapor
such as paper mills,
mills or near cooling tower.
tower
LOSS 5: RADIATION HEAT LOST TO SURROUNDING
LOSS 5: RADIATION HEAT LOST TO SURROUNDING

 THE BOILER MUST BE COMPLETELY INSULATED WITH


PROPER INSULATION MATERIALS.
 HAND MADE MATTRESSES DO NOT HAVE UNIFORM
DENSITY.
 RESIN BONDED MATTRESSES WOULD GIVE BETTER
INSULATION OF THE BOILER.
 IT IS IMPORTANT TO PERIODICALLY CHECK AND REPLACE
THE INSULATION AS AND WHEN NECESSARY.
 ALL VALVES AND CONDENSATE PIPING SHOULD BE
INSULATED.
LOSS 5: RADIATION HEAT LOST TO SURROUNDING

Some boiler companies maintain that the insulation of 
airbox & valves are not their practice. 
LOSS 6: HEAT LOST THROUGH THE DRY FLUE GAS AT THE 
END OF HEAT RECOVERY DEVICE OF BOILER
END OF HEAT RECOVERY DEVICE OF BOILER

 Excess air is a must to complete the combustion. The


combustor design and fuel quality govern excess air
required
d for
f complete
l combustion.
b
 Each combustion technology dictates a set of parameters to
b checked
be h k d and d tot beb maintained
i t i d tot ensure proper
combustion and to keep the excess air minimum.
LOSS 6: HEAT LOST THROUGH THE DRY FLUE GAS AT THE 
END OF HEAT RECOVERY DEVICE OF BOILER
END OF HEAT RECOVERY DEVICE OF BOILER

 In the case of solid fuel fired boilers, inadequate air


will lead to black smoke and unburnt fuel in ash.
 It is necessary to strike a balance between the
unburnt in ash and the excess air based on the
combustion technology.
 The flue gas composition is decided by the fuel and
excess air. Hence, it is customary to spell out the
CO2 or O2 level in flue gas to be maintained to set
the excess air.
LOSS 6: HEAT LOST THROUGH THE DRY FLUE GAS AT THE 
END OF HEAT RECOVERY DEVICE OF BOILER
END OF HEAT RECOVERY DEVICE OF BOILER

 In addition to excess air, Boiler outlet gas temperature will


decide the amount of heat lost to chimney.
 Boilers are designed with heat recovery devices such as
Economizer, air heater or feed water heater to bring down
the gas temperature to 140 deg C to 170 deg C.
 Chimney
h h to be
has b suitably
bl lined
l d with h refractory
f to protect
against corrosion. Corrosion occurs due to Sulfur‐di‐oxide
condensation Sulfur‐di‐oxide is produced due to sulfur
condensation.
content in fuel.
 Otherwise also the water vapor in flue gas,
gas which is due to
fuel moisture / air moisture also condense and lead to
corrosion of steel.
LOSS 6: HEAT LOST THROUGH THE DRY FLUE GAS AT THE 
END OF HEAT RECOVERY DEVICE OF BOILER
END OF HEAT RECOVERY DEVICE OF BOILER

 Allowing
All i high
hi h exhaust
h temperature with
i h choked
h k d air
i heater,
h
fouled economizer leads to poor efficiency of the boiler.
deposits.
deposits
 Honey combing of ash accumulations is seen in agro waste
fired boilers.
BLOW DOWN

 Blow down loss is not listed in the estimation of boiler efficiency,


efficiency for
reason the amount of blow down is governed by the feed water and
the boiler water quality.
 Continuous blow down helps to maintain a steady value of boiler
water TDS, silica and the loss will be minimum in the process.
 Intermittent blow down would lead to a higher heat loss since the
rate is uncontrolled.
BLOW DOWN HEAT LOSS ‐ TYPICAL
CASE STUDY‐ PLANT WITH SEVERAL BOILERS

• COMPARE THE ASH OF DIFFERENT BOILERS.


