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Project Abstract

The proposed “Payroll System” is aimed at providing all


necessary computer facilities for any type of operation going on in an
office. It computerizes each and every step involved in office system.
This new system is a user friendly and interactive. It deals with all types
of transactions, which are very necessary for the smooth running of an
organization. In this project all aspects from the user’s point of view are
considered so that every user can interact with this project very easily. It
is tried to originate appropriate and good environment in which a user
can handle the whole database very efficiently and conveniently. These
fields generates large amount of information, which would be very useful
for the user who interacts with it.
One security basis, an authorization system is included. Under this,
a user will be authorized to access information contained within the
database Administrator. For example, a user must have user id &
password to be authorized. When a user enters the user id & password,
then that user id and password is matched with the user id and password
already stored in the database. In this way the data can be kept more
secure & safe.
The new system is designed in such a way that every user can
adapt himself/herself in a very easy and effortless way. By adding
constraints in the database, some rules are enforced for the user to enter
valid or acceptable data. In this way it prevents the authorized user from
entering the wrong and invalid data. Likewise data constraints play a
vital and indispensable Role in maintaining and preserving all the
transactions.
In this new system, any type of information related to transactions can
be obtained at any time using insert, User has to enter only one primary
value of transaction for which he wants to seek some information.

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Similarly the information of a customer contained in the database can be
obtained by choosing customer id or name only.

In case, an existing user needs help on any topic related to project


or a new user wants to know anything about the project, a help field is
provided which contains all type of help related to the project like how to
add a new record, how to edit an existing record etc.

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College Profile

This college is an inevitable part of prestigious Apeejay Education


Society. Established way back in 1982, Apeejay College of Fine Arts.

Started as college of fine arts, it soon launched a number of


professional courses. The college, from its very establishment has
excelled in its purpose of imparting quality education. Every since this
college has provided the society with quality citizens.

Students of this college have excelled not only academics but also
in sports, music, theatre and other co-curricular activities achieving
heights. The college has seen university toppers, best dancers, best
singers, actors and actresses, musicians, painters, sculptors and
achievers in all fields of education.

The college provides its students with state of the art facilities. The
laboratories are equipped with latest equipments with uninterrupted
supply of power and other needed items. The computer laboratory is
equipped with good latest hardware and software. The photography
laboratory is equipped with scanners and high quality printers. The home
science, music, dance, fine arts and the designing laboratories are
provided with best possible instruments.

The college also provides for various seminars guest lectures and
other events of carrier orientation from time to time for the proper
guidance of the students.

Apart from the regular classes, the college also holds vocational
classes for music, dance, etc. The college also encourages participation
of its students in various art workshops. The college has seen students

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being selected for workshops at national and even at the international
levels.

For all the facilities provided by the college counted amongst the
best institutions in the city.

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System Study
In system study we study the existing system and new proposed
system. In system study we study that what are the drawbacks, and
limitations exist. What are the needs of the existing system? And also
study what is the new proposed system, and how new proposed system
removes the limitations and drawbacks of the existing system. In this
section we study the advantages of the new proposed system.

Existing system

This Organization is maintaining most of their day-to-day


transactions data in the registers (i.e. manually). The employees of the
Apeejay College of fine arts are doing the whole work manually. All the
work is done manually (i.e. maintained in registers) so different
employees are appointed for the maintenance of registers containing all
the information related to the organization.

It is very time consuming and is also not error free in some


situations. In existing manual system databases calculations are difficult
to perform so report generation as very much difficult.

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Drawbacks of Existing System

Generally whenever we implement a new system it is developed to


eliminate the shortcomings of an existing system. The computerized
system has more edge over the manual system. It is because of
accuracy, high speed, quick result, diligence etc.

The existing system is totally based on manual system. Existing


system has many drawbacks in comparison of computerized system.
Some of the main drawbacks of existing system are: -

1. Time Consuming: High time consumption is the main


weakness of the existing system. A lot of time is wasted in
searching records from different files, which resulted in loss of
time, and moreover workload also increases. Also a lot of time is
wasted in duplicating the same entries in different registers. The
overall checking of the records and modifications if necessary has
to be made at several places which is time consuming and error
prone

2. Service and Working Conditions: With the unusual delay


due to various reasons (such as non-availability of record or
absence of an employee etc) the customer suffers a lot. Without
any firm reason he has to wait which disfigures the working
conditions.

3. Difficulties in Retrieving Information: Sometimes, to get


any of any type of instant information more than one document
needs to be searched. This requires the opening of both files and
then combining the information to get the required information.
Further the files may not be indexed according to the need, which
causes difficulty in retrieving information.

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4. Difficulties in Debugging: If an error is detected in
recorded information the manual system requires many files or
registers to be searched to correct the information.

5. Difficult for the Top Management to analyze data: Top


management faces lots of problems to know about the details of
the Current Transactions, Current Bookings, Current Cancellation
and Employee as all is maintained at the lower level. Except for the
media and their reliable resources they have nobody to ask about
the current outputs and the overall results to be generated along
with the reports at the end of the year.

6. Not Easy to understandable by new user: To


understand the manual system the user have to get more practice
and have a grape all fields that help by other employee and have
to be in contact with that person. If the person was in leave the
user can get the information from him.

7. Need more space to store: Here by using the paperwork


system the user need to maintain all the documents in proper way
to avoid the difficulty in action and need more space to store these
documents because they can’t destroy the old documents.

8. Very Expensive: The existing manual system is very


expensive method as lot of paper work has to be done and lot of
wastage of manpower, which increase the expanses of existing
system.

9. Data sharing: The different user in the different department


cannot share data simultaneously.

10. Security: Security feature are not prominent in the existing


system.

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Need For a New System
To enhance the working of the Apeejay College of fine arts, which
was completely handled manually, the improvement was thought on the
basis of computerizing the major activities. The following factors were
foreseen for the improvisation:

1. Identify the Opportunity to Improve Business


Functions: It has been identified that computerization process is
necessity and what business benefits can be derived by
implementing this improvement. It will lead to better transaction
handling in terms of speed, reliability and accuracy.

2. Improves Services and Working Conditions: To improve


the working conditions of existing system in every parts of Tour &
Travel Org. Customer services are need to improve to a greater
extent.
3. User friendly: To make the system user friendly this system
using window as its run time environment and is developed using
Visual Studio 2008, which is very user-friendly rapid application
developed tool. Because in the existing system register work was
very difficult to handled by each user and was boring job.
4. Data Security: The proposed will also prevent unauthorized
access to the system. At the very beginning, the user name and
password is to be entered by the user and if it is correct only then
the permission to use the software is given to user. There are
different users according to different roles and one user can’t use
the resources given to another user.

