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About the Authors

Dr. Wilfred Funk-and Norman Lewis have both been deeply concerned with the history and use of the English .language. for many years. As editors, lexicographers, teachers, and authors, they. have each contributed ex .. tensivel y to this. import.ant. field. But successful as' they each. have beenJndividually, then success as collaborators itt"prodllcirig 30 Days to a More Power/ul Vocabular, has been even greater. In various editions, at various prices, this book has sold nearly 4,000,000 copies. It is the most popular and most widely used manual of its kind produced in the twentieth century.

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Copya:lght 1942 byWll~ ,F1Jn,k.inc"·~i'~'" \ ,copyright 01970 by, Funk &, }Vagr,alls;a·.divisiol·'"

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,Contents

PRONUNCIATI,ON' K,EY ,

fiRST DAY: /f,

Give Us FiiteenMinutesa Day

1

"1l"

SECOND DAY:

Take Thill Twelve-Minute Test of Your

Verbal Power . . 6

THIRD DAY:

The Romance o/Words

FOURTH DA,Y:

Word, jor AJaiure Miru:U

fiFTH DAY: '

Words About Doctors 'and Specialist,

35

SIXTH' ",DAY:

Verb, Give You' Power

" '41

"

. SEVENTH DAY:,'

W ord« About Theories

, "49

EIGHTH DAY:

Quick Vocabulary Builder vii

NINTH DAY:,

.A. Quick Test of Your Progress to Date

TENTH DAY:

, Words About Your Fellowmen

ELEVENTH DAY:

'; Words for Phobias and Manias

TWELFTH ,DAY:

Words About Your Feelings

THIRTE'ENTHDAY:

Words That Eiid in "Qlogy"

FOURTEENTH DAY: ,Word~ for Human Traits

FIFTEENTH DAY:

Words for Human Faults

SIXTEENTH DAY:

Y QU Help' to Create the American Language'

SEVENTEENTH DAY:

A "Pop Quiz"

EIGHTEENTH" DAY:

, Words AboutPersonalities

NINETEENTH DAY:, Afljectives Give You Power

. ". " ,

TWENTIETH DAY:

Learning Words the M adem Way viii

" 65
71
79
87
96
.j)
10Z
11Z
119
123
lz8
134
141 I TNENrY.F~RST D~Y: " Words from Latin

'rWENTY·Sf'COND DAY:

Test Your Progress

TWENTY·THIRD DAY:

, Can You Meet This Challenge?

, "

TWENTY.FOURTH, DAY:

, Words:{Ju:ltDescribe You

TWENTY~FIFTiff DAY:

'Fr~nch Phrases You Can Use i

TWENTY.SIXTH DAY:

Words About Words '

TWENTY·SEVENTH DAY:

Word Building by the "Urzfolding Process"

"'. '

TWENTY·EIGHTHDAY:

Words from ClaS#c Roots" \\\ TWENTY.NI;~THDA\II:

Words C!:hange Thel~Meanings

II '\

'I

TI:fIRTIETH1DAY: !

Your 30-Day Vocabulary Test

ONE LAST ,'WORD:

A Lifetime Habit

INDEX

ix

151
I ... ~
1~J I
166
176
185
Ig2'
198
.ilO
~n6 .' .

! .

• T. )

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···30 'lJa~sto . . aeM:ore

. CJPowerful . -Voell"ullir~ .

ri,.

Pronunciation Key,

The phonetic transcription of most words in the following pages 'will be ilelf-explanatory and completely clear and obvious. Only a very few symbols have to be practiced and understood befdre you start.

1. ~: This isthe phonetic symbol (called schwa)· which indicates "a weak, neutral vowel sound occurring in most of the unstressed syllables in English _ speech, as the a in alone, the e in happen,the u

in circus/'* '

2. 0 The vowel sound in go, no, low, sO', etc. 3~ 00 The vowel sound in t50t, soon, noon, etc.

4. zit The sound ot the S in occasion; 'treasure, measure,

leisure, etc. '. , .

S. .~ The vowel sound of bc)6k, l06k, etc.

, Many wOlds ate stressed. on more. than one syllable, although only one .yllahle may receiee '. the primary or .trongest . ~&:ent. When you say pyromaniac, for exampfe, you p1acithestrongest stress on the third lJyUable {l1ia)_;" that is, you gay the. third .yllabIe Witll t.hegreatest. loudness. But tbe first syllable, -py, also receives~ome stress; that is,

... Funk & Wtlgllalls ,Standard College Dictrmmry (New Yotk:

Funk & WagnaUs, 196BJ.

1

. ou sa it louder thanro, -i, or DC. To show these distinc-

~ Y will cap' italize and accen. tthe strongest syllable .

tions, we . ~. . t . ( 'y')

. (MAY'), . and only accent the sec_ond stronfel P",:

, Pyromani(lcisthul phonetically rewritten as py -:l'o-MAY nee-ak. Further examples:

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satiated: SAY'-snee-ay' -tod archaeology:.ahr'-kee--OL'~jee opinionated: ~-PIN'-y~nay'-t~d braggadocio: brag' ~-D(?" -shee-d

(.'1

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I I 8 I II IJ 141
~IJ • 17 II • 1M In
• • • • • II 1m
~m SID Glue II. or.". ... e;1f'nutes II Q),,~

Your. boss has a bigger vocabulary than you have.

That'lonegood reason why he's your boss.

This, discovery'has been made in the word laboratories of the world. Not by theoretical English professors, but by practical. hard-beaded scientists who have been. searching

fOIthe secrets_of success. .

After a host of experiments and years- of testirigtlIey' have found out:

That if your vocabulary is limited your chaItces of suecess.are Iimited.

That one;of the easiest and quickest ways to get ahead' is by consciously . building .up yGUI knowle~ge of.

words. > "

That the vocabujary ofthe average person almost stops

growing by the middle. twenties, , .

And that from then on it is necessary to have an intelligent planif progress is to be made, No hit-or-miss

methods Will do. .' ,

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4

FIRST Jj>AY'

It hal long since been satis~actorily . established that a high executive doee not have a large vocabulary merely because of the opportnnlties of his poI'ition.· That would be puttingthe cart beforethehor$~.Quite'~e rev~ne~. tru~. His skill in words was a tremendoUJ helpm getting JYtn hls

job. -. .'. .... . c

Dr.lohnsonO'Connor of the Human Engineering Laboratory of BOitQD. and oUhcStevcm In.~tuteo' J'tlChnology in Hoboken, New Jersey, gave a vocabulary test to onq hundred yoUng men who \yer~8tudying to be ·industrial.:.

executives.' ..' . '. I. . ..'

FiV(1 years later. all, without exception, of those who had passed in theupper ~ 0 per. cent had executive positions. ,while not a lingle young man of the lower 2.5 per cent had

become an executive. .' '>. '.

Some; of thcfactor~ that lead to success can be measured as scientiftc:ally 81 tlie Content.' of a test tube, and it has been discovered that the one and only CODlll19n charac. teristic of outstandingly successful people. iJ "an extensivo knowledge of the exact mean!ng of Engliah words." ,Vocabulary,is one indication. of intelligence -. ~arning power me.uW'ably sharpe-a when vocabulary ". incr~a~es.

Here'll the proof. ' .' ..... .' . '. '. . .,

Two classe.. in a high school were selected for. an .e:x:perimenr. Theagea andbackgr01ind of 'the membe~ .: of both groups were th« same. and each group represented a similar crose-eectionot the community. One, the control CJaSMtOOl;: thenormal courses The other clast had,in additio~, special and rigorous voc~bu!arytraining; At. the tnd of the period the gradee of the: IltudentJ in the vocabulary,clair: surpassed' th~ grad~ of the members. of .the

. control gr~up •. not only in ~nglish,bl1t in every ether . subjeCt including matheDUtiCl and the a(..ien~. " . . . ........•

'SjmilarlyProfea~or LewiJ M. Terman of >St~ordUIll· versitY/hw. fotmd that a vocabulary test is aaaccur~te .a . measure . of intelligenCe 8$ any three units of thest~da,rdt

and.acceptedStantord-BinetL Q: t.ests .. ' .'

Words. are ,the . tools of tJ~ing.· It naturally follows,

Give UI Fifteen Minutes a Day

5'

then, that the more words you have at your command, the

clearf?r, and more accurate your thinking will be, ,

Warda are your medium of exchange, the coin with. which you do bUSinesa with all those around ·you. With worda you relate to people, connannlcate your feelings and thoughts to them,inftuencc them~' persuade them, control them. In short, through words you shape ycur own destiny, For your wordS are your personality; yoUr vocabulary is

you. .'. ".

Words are explpsive. Phrases are packed with TNT. A single word can destroy a' friendship. can It art or· end a marital battle,' can land a large order. ,The right phrases in the mouths or clerk. havequadmpled the aa1ea.ofa department store .. Thewrongwords used by. a campaign orator have lost an election, Four unfortunate words..;...."R.um~ . Romanism,andRebelUon"-usedin a Republican campaignspeech.threw the Catholic vote and thePresidential victory to Grover Cleveland.

ArmiCi. fight for phrases: "Make the world. safe . for Democracy;';"V for Vjctory";"Remember Pearl Harbor." . Worda have changed the direction of history; Words can also change tke direction of your Iife; They can raise a

man from mediocrity to success. .

. We submit that if you methOdically increase. your V~ cabulan you willimprQveyoUr chances for IUCCesS.

Thill book enlist. active cooperation, continuous written . and oral response. It will test you every. step of the way, it will deqiand unceasfugfeedback from you, and thus it Will make words your friendsandallie-,s.

We expect· to. prove to yon that, developing. a-rich and

,robust vocabulars can he both fun and challenging ..

.. ' Give us fifteen minutes a day, and y.rf. \fi1lguarantee that at the end of II< month" when you have turocli over the last pageot thle book, , your. words, your reading, your conver ..

'saUot!, and your life will an have'; a new and deeper mean-

ing for you. . '!':'i

For words can make you great!

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~m SJOO '1'11". 'l'hfs'l'welvs- , eM:lnute .tJ'est of crear Verbal '!'"..,vsr

Fast, we will take your word portrait. .

When the picture is finished, you will know how you look to others as a conversationalist and how you may-appear when you write a simple social note or a, business letter. " . . .' .'. .

The lines of your' likeness thataie to be drawn. ~erev:i1l indicate the extent of your vocabulary, the facility with which. you can recall and use wor?s, and thek;n0wledge that you have of their precise meanings. There will also be

'brief spelling and pronunciation tests so that we can get. a

completepicture, , . "

y 0\;1 will find the tests in this chapter simple and. entertaining. They will take exactly twelve minutes, 'andwh:n you are through and have. checked your score, you will know what's wrong, if anything, with your vocal;>ulary and your USe of words; You. w~, in short, have painted your own word portrait. Then, 111 the chapters that follow, we

6 .

Take Thi& Twelve-Minute Test

7

",ill show you how to strengthen any weak points that may

have appeared.. ". . '. .'

How do words treat you? Are you comfortable \ with them? Do they come easily to you? Whep you write! and speak, do your words Paint the sort of picture of you that will do you the most good in this highly competitive worldj Doea your language usually present a true reflectionof yourmind.iyour emotions, and your personality? Or doe. it sometimes betray you and. blur your thoughts? Do people. occasionally.' misunderstand you? Or. can you

compel the. to listen, react, obey'1. . , ..

Like everyone else, you want certain things fromIife, No matter what those ben.efits are, or what particular way you havechosen to go . about . getting them. you know that your, first: and most effective. means will 'be the words you

use. ,

In short, the satisfaction and the success you get out of life depend very greatly on the skill with which you communicate your needs, your desires, your opinions to others.

Ready to discoverwhat your command of language says

about you? ,.. .

TEST I .

Ve~pal Speed (Elementary)

pmEcTIONs:Write in the blank spacenext to each of .the .. words in the following list anotherword that begi~ with S and has a meaning directly opposite to the given word •.

Time: 60 second,

. EXAMPLE: fast slow sweet sour buy sell START TIMING: 1. i tall

2. north

3. happy

- 4~ different 5. dangerous

s :

S ; .

S .

S ...............•

S ..... , ..• ; ..... ;~

8

(!EGOND D~Y

6. big .S ...•... ,., .....•

7. dull S ...............•

8. noisy S .

9. sit S .

10. receive ·S .

. . EndTiming

(Answers for all tests .Will be found at the end of the

chapter.) . . .

Y~uhave just been tested for fluency... ....

. You should have breezed through this test at bjghspeed in less than sixty seconds with no hesitancy and no. mis .. . takes, H you had to think for more than an instant to recall . the proper word; it is Jikely that you experience ~omedifficulty in expressing your thoughts. Y on are probably . seeing men ·who are not as bright as you getting' ahead of you. You may. often wonder: "What have they got that I haven't got?" .