BOILERS
• COMPARE THE ASH FOR DIFFERENT COALS.
• COMPARE THE ASH FOR DIFFERENT PERIODS.
PERIODS
• COMPARE THE ASH FOR DIFFERENT OPERATORS
GCV ANALYSIS & REPORTING

 The GCV of the fuel was reported on ADB for


payment
p y purpose.
p p Tonnage g was taken as p per
actual.
 As sampled moisture was never reported.
reported
 The lab reported the GCV on air dried basis. The
purchase department was unaware of the total
moisture and ended up in losing crores of rupees.
SAMPLING PROCEDURES & DELAY

 Taking samples was a very slow process. There was


considerable time delayy in sampling.
p g
 Codes specify better sampling procedures on line
to avoid error in handling the samples.
samples
 Low relative humidity, higher ambient
temperature wind are the factors for drying.
temperature, drying
Mixing process (at the time of quarter coning)
drives out the surface moisture.
moisture
DIRECT FEEDING OF WET COAL TO BOILER

 Direct feeding of wet coal can result in more loss.


 Wet coal is to be stocked in yard for psychrometric
drying.
 An efficiency difference of 0.85%
0 85% due to direct feed
of 12% moisture coal means 255 tons of coal can be
saved per month.
month The plant consumed about 1000
tons a day.
BELT WEIGHER

 Empty running of belts cause errors in belt weigher


reading.
g
 Installation in inclined conveyor length is not
preferred as the belt tends to lift off due to belt
tensioning arrangement.
YARD MANAGEMENT

Mixing
Mi i twot different
diff t fuels
f l affects
ff t the
th combustion
b ti to t some
extent. Manually rpm regulation is not practical when the
GCV varies
aries due
d e to improper fuel
f el mix.
mi

Separate hoppers are required


req ired for deciding the proportion.
proportion
Regulated hopper feed is required. Multi fuel operating
systems need multi bunker system.
system
USE OF SHEDS

Loss of volatile matter from yard at high temperature. A


study needs to be conducted for this.
this

Depending on the surface exposed and by the nature of


coal, the extent varies. In the yard management rake wise
consumed We can avoid loss of GCV.
coal should be consumed. GCV

Sheds prove useful.


useful Temporary covers are also usable for
less coal consumers. Lignites are very sensitive to this.
CALIBRATION OF DRAG CHAIN FEEDERS

Drag chain feeders have gate setting for controlling the


f l depth.
fuel d h This
Thi should
h ld beb set perfectly.
f l
Calibration is required for records and to calculate the fuel
f d rates.
feed
Drag chain feeder discharge rates are practically linear
with
i h rpm.
Non uniform feed result in poor combustion.
CALIBRATION OF DRAG CHAIN FEEDERS
RPM SETTINGS FOR FUEL FEED‐ AFBC BOILERS

There is a tendency to vary the rpm of feeders as per bed


temperature indication.
indication
This is not a correct way. When the air flow is distributed,
the fuel flow should set equally at all feeders.
feeders
CALIBRATION OF BELT FEEDERS

BELT FEEDERS AT PF BOILERS ARE TO HANDLE


COAL PARTICLES OF 50 MM AND BELOW.
BELOW
THE FRONT WINDOW OPENING CONFIGURATION
DECIDES THE FUEL FLOW.
FLOW
IMPROPER / INTERRUPTED FLOW IN TO FEEDER
UNBALANCED FLOW TO PF BURNERS
OFFSET HOPPER 
INLETS ENSURE 
SMOOTH FLOW 
OF COAL
UNBALANCED FLOW TO PF BURNERS‐ EFFECT OF 
ADJUSTMENT OF GATES
ADJUSTMENT OF GATES
IMPROPER CONDITION OF MILLS LEAD TO UNBALANCE AT
ELEVATIONS‐
ELEVATIONS‐ RPM OF FEEDERS AT DIFFERENT LEVELS VARY DUE
TO THIS
THIS.
. WORN OUT BALLS – SPRING SETTINGS – RING
CLEARANCE LEAD TO POOR OUTPUT
OUTPUT.
.
Setting the auto combustion control parameters.

This is the trend of O2, steam flow, steam pressure & fuel feeder rpm (feeder no 6 & feeder no 1) in 90 TPH
boiler. The cyclic pattern of O2 to repeat within a short span of 3 minutes. This cycle comes short because the
feeder rpm is increased by 66% over the lowest rpm by the combustion control. When two feeders are on
auto the net fuel flow variation is 22%. This fuel addition when dumped in two locations in the compartments
may lead to poor combustion. Reducing the gain would help to remove such a cycle.
LOI feed back to boiler operators –in an hour after the shift
commences

• The plant laboratory is busy with routine tests required


for the company product. Time delay between test and
th interpretations
the i t t ti lead
l d to
t no improvement.
i t
• An express laboratory for the analysis of LOI of ESP
ash.
• Some p plants consume 1000 tons of coal a day. y LOI
should be the interest of the operators.