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5. Data Redundancy: - The data is stored only once which can
be accessed by any one at any time and at any place. So it can be
minimized but can not be removed completely.
6. Easy to Access: - In this database project, data can be
easily access through computer networking.
7. Cost Reduction: - It requires less amount of Cost as
compared to existing system.
8. Time & Efforts Reduction: - It requires less amounts of
time and efforts.
9. Security mechanism: - Database can be secured by
applying password, encryption and decryption techniques.
10. Concurrency Control: - This Database provides mechanisms to
provide concurrent access and ensure the correctness of the data.
11. Provides backup and Recovery:- It provides scheme such as
recovery and backup from the failures including disk crash, power
failures, software errors which may help the database to recover
from inconsistent state top state that existed prior to the
occurrence of the failure, though methods are very complex.

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Introduction to Payroll System
A user friendly GUI (Graphical User Interface) based software
“Payroll System” has been developed for Apeejay College of Fine Arts
of jalandhar city, keeping in view the requirements of employees to
prepare salary. The objective of the project was to computerize the
payroll system which was earlier being handled manually every
precaution has been taken at each process involved in the complex task
of salary preparation. By computerization it implies that all process
handling is entirely being done by computer. All the records necessary
for the processes involved in the salary calculation are stored in a
computer based record keeping system using a back-end tool. All the
processes handling is done at the front-end by using a front-end. The
project provides ample facilities to its users. The most important of the
facilities are the report generation and printing which provides user with
the hard copies of the data also.

Features:
 Preparation of salary.
 Printing of Windows Based user friendly software.
 Maintenance of rich electronic records of employees
available at station.
 Pay bills/Pay slips.

 Attendance record.
 Tax calculation.
 Various security features with the help of passwords.

 Standard report generation.

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Proposed System

This consists of Payroll System. All these transactions need to be


carefully understood and taken into consideration. The system also
contains a lot of data redundancy at various stages. One of the
objectives of the new system would be to stores data in an efficient and
non-redundant form and hence increase overall efficiency of the system.
The new system should ensure of simple and easy data entry procedures
through suggestive looking form. There are quite a number of lengthy
calculations being done on the acquired data. These calculations should
be thoroughly understood. The new system should be able to perform all
these calculations automatically and efficiently.

Numerous kinds of queries are done on large amounts of


accumulated data, to find out the desired data. The new system should
provide efficient, simple, fast and smarter procedures for retrieval of
exhaustive types of data from the database.

Finally, there are quite a number of reports that are generated


during the normal working of the system. Each of these required reports
should be understood very carefully and the new system shall provide
easy and efficient methods for generation of these reports.

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Working
The working of the project is based on payroll system for
performing its working it use Visual Basic.NET as a front-end and Oracle
8i as a back-end. In which user perform all its functions in Visual
Basic.NET environment and all database stores in the database oracle.
This proposed system reserve the ticket on request of the user and also
refund the unconfirmed orders after lasing the commission them. All the
calculations are automatically and efficiently performed.

The new computerized system has an edge over the manual


system. The beneficial features of new computerized system are the
following:

1. Improves Services and Working Conditions: The


proposed system improves the existing working conditions in each
step of inventory control system Customer services are improved
to a greater extent. The whole process is very easy and efficient.
2. User Friendly: The new system is using windows as its run
time environment and is developed using Visual Basic.NET which
is very user friendly rapid application development tool. The new
system is totally graphical and user just has to select his desired
option and the next step will be taken immediately and
automatically by the system.
3. Less Time Consumption: Another aspect of system, which
will reduce the time consumption, is its speed. The speed of system
is measured in terms of response time i.e. the time it takes to
respond to user’s request. Computer is an electronic device which
can manipulate, modifies, retrieve and store information very
speedily so it will be able to report within a fraction of time.

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4. Reduced Storage Space: On more important feature of the
new system is the reduction of physical storage covered by the
existing system. In new system records will be residing in the
computer’s memory, which is large storage capacity and can be
extended further.
5. Coordination of Data Tables: The user was in trouble
while combining figures from different files or registers to find out
information and to prepare reports. This trouble will not occur in
new system as the data from different tables will be combined
internally and the prepared reports will be presented to user on
screen and printer.
6. Minimizing Errors: The project will also eliminate the
creeping in of unintentional errors due to which the system leads to
insufficient. The new system will be prepared under all the
restrictions of the present system. Whenever the user will attempt
any error the new system will respond to it displaying a diagnostic
on the screen.
7. Data Security: The proposed will also prevent unauthorized
access to the system. At the very beginning, the user name and
password is to be entered by the user and if it is correct only then
the permission to use the software is given to user. There are
different users according to different roles and one user can’t use
the resources given to another user.

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Objective/Advantages of New System:

To overcome these above stated limitations in the Payroll


System, we propose a new system that is computerized system of
“Payroll System”. The proposed system would store all the information
captured in different registers that will be linked with each other and will
provide direct and immediate access. Using a computerized system, we
will do storing of data. All the addition, deletion, modification, printing
will be done through computer for faster accessing. This proposed
system would set free from all the burdens mentioned in limitations of
existing system.

1. Fast and Efficient: As compared to existing manual


system, in proposed system the user can get the information fast,
easily and efficiently from the computer since information is a
single click away from the user.

2. Reliable and Accurate: As in proposed system the


information is stored and processed in computers so that data will
be more reliable and accurate.

3. Centralized Data: In the existing system most of data


records are kept in registers and some data are maintained in
Microsoft Excel due to this system the placement of the data is not
at one particular place. But in proposed system each and every
record is maintained on computer, which leads to the centralization
of data and every user which have the access to system can
retrieve the data at ease.

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4. Low Operation and Maintenance Cost: The proposed
system is not very costly as it doesn’t includes many costs and
overhead expenses like file management, stationary charges etc.

5. Non-Redundant Information: As in proposed system data


maintained on the computers so inconsistency doesn’t occurs
whichever leads to problem like duplication of data. As in our
project most of the inventory codes are Auto Generated hence
there is no chance of duplication of the master records.