~Your lack of an adequate word, arsenal m,aybave seriously handicapped. you. H so, this bookjs designed for you. It will give you the chance to go to work and over-

come your obstacle. .

TEST II .'

Verbal Speed (Advanced)

DIRECTIdNS:As in: the previous test, write a word beginning With S which isoppositeln meaning to each of the following.

Time: 90 seconds

START TIMING: 1. generous

2. meaningless

I 3. believing

4. complicated S. doubtful

6. careful

. 7. wakefulness

S : .

S ·

S : ".

'5 ..

S .

s ..

S ~ .. ; ..

I

I

Take This Twelve-Minute Test

9

8. rough S .

9. objective S ~ ..'

10~laugh : . S .

End Timing .

Speed and accuracy are again of great importance. H you .coIllpleted this test in ninety second •. and got eiiht . out often correct, you are f~~bovc'the average and you doubtleas.show unusualskill and ease in trailBlating your th~Ughta mto the proper words; you are going to make swift progresa in the lessons that are ahead.

H,on the other hand, you exceeded your time limit or if you were wrong in five or more words; it it. critic;u.y . necessary that you start today to improve your vocabulary .

W" are .dealing in thBbook"with one of the richest languages in the w?r1d, and with a little practice and .

'. patience yo:u can easily make its, great wealth your own. .

TEST'" .

Synonym Recall

. .

Here isa test of your skill from another p<>intof view~ Yo,! have ,f>.een wor~8. with antonyml.or:words. otoppostte meanings. Howwi11you do\Vitb.rynonyw. or words ?f the lairle. or almo,st the same s, Dl(lanin~? It is highly . nnpprtant that you . pave a wealth of syn~nyma. which are anal()go~ to the ma.ny'~l?ra on an artist'. palette. at your comm:md Synonyms WIthin easy reach help you paint for ' yo~ listen~the manr,shades o,f yourth9ughta; they lend yanety and mterestto your. conversation and writing.

DIR:BCTIC>NS: In the:' spaces, gJvenbelowwri~e two words

that are synonymous with the given word. ' '

Time:2minutea .

ExAMPLE: beautiful lovely, pretty"

strong rugged, powerful

short" brief~ concise .

This test should befiriished'within the time limit,. as



10

SECOND DAY

there are many more than two synonyms for each of these words. Check with a dictionary if your answers are not found in the list at the end of the chapter. "

START· TIMING: 1. defects (noun) • .

2.desir~(noun) . ..

3'. ' true '!'. • ••••••.•••• 0 ••

4. suitable .. ..

5, 'Iuminous .. .

~~

6. loathing (noun) .. ..

7. doubtful ,... .. .

. 8.- vulgar : r •••••• ~:". .- .••••.••• , ••.••••

9. admiration . ..

10. 'very ., ..

End Timing

TeST IV Synonym Recognition

We have tested your ability to recall the s~?nyms fen: a . given word. We are now going to test your ability to recognizesynonyms when. you see them. .

DI'RECTIONS :In the . following list there are sixteen words.

. Start with infidel arid put asnian figure 1 above it. Runthrough th.~ list until you findano~er word that has the same or liinilarmeaning.Put a 1 above that one. Then try the" second word on the lisf,larg~, ~utting ~ ~gure 2 . above it .. and search for a. word of slffii1armeanm~ and mark .it' 2. Arid so on until you have eight pans of synonyms or words of similar meaning.

. Timet: QO seconds

START TIMING:

./ , infidel large bulky abd~ct

. ','" '\-~,

. ingenious'occur

happen . persuade

eccentricity clever

unsophisticated induce

End Timing

aberration i kidnap unbeliever ingenuous

Take This Twelve-Minute Test

11 '

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TEST V Homonyms

DffiECTIONS: Homonyms are words that are pronounced almost exactly alike but that differ considerably in meaning. Check the homonym that makes sense in each

of the following sentences.· .

Time: 90secomj,

START TIMING: . .

1. Why does modem music have such a strange [(a) ..

affect, (b) effect] on you? .

2. Most buildings have [(a) stationery, (b) stationary]

walls. ' -

3. The [(a,). pr~ncipal, (blprinciple] features of South-

. em Calirorma are sunshine and smog. . .

4. ~~ttingc?ntentediy·by the fire; the cat licked [(a)

.. tt II, (I» lts]paws. . . ,

S •. His vocal[(a) cordl,(b} chords] are Inflamed, '

6. He sat-for hours [(a) poring, (b) PQuring] over the

dictionary. .... - . ,

7.· Helistened with [(a) baited, (b) bated] breath for

. the second "hoe to fam· .

8 -. Admiral Nelson is famous for one of the most Important [(a) navel, (b) naval] encountersIn British

history. . .. . .'

9. The scene of the accident was lighted by a huge

[(a) flare, (b) flairJ. .

10. The boxer made. a [(a) feint, (blla.int] with his

left. .-

End 'Timing

TEST VI Underosfanding Wo~ds

DIRECTIONS: Check the definition that properly explains the italicized word in each phrase.

Time: 2 minute,-

SECOND DAY

START TIMING:

1. An, acrimonious argument (a) long-winded

(b) sharp. biting, sarcastic

(c ) dull, pointless, and incoherent

2. A soporiiic lecture'

(a) so boring as to put one to sleep (b) brilliant and informative

( c ) well-attended ' , '

3. Panacea for social ills (a) direct.cause

(b) cure-all

( c ) condition encouraging continuation

4. An evanescent feeling

(a) fading away quickly -. . .

(b) composed of both dread and desire,

(c) souniquethat itis experienced by very few

people '/./ . ,

S. Overwhelmed by en~ui ~_

(a) fear ,

(b) dissatisfaction and boredom resulting from inactivity ,

(c) a sudden awareness of one's unconscious

motivation '

6. A facetious·remark '

(a). witty or joking at an inappropriate time

(b)' tending to, make vpeace between people in conflict

(c) totally irrelevant-to the~ituati~n'

7. A maelstrom of emotions' (a) complete.lack

(b l catalogue in chronological order (c) violent, stormyconfuslon

&. Maudlin attitudes (a) self-destructive

(b) tearfully and excessively sentitilentai

(c) showing great maturity at. a sutprisiIlgly early age

'P,keThis Twelve-Minute T~st 9. Prove adroitly

, '(a) skillfully

, (b ) nervously

( c ) inattentively

10. A sardonic smile

(a) empty, meaningless. ' (b) opeu and trusting

( c) bitter. and scornful, End Timing

13.

TEST VII Spelling Without Err~r

Here _ are ten common words frequently misspelled by .those whose linguistic ability needssharpening. Check . the form that looks right to you.

. Time:qO seconds

START TIMING:

1. ( a) occurrance, (b) occurrence, (e) occurance 2~{a) ecstasy, (b) ecstacy, (c)extacy

3. (a) d.run.keness, (b) drunkenness, (c) drunkedness

4. (a)embarassing, (b) embarrassing, (c) .' embar

rasing , , '

IS ... (a) irresistible, (b) irresistable, (c) irrisistible

6. (a) supersede, (b) supercede, (c) ;upereeed

7. (a) disappoint, (b) dissapoint, (c) dissappoint

8. (a) occasslonal.rb) occasional.Tc) ocassional

9. (a) indispensable,(b) indispensible," (c) indes-

pensible -

10. (a) perseverance, (bYperseverence, (c) perser-

verance _. End Tiinin(

SECOND DAY

TEST VIII

Pronouncing in the Educated Manner <

The pronunciation of American English is, admittedly, unstable ~ the' sound of words-changes accordingto geographical . area, ethnic backgl'ound,ecollomic and social' levels, .etc. Mar», marry. and merry, for example, are pronounced a1mo~tidentica11yinthe Midwe~tand along much of the Pacific coastal regions; whereas in the East and South they sound very different The first syllable oiorange is pronounced or in California and are in New York. The vowel sound of talk and walk is uttered one way by a native of Brooklyn and quite another way by someone born in LOi Angelee. Word~ like euher.tomato, ~une,adult, licorice, strength, and many other •. can often show the' age, income, background.and sophistication of the speaker ...

Nevertheless, one kind of pronunciation test will be use-

.Min completing your verbal portrait. The following ten words, among many others, have both an illiterate or dialectef.and an educated pronunciation. Say' each one carefullv'according to ·its phonetic respelling, .then (check thefcirm that sounds most 'nearly like what you ordinarily use in conversation. .

The symbol, ~ is the sound of the:a inahout or in Linda •.

Time: 90 seconds

STARr' TIMING:

1. genuine

2. athlete

(a) JEN'·.y~-win (b) JEN'-Y:iI-wyne ( a) ATH'-",-leet (b) ATH'-leet

(a) FILM

. (b)FIL'-~m

(a) MAHR' -don (b) MOI)I-r~n (c) MOD'-~rn

~. film

4. modern

Take This Twi!lve-MinuteTest

~ .

(a) ~k-SEPT'

,.(b) ~-SEPT'

(a) DROWN'-d~d (b)' DROWND (a)RESS'-~l (b)'RASS'-~l

(a) PAT'''r~.li (b)PAT'-~rn

·(a) FIG'-y~r (b) . FIG'-~r

(a) ~-TAK~-t~d (b) ~-TA'KT'.

End Timing'

'. Now. you may relax. ~ourte~~~ verbal power Is concluded; your word portrait is finished; What·you will see on the canvas-cpleasant or unpleasant, encouraging or discouraging-is what the world sees when you write or apeak. At thispoint, before yoti check your score, we offer you one. important thought:' No matter how good or bad your word power is today, it can be .immeasm,ably better, ' more useful, more potent, in just;.tlUfty days; .

".~/.. / '/

5. accept

6. drowned

7. wrestle

8 .: pattern

9"'fi~re

.,

10. attacked

Scoring andlnte~pretaHon

Determine your score for each test by comparing your answers with those given below:

TEST·I: ,

(1) short; (2) south; (3) sad; (4)/same, similar; (5) safe; (6) small; (7) smart;" sharp, sparkling; (8) .silennstill; (?) stand;

(10) send .

Scoring: 2.points for each correct answer Maximum score: 20 points

YourScore: , .

TEST II:

(1) selfish, stingy; (2) sensible, significant; (3) skeptical, suspicious; (4 )sirople; (5)

i6

,SECOND DAY

sure; (6) slipshod, slovenlY,sloppy; (7) sleep, sleepiness, slumber, somnolence; (8) . ", I smooth; (9)s:ubjectiye; (10) sob, scowl

Scoring: 2 points for each correct answer

Maximum score: . 20 points

. 'Your Score: .

TEST III:,. . '

(1) shortcomings, imperfections, faults,' weaknesses, deficiencies" blemishes

(2) wishes, wants, longings, Cravings, ap-

petites " ....... -

, (3) right, . correct, truthful,.' genuine, straight, honest, faithful, veracious, pure ...,. (4) appropriate; consistent, fitting, fit" ap-

plicable ' , '

( 5) bright, Iustrous, radiant, brilliant, vivid, . gleaming, shining, glowing, • lucid

(6) disgust. aversion, detestation, antipathy, repugnance, abhorrence

(7) ambiguous, vague, obscure, indefinite, loose, uncertain, dubious,. question-

able, dubitable .

(8) rudc.common, coarse,gross, Ill-bred, low, obscene, ill-mannered, crass

(9) praise. approval, commendation, es-

teem. veneration, approbation. .

(10) extremely, exceedingly,' highly, 'enor';' mously, immensely, abundantly, ter-.

ribly, quite' , ,', ., ."" •.

Scoring: 2 points for each question answered.

. correctly . " . ' Failure to give 2~yn()nyins counts

zero ,

Maximum score: 20 points

Your Score: .

TEST IV:

(1) infidel (2) ingenious

(I) unbeliever (2) clever

Take Thia Twelve-Minute Test

(3) occur (3) happen

( 4 ) aberration. - ( 4 ) eccentricity

( 5) large " (5) bulky

(6) persuade (6) induce '

en kidnap . . (7) abdtict

(8) unsophisticated (8) ingenuous

Scoring: 2 points for each correct parr

Maximum score: 16 points ,>

. Your Score: .

,TEST v:

(I) b; (2) b; (3) a; (4) b; (5) a; (6) -a; (7) ?; (8) b; .(9) a; (10) a

Scoring: 1 point for each correct choice , . Maximum score: 10 po,inci

• 'Your Score:

T.ESTVI:

(1) b; (2) a; (3)b; (4) a;(5) b; (6) 'a; (7lc; (8) b;(9)a; (10) c '.

Scoring: 2 paints for each correct choice

. Maximum score: 20 points

Your Score:

.TEST viI: (1) b; (2) a; (3) b; (4)b; (5) a; (6) a; (7) a; (8) b; (9) a; (10) a " .,'.