6. User Friendly: Proposed system is very user friendly. We


have applied many check and balances (i.e. validation rules) in the
proposed system so that a less knowledgeable person can also
enter the data error free and at an ease.

7. Easy to Access: As compared to existing system, in


proposed system the user can easily and efficiently access the
information from the computer only if the user is given the right of
the same. In the proposed system we have used the concept of
level of access. We have created the users to access the database.
So depending upon the type of hierarchy we can assign different
rights for the user.

8. No Documentation: As everything is stored on the


computer so there is any need of documentation or maintaining the
files or registers.

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Feasibility Study
Feasibility study is carried out to test if the proposed system is
worth being implemented. Given unlimited resources and infinite time, all
projects are feasible. Unfortunately, such projects and time is not
possible real situations. Hence it becomes both necessary and prudent to
evaluate the feasibility of the project at earliest passable time in order to
avoid unnecessary wastage of time. Feasibility study is test of the system
proposed regarding its workability, impact on tour and travels ability to
meet user needs and effective use of resources.

Feasibility study has five primary areas which are characterized by


the acronym TELOS

T - Technical Feasibility

E - Economic Feasibility

O - Operational Feasibility

COST ESTIMATION
The net cost saving for reuse is estimated, by projecting the cost of
the project. If project it was developed from scratch and subtracting the
sum of the cost associated with reuse and the actual cost of the software
has delivered, can be determined by applying one or more of the
estimation techniques and the proposed project support all this

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technique like domain analysis and modeling and enhancement of reuse
components ray ties and lioness for the externally acquired components,
the proposed project is cost efficient because any organization can save
their expense by using my project. Earlier they used a manual system
where they wasted lot of time, and there was paper work. Hence the
proposed project is very cost efficient because it will help to save from
manual costs overcome economical

TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY
Whether the proposed information system can be implemented
with the available hardware, software, technical resources, and human
resource. The proposed project is technically feasible because all the
required resources are easily available in the market at very low cost.
The management provides all latest hardware and software facilities for
the success completion of the project.

The proposed system full fills the requirement of the Apeejay


College of fine arts, jalandhar. The software developed by using Visual
Basic.NET and Oracle 8i. Which is available at very low cost in the
market? The building technique of the project is also not too complicated.
Hence technical feasibility is the some difficult area to assess at the
earliest stages of the system development process. Therefore the
process of analysis and definition of the proposed system was conducted
in parallel with the assessment of technical feasibility.

ECONOMIC FEASIBILITY

Whether the benefits of the proposed information system outweigh


the costs. The proposed project is economical feasible because all the
required resources are easily available in the market at very low cost and
any organization can easily purchase this required resources at their

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suitable cost and assembled it. No extra economical burden will on the
on the organization.

Here the benefits accrued from the new system are more than the
cost involved in its development as everything is related to money. Cost
involved in developing the whole system is analyzing and design,
Programming cost, Stationary and miscellaneous expenses, Operational
cost.

There are sufficient benefits in the system to make the cost


acceptable. Usually cost benefits analysis is made to find the savings or
the extra overheads that would arise new development. It is normal for
every origination to choose a system development only if there is a
reduction with respect to the time and cost overheads.

Operational Feasibility

Whether the proposed solution is desirable within the existing


managerial and organizational framework and culture. This project is
operational feasible because it easily handled all operations of the
organization, which is required by the user. In the existing system, it is
very difficult to maintain huge amount of data. The development of new
system was started because of the requirement put to forward by the
management of the concerned department. All the transactional
operations handled successfully in the new system with in very sort of
time. So it is sure that the system development is operationally feasible.

Study is a preferred conceptual solution together with expected


cost and benefits. It also includes a more detailed specification of what
the new system requires.

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System Analysis
ANALYSIS
Analysis is a detailed study of the various operations performed by
a system and there relationship within and outside of the system. A key
question is: What must be done to solve the problem? One aspect of
analysis is defining the boundaries of the system and determining
whether or not a candidate system should consider other related
systems. During analysis data are collected on the available files,
decision points and transactions handled by the present system. Some
logical system models and tools are used in analysis are data flow
diagrams, interviews, on-sight observations and questionnaires etc. The
interview is a commonly used tool in analysis. It requires special skills
and sensitivity to the subjects being interviewed. Bias in data collection
and interpretation can be a problem. Training, experience and common
sense are required for collection of the information needed to do the
analysis.

Once analysis is completed, the analyst has a firm understanding


of what is to be done. The next step is to decide how the problem might
be solved. Thus, in system design, we move from the logical to the
physical aspect of the life cycle.

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PROBLEM UNDERSTANDING

One of the most difficult tasks is developing a clear in depth of the


problem being investigated, without which it becomes impossible to
specify the requirements for a new project with any accuracy. In the
manual system the main problem was to understand the large and
typical database and short form of information about any Student and
Teacher.

Several questions should be proposed for this as: -

1. What is the problem?


In the manual system large amount of data handle is very difficult.
It is difficult to access the required data from saved registers. And
also large amount of data is very difficult store.
2. What are its causes?
Due to store the data in large registers in manual system no body
can search and easily access the records of the student or teacher
at a time. In manual system records war search one by one that
were very time consuming.
3. Why is it important that the problem be solved?
The main point of view to solve the problems to change the manual
system is fulfilling the required of the Management. Because
nowadays very large amount of data need to be transferred.
4. What are the possible solutions to the problem?
The solution of this problem is developed the computerized version
of the manual system, which is less time consuming, and easy to
handle.
5. What types of benefits are expected once the problem
is solved?

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Once the above all problems solved. The new system should fulfill
all the requirement of the Management. And improves the working
of the Management, and all transactions can be easily maintains.

It takes considerable skill to determine the true cause of a system’s


problem with knowledge of the cause of the problem, it can be diagnosed
by it characteristics. After identification of the problem a general
direction or a method for solving the problem will be determined. There
are some problems, which are being faced by the college management.

The major problem that the college is facing is that all the work is
done manually. Due to this a large amount of time is wasted, there can
be some errors which may creep in. Besides this it is also required to
store all the information in the form of some files or registers, but
because of such storage some more problems are faced. One such
problem is query passing. It is a length and tedious process if there is a
need to find some information regarding a student or a teacher.

After identification of the problem a general direction or a method


for solving the problem will be determined.

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Requirement Specification

Requirement analysis is the first logical and technical step in the


software engineering process. It’s at this juncture that a general statistic
of software scope is redefined into a concrete significance that becomes
the foundation of all software engineering activities that follows.

For gathering information, there is a need to interact with the


system users i.e. the people who directly or indirectly influence the
system requirements like end users, employees, customer etc. But they
can make unrealistic or conflicting demands, so these conflicts must be
solved before proceeding with the system design implementations.

A software requirement specification is obtained as a sequence of


analysis. Validation is necessary to ensure that the developer and
customer have the same perception of the system. Unfortunately,
changing requirements are a problem even for the best analysis method.
The software will be developed keeping in mind the following:

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Requirements Specification
The proposed project full fill all the requirement of the user
although it related to booking of the tickets or with calculations and it
also provides all the necessary features which is needed by the user of
the software It is a structured, precise document, which defines each and
every system service and constraint in detail. It may also be known as
the functional specification and is generally used as basis for a contract
between the user and the software developer.

Functional Requirements
The proposed project fulfills all the functional requirements of the
organization. These are those requirements that define the functionality
of the software system. Like Result of a Student, Attendance of a
teacher, making report Card of a student. They are descriptions of the
project functions.

Non-Functional Requirements
These are those requirements that place a constraint under the
system operates for example response time or on the development
process such as the choice of the programming language.

CONSTRAINTS

The company functions manually. This system has a lot of problems as


the work done is very time consuming and sometimes errors also creep
in. so there was an urgent need to develop a system, which is simple,
error free and suits the working of the institution. The software “Payroll
System” is such software, which will serve to these purposes.
Constraints are validations, which are used to check that the software is

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working properly. The software also has some constraints, which make it
a successful application.

There are some constraints which are given below

1) Time constraints.

2) Economical constraints.

3) Technical constraints.

1. Time: Time constraints is a deadline, the use of deadlines in real-


Time computing is a relatively recent small fraction of the overall
development of project. Before reaching deadline it is difficult to
develop the perfect project. Time also effect the process of
developing the project because in the given limited time period
some requirements features can’t developed. I have developed
this project. In given time period. It is difficult to develop the each
and every required feature of the project. Hence we can say that
the time is the main constraints in developing the project.

2. Economical constraints: Economical constraints also is also a


great hindrance in developing the project, because due to
economical constraints each and every required hardware and
software not available at time and hence the developer of the is
not able to developed the all required features in the project. Due
to the economical problem in the organization, organization does
not able to pay the required amount of the project and hence
developer of the project does not develop the full efficient project.
Hence we can say that economical constraints puts bad effect in
developing project.

3. Technical constraints: Technical constraints are a very big


problem in developing the project. Because in available technology
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you have to develop the project. Due to the shortage of technical
knowledge some time in developing the project problems are
occurred and that put bad effects. Technical constraints are effect
affect mostly designing phase, coding phase, and implement phase
of the project. Also if the developer of the project is not technical of
high level then it will effect during the development of the project.
Hence we can say that technical constraints are also effect at very
large instant.

Design Phase

The purpose of the design phase is to plan a solution of the


problem specified by the requirement document. System design is most
creative phase of the system development. The term design describes a
final system and the process it is developed.

This phase is the first step in moving from the problem domain to
the solution domain. In other words, starting with what is needed; design
takes towards how to satisfy the needs. The design of a system is the
most critical factor affecting the quality of package to be developed.
System design has major impact on the later phases, particularly
testing and maintenance. The System design includes the
construction of programs and program testing. The key question of
System design is how problems lies in the project solved. With the help

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of the flow charts we have represented the design of the software
system that is developing.

The purpose of the design phase was to plan a solution of the


problem specified by the requirements of document. This phase is the
first step in moving from the problem domain to the solution domain. The
design of the system is perhaps the most critical factor affecting the
quality of the software.

System Design

The development of the Transaction Control Software consisted of


studying of the existing manual system and developing an efficient
computerized system that emphasizes on easy storage and retrieval of
data in the database.

The new system should ensure of simple and easy data entry
procedures through suggestive looking form. There are quite a number of
lengthy calculations being done on the acquired data. These calculations
should be thoroughly understood. The new system should be able to
perform all these calculations automatically and efficiently.
There are quite a number of reports that are generated during the
normal working of the system. Each of these required reports should be
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understood very carefully and the new system shall provide easy and
efficient methods for generation of these reports.
Moreover, the new system should provide a very easy to use
interface, so that user should feel at home throughout the working of the
system.

Platform Used

HARDWARE REQUIREMENT
Hardware is the term given to the machinery itself and to the various
individual pieces of equipment. It refers to the physical devices of a
computer system. Thus, the input, storage processing control and the
output devices are hardware.

Following are the minimum hardware and software specifications that are
required for efficient performance of the system. Using a higher
configuration than specified below can enhance the system performance
further:

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HARDWARE SPECIFICATIONS

 CPU Intel Pentium IV 1.80 GHz or higher


 RAM 1 GB (for best performance)
 Keyboard 105 Standard keys
 Hard disk 10GB or higher free space

SOFTWARE REQUIREMENT

Software means a collection of program where the objective is to


enhance the capabilities of the hardware machine. The following defines
the software of the proposed system developments:

Software Specification

 Operating System Window 98


 Visual Basic.NET 2008
 Oracle 8i

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Design Tools
BACK-END TOOL
ORACLE 8i

A database management system (DBMS) is a collection of


interrelated data and a set of program to access those data. The
collection of data, referred to as the database, contains information
Relevant to an enterprise. The primary goal of the DBMS is to provide
Way to store and retrieve database information that is both Convenient
and efficient.

Database systems are designed to manage large bodies of information.


Management of data involves both defining structures for storage of
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Payroll System
information and providing mechanisms for the manipulation of the
information. In addition, the database system must ensure the safety of
the information stored, despite system crashes or attempts of
unauthorized access. If data has to be shared among several users: the
system must avoid possible anomalous results.