Scoring: . 2 points for each correct choice

Maximuin, score: 20 points '

Your Score:

TEST VIII;." .

(1) a; (2) 0; (3) a; (4) c; (5) a; (6)b·

(7) a; (8) b;(9) a; (10) 0 ", '

Scoring: 2 points for each correct choice .

Maximum score: 20 points

Your Score:

. .,..~ .

N9W add your scores

in, the '8 tests' to { .

arrive at Your Total Score: out of a maximum of'

146.

YOUR TOTAL SCORE,:

120..:.146 You belong .in the top 10 per cent of the literate 'population of this country and you should be on the way to ahigh position, in your vocational, intellectual, and social life. You will get a special pleasure out of this beok as you perfect a vocabulary that is" already sound.

99~119 ' Your vocabulary is about average and is therefore, not helping you gain success as fast as you might otherwise be able to. Why not begin today to overcome an unnecessary handicap?

, Start building your vocabulary now and make thit;interestirlg, work a daily habit. The new words you learn, will acquaint you with new fields of knowledge, and there, will be marty

'additional subtle and indirect rewards. Remember: There is no easier' way to achieve success than by adding to your vocabulary.

This score shows a definitely impoverisl:ieg vocabulary;yourweaknescin words may be holding you back. It would be a foolish and fatai mistake not to do something immediately

about it. Here aretwo don'ts for you: Don't let, your low score unduly, disturb you. And don't feel thatoruyauniversity graduate can be an expert user of words. Shakespeare at- , tended school rOT ten "years all told. Robert Bums, the Scottish poet. wall a day 'laborer without education. Neither Charles Lamb nor ,CharleS! DickeDJI had enough formal schooling to talk aboiit. And Abraham Lincoln didn't know' what the inside of a school looked like. ' They and. many others like them became mas-

18

98 and below

SECOND DAY

Interpretatio,n .

r

t

I

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I

, Take This Twelve-Minute Test -:

( 19, ,tets 'of sReech. They achievedtheir effectiveness by mdustry, and practice: .So can you And when. you do, .your reward will be great:

The beauty of this book is that you start to benefit-not after months of trial-but from the first day and with the first chapter.

,
)1K :;(!]! 4J lJ) (I, J
~ II 11 111 ~2 111M
~I ~(I 1l'J ~II 11 -
~! D M ~ II 'II 1m
~{I)i3100 tzhe'Romance of Words

From now on we want you to look at words intently, to be inordinately curious about them and toexamine themsyllableby syllable, letter by letter. Tbeyare your tools of understanding and self-expression, Collect 'them" Keep

, them in condition. Learn how to handle them. Develop a fastidiou!." but not a fussy, choice. Workalw:;tys toward good taste in their usc. Train your ear for their harmonies.

We urge you not to take words for granted just because theyhave been part ,of your daily speech since childhood, Y ou must examine theni. 'Iurn them over and over ,as though you' were handling a coin, and see the, seal and 'superscription on each one. We would like you actually to'

fall in love with words, , '

Worda are not dead thirigs. They are fairly wriggling with life They are the exciting and mysterious tokens of our thoughts. and like human beings. they are born, come to maturity, grow old, and die,and sometimes they are even reborn in anew age. A word, from its birth to its death, is a process, not a staticthing..

20

The Romance of Words

. Words, lik e living .trees, have roots bra .. c'l.. d

• .., ... , 1.1 ..... .\.les, an ,

leaves. . ,.

Shall we stay with this· analogy' for '8 few moments' and

see how perfect it is? _- , ' .. .' ,

The story of~;e r~t of a wardh the story of its origin. '!he,study o{.(mgtnl 111 called etymology. which in tum has liS. ~oot. in ~e ~eek. word .. n.m~g~I1g ·"true or ~n~al. mean mg. ,,,2nd the Gree en . mg - ogta, meamng

SCIence or study, So etymology means the science or study of true or original meanings"

Every word in our'lwlgl1age ,is a frozen metaphor a frozen, picture, It is -, ~. poetry behind words that gi~e3 ~guage lt~ overwhelming I!0we~'1nd the more intimately we know the romance that lie. Within each word, the better understanding we will have of its meamng.

For instance, on certain occl,lliona you will probably say . that you have "calculated" the cost of something or other.

What doea-the term'calcg41at, really Dleu?HerGu the story. Years ago, ancient Romani had an inltromentcal1ed

· a hodometer, or, "road measurer." which correspondedto 'our modem taxi meter. If you bad .. hired a two-wheeled Rom~ vehicle to ride, say. to the forum, you,might have found ~ the back a tin. can wi~arevolving cover that held ~ quantity of pebble •. This can W8Ii so .cq1,ltpx~~Hhat each tune the wheel turned, the metal cover aIiO revolved. and a

· pebble dropped through a, hole into the receptacle 'below

· At the end of .YOUl'trip you counted the pebbles-and cal~ culated your b~. ~ ou see, the Latin word for pebbJe W~~ ca/culWl, and that i .' where oW':' word. <'ca'lcillate," come£

from. ,. ',,', . '. .-

Th~r~ "ar~. of .ro~se, mau.ywordl with. mnt~~ Simpler

histonea .tha.n tbm~ WIle.l you lll~,t of ;l1\ s'iU'pl~6'. for in-

. ~~~. y~;, are ri1c~ly oyinlll th.~t you have a 3m' (1"rench . Jor . over.) f!_IUl (Froo.t;b, for ''mm·J) or a ,ur::'pliU~ 'I'hat

18. ~\)U bave:if!.··ov~t"lmore"''!han YOlllueea.. . ,. ,

ShOllld you .beIn a SJlt1(;ny. mcodior the nonce, and =ppc~ t~ lQol.: l"I,t 8o~~ne rather haught!1~'1. you,t m~!ld3 L8?t,~y?~ mpt:~C~tl'. a wOrd tW:'>t(.:oroelll 1r,nm .t1ne atin,3uperctl.ur,>:. m!:;aru.llg tJlat "eyebrow" you jl,lst raised,

THIRD DAY.

·,lZ.Z .

,.: . • f nd of who has become your

,That.pe~o~. yo~ are :~e~ho, eat. bread with y~u-~om c.ompo. man, IS sunply d "'bread" Trumps Inbnd~e

. / .. 'th" an pam! ' - ,

Latin cum, WI • . • .' or "triumph," an old-tune

, is fro om: the. French trlomph:!. ds '" uit isa110wed t()

II! ds In mOdern Call , one II. .. till .

i game .oj. car", . .. the,other suits . And I again,

! triumph over, or to, 'trumJ;' •. literally one who takes .~

. . th lieutenantD fr

' 'in the army. e ... h n-tbe latter lsnot aroUfij- om

,I~ce of .t.hecaptatn YL~t . "in lieu or') and tenir,"t9.

the French lieui?"e.use 1 IDd 'ves nom the Latin word hold." The captam, m turn. en from columna (the "col.,. capUt("head"). Color_rel comes, / ..'

umn" that he leads). uld like toJWit~our friend, !he •

If, by any chance •. you wo . that his profes&i~nal. title,

Wall Street brok~r. )US~J~~ord brocou~ a "broa('.he!,". I came from the ~ddle h a cask to draw off the~ i oro~e who open~. or br;:C~ef!ame word in the onginal! or liguor. We Itill~~P. b~oachetior opened up] the sub- ! sense when we say He b tbecame in time. a .alesman . i ject."Thebroacher, or tnf;er'uch as siocks and bonds. i of wine, then of otherfgs, II ds We next come to the i

Tb~se are the ro~ts 0 ot~~ ianguage tree are those I branches. The ~rmtC~ that have grown out from one \

many groupS of wor . . ._ . !

original. root.. .... 1 F. om th~ L.a.tin root ,pectare,[ ..

Let'. take .~ eXa.rD;r e. rthan 240 English words have !

which means to lOO~ mar: in such words, as ·,pectaclel sprouted,. We find 1t::ugh), ,pectator (one who lOOks;! (those things you loo .' . zive toa penon y01~ .

or watches), respect <)the ~~::S~!iu(fo 100kiDto) -. Whe,n care to look at again .• an; .. ct ou make it plain that you treat someone' WIth dlsrest~ . ' Yain (dis "not"",-:re,

YOU do no. t care to look at lID t~gn is a lo~king within.

"10k") Introspec 10 . • 1

"again"--spect, . ooi . . ,. hichhas so large y,

Turning. to t.he Greek language. wh·, "to' write" an. _ . . discover grap em,. ..' h

enriched our own, we· 0 'shwords. We have telegrap

oth~r.prolific .lt0m.ce.of En~onograph (writing by ,sound),

(w.(ltmg from a ~~tance), P flight) stenograwzgr (one

p~otograph {wntmg. by means 0 ..'-

The Romance ·of Words

who does condensed 'writing), and mimeograph (to write

a copy or imitation). . . ,

We have in our language a host of roots such as these.

There is the Latin spirare, meaning "to blow or breathe," from whicb we get such EnglisJ;t words as inspire (breathe into), expire (breathe-out), erspire_ (breathe through),

· respiration (breathing again oro en ' ..

Our word "li,~blf comes frOD1 the. Latin ligare, "to bind." This fasc1l1ating root has branched out into oblige

. and obligatj (to.bind. to do something). ligaturt!, (bandage' or binding • ligament (something that tiel two things together). and, withffi;e root nolonger so obvious, ~agu} "(thosenatiolU or other organizations that are oun together). and even the word allx.<to bind to one another),

which iI,from ad and ligare. .

These, then, are the branches. We tum now to the , 'leaves. "If the roots are. the origins of . words and the branches ', are the word faDilliea that stem out of them, the leave; of this language tree would, be the' words them-

· selves and their meanings,

.Bach given word, in its beginelng, had, no' doubt, only .' one meaning, But words are so full of life that they are -continually sprouting the green-shoots of new meanings. .

Shall we choose just one word alan instance of the

-amazing vitality of language? The simple three-letter word run. up to this moment of wPting,baamore thaa ninety dictionary definitions, There are the run . in yout stocking, the run on the bank, and a rl{~;_n baseball, The clock may

. 'run down, but you run up a bill. Color. run. You may run a race. or. run a business. You may have the run of the mill, Of, quite different, the run of the house when you get the run of thingJ, And thi. dynamic little word, we can assure you, lias just begun its varied career with these examples.

Is it any wonder that our unabridged dictionariescontain hundreds of thousands' of ·living and' usable words, words sparkling-with life, prolific in their breeding, luxuriant in. their growth, continually shifting and changing in

'their meanings? ' . . " .'

· Words even have-definite personalities and characters..

TH'IRD DAY

~ "

dis' dant, musical. They can be They can be ~we:et, sour, ,cor hostile or friendly.,

sugary or acrid, soft or sharp, , rd .tudies try to

.... :~' time on as we enter our wor • .

From u.w:>, " ' 'f 'ds Look at them. if possible,

become keenly aware 0 .wor ": in them for the first

,'with the, fresh eyes' of one who 18 r ~ you win then be

, time If we have persuaded you to 0 • with a more

, n the way to the success $at can be won WI

~owerfulVOCabulary. '

W"'_,or ,eM"tare cMfnds

There are words in English that can be understood only by those who have lived and become mature. No explanation, no definitioru: could make them clear to a child.

Here are,' ten such' words. Pronounce each one aloud several times, following carefully the phonetic respelling. (Recall that the symbol ~ has the sound of the a in about or in Linda.)

1. vicarious (vy-KAlR'-ee-~s)

2. r.ationalize (RASH' -cn-o-lize )

3. gregarioWl (gr~AIR'~~s)

4. ob8equioWi (~tH;EE'-kwee-t;)s) S. maudlin (MAWD':-lin)

6, ascetic (a-SET" .. ik)

7. pander (PANf-d~r) 8.8ublimate (SUB':-l::l-lllate)

9. wanto,; (WAHN'-t~n)

lO.effete (::I-PEET')

FOURTH DAY

II

You might find it. hard, ~erhaps absolutely w.possibl~, to explain these terms to a nine-year-old.boyorgirl,

. But y~u, an adult, will be-able to comprehend them and to make them your property. ,',

Let us discuss them, one by one. Here. ~d t!tete w,e, will' give you the etymology of the wo_rd,. if It~ history IS, interesting and b:appens to throw any light on Its present-

day meaning. .. ..; '. th t

1. Vicorious.. This is an abstract word, but It ~ one a_

is easy for the grown-up mind to grasp. For exam~le. ~ere are two ways to travel: o~eby ,bpy~g a steamship ti~k:t and going to your destination, lay Paris; the ~ther by rea -

. ing travel stories or travel circulars about P~. In ~efirst 'instance you have enjoyed your trav.el eXP7ne~ce. d,rectly. ". In the second instance you have enjoyed 1t vicariousiy, .