LANGUAGES USED IN ORACLE8i

SQL: SQL (Structured Query Language) is a query language. It can define


the structure of the data, modify data in the database and specify
security constraints. SQL is a simple and powerful database access
language and the standard language for relational database
management system. SQL uses a combination of relational calculus
constructs all the operations made to the data in an oracle database are
performed using SQL declaration. SQL declarations are divided in to
following:

1. DDL
2. DML
3. DCL
4. TRANSACTION CONTROL DECLRATION
5. SESSION CONTROL DECLERATION
6. SYSTEM CONTROL DECLERATION
7. BUILT-IN SQL DECLERATION
8. TRANSACTION CONTROL DECLRATION

ADVANTAGES OF ORACLE:

1. The Decision Support Arena

Decisions support systems, referred to as DSS, are playing a large role


Acquisition Of the express product line of decision support tools, and
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the business View-centric Oracle Discoverer product, Oracle has itself
well positioned for the Future and present of the system market

2. Management of Large Volume of Data

Oracle has been paying significant attention to the management of


large Volume of data.

3. Security Mechanism

Users are given rights to view, modify, and create data according to
the Names. They use to connect to the database. Customer uses these
mechanisms to ensure. Those specified users get to see sensitive data.

4. Backup and Recovery

Oracle provides sophisticated backup and recovery routines. Backup


Creates a secondary copy of Oracle data; recovery restores a copy of
data from that backup.

5. Open Connectivity

Oracle provides open connectivity to and from other vendor’s software.


Using the Oracle Access Manager, installations can easily integrate
their diverse corporate systems running on a range of different
vendor’s products.

6. Development Tools

The Oracle server, commonly referred to as the database engine,


supports a Wide range of development tools and, end users query
tools, off-the-shelf applications and office-wide information
management tools.

7. Data Accessibility

Oracle provides utilities for backing up the data. It also provides data
Integrity. If, while a user is changing data within an Oracle database, a

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Failures of any sort Happens, the database has the capability to undo
or Rollback any suspect transaction.

FRONT-END TOOLS

Visual Basic.NET

Visual basic.NET is the latest incarnation of the world’s most popular


computer programming language, and it brings a lot of new features to
the table. This new things called “dot.net” is a revolutionary change from
Visual Studio 6.0 (which included Visual Basic 6.0). Visual Basic .NET is
not “Visual Studio 7.0” as you might think. On the contrary, it is a new
product developed from scratch, not tied to the previous version (and not
entirely compatible either). In a sense, you might think of this as a whole
new product line starting at version 1.0—but that’s only partially true.

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The people who created Visual Basic .NET took all of the favorite features
of Visual Basic 6.0 and the features of a dozen other popular language,
and crammed all of this new goodness into a single new development
tool. The result is a stellar programming language, and it has no
equivalent in the computer world.

FEATURES OF Visual Basic.NET:

 Powerful Windows-based Applications


 Building Web-based Applications
 Simplified Deployment
 Powerful, Flexible, Simplified Data Access
 Improved Coding
 Direct Access to the Platform
 Full Object-Oriented Constructs
 XML Web Services
 Mobile Applications
 COM Interoperability
 Reuse Existing Investments
 Upgrade Wizard

ADVANTAGES OF VISUAL BASIC.NET:

1. First of all, VB.NET provides managed code execution that runs


under the Common Language Runtime (CLR), resulting in robust,
stable and secure applications. All features of the .NET framework
are readily available in VB.NET.

2. VB.NET is totally object oriented.


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Payroll System
3. The .NET framework comes with ADO.NET, which follows the
disconnected paradigm, i.e. once the required records are fetched
the connection no longer exists. It also retrieves the records that
are expected to be accessed in the immediate future. This
enhances Scalability of the application to a great extent.

4. VB.NET uses XML to transfer data between the various layers in the
DNA Architecture i.e. data are passed as simple text strings.

5. Error handling has changed in VB.NET. A new Try-Catch-Finally


block has been introduced to handle errors and exceptions as a
unit, allowing appropriate action to be taken at the place the error
occurred thus discouraging the use of ON ERROR GOTO statement.
This again credits to the maintainability of the code.

6. Another great feature added to VB.NET is free threading against


the VB single-threaded apartment feature. In many situations
developers need spawning of a new thread to run as a background
process and increase the usability of the application. VB.NET allows
developers to spawn threads wherever they feel like, hence giving
freedom and better control on the application.

7. Security has become more robust in VB.NET. In addition to the role-


based security in VB6, VB.NET comes with a new security model,
Code Access security. This security controls on what the code can
access. For example you can set the security to a component such
that the component cannot access the database. This type of
security is important because it allows building components that
can be trusted to various degrees.

8. The CLR takes care of garbage collection i.e. the CLR releases
resources as soon as an object is no more in use. This relieves the
developer from thinking of ways to manage memory. CLR does this
for them.

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Payroll System
Due to large number of facilities provided by the Visual Basic .NET, it
has been used as a front-end tool in “Payroll System”.

DFD (Data Flow Diagram)

Zero Level DFD

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Detailed DFD

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E-R Diagram

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Tables Used
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Table Name: personal_info

Primary Key: - employee_id

Foreign key: - NILL

Purpose: - This table contains the personal information of the employee.

Table Name: department_info


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Primary Key: - dept_id

Foreign key: - employee_id references personal_info(emp_id)

Purpose:- This table contains the department information of the


employee.

Table Name: tax_calculation


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Primary Key: - emp_id

Foreign key: - emp_id references personal_info(emp_id)

Purpose: - This table contains the tax calculations of the employee.

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Table Name: salary_deduction

Primary Key: - emp_id

Foreign key: - emp_id references personal_info(emp_id)

Purpose:- This table contains the deductions the employee.

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Table Name: salary

Primary Key: - emp_id

Foreign key: - emp_id references personal_info(emp_id)

Purpose: - This table contains the salary details.

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Table Name: allowances

Primary Key: - emp_id

Foreign key: - emp_id references personal_info(emp_id)

Purpose:- This table contains the allowances of the employee.

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Table Name: attendance

Primary Key: - emp_id and day

Foreign key: - emp_id references personal_info(emp_id)

Purpose:- This table contains the attendance record of the employee.

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Relationships

Employee Relationship

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Form Layouts

FORM NAME: - WELCOME

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FORM NAME: - LOGIN

Purpose: - This form is used to check the authorization of user. If the


user is an authorized person he/she is given access to the system
otherwise not.

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FORM NAME: - GENERAL INFORMATION

Purpose: - This form contains the general information of the employee


(i.e. personal information).

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FORM NAME: - ATTENDANCE

Purpose: - This from contains the attendance records of the employee.

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FORM NAME: - DEPARTMENT

Purpose: - This form contains the department information of the


employee.

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FORM NAME: -TAX

Purpose: - This form contains the tax calculations of the employee.

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FORM NAME: - OTHER DEDUCTION

Purpose: - This form contains the calculation of other deductions of the


employee.

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FORM NAME: - ALLOWANCE FORM

Purpose: - This form contains the calculation of allowances of the


employee.

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FORM NAME: - Salary Calculation

Purpose: - This form contains the calculation of the net salary of the
employee.

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FORM NAME: - Pay Slip

Purpose: - This form contains the information of the net salary of the
employee and generates the pay slip of the employee.

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Reports

Attendance Detail Report

Purpose: - This report contains the attendance information of the


employee.

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List of Teacher Department Wise Report

Purpose: - This report contains the list of the teacher’s department wise
of the employee.

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Teacher Category Report

Purpose: - This report contains the information of the teacher category.

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List of Teacher Report

Purpose: - This report contains the list of the teacher.

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Pay Slip

Purpose: - This report contains the pay slip of the employee.

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Coding
The goal of the coding or programming phase is to translate the
design of the system produced during the design phase into code in a
given programming language, which can be executed by a computer and
that performs the computation specified by the design. For a given
design, the design, the aim is to implement the design in the best
possible manner.

The coding phase affects both testing and maintenance profoundly.


As we saw earlier, the time spent in coding is a small percentage of the
total software cost, while testing and maintenance consume the major
percentage. Thus, it should be clear that the goal during coding should
not be to reduce the implementation cost, but the goal should be to
reduce the cost of later phases, even if it means that the cost of this
phase has to increase. In other words, the goal during this phase is not to
simplify the job of the programmer. Rather, the goal should be to simplify
job of the tester and the maintainer.

This distinction is important, as most programmers are


individualistic, and mostly concerned about how to finish their job
quickly, without keeping the later phases in mind. During
implementation, it should be kept in mind that the programs should not
be constructed so that they are easy to write, but so that they are easy
to read and understand. A program is read a lot more often and by a lot
more people during the later phases. Often, making a program more
readable will require extra work by the programmers. For example,
sometimes there are “quick fixes” to modify a given code easily, which
result in a code that is more difficult to understand. In such cases, in the
interest of simplifying the later phases, the easy “quick fixes” should not
be adopted.
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There are many different criteria for judging a program, including
readability, size of the program, execution time and required memory.
Having readability and understandability as a clear objective of the
coding activity can itself help in producing software that is more
maintainable.

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Some of the coding is as follows: -

1. Coding of Login Form

Private Sub Button2_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As


System.EventArgs) Handles Button2.Click

If txtname.Text = "" Then

ErrorProvider1.SetError(txtname, "You cannot leave user id


blank")

End If

If txtpwd.Text = "" Then

ErrorProvider2.SetError(txtpwd, "You cannot leave Password


blank")

End If

If (txtname.Text = "amit" And txtpwd.Text = "lalit") Then

MDI.Show()

Me.Hide()

Else

If (i < 3) Then

MsgBox(" Wrong UserID or Password ")

i=i+1

txtname.Text = ""

txtpwd.Text = ""

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Else

MsgBox(" You cannnot access the project now ")

End

End If

End If

End Sub

End Class

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2. Coding of Attendence Form

Private Sub Button20_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As


System.EventArgs) Handles Button20.Click

OleDbDataAdapter6.Fill(DataSet6)

Dim row6 As DataRow

row6 = DataSet6.Tables(0).NewRow

row6("emp_id") = TextBox28.Text

row6("day") = DateTimePicker4.Value

If RadioButton3.Checked = True Then

row6("attendence") = "present"

End If

If RadioButton4.Checked = True Then

row6("attendence") = "Absent"

End If

row6("leave_availed") = ComboBox5.Text

If RadioButton7.Checked = True Then

row6("leave_status") = "leave_with_pay"

ElseIf RadioButton8.Checked = True Then

row6("leave_status") = "leave_without_pay"

End If

row6("dep") = ComboBox3.Text
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DataSet6.Tables(0).Rows.Add(row6)

OleDbDataAdapter6.Update(DataSet6)

DataSet6.AcceptChanges()

MsgBox("record Added")

End Sub

Private Sub Button21_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As


System.EventArgs) Handles Button21.Click

Dim con As New OleDb.OleDbConnection

Dim cmd As New OleDb.OleDbCommand

con.ConnectionString = "Provider=MSDAORA;Data
Source=server;Persist Security Info=True;Password=tiger;User
ID=scott"

Dim query As String

cmd.Connection = con

con.Open()

query = "delete from att where emp_id=" & TextBox28.Text

cmd.CommandText = query

cmd.ExecuteNonQuery()

con.Close()

MessageBox.Show("Record deleted")

End Sub

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Private Sub Button22_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As
System.EventArgs) Handles Button22.Click

Dim con As New OleDb.OleDbConnection

Dim cmd As New OleDb.OleDbCommand

con.ConnectionString = "Provider=MSDAORA;Data
Source=server;Persist Security Info=True;Password=tiger;User
ID=scott"

Dim query As String

cmd.Connection = con

con.Open()

query = "update att set attendence= '" & GroupBox6.Text & "',
leave_availed = '" & ComboBox5.Text & "',leave_status='" &
GroupBox4.Text & "',dep='" & ComboBox3.Text & "' where emp_id=
'" & TextBox28.Text & "'"

cmd.CommandText = query

cmd.ExecuteNonQuery()

con.Close()

MessageBox.Show("Record Updated")

End Sub

Private Sub Button10_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As


System.EventArgs) Handles Button10.Click
OleDbDataAdapter6.Fill(DataSet6)
Dim con As New OleDb.OleDbConnection
Dim da As New OleDb.OleDbDataAdapter
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Dim ds As New DataSet
Dim cmd As New OleDb.OleDbCommand
con.ConnectionString = "Provider=MSDAORA;Data
Source=server;Password=tiger;User ID=scott"
Dim str As String
con.Open()
str = "select * from attendence where emp_id='" & TextBox28.Text
& "'"

cmd.Connection = con
cmd.CommandText = str
da.SelectCommand = cmd
da.Fill(ds, str)
If (ds.Tables(0).Rows.Count = 0) Then
MsgBox("Employee Id does not exist")

Else
DateTimePicker4.Text = ds.Tables(0).Rows(0)(1).ToString
TextBox47.Text = ds.Tables(0).Rows(0)(2).ToString
If TextBox47.Text = "present" Then
RadioButton3.Checked = True
Else
RadioButton4.Checked = True