A child is learning about life when he "pretends," whe!l he plays "store," or "house," or "doctor." Of. course ~~ IS fully liyjng the life that children do, but he, IS &.so liVID.g adult life, not directly,but vicariously. An~ owing to hIS emotional immaturity, he is not ready, at his age, to ~~p the difference, in thought an4 effect, between actual livmg and vicarious living. When he is older and more mature he will live less vicariously and more actually. and then he

, will be able to appreciate the lignificance ~f the-word. .

' You, as an older person, will recognize that you are escapingfrom the real world and ar~li~g f~r the. moment a . vi(:arioul existence and are, having VIcarIOUS }~ys and sorrows when you. are reading a book. You are livmg, not

our own life but the lives of the characters of the It0!y' 'ThY e. lonely' . Mendlesl woman. living a life of luffocating

. • " '. gl' ned h after hour

I routine or hopeless boredom can lit , our, "

to the tele'Vision let. She then becomes the lovely young . 1 to whom a virile male makes passionate . love; she can :-periencevicariOUlly all the e~cit~ment. romance, thrills, exotic adventure that her real life IS 80 empty of. She can

Words for Mature Minda

:fl.? .

be .. .a spy,;! m .. urderer, a figUre of futeman.ol1aJ.l ~'. a visitor' from another planet. She has only to twi~t thecna:r arid change her drab existen~ into an abundant; fulfiIlliig,

and electric (but vicariour) reality. .'.

2. Rationalize. You, as a human being, tend to rationalize. So do all of-us. There are selfish men, for instance. who will never give anything to charity. They don't wish-to regard themselves asselfisb, howeve~. They prefer to ~ that charity is harmful to the poor and demoralizes those who receive it. In this way the miser can save his ,Jnoney and 1lliI faceat the same time. HeD ratio'fW.UzJng

his selfish act and the rationalization make. him feel bes .•

. ter ..

In .sfutilar fa~hion,a father who is angry may spank his boy merely to reli~ve his own personal feelinga. But in self-defense he will rationalize. 1m action by making himself be~eve that the'spanking has been done for tbegood. of tile.

child. . ,-

The term rationalize has a number of meimilIgs. but tl:!e most common one refere to the unoon3cioWi process'of th~ught by which one justifieD a' discreditable act,' and . by , which one offen to oneself and the world a better motive foroDe'm action than the true motiv<e.

3. GregariolU. Thistermcoinea from the Latin Word grex, "a floc~'o as Ofllheep, and you know sheep 'like' to stay togethe~.·If you arc, a gregarioUJt type, you are Ia friendlype~OJ;l. a' good mixet; you like to be with ot1:J.er people, That 1S, YO.n are the e~emely '~(ldable kind. Because you, are gregol'lOlU you enJoy PartiCi,crowdr..d theaters and dance llooru;you like to be where felks floc~ ill small 01" large numben. Because people are gregl1J;ioul.they '!(Vet married. have f.amilies. live in thronging. cideJ r , sing ~d /. play to~t~le:. A ~unger f~rlove or frienwhip and a feeIJ mg of kiniship with other human beings are normal and common human traits. It ~ the herd instiilctthat makes people, to a greater or lesser degrc'i.!:, grega.riolU .

4. Ob3eq~io1#~The·beggar. the tmderlirlg. the lackey, and the flunkey all tend to be obsequious. Those Who walt

I~(HJR'l'H DAY

on others.in an. inferior capacity and whcse lives and jobs depend on the whims of their. masters are apt to be cringing and fd:mmmg. They are often. exce .. slvely. mickeru.ngly. and

inslneerely polite. If your w:dter in. a restaurant . believes /'

that ym~ are the tYl)1;l who v.rill. tip hlm well, 'watch how ,

. obsequious' 1115 will be, 110W he will bow to you and atte~u! 1

on your slightest wish, If you d~n't le~ve ttl:; e~pected ttp, however, his obsequiousness will qUlcldy varusb and he will not (ob, "upon," sequor, "follow") follow submissively upon your wishes,

::t MandUn. A fn'audlin person 1.S one who is supersentimental and rgushing, who cries easily and Without much cause, People who are maudlin in their affections \"suaHy overdo the act, and fue.ir Iove ~ecOme~ tir~some and offensi~re. The word maudlll'£ can ~IlS0 be applied to those who have been made foolish and silly by .too much

drinking,,· . '

Here, Incidentally, is an Odd word history. Mary Magda.kne,'!):tho washed-the feet of Christ, has often been picturedwith her eyes red from. weeping. In time, the name IViagdalene was contracted into the adject.lvemaudlin~

6 .: Ascetic. The ascetic is one who is given to severe self-denial and austerity, one who practices rigid ~ ·nel1ce., often for religlous reasons, When yQU \'lay ·that a man is', an ascetic, you mean that beds one who. shuns all the, luxuries and physical pleasure' ... of life. ,Anyone who eats. . and drIDk~\heartily or who otherwise dls;~ipates. is tt:e precise opposite of M ascetic, and does not believem

asceticism (a~SET'-~-sL't~m). . .

7. Pander, This verb literally means to minister to the gratificatiouo£ the passionI'! a.nn prejudices of othel'tI..usually ";0 one's ow ... !. profit. Novels that give b~ow.;.by-bl~w descriptions: of bedroom intimacies" and motion pictures and TV shows. that omit none of the gory details of violence, torture, and murder have been accused (lIf pandering to the so-called base instincts and morbid curiosity of their re~ders . and audience. Ruthless d.ictators of the past. axe said to have; pandered .to the lowest .lnstincts of the' mobs, to. . self.

I'

·'1

I

. f1Wrds for Mature Minds

ishness, cruelty, and greed,in order to gain power. Pander, therefore. is an unpleasant word with an unpleasant' meaning. The noun panderer has a still more restricted {!ieaning and frequently 5:ignifiesa. man who procures women for others, . just as Pandarus, the ·leader of the Lycians . in the Trojan war, is said to have procured the

lovely lady Cressida for Troilus,

8. Sublimate; This word originaUy came from the Latin sublimatus, "raised on bigb.,"and is closely related to "sublime." When. the energies. of a potential hoodlum or 'gangster. are channeled into athletic games, into a business . career, or into some' other useful endeavor, his former

,destructive activities are said to have been sublimated. ~Psychologists tell us that-unfulfilled sexual needs are often lIublimatedintocr·eativeacti.vitiesin art or poetry. that the. iurge{)ll or butcher may be a sublimated sadist, that the psychopathic exhibitionist. become:', an . actor. To

/ ; .... Bublimate, then, is_ to express primitive and~ocial1y IDJ::.

.. E-cceptable drives ~ cons.tructive ways, usually throum £ompleteiy unconscIOus processes, A female whose unconscious desire it is to enslave men, to dominate and destroy all males. becomes tnt' energetic and successful business executive or the president of a college with a largely male faculty, and only her psychiatrist knows that she issublimating. ..

9. Wanton. Call a woman wanton and you are saying that she. indulges every passion, that she is lewd and lascivious-c-in ehort that she believes in living it up. with no thought of consequences or of the morrow's hangover. She neverexpects to be sorry in the morning, and she never is.

10. Effete. When animals, plants, or soil are worn out and incapable of producing, they are called effete (Latin ex, "out,". jetus, :'hayingp~oduced"). More commonly. though. this adjective 18 applied to humans or their institutiona..and when you refer to ancient Rome 'at the time of its fall as.an effete civ~ization, you mean that it was degenerate, worn. out, sterile, devoid of vigor, weakened by . luxury, self-indulgence, and soft living. .

,.,"

"I'lill

.I' .•..• "i·.I··

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30

FOURTH DAY

III

Now we want, to belpyou make' these ten words your own .possession, your private property. Below, in the column. on theright, are the definitions of the ten terms we are studying in this chapter. Take your. pencil and write each word next to its definition.

tearfully or excessively sentimental to cater to base desires

preferring the company of others to 'solitude

spent; exhausted; barren of energy; , worn out by rich or effortless, exis-.

fence, '

practicing extreme self-denial enjoyed by one person through his

,sympathetic but indirect participation in the experience of another (real or fictional) person; substitu-

tional .. ,

to attribute one's actions to rational and creditable motives, 'Without a~

'adequateanalysic of the true and usuallyunconscious motives servilely attentive; fawning

to direct energy, from its primitive and destructive aim to one that is

'culturally or ethically higher and therefore socially acceptable unchaste: lewd; licentious; marked by arrogant recklessness of justice, of the feelings ofothers, or the like; , also, having no just provocation;

, wilfully malicious

ANSWERS: (1) maudlin; (2) pander; (3) gregarious; (4) effete; (5) ascetic; (6) vicarious;' (7)

1. M ; ..

2.· P .- .

3. G .

4. E .

5. A, .

'6. V : .

7. R ..

8.0 ..

9. S .

10. W :: .

- I

fords for Mature Mi~ds 31'

rationalize; (8) obsequious; (9) sublimate; (10) wanton

IV

, Keep your pencil always ready. This is a workbook a self.;,teaching manual, and we want you to write in it c~ntinually -. The onlyway you can feel at home with new words is by saying them, writing them, using them .

• Now Uike the following eight words and change them mto ~therparts of speech according to the instructions. Be sure ineach case that the resulting sentence or .phrase makes sense. .

1. Change 'vicarious to: an adverb, as" He trav ...

'eZed .. : .

2. Change rationalize toa . noun, as, You are gUilty

of . .

3. Change gregarious to a noun, as No one doubts

the , , of human beings,

4. Change obsequious to an adverb,as, He obeyed

S. Change ascetic to a noun referring to the philosophy

, or praetice, as, -He is a believer in "

6. Changepandert() a noun, as, He ·i~··~·:::::::::.; ..... to

/ the,greed of others. -.

7. Change sublimate to an adjective, as, His .

pas8iongives power to his poetry.

8. Change wanton to a' noun,as, Hers was a life

characterized by ; .

AN'SWERS: (1) yicariously; (2) rationalization; (3) gre~~nousness; (4) obsequiously; (5) ascettcism; (6) panderer; (7) sublimated; (8) wantonness

v .

From your 'York so·fa~ with these ten words, 'you should now have a fairly good Idea of how they may' be used in

FOURTH DAY

sentences even if you may have met some of them for the first time: Test yourself; Without referring ~o the: list on the previous page. try to fill in the required' word m the sentences that follow. Note that anyone of the ~everal forma of each word may.be needed, Use your.peacil: the mere physical act of writing a word will help to' fix it in

your mind. . -'" .' , " •

1. Marie is too to be happy without qlends.

2. The waiter bowed to every wealthy cus-

tomer who 'came in the restaurant: .

3. His dissipated life has sapped 'his ambition and

health and made him ....... ...... .... ,

4. The motion picture was so sickeningly : '

that most of the audience left in disgust.

S. Mothers feyl a ....... ~ .. , .... :. pleasure in their children's

accompllshments. . .

6. Be honest with. yourself. Don't try -. to · .. r .. · .... ····

what you are doing, . '. -

7. He lived .. ' the 'life of ~ .. ,.. ' ,., for he abhorred

self-indulgence and luxury. , '. . .

8. The dishonesi politician .. ' to the greed and

thoughtlesenese of the mob. . .

9. Some say that all great art is a , of pruUl-

tive Instincts, .

10. She led a fruitless, .... ,,;; ........ , uncontrolled life.

..

. .

. .

ANSWERS: (1 ) gregarious; " (2) obsequiously; , (3_)efifete' (4) maudlin; (5) vicarious; (6) ration~lize; .n.) asceticj ." (8) panders; (9) sublimation; ( 10) wanton

VI

True or F~'se?

AIe you 'feeling more and. more power and unde~stand,. ing? Trytwo ~ore: exercises to reinforce. your learning, Check your reaction to each statement.

1. Psychoanalysts encourage their patients to rationalize.

2. Gregarious people avoid social gatherings.

3. A haughty Person is necessarily . obsequious.

4. Vicarious experiences are naturally more satisfying than real ones.

S. Intoxicated people often become maudlin.

6. Asceticism is a popular practice among wealthy Americans.

7. Menof strongethicsand integrity usually pander to the de-

, sires. of others. ,True ...... False ......

8. S1fblimation is a self-destruc-

tive practice. . True ...... False ......

9. During its latter period, Ancient' Rome was noted for wanton

excesses. ' I True ...... FalSe .......

10. One becomes effete through

self-discipline and careful restraint.. '

Is each pair of words essentially thesame or mor~ nearly opposite in meaning? Check ") our quick reaction,

Lvicarlous-·actual. Same ...... Opposite ..... "

2 .. rationalization-c-justiflcation

3. gregarious- .. -solltary . 4, obsequious-c-rude

5. maudlin=-unseatimental

Same Opposite .

Same , ,Opposite ..

Same .; Opposite , .

Same Opposite .