End If
ComboBox5.Text = ds.Tables(0).Rows(0)(3).ToString
TextBox48.Text = ds.Tables(0).Rows(0)(4).ToString
If TextBox48.Text = "leave_with_pay" Then
RadioButton7.Checked = True
ElseIf TextBox48.Text = "leave_without_pay" Then
RadioButton8.Checked = True
End If
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ComboBox3.Text = ds.Tables(0).Rows(0)(5).ToString
End If
con.Close()
ds.Reset()
End Sub

3. Coding of General Form

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Payroll System
Private Sub Button5_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As
System.EventArgs) Handles Button5.Click

OleDbDataAdapter1.Fill(DataSet1)

Dim row1 As DataRow

row1 = DataSet1.Tables(0).NewRow

If rbmale.Checked = True Then

row1("employee_id") = TextBox28.Text

row1("first_name") = txtfname.Text

row1("last_name") = txtlname.Text

row1("gender") = "male"

If RadioButton5.Checked = True Then

row1("marital_status") = "married"

Else

row1("marital_status") = "unmarried"

End If

row1("father_name") = fathername.Text

row1("wife_name") = hwname.Text

row1("date_of_birth") = dob.Value.Date

row1("work_address") = wadd.Text

row1("pincode") = pcode.Text

row1("state") = ComboBox7.Text

row1("countary") = ComboBox4.Text

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row1("permanent_address") = txtpadd.Text

row1("residence_phone") = TextBox1.Text

row1("mobile_no") = txtmno.Text

row1("email") = txtemail.Text

row1("doj") = DateTimePicker2.Value.Date

Else

row1("employee_id") = TextBox28.Text

row1("first_name") = (txtfname.Text)

row1("last_name") = (txtlname.Text)

row1("gender") = "female"

If RadioButton5.Checked = True Then

row1("marital_status") = "married"

Else

row1("marital_status") = "unmarried"

End If

row1("father_name") = fathername.Text

row1("wife_name") = hwname.Text

row1("date_of_birth") = dob.Value.Date

row1("work_address") = wadd.Text

row1("pincode") = pcode.Text

row1("state") = ComboBox7.Text

row1("countary") = ComboBox4.Text
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row1("permanent_address") = txtpadd.Text

row1("residence_phone") = TextBox1.Text

row1("mobile_no") = txtmno.Text

row1("email") = txtemail.Text

row1("doj") = DateTimePicker2.Value.Date

End If

DataSet1.Tables(0).Rows.Add(row1)

OleDbDataAdapter1.Update(DataSet1)

DataSet1.AcceptChanges()

MsgBox("record Added")

End Sub

Private Sub Button4_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As


System.EventArgs) Handles Button4.Click

Dim con As New OleDb.OleDbConnection

Dim cmd As New OleDb.OleDbCommand

con.ConnectionString = "Provider=MSDAORA;Data
Source=server;Persist Security Info=True;Password=tiger;User
ID=scott"

Dim query As String

cmd.Connection = con

con.Open()

query = "delete from pptt1 where employee_id=" & TextBox28.Text


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cmd.CommandText = query

cmd.ExecuteNonQuery()

con.Close()

MessageBox.Show("Record deleted")

End Sub

Private Sub Button3_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As


System.EventArgs) Handles Button3.Click

Dim con As New OleDb.OleDbConnection

Dim cmd As New OleDb.OleDbCommand

con.ConnectionString = "Provider=MSDAORA;Data
Source=server;Persist Security Info=True;Password=tiger;User
ID=scott"

Dim query As String

cmd.Connection = con

con.Open()

query = "update pptt1 set first_name= '" & txtfname.Text & "',
last_name = '" & txtlname.Text & "',gender='" & GroupBox1.Text &
"',marital_status='" & GroupBox5.Text & "',father_name='" &
fathername.Text & "',wife_name='" & hwname.Text &
"',work_address='" & wadd.Text & "',pincode='" & pcode.Text &
"',state='" & ComboBox7.Text & "',countary='" & ComboBox4.Text
& "',permanent_address='" & txtpadd.Text & "',residence_phone='"
& MaskedTextBox1.Text & "',mobile_no='" & txtmno.Text &

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"',email='" & txtemail.Text & "' where employee_id= '" &
TextBox28.Text & "'"

cmd.CommandText = query

cmd.ExecuteNonQuery()

con.Close()

MessageBox.Show("Record Updated")

End Sub

4. Coding of Tax Form

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Payroll System
Private Sub Button52_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As
System.EventArgs) Handles Button52.Click
OleDbDataAdapter2.Fill(DataSet2)
Dim row2 As DataRow
row2 = DataSet2.Tables(0).NewRow
row2("emp_id") = TextBox28.Text
row2("licdeduct") = TextBox29.Text
row2("nss") = TextBox30.Text
row2("tax_amount") = TextBox32.Text
row2("nettax_amount") = TextBox31.Text
row2("annual_salary") = TextBox18.Text
row2("surcharge") = TextBox19.Text
DataSet2.Tables(0).Rows.Add(row2)
OleDbDataAdapter2.Update(DataSet2)
DataSet2.AcceptChanges()
MsgBox("record added")
End Sub

Private Sub Button53_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As


System.EventArgs) Handles Button53.Click
Dim con As New OleDb.OleDbConnection
Dim cmd As New OleDb.OleDbCommand
con.ConnectionString = "Provider=MSDAORA;Data
Source=server;Persist Security Info=True;Password=tiger;User
ID=scott"
Dim query As String
cmd.Connection = con
con.Open()
query = "delete from emp_tax88 where emp_id=" & TextBox28.Text
cmd.CommandText = query
cmd.ExecuteNonQuery()

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con.Close()
MessageBox.Show("Record deleted")
End Sub

Private Sub Button54_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As


System.EventArgs) Handles Button54.Click
Dim con As New OleDb.OleDbConnection
Dim cmd As New OleDb.OleDbCommand
con.ConnectionString = "Provider=MSDAORA;Data
Source=server;Persist Security Info=True;Password=tiger;User
ID=scott"
Dim query As String
cmd.Connection = con
con.Open()
query = "update emp_tax88 set licdeduct= '" & TextBox29.Text &
"', nss = '" & TextBox30.Text & "',tax_amount='" & TextBox32.Text
& "',nettax_amount='" & TextBox31.Text & "',annual_salary='" &
TextBox18.Text & "',surcharge='" & TextBox19.Text & "' where
emp_id= '" & TextBox28.Text & "'"
cmd.CommandText = query
cmd.ExecuteNonQuery()
con.Close()
MessageBox.Show("Record Updated")
End Sub