. Words for Mature Minds

ANSWERS: All false except 5 and 9.

VI!

'Same or Opposite?

33

True ...... False ......

True ....... Fa1&e ......

True, ..... False ......

\ True ...... False\ ....

True ...... False ......

True ...... False ......

True ...... False ......

34

FOUJl'IH DAY

Same' Opposite .

Same Opposite ..

Same Opposite ..

Same , Opposite .

Same Opposite .. ,,~.

6. asceticism-luxury

7. pander-cater .

8. wanton-restrained 9.effete--vigorous

10 .. sublimated-<letoured

ANSWERS:' (1) opposite; (2) same;

, (4) 'opposite; (5) opposite; (7) same; (8) opposite; (10) same

(3) opposite; ( 6) opposite; (9) opposite;

VIII

,""

Remember this: Once an' adult has finished his schooling, he rarely addsmore than twenty-five new words to his

, vocabulary each year thereafter. Already, in one session, you have at least inereased your knowledge of these ten words, even though you may have met them before. Therefore. whenever .you add ten new words to your vocabulary, you. have done almost as much as . most people do in six months.' " , '

Be sure. though" that you keep these words .. Can you recall all ten of them now without referring' to the text? Here they are in random order, with only the initial letters , to prod, your memory. When .you have them all down, check your spelling against the list on pages 24-25 and

pronounce the~aloud.' .,

1. E ; ~..... 6. W· : ..

2. A .•. :........................ 7. 0 ..

3. M 8. R : .

4. v' :. 9. S , .

5. P .. " ,.-............ 10. G ..

;t' I~ ~ )f )l m 7J
m 00 -100 1M ~! 133 M
nm 11m U7J tiOO ~OO 100 ~U
~ D H ~ m Iii ~f3
~~ ~@ / . J.ewds e.tlrOut'Doetor.s and Specialists

. ·4

Of course you know that you have two different kinds of vocabulary,an~ !hat one is much larger than the other.

Your, recognition vocabulary is made up of the words that, y~u can "recognize". and understand when' you read

them or bear them spoken. ,

Your functional vocabulai:y includes the words that you

recalla.nd use when you yourself speak. '

.Your recognition vocabulary is about three times as' large as your, functional vocabulary,

'If, as. an example. you study French and you teart) merely to read ~atlanguage.·you will find fhat you will be u?~~leto speak It because you are practiced only in recogruzmgthewords.in print, but not in recalling them when you don't see them. .' ', ..

Ot, :con~ersely, ~if you are taught only to. speak French, you will fail when .It comes to. reading the language because y?~ h~ve not ~adany practice inundecstendlng-or "recog ..

D1zmg . the printed words. .

In order to. develop both types of vocabulary it is ther~-

. 35

FIFTH DAY

fore ~pottant that YOll not only reaO.the wonk that ati~, new to you in this book and write fuem. down, butth,at,you say them .aloud many times, pronouncing them according to the phonetic respelling following each. word.

, '

In this chapter 'we discuss the terms for various spe-

cialists in the healing professions.

1. The obltetrician (ob'-at~TRISH'-~n) provides care for pregnant women, deliven babies, and give. post-natal attention to motheR e . He practices obstetrlo« (ob-STET' p riks), (Almost allob8tetriciaru are also gynecologists-s,ee

word.B, below.) , . ' !

2. The pediatrician (pee/-dee-~TRISH'-~n) takes! 'over

after the ohstetrician, HcspeciaUzes in'the treatmertt of infantland very young children; he practices pediatric.

(pee'-dee-AT'-~). .'

3 .. The podiatrist (p;>-DY' -e-trist) tieats the. minor ailments of your feet., More popularly, he ,is called a chiropodist (b .. ROP'..g.dist).Thepra~ceor pro~esllion :is

podiatry (~.'DY'-Q-tree) or.chiro.P.9#Y .(k~R.:t.I .. P-Q-d. . ee),

4. The o,teopath (OSS'-te~pa$f) ,worn, n the the-

ory that dilleases arise chiefly from,. the disp cemt;fnt of bones, with resultant pressure on. nerve eenteraand blood vessels, Hence, hjs, treatment ii mapipulation of the affected' parts. (fiowever. s.omeo'teopa~6-. also practice general mecticlne, obstetri~,pediatrics, etc.} He practices

osteopathy (OS!I"-tec-OP' -o-thee), '<

5 .. The ophthalmologist (off'-thal·MOL'-~jist) i~ 801 medical doctor and often a trained murgeon who treats the troubles and the diseases of tll1eeyer.. Popularly he is called. an ocultn (OK#-~-list), or. even more popularlY,llY.l eye

doctor, '

(6. The optometrist '(op-TOM/-~·tcist) checks and cor-

rects vision •. usually by prescrlb!ng andtltting eyeglasses. He practiceaoptometry( op-:rOM' -o-tree),

7. The optician ( op-:TISH' -on) is a technician who

. Word, About Doctors and Specialist I

, ' . ' ; 37

, :rp~~.er:r~w!?·oan _~~th~ologistfs or optometrist's pieII m<UU;ll or sells eve .. l ... ~ses binoculars '

other optical instruments. ". ~.. g m , ' and

lib~~ !!; =~.~:oun(~~;~~KOJl~jist;. '!h~ 1irstsyl-

...1:__., '. r., ........ mJe or Jln} snPl'lalizea' th

umc;;asel that are peculiar t . ' \' r-· " m· e

gynecology (guy'_lY.}-KOL,_:.;omen. \~ profession, is gistl also prac Ii .L .' . J ). (AIDiost allKJ'necolo-

ce oUltetricl, as.noted above.) ,

I, . 9dis•• The dermatologist (dur'-m~TOL'~iist.)· specialize·' m eases of the skin- h' ,J. ' lJ I psoriasis, eczem '. ras !a~, allergxes, lesions,

, m~TOL'~jee): etc. His specialty L~ dermatology (dur',

10. Tho psychiatrist (sy-KY'-~tr:iSF the "

may also be pronounced S~) is. a m~ al first .sY}1ab~e mental- ailments emoti nal b c SpeCIalist m etc. He practi~ .. ..,,.J.~ .... ; p(ro KYle~, psychoses, neuroses,

1;'-"".--, J sy- -e-tree),

11. The orthodontin ( 'tho DO ' . '

straighteniD. It . or - ~ , N -tist) speciallaes in

. or, as the/~OO~'l:"fnth:m m correcting bad "bites," (or-thQi.-DON'-sh:)"mal ,~~ocabuJ.ary Of orthodontia

., OCC.lUSIOns_" .

i i

1\

.. ' II .'

.Which Specialist Would You Visit?

Write the title of the s . Iist ..

each ef the,following a.ilme~:'la t yo~ would suggest for

./ 1. You have a painful com

'2~ You need eyeglass --..:..;,; , : , .

3 •. Your baby has the~ ': ,. - -

4 •. y?~.n~ a doctor toij~~ii~;·}i~; .. b~b··.... .'

S. A fnend of yours has h d .. .. y .

lapse.' ...... ... a a complete mental col-

6. A chlId Yo~·b~~·h;·~rOOk~ teeth. .'.

7. A WODlan 18 suffering from £ . . . • .

8. You are troubled with a SkinC:disordel's .

9. You have an c!fe disease that needs e .. · .. ri·· .. ······;·····

.. : : ;.... . , . xpe attention.

[I. I

38 FIPTIl DAY

10. You have. an illness. which y()ubelieve can be cured

by bone manipulation , .. , .

11. You want new frames for yourglasses •. , ~ .

ANSWERS:' (1)podiatrlstor: ¢:biropodist; . _(2) . optOll1(}o

'trist; .( 3) pediatricia.t;i; (4). obstetdcian; (5) psychiatrist; (6) o~od()ntist; .. (7):gyn.,. ~cologist; . '. (8) dermatologist; '. (9) oculist or ophthalDlologist; ( 10) osteopath; (11) optician

III

TesfYouf Unguisticlristincf

You' have studied the titles of eleven specialists and the form thatdeaignatestb.e profession or practice of each one. (An obstetriciiJnpractices obstetrics, a pedwtrician is in ... volved-in pediatricll, etc.) Can you. now. figure out the adjective form of each word, that would describe the practitioner' or his work? For example, the obstetrician has

. obstetrical patients.

1. The pediatrician bas ~ ; patients.

2. The podiatrut has ;, :; patients.

3. The osteopath engagesin , healing.

4. The ophthalmolOgist (toes ,. work.

S. The opiometrut has an ; Practice.

6. The gynecologist treats ~ •.... ; cases. .

. 7. The' dermatologisttleats .00 condi-

tions. . .. ' '. .,

8. The psychiatrist handles ; , .. « •••••• prob-

lems, .

9. The orthodorttist handles. ,. -. prob-

lems.. .

10. The optician makes or sells ...... ~.·: .•..• , ... " .. '''", .. goods.

• ANSWBRS:

(1 ).pediAT'ri.c; (2 ) podiA rrk; (3) 68·· WoP A TH'ic;· ( 4 ). ophthaimoLOG'ic.al; (5 ) _opto1.v.ffiT'ric; . (6) gyn.et."OL()G'kl21; (7;t:

Words About Doctors and S'peciaHsis

. dl~lmWl.toLOGiic~l;( 8) psychiAl"r1c; '. orthoDON'tic; (X 0) ·OP'tical

39 (9);

i Ii

i i. [





I

'1

IV

i$. There .f.I Docto!" in 1:he . HOllse 'I .

In a prorel!i~Onal.building in a largecit~, you see. a n1llD..oor of medical tItles on the doors.as you '"0 down the

halls, . . to ,

In ~acb case, check: the definition or de~~ript:ion that fK1s cachtitle;Bef'):r.~ yoa look at the answers, see if- you can name the profeiSslom of the two that me left: • . .

Room.OnI~:· The shingle saytf "John Doc, l'odiatri"t;"

a. He treatadisea5e11 of the !Skin. .

h. He'll the manto see when you have an !'!.Cbillf(l

, c.:ortl.,,· '. . ' <.

C. He practices general medicine.

Room Two: The office'of rucru1l'd Roo» PsycMatrivt.

a. He treat! diseases of the skm.

b. He corrects ma1occlu~ionl,

c. :':.eopl(;;· who have emotional problems' visit

.llun. . .. . .

Room Th~ee: The office of. George Jones, Ophtha! .• mowfj'''Ft ..

a. 'H~ ktl.?w!I all' about disease. of the eye and ~p.,-f .. raetive errors, and may resort to su:r'Jcr'j'

If r ~. 4 . ~. ,

. , . x;,:x;essary •• oeorrect eye ailments.

h. ~Io'l1' check yQUI' vision'. and :prescrib~glatl~t~~

~f you need them. .

e. }I~'R be ll:aPPY,to sell you i;.~I.Y sort of. optical nl1:>t.nlmeD.t1t·,.·..;..bmo\~8r'~, telescopes, microscopes.

Room Your: ~fhe offi(),~ of ]~melil BrOWKt, Q,1M0p'ut/l,

18\. " i';pel~:zaky Is the tn:f1W}(;;J)u 'Of corns ~H1

tJ',i.!JUQml ..

»., ,w.:f '..J1"1h . ".~,'f' t d' 0 .. ", •. • til, . .. ~, •

~., LC.",,)g tna iseases anse Id)JcnV;~"'"n di •.

·tr~1~~'·elrie4' t ".!:"rl / - ". '. > .•••• ,..iI.ll~.,~ .- '-'"","

':' ".,,", L ·!l '.lIe [);ones, wAtl're1:'I31tai1! ~H'e!.,<

MU'(,~ on nerves Iiil1dhl~)nd 'lIf~S",,:l<, ~,r' re ."'~,H"'<i

, ' . . ~ '. "' ..... '. ~ . .o L~.· .... ,It. 'V ..... 'u~)U.~.\bIk/)

1111

IIII

. I

.FIFTH DAY ~\. ailinentbymanipu1~tion of the affected

. . ~

parts. .. .

e. He1ills and extracts teeth.,

Room Five: The nameon thisdoor ~ John Smitb.

Obstetrician. . . .

a. He treats diseases and ailments peculiar to

old age., .. ." .. d blld

h.Re specializes in the ills of infancy all C -.

hood. .

c. He deliverS babies .":

(1) b; Ca) isadermtlt?~ogist~ (c) a~~ctor, physiclan,orgeneralpractiuoner. (2~ c, (a). is a dermatologist, (b) an .orthodontist; • ~3).

. . (b). is an optometrist, (c) an optIcian, (~nb; (a) is a podiatrist ()rch~o~t, (c) a dentist; (5) c; (a) is a genamcum, (bJ . a. pediatrician.

I

ANSWERS:

/

I· !

,

".f;fva·

'PowQJr

Doyourcmembet yourol,f schoolbook definition of a verb? It went· sometninglik(jili.is: "A verb is that part of speech which asserts, declares or predicates,'

. Buta dynami~ verb is more than thll: ... It. is the catalyst of theseatence. 'It is the word that bringsthe sentence to

~... .

Choose your verbs with care.

n you pick a dull verb, your speech will be. dW1., barely serving its primary purpose of commlliitication: making little imp.r.esmion· on the mind of yourreader ()1," listener •

. A cho:i~ of powerfuiverbs, . on the. other "hand, will. make' your. speech electric, galvanic. Like a powder charge, it can give the impact of bullets to all the other words :in. your sentence.

A single iUllstration of thlsstatement will be enough.

Which of me two fol1owmg sentences, has . the greater

force? . .. .. ..;' : ..

. . 1. He 1'1 it moral leper; let us keep away from him and

havenotbing to do with him. ...

2. He is a moralIepe:r; let us ostractze him. . "

41

iHXTH DAY

~

11.·.1 /.

'I •

1.1

',I

I:

The answer is. obvious, Isn't it? One' word ·ba:~ expressed

the meaning of ten, . '

S'iO watch YQ'4lt'verbs.l'hey ate packed with power'.

Here are ten dynm"!lI(; verbs that belong in a rich vocab'ulary. We are not going to give YOJj thelr precise definitions, Just read the sentences in which they occur and see ifYoJ1. can guess-the ~J,eru:dngs of the ones you dO:ll't already know .Prenounce them aloud,

What are some of the things people do? '

. 1.' They ,expiate (EKS' -pee-ate) their sins, crimes, blunders, orerrors.

2. TMy importune (im-p~r-TOONf) .God for divine

favors.

3. They impute (im·r(OW') unworthy motives to

, fheix enemies. .,

4. They scinttltate (SIN'-t:;'j-:late), tho wittier ones. at

, cocktail parties. , .

:S., They mulct (M~U.LKT) the unwary or gullible

public.'·'. .

6. ii-hey ostractze. (OS'~tt:.i!-siz~) members of religious. political, Of racial :rolnodti'~s.

'l: l'hey deprecate (DEpi .. ro-kate) the foi.bles of

/' .others, .' '

g, They procrastinate (pro":KR.AS'-t~-nate) and then

.', vow ~o be more punctual in thefuture. '

9. 'TIley rusticate rRUSS"-t~:,·kate)in the summer

time, if finan":''Cfi permit. .'. •

10" 'l'b.f,;y vegetate (VEY-~tate) all year, lf they are lacking ,in imagination, initiative, or energy, '

~,\ ..

Referring to Section I, ", write the proper verb next to its definition. The definitions do not appear in the same' order as the senteaces above..

. '

Verbs Give You Power

1. Live in a passive way

2. Deprive of a possession unjustly

3. Make amends for

4. Beg. for ceaselessly; beseech; entreat· ,

5. EXClude from' public or private

favor; ban ,

6. Put off until a future time;

delay ,

7..Sp~lde with wit or humor, 8.· Spend time irt the country

9. Ascribe, attribute, or charge an act or thought (to someone),

, usually in a bad or accusatory' sense,

'10. Disapprove of (the actions of .,' someone)

'/

43

•• or ...... ~ .................••• ~ ..

............................... ~ .

.........••.... ~ " ..

..................................

.................................

..............................

.............................

.. ~ ~.

...............................

ANSWERS: (L) vegetate; (2) mulct; (3}expiate; (4)

importune; (5) . ostracize; ( 6) procrasti-

nate; (7) scintillate; . (8) rusticate; (9) / impute; (l 0) deprecate

, .~:

II!

, Which Qf the verbs most aptly describes the' characteris-

tic action of the following people? '

1: He is too indolent to .. get his , work done on tinie

2. He is accustomed to blaming

, othel'S. '

3. He ii a sPaxkling and witty person.'

4. He is remorseful and wishes to , make amends.

S. He iI a person who is, in a rut and leads a monotonous life.

He

l!-e .

He .

He .

He ; .•

SIXTH DAY

6. He is an exclusive individual, avoiding people who are different from himself.

7. He cheats' others,

8. He's an insistent beggar.

9. He looks down on the acts of others.

10. He is on a vacation in the COUll, try.

He ; ; .•

He ............•.......• ' He ....................•

He •..... ~ .. : .•........•

He : •....•.....•.

ANSWERS: (1)procrastinates;(2) imputes; (3) scintillates; (4) expiates;' (5) 'vegetates; (6), . ostracizes; (7) mulcts; (8)' importunes; (9) deprecates; (10) ry:tSticates

IV

Yon .will find, below, eleven pairs of sentences. The second sentence of. each . pair hag ablank line that cor- . responds to an italicized phrase ill the first sentence, Write, on this blank line, either another form of, or a noun or adjectivederived trom, one of the verbs we have studied

. in this chapter.

1. He 'has been spendi(fg his time in the country -. He

. 'has been, , ~.......... .

2. Why do yon keep nagging me/or favors? Why are

you so .. ; 1 . . . . .

3. He took $1 000 000 from the public by dishonest . . . • , .1.. bli.f

methods. . He .. Illie pu co..

$ 1.000.000. . . .

4. Excluding himjrom our gTlJUpis our most potent weapon against someone who is dislo¥aL

.. ; ,...... . is our most potent weapon against

someone who is disloyal. .

S.For the past two years, I have been accomplishing nothing and getting nowhere. FoX' the past two

years,l have been ; .. :... .

Yews Give!ou Power 45

6. He shcw:ed contempt and disapproval oi theyounger 'generation, He .. ...... ...... ...... .... .... the younger gen-

eratton, '. .

'T.To make amends-jar his sin, he did penance for

. three days. In " : of his sin, he did

penance for three days.

-. 8; Do they accuse me of . committing these . offenses?

Have they , , these offenses to me?

9. I resent your accusation that I committed these of-

fenses. I resent your : , of these of-

fenses to me.

10. She is a sparkling and witty speaker. She is a

.......... ; speaker. ~

·11. PuttIng 00 till tomorrow is the thief of time.

, ~ is' the thief of time. .

ANSWERS: 0). rusticating; (2) importunate; (3)

mulcted; ( 4) . ostracism; (5) vegetating:

(6)deprecated; (7) expiation; (8) im-' puted; (9) imputation; (10) scintillating;

( 11) pro~astination .

v

Now 'for a change of pace, with a few verbal gymnastics for you. Can yon think of five verbs ending in ate? They . have not appeared in this chapter. The definitions and' Initial letters are offered to help you.'

. 1. Have control over I .

2. Make. easier

3. Follow the example of .

4. Make gestures or motions to convey,

meanings !

/5. Get better

D : .

F , ..

E « ..

G ..

R .

I. ANSWERS: 0) dominate (DOM'-{}-nate);' (2) facilitate (f~-SIL/-,;)-tate); (3) emulate (El\1:'-yQ.-late):

- - - - --------- ---

---~ --~--~----- -_ ------ _--

SIXTH DAY «4) gesticulate (jess-TIK'-YQ-late); (5) recuperate . (ree-KOO'-PQ",ratel

. : -:

Now can you think of fiveverbs ending inize?

1. Becon.dtlscending toward ....

2. Make pay a fine or sufIerptmish.

me~t. . .

3. Makevivid or moving

4 .. Make live fcirever ... c

5. Appropriate' andclaim as one's own the literarywork of another

P ' ..........•

P : .

D .

·1 .

P .. ; ..

ANSWl!RS: (1). p::itronize CPAT/-rn-niz~); .. (2 )p~nalize (PEE'-nQ-lize) ;CH.dramatize(DRAM'-Qd . 'tile) ; ( 4) .. imInorta1i2.e (i-MORE' -to-lizej ; (5) plagiarize (PLAy/-jee-~··ris~)

(i \\

. ,

\~I Can YOu make the verbS-of Section Van active part of . 'your speaking vocabularyrFill the blanks of the following sentences: Some new form of the verb may be required,

such as dominates, domihating, dominated. "

1. Beethoven's compositions have always« ~ ;~

the musical scene.

2. Carl Sandburg's biography viyidly : ~ .

the life of. Lincoln as no other book has ever been

~k~ . ..•. .' .'

3. I have never seen-a sick man ; ~ .. i. so

quickly. _ . _ . '

4. Your. friends think you are conceited because.you

seemto , them.

I 5. Nature will ! , ~ you for your alcoholic

excesses.' . .'. .

6. Let us ; the habits of successful 'J

men ... · ,

7., In her confusion, shd; , ; !"ildly.

VI

. I

Vt!lIrbs Give You Power

47

8. He built an hisecure and dishonest literary reputa-

tionby . ;.; : the classics. ,

9,'Let JU.e pack fqr you; that will :~ , ~ ...

; your departure. . .. '. '. ..... . ._ . '

_ ··to. The ·'.Elegy in a Country Churchy~rd" did much to

. : th~ poet Thomas Gray.

ANSWERS: (1) dominated; (2) dramatizes;' '(3) recuperate; (4) . patronize, (5) penalize; (6) emulate} (7) gesticulated; ( 8) plagiarizing; (9) facilitate; (10)immortaliZe

VII

TWenty dynamic verbs, excellent additions to a.powerful vocabulary, have ,been discussedjn this chapter. How m.any of tbe:mcan,youcall to mind? Let ~ put your learn-

ing and retention to a test.. .' .... '

In order to prompt your memory, the 11l1tlru letters are given. Recall and write down as many as you can before . referring to the preceding pages to check yourfOei.f.. A score pr twelve out IOf twenty is fair, fifteen good, eighteen or nineteen excellent, all, twenty superb,

1. E .. .- ,.~....... 11. D ;0 .

2, I .~;................. 12. ];~ ; o , :~o

3. I t3.E .,'; . " .. ~.

4.· S :.:........... 1'4, G' .: ,. " ..

5. M . 15, R .. ; .. 0; .. " .

6. 0 16. P ; ; .

7. D ;. 17 .. P ,. ;0 ..

8. P ;................ 18. D :: '

9 .. R .19. I ..

. 10; V 20. P .. ~ ..

For the next few days keep your eyeS' and ears, alert for . verbs. Note them as you read, or as people speak to you. See whether they are effective and do their work. Billboards, car-cards, and other advertisements will be par ..

i I

I I

ticularly.helpfal, for ~dv~rtising.space cor.;~'moneY andthe I publicity men have to pick their verbs WIth care. As you I

read your !n~wspaper, watch for ex~ples of well-chosen. I

dynamic verbs. . .. I ' II·

. Take cafe of your verbs. They will add power, color.

, and pUIl,ch to your speech and writing.

SIXTH DAY

I I'

t.

The mentally alert person is. not content, to live merely from. day to day, completely c.:ircumscribed by luch things as foo51.money,clOiliing, and entertainment. OCC8f!ionally

. he is tempted to "peculate .on why.he is living. and what 'the controlling forces of his life are. Thischapter deals with a few of the terms that are applied to these' motivating. forces by different people who have varymgpoints of

. view. .

1. Is there a God? Nothing so closely approaches the

outer . limits of abstraction as theorizing about a super. 'naturl!1and supreme being. Many of us worship, most of , us atIeast accept. some .form of deity. Do you beb~ to ' the minority Who insist, often belligerently, tha{manmakes

God in, his own image, that God is a figms:nt of. the ....,..... imaginatiolland 'J:l~ncncomplete~y; irrevocably. nonexistent? Then you are an. atheist (AY' -thee-ist; tlz as in think)

and your philosophy is called atheism (AY'-thee-iz-~m).

49

so

SI;VENTH DAY.

The word is from the Greek a, "without," and theos,

"god.'" .' . . . .

. 2. To maJlyotber thinkers it seems more reasonable to say that the" exi.stenceorn()nexi~tenCGlof a supreme being ,

V'" is one m.ystery the humanmind will never fathom.=- How did the world. come into being? How did inc begin? lSi there a father who looks after hD childrcn.or are we the products of. purposeless chance? Do. you answer these questions by saying that no one kJiowliand no one can ever hope to know? Then you are an agnostic (as-NOSS; -tik), and your doctrine is called agnosticism (ag-NOSSf_t~siz'em). Thill word, too, is from-the Greek, derived from

agnostos, "not knowing." .