Private Sub Button12_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As


System.EventArgs) Handles Button12.Click
OleDbDataAdapter2.Fill(DataSet2)
Dim con As New OleDb.OleDbConnection
Dim da As New OleDb.OleDbDataAdapter
Dim ds As New DataSet
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Dim cmd As New OleDb.OleDbCommand
con.ConnectionString = "Provider=MSDAORA;Data
Source=server;Password=tiger;User ID=scott"
Dim str As String
con.Open()
str = "select * from emp_tax88 where emp_id='" & TextBox28.Text
& "'"
cmd.Connection = con
cmd.CommandText = str
da.SelectCommand = cmd
da.Fill(ds, str)
If (ds.Tables(0).Rows.Count = 0) Then
MsgBox("Employee Id does not exist")
Else
TextBox29.Text = ds.Tables(0).Rows(0)(1).ToString
TextBox30.Text = ds.Tables(0).Rows(0)(2).ToString
TextBox32.Text = ds.Tables(0).Rows(0)(3).ToString
TextBox31.Text = ds.Tables(0).Rows(0)(4).ToString
TextBox18.Text = ds.Tables(0).Rows(0)(5).ToString
TextBox19.Text = ds.Tables(0).Rows(0)(6).ToString
End If
con.Close()
ds.Reset()
End Sub

Private Sub Button72_Click(ByVal sender As System.Object, ByVal e As


System.EventArgs) Handles Button72.Click
Dim a As Double
Dim b As Double
Dim c As Double
Dim d As Double

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a = (TextBox18.Text)
b = (TextBox19.Text)
c = (TextBox29.Text)
d = (TextBox30.Text)
TextBox31.Text = a - b - c - d
TextBox31.ReadOnly = True
End Sub

Testing
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Payroll System
In a software development project, errors can b injected at any
stage during development. For each phase, we have discussed different
techniques for detecting and eliminating errors that originate in that
phase. However, no technique is perfect and it is expected that some of
the errors of the earlier phases will finally manifest of themselves in the
code. This is particularly true because in the earlier phases most of the
verification techniques are manual because no executable code exists.
Ultimately, these remaining errors will be reflected in the code. Hence,
the code developed during the coding activity is likely to have some
requirements errors and design errors, in addition to errors introduced
during the coding activity. Because code is frequently the only product
that can be executed and who’s actual behavior can be observed testing
is the phase where the errors remaining from all the previous phases
must be detected. Hence, testing performs a very critical role for quality
assurance and for ensuring the reliability of software.

During testing, the program to be tested is executed with a set of


test cases, and the output of the program for the test cases is evaluated
to determine if the program is performing as expected. Due to its
approach dynamic testing can only ascertain the presence of errors in
the program; the exact nature of the errors is not usually decided by
testing. Testing forms the first step in determining the errors in a
program. Clearly, the success of testing in revealing errors in programs
depends critically on the test cases.

Testing a large system is a complex activity, and like complex


activity it has to be broken into smaller activities. Due to this, for a
project, incremental testing is generally performed, in which components
and subsystems of the system are tested separately before integrating
them to form the system for system testing. This form of testing, though
necessary to ensure quality for a large system, introduces new issues of
how to select components for testing and how to combine them to form
subsystems and systems. In other words, integration of the various
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Payroll System
components of the system is an important issue that the testing phase
has to deal with. For this reason, this phase is sometimes called
“integration and testing.”

Security Mechanism
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Payroll System
Security is an important feature of the project which prevents the
project from going through wrong hands or illegal access, hence making
it highly consistent. The security checks implemented in the project can
be listed as:

 User Name and Password:


Without having a valid user name and password nobody can have
navigation through the project

 Different Users:
The project provides Access Level 1 and 2 to different users. Users
with Access Level 1 have all the powers of adding new records in
the database and changing or deleting existing ones from the
database and can also add new users or delete existing ones and
can change the passwords.
Other users can only view the information in the project. But they cannot
make any changes in the database.

Future Enhancement
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We have been working on the project for the past three months
and concluded that the proposed system will be able to satisfy all the
needs of a “Payroll System”. It is designed in a way that it can handle
all the tasks of a Company easily and efficiently. The system can handle
the reporting tasks very easily.

Future Enhancement:

 Use new more short coding method in .NET 2010 language for
this software.
 Modification in Database.
Data base modification can be easily handled by introducing new
techniques.

 More User friendly. To make it easy to understand and handle.


It can be make more user friendly by removing its complications.

 More Robust. Add new features in the software to make it more


robust.

Conclusion
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Payroll System
The computerized version of the existing system of the company
will be able to serve its client and prospective clients in a more efficient
manner, as this would save tremendous time energy and effort of doing
such tedious tiring and repetitive paperwork.

It is designed to offer easy accessible to all records to provide


better maintainability and to enable the user to make the required
modification as and when necessary.

Execution of this project would enable the user to seek use and
manipulation the records pertaining to nay and every client. This project
would, in short, increment the efficiency and the quality and quantity of
productivity of the organization as well as decrement the work effort,
energy and duration of time required by user staff.

In the old system there were problems of data redundancy and


information retrieval. So the final reports are always accurate. We can
retrieve a particular data or any related data in less than a second,
without going through the big files to retrieve the data as in the case of
manual or old system.

Our software has also made the report generation process very
easy, as we do not have to go through different files to enter the data in
the report Performa’s. Our software automatically does these processes
just by the single click of mouse.

Our software is designed using Oracle 8i as backend tool, which is


higher version of oracle than the other lower versions of oracle such as
oracle 8i. So if we will try to operate our software on the lower version of
oracle, it would generate errors.

Although we have put my full efforts to develop this project but still
some things may have been left which can be upgraded later on.

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Bibliography

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Sr. No. Name of the Book Author’s Name

1. Beginning (Visual Basic.Net) Richard Blair


2. Project Management John M. Nicholas
3. Learn Oracle in 21 Days Tata Mcgrawth

WEBSITES:

1. http://vb.net-informations.com/

2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Visual_Basic_.NET

3. http://www.camden.rutgers.edu/HELP/Documentation/
Oracle/server.815/a67781/toc.htm

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