3. VI/by did. that young child dart across' the roadway just as a huge truck rounded the bend? How do you explain the needles» snuffing out of an innocent life? Is it due to blind chance? To cause. and effect? Whf should. some great benefactor of humanity be cut oft in hie pri.me:'] Are such eventa controlled by accident? . Or are t1.1t~Y determinedby fate? (Fate,incidentally.1.s derived from the

Latin ifltw, "spoken" or "predicted,") ..

n you believe tba.r.t;,verytbing that happensisprede'~etQ . mined, foreordained, Wr:itten. down, as it were, on the far-oW pages of some mighty vOITJIlle, you are a iataiis: . (FA Y' ~t;.rlist) and your theoryis ''truled fatalism (f1AY"~

t;:l-~)~

4. In fujI'! world of ours Y~'l.l will find iij·ofne peopl~ who \ .tl!!it1~K only of themselvel'i. and. of then' own selfish advantage, and who ~.ctuany moontaWUlat ali viIm4H::on~1D'is in the p:l!nntit of sell~mterelJ.t. 'Oompl~~,tely i.tldmer~nt to.rhe needs, feelingt', Of! 'Wi.~.J:l.e:g\ of others. they b~~ t"h<;:i1i' . act.ionl'J on personal f!,l'IRl snd direct b~·nefit 1.'.001 helklJ~ iQI. and are m.()tiYleitoo by~·!t.olim (EfjP.,)~o.,/~".gr;,,); a l!lli~!~herof. such a cult ~ !lln.egoi!lt (EE""g<l',·illt). fThe!l1':l 'W~:'iY.ds, .charact~r:l~ticl!ll1y"dedve :IT'om! the l,atiJIl :j'j,W'/f,~,"X."')

5. II your' !charaicteristk~ are 0PlP0-';: i\~. to th'·'s~. {:if an egoist, if YOI:! have an i1l1~"3L.:ash l:!;;gm:d for. \I,md &eyotioit~ to, the futereswi1.ttd needs ('If i;~i.t$'i"M. then you b1.l~(Jil:nd}!t (At/-trod-ist) and you practice altruism <:/\.U~rt:ii~i.iz·;"m).

Words A, bout Theories

51

The relationship 'of this Word to the Latin' alter, "other,"

is cleat. .

6. Can. you rise above pettyconsid'~l'aHons" of pleasure and pain, joy and grief? Can you meet adversity withmdifference' and aUb:rnit. to the arrows and 'sUngs of misfor; tune With,_ dignified t~signation? Canyon give np envy, greed, jealousy. hatted, and oilier human passions? Can you suffer mental and phydical P;l1n without complaint? If you can honestly lIay "yes",~o' thesequestio!lll, .811d if you sin-

. cerely believethat such self...oontrol makes fot!lt better way of life, then you are a stoic (STU'ik).:a practitioner of

i • ,Ioicism (STU'~siz-(lm). The founder of8toi~i8m was the

Greek philosepher 7...eno, who Jived about three hundred years, before Christ, Stoic is .fromilieiJre,ek6toikos. which, in turn, is from stoa, "porch," Zeno taug,ht in .the Stoa Poikile, or .'.·P~inted Porch," in Athens.

1. Are you aptto.saY:"No0thcr nation can hold a . candle to my country. We are the supermen, the chosen people. Every. other race .is inferior. to. mine and they .. are

. all destined to be our slaves when the day comes"? This is notpatrlotism; 01'. rather, it is patriotism carried to an illogical and ludicrous.extreme, If you .happen to talk thls,' way, . you are a chauvinist, (SHU/_V~!list) ; you are Addicted .. tochauvmil!m(SHU/~v~nii-i:!lll), Tbe1.lc, terms, come from the name of a real man, Nicolas Chauvin of Rochefort, who wasso demolistrative.in his devotion to Napoleon and to the imperial cause that he was ridiculed. on the French

6tage~t the time. .; ,... .;... .•. ' .

. 8. Arejou a t:;.ragg~abO'l)'t yourc.QuUtry)"1 power? Do you a!wayr.--want your nation to use force'! Do you.want to call out th.~Army. Navy, and Air Force on the .. lightest . provocation. $,na send our soldiers and '&lailo!'"!! J!U,OU1'ld the world to,how those "dama foreigner!!" who's the boss?

"1}0 theodl.er natlonswant way?" you ask,··We'J! give it to then. )\nd. if they.don't want it& wd~'l!:l\f;;' it to them anyway." Ift.hisJIt a c'k~$"rlptiOlJ 01 1"01.'11' p1ti.ii.ooophY, you E.f.e· a Jingoist. (J:l.NO"·Zo-i:'lt).£lml .yOllt' heart beats iu twlle .wlth ~~~ :nai~!al mtls)!;" <:f jitegoi$m(Jn~G, .. go.t;v;~\J:f.I), (1"h:;.;

Jingoes' 'were ongmLllIly a section of the Conservative

SEVENTH DAY

party in England in 1877 who were eager to have their nation support the Turbin the Russo-Turlilih war.)

9. !If, it best that our government follow the political faith, methods, and tenets of our fatherri· and grandfathers, . or shall We move rapidly ahead, change oorultantly,explore and experim.ent? Those who believe in liberaliNmfollow the latter philOsophy. They owe alleglanceto no party. are independent in thought and action, and are always . ana~em.a to those who wish the government to pursue tho well-trodden. paths, Liberal: prefer' Ii changing, dynamic, experlmentinggovemment. They vote for progress, sometimes in the sense that anything new and different. and previoullIYuntried iI:i progressive .. The Romans gave us the word liber. "free."

10. The conservative, on the other hand, is opposed to change. He believes that what ill. is best. He prefer. that his government follow familiar, tried. tested, and safe policieIJ."We·re content with what we have," he .·says. "Why tab the-risk of salling into unchart.edwaters'l'· The word deriveI1I from. Latin conservare, "to preserve," (An extreme liberal is a radical; an extreme conservative is. a

reactionary.} .

11. What tjpe of life is best? To one group of thinkers, such a questionbrul a simple answer, That ille ill the most IIUCCeU~ says ~e epicurearn (epf~ky~wREE;~'~n.), which brinp to each person the maxinmm of pleasure and.

. ' the minimtl1t!.· of. . pain. Th~/ doctrine of epicureanism (ep'.Q-kyOiJ-REE'+!liz--Qm) teaches that pleasure is the chief good. (Epicurean should not be confused with epicure. one whoenjoYIl the delightM of the table and who is expert and rastidi.mlf4 in hirJ choice of food.)

R,eady fC!f a check on your learning andretent~l)n'l

. ~ .

V\<1Jlat philosophy is expressed ~Y each of the statements

below? .

Words About Theories

53

i

I

I ·1

, I'

I

.1

1. "I'm interested in the welfare of the

2 ~Lthetdheno)w, not in my own." A ....

. . e t ,e ot~erfellow take care of ........ , ...

himself, Mymterests come first. last.

and always." .."

3. "Mipeis the superior 'race" Have E .

r:e. not the .monopol~onbeauty,

strength, brains, creativeness hon-

~stY',virtUi;;;, andbravery?".' C .... : ...... : .....

4. Let s . not stand still 111 politics.

Pro¥ress, change, experimentation.;.....

. that S 'i'lrhafweneedt" . . L

5. "Happihes~, "pleasure, roo, revelry: .

these ate the most importantili. In gs

. in life."

. 6. "rh~re's a God" ])on'1 be silly. Only E .

~,tupld people believe in God," ~ . A

7. ; Maybe there is. a God. Maybe there .

l~n't. I don't know, and I don;f be-

~eve an~bodyelse does or ever will." A

8. The wise and brave man. .is indiffer .. -> .

.: /~ntJobot~ pain and pleasure." S

9.' We'll ~udd up our nuclear power, ..

our ·troops, a;td our navy;' we'll arm.

t? th~ Mt. '1 hen we'll dare any na- .

t1011 . ill the world to knock the chi

ojf onr shoulder!" .' p

. 10 "You c 'to ', .. J "

· .. ·an cnange ,the future, It's

a11 planned <A:mtwi'itten down "

11 "Let' k tl· ," F ~ .

• . . . 11 cep ltlll8S' jl.i5t as thev 'U'"

. W\"r" getti al · .. ·it, ,.' J ' ' ...

r ..., C'HlUJJ: ~ ong i:W tlgnt, so why

fo.olaro!.md .. ·Wd.h • anv ,l.,.:m ... N"·r'·j'" ",,,,'If"

b 1 ~. .•. Q,A •.. , .,~ .u~. -

a.(~(; .. neW-fal.lgk.d, the,)ties'l'" .

C ....

I I'

'I

I

ANSV/EttS: (1')· '1·'"

... a <lI(Hst: (2) egoist; "'2 \. .

(4) lihere:l: (5' .: ~~', .',;.01 r.:bamr:ctisL;

( T " ,". ,.I Cr.1H::W:ean, (6) I •. .theist: } agnosnc; (8) stoic: {9\" ,.,' .. ' f'lt;;:li.st: '11);" . . .' ..... I }!~li};ast,.· {W)

, t.... ".OlJservatrve .

. )

._V_NTH DAY I

I

Ad]'ective forms of these nouns are as follows: I ADJECTIVE, I

NOUN altruistic I

altruism . I

atheisff" atheist~c

. agnostu: '

agnosticism fatalistic

fatalism egoistic

egoism. stoical,

'stoicism 'chauvinistic

chauvinism

. jingoistic

'. jingoism liberal

'liberalism conservative

conservatism

. . ' . epicurean

epzeurean!sm ,

Can you 'fit thecorred. adjective in each of the follow-

. phrases orsentences'l·. .'

mg 1 The attituQe of the ungo?!y.

'f: The:::::,./- ;; doubts of the skept1~. e

3. Age tends to. bring a ,.' ~........ . g to

one's politics. . .'

4. Politically, youth i& inclined to be.~ ....... "'.: .. ;:.::~· .... · ..

. ". .' " flavor of onental religIOns.

5 .. The ",' ,.,.\ . desires of the con-

6. T~ narrow,' :.................... •

ceited, . resignation of those who.

7. The .

have s~ffered much.. .' latanc cif professional "flag-

8 .. The ~ .. bY. . ..

. ".

'9.t.::e~~: : .. ~~siresof the ~1f-~d::e:!

10 .' Threats ,.,,,"";·\,,.rattlmg, .an .. d a call- P r.r: .

• '. "".'" , . ".... '. means

. . serves have often been the. .. =::': ........ ih;:·'will on

by which strong nations ha~e.unposed ",,11'

their weaker neighbors. attitudes of most parents to .

11. The ~." ..

their children.

II .

i

. t< •

Words About Theories

S5

ANSWERS:'- (1) atheistic; (2) agnostic; (3) conservative; ( 4) liberal; (5) fatalistic; . (6) egoistic;'. (7) stoical; (8) chauvinistic; (9) . epicurean; ( 10) jingoistic; ( 11) altruistic

III

True ...... False ......

, -

. Finally, te( make these words an integral part ofyour thinking and' speaking vocabulary, try this exercise. Can you react immediately to each statement as either essentially true or generally false? .Read 'each statement quickly,

once only, thencheckatonce the answer youtrust. ~

1. The altruist hates people,

2. An atheist is a steady church- . goer .

\. 3. The agnostic is deeply religious • .' V 4. A fatalist . never takes. chances: . S. An egoist wants to help his.fel-

low-man, '.

6; The stoic becomes hysterical under the. stress of' tragedy or ..

disaster; , . True ...... False ......

7. Chauvinists often switch their,

,/' allegian~ to other nations.'

8. A jingoist is. interested in peace

at any cost. '.

,,9. A political liberal shies away

from innovation. '.'

10. A political conservati~e believes in greatly eD.ba:ncedF~d-

eral power, .' .

. n. All epicurean pursues a life ~f austerity and' self-denial .:

True False ..

True FaIse ..

True Fal~e; .•...

True ...... False ......

True ...... False ......

True ... : .. False; .....

True," .... False .......

True ...... False ......

ANSWERS: 11..11 statements, of course, are outrageously false.

True ...... False ......

,

!

'lute. Voe",,"I11~ ,'.Builde ... ·

. 1 . 'al" langu'a~es . It bas

E .. lish '18" a reservoir of the .c ~SlC , . t:> •

ngns ". b b d for Its own use more taken over to itself and has a s~r e . and 'more than 50

than 25 P er cent ·.of the, .Greek lan~ageb ' the' n 'that a

L . language It 18 0 VlOUS, "

per cent of the . atm d L' . 't" .oots is invaluable in any knowledge of Greek an , ~ in I

program of voc.abularybduildmgill tak~ English words apart In the exercisesahea ,we w il identify and und~rstand

and will show how you can e¥ Y. b fore

scores of words that you may never have seen e . ,

r

. ,... OG':"~.mee). A one-tfroone system '

, 1. M~nogamy (me-N nan has only one current spouse

of ,!lianIage; a man or WOl . . . ,; "one," gamos. "mac- :

t: ..... e From Greek m·onos, '"

at any, u..u •

riage.' ,

2~ Bigamy

(BIG'-,~-mce), IHega! involvement by one

56 '

Quick Vocabulary Builder

57

person in' two or more' concurrent marriages. From Lafu his, "twice" or "two," plus gamos.

3. Polygamy (pQ-LIG'~~mee).kcustom, once prevalent among the Mormons in Utah and encountered today in some parts of Asia, Africa, the Near East, etc., in which . , a man lIas more than one wife. The first part of the word is from Greek polys, "many."

4. Misogamy(m~-SOG'-Q-mee); Hatred of marriage.

From Greek misein, "to hate," plus gamos,

I

r

II

Notice how the Greek and Latin toots discussed in the previous section lead to four new words.

t .. Monotheism (MON'-~-thee-iz'.;.~m). The belief in a single, supreme deity. Greek monos, "one," combined with

theos, "god." "

2.' Bicuspid (by-KUS'-pid). A tooth with two prongs.

Latin bis, "twice;' or "two," and cuspis, "point."

3. Polyglot (POL'-cc-glot'). Glotta is Greek for "tongue"; the polyglot is one who speaks many tongues or

, languages. ," .

4. Misanthropy (m~-SAN'-thr~':'pee). Anthropos is Greek for "man." We have, then, the hatred of man or of mankind.' A misanthrope (MISS<an-thrope), therefore, is anyone, who has a morbid aversion to, or distrust of, his fellowmen.

III

Let us bike a quick review of the roots we've discovered so far. Can you remember the meaning or each word using these roots?

1. Monos (Greek), "one," as in monogamy and monotheism

2. Gamos (Greek), "marriage," as in monogamy, bigamy, misogamy, and polygamy i

BIGHTH DAY

3. Bis (Latin), "twice" or "two," as in bigamy and

bicuspid '

4. Polys (Greek), "many," as in polygamy and polyglot

5. Mlsein (Greek), "to bate," as in misogamy and

misanthropy ,

6. Theos (Greek)" "god," as in monotheism, bitheism,

and polytheism '

7,. .Cuspis (Latin), "po~t," as in bicuspid'

8. Glot{a (Greek), "tongue," as in polyglot

9. Anthropos (Greek)', "man,"as in misanthropy'

IV

NoV/on to further explorations into roots:

1. Theology (thee-bL'-~-jee). The study of God .and religion. To 'theos we add the Greek root logos. "knowl-

edge," "study," or "word."

. 2. Philanthropy (f:l-LAN'-thr~-pee). Love of manklnd.

The root.anthropos is combined. with the Greek philein, "to love." A philanthropist (f:l_LAN'..,thr:l-pist)~ then, who gives money to .the poor, is literally a. "lover of his fellow-

, men." , , '

3. 'Anthropology (an'_thro-POL'-:l-jee). Study of man,

, i.e., science of human development and history-a com-

bination of anthropos and logos. '

4. Philology (fe-LOL/';':l-jee). Study ,oUanguage, Le., science of linguistics-literally, a' love of words, from

philein combined with logosr

v

Ready for a test ,of your laiowledge ~~ Greck and L~tin roots? Write the meaning of each root m the appropnate blank below, then give one example of an English word

'based on this root. ' ,

Quick Vocabulary Builder

'59 'EXAMP:t:.E

'ROOT

1. bis

2. theos

3. phileili 4; misein .s. gamos 6. glotta 1. monos

, 8. cuspis

9. poly.v '

10. anthropos ,11,. 10go,'1'

MEAy..."ING'

••• ~ ',~" 4 •••• ~, •• ~ ..... t_"

................. "'O ••• ~.,, •• 0

•• ., ,! .

.. ..... ~ .... ~ .. , .• ", .. ~ ~ •• ·c ....

............... ~ ' ~. ~ ..

••• ~ > o·o.~ :t.

•• , ~ .o ...... G". *.o •• ~ ••• ~ ..... :.

.. ·.···.·~~~ ••• ~ ~·I··

.......... ~ "' • .o ..... ,,~ .~.; •••• Q'

......... ·.·.oa ,., ';~ "" ...

... ~ •• ~ •• ' , '0 .

........... ~ ¢ •••• ~' .

•• ~._ •• ~ ••••• ~""~ .... ~ ••• ~r

...... ". 0 .... , •• 0.' ..... ~ ••••

•• :."" ~., •• ", .. " ~~ ...... ~II .....

..........................

0 ;; •• ~ •• ~ '"

, 9. 0 ;, ~ ft .••• o. ~ .'.

ANSWERS: (1)\twi~,two; (2) goo; (3) love; (4) hate; .(5) mar.riage; (6), tongue; ('7> one; (8) point; (9) marry; (10) man, mankind.

, ,'" -. (1.1) study, knowledge, word ",',. , }

To check YOUIlfxamples. refer to previous pages. .

VI

. Can you qri~ as 1\ ~ord detective? Keep in mind the eleveI_l roots we. hay~ discussed andtry to arrive a,t the p;teanmgs of ,!he 'Italicized ~ord8. (Juess intelligen~ly" referrm~ to-prevlousexplanations as .often a.syoU/ wish '0 Wnte your meaning in, the 'blank line following each 'se~D' tence, ' . -' -e., -

1. Some Englishmen wear a, monocle (MON'n~k~!n.

• I • \. --

60

EIGHTH DAY

................................ fl •• ' ~~ •• " """"¥'~ ~ .111·· ••••• ••••

5. He is riding a bicycle {BY';,s;:I-kol)v

, .

• •• I • " • t' , ••••••••• , .••• ~ • ~ •••••••••• ~ , ••• ,'" ~ .

6.' Man is a biped (BY'-ped).

•••••• ,;, ••••• "'~ ••• ', •.••••• ","" •.•••• ~ •• ,'," •• " ••• ",'" ., •. , ••••••••••••• e 0

7. France and England made a bilateral (by-LAT'-::l-

. .

rol) agreement.

•••••• , '.' •••••••••• ~ ,', .•••••••••••••• ~, ••••••••••• ~ •• : ~ •• ' ••• ~ •••••••••• 0 .0 "

. 8. A rectangle is e.polygon (POL'~ee-g9n').

......................... ~ ,'" ~. ,_", ~ .. o.

9. A misogynist (m::l-SAIUf"::l-nist) shuns the com:' pany of women,

· ' ', .. '. ' " ~ , , , , ',' " " ~ .

10. Romans practiced polytheism (POL'~ee-thee~iz'em),

• •• ':-. •• ~ •••••••••••• i •• 0" ,., •••. "~ •••••••••• '. '.' •.••••••••• 0,0' o ~. ~~ ••••••.•••••

11. Thlstooth is a tricuspid (try-KUS'-pid).

• ••• 0 0 •••••••• 0 ' ~ • , " '. ~," •••••••••••••

11. Th~ President's wonderful stamp. collection is the · envy of philatelists (f;)-LA T' -o-lists).

.........................................

.... .

1.3. The anthropoid' (ANr-t!m~-poid') apes are similar · in appearance to humans,

'.,', '

Quick Vocabulary Builder

..... :. ~ ~ ~ ; ~ : ,; ,; .. : ~ .

ANSWERS: (I r lens for one eye; (2) speech by one person; (3); control by one person (of the market) ; ( 4) place where people live alone; (5) vehicleof two wheels; (6) creature with , two feet; (7) two-sided; (8) many-sided figure;' (9) hater of women; (10) belief in many gods; . (11) tooth with three points,' (12) lovers, hence collectors, of stamps; (13) manlike; (14) study of life; . (15) country

where onepei:son rules "

VII

"\

Consider, perhaps with amazement,. how many new words Y0;1 have learned in a very short time by tracing - them. back to their Latin. or Greek derivation. Pronounce each aloud as you come to it, and review briefly its mean-

ing as. reflected by the root structure. .

1. gamos,mnrriage

. monogamy (mg-NOG'o-lllee), .

. bigamy (BIO'-o-mee) 'polygamy' (po-LIG'-omee)

misogamy (mo-SOG'-~mee)

I

2. monos, one monotheism. (MON'-athee-iz/-cm)

monogamy (mo~NOG'o-mee),

monocle (MON'-::l-kol) monologue (MON'-olog')

monopoly (m::l-NOP':'

a-lee) .

monastery (MON'~ostair'-ee)

monarchy (MOW-orkce)

62

3. his, twice, two

bicuspid (by-KQS'-pid) bicycle (BY'-s~ .. kol)

biped (BY'-pe~)" . .

bilateral (by-LAT'-Qr~l)

. bigamous (BIG':~-

mas)

5. misein, to hate - misogamy (ma-SOG';..~mee) .. misogynist (mQ·,sAHJ'-

.;' o-nist)

. misanthropy (mo-

SAN' -thr~pee)

7. logos,'word,! study,

knowledge . .

biology (by-OL'-a-jee) theology ( thee-Of,' -Q~ jee)

philology (fa-LOL'-Q-

[ee) '..

. anthropology (an' -throPoL'..g..jee) .

9. anthropos,.man, mankind

anthropoid (AN'-tbra~

poid) .

anthropologist (an-throPOL'-::I'-jist)

. philanthropist (fo-

LAN' -tl1T::I'-pist)

misanthrope (MISS'';

on-thrope)

misanthropist (mis-

AN'-thr~pist )

11, gtotta, tongue

polyglot (POL' -ee':glot,)

EIGHTH DAY

. 4. polys, many. .;

polygamy (pa.·LIG-::I'-

. mee)

polyglot (POl/-ee-

glot') .'

polygon (POL'-ee-

gon')

polytheism (POL'"ee ... tbee-iz'-om)

6. theos, god

-theology (thee-Of,' -~-

jee) ..

monotheist. (MON'-~.'·

· thee-ist)

8. phi Ie in, to love. .

philologist (fa-LOV-a" jist) .

philatelist (fa-LAT'-a-

· list) .

philanthropy (fa-LAN'-

· thro-pee)

10. cuspis, point· .'.

bicuspid (by-KUS'-pld) tricuspid' (try-KUS'pid)

(Miick Vocqbulary Builder

J

VIII

Final review timet If you feel . a happy and secure control of the material. of this chapter, try this simple test, in whicb you have to fill in one or .more blanks in . each sentence. Can you make a perfect score without referring to previous information?

1. One' who practices monogamy has only one·

• • •• ~>. ,·w ••••••••••••••••••• 0,'.

2.A misogamist , , marriage.

3. Theology is the study of or , .

4. lJiology is the of life. '.

5. A philatelist collects : .

,6. A misanthropist mankind •.

7. Anthropology is the science of , .

. development.

8. A bicuspid has ~ : points.

9. A tricuspid has.' points.'

10. Anthropoid means "similar to, or' in the form of,

a '.' .

11. A polyglot speaks languages.

12. A polygon has ; sides.

13. Under polygamy~ a man may have .: ..

wives.

. 14. In America, a bigamous marriage is : : .

15. In a monotheistic religion, there is only one

16. A biped has two ;.: : .

17. A two-wheeled. vehicle is a .e- :., ..

18. An agreement endorsed by two sides is called

19 A If' I .' . .' - . .

'. ens or on y one .eye IS called a .

'. 20. A speech by one person is a : .

. 21. Control of the market by one person or group is

. a : .

22. A· place where men live in seclusion 'is a

I'i

, !

I'

EIGHTH DAY

23. A nation which has one, usually hereditary, ruler

is a : .

24. Belief in many gods is called : .

25. A misogynist hates .

ANSWERS:

(1) spouse, wife, husband; (2) hates; (3) God, religion; (4) study, scien,ce; (5 )

,stamps; (6) hates; (7) human, man's,

mankind's; (8) two; (9) three; (10) human. human being, man, person, etc.; . . (1 ~ ) many; (12) many; (13) many; (14) illegal, unlawful, etc.; (15) God; '(16) legs,

. feet; ( 17) bicycle; ( 18) bilateral; ( 19 ) . monocle; (20) monologue; (21) ~onop(}'o ly; (22) monastery; (23) monarchy; (24) polytheism; (25) women, females, etc.

nm ~m 1J7l nm I) ~OJ :!!fl ~~ !$ ~~ ~m ~m 'fi.iI ~ru ~@ $00

e4 ~fe. crest of q-our ''PrtJg~~ss

i .

to 'Date

. .

You are of Course aware. that you will never add very rapidly to your 'vocabulary . by merely being exposed. to words, or by reading, or by talking. You -must have a

. plan.'

HereJs one way to get ahead' with words in everyday life. It's the simplest thing in the world.

Buy a small pocket notebook, When you read a newspaper, a magazine, or a book, or listen to TV or the radio, . and come upon a strange word. enter it in your notebook. - Then look it up in the dictionary. If you find that it's some

.abstruse 01' highly technical term, such as; say, SYZ)'Fry, "an immovable union between two brachials of a crinoid," just pass it by. You won't be using it unless you are

, studying to be a professor of biology. But if it sounds like a word. thi'tt will be helpful to you,take possession or it, make it your own personal property, Say it aloud many times. Study its definition, note its derivation. Ee sure,

65

66

NINTH DAY

also, to copy from the dictionary the sample sentence in which it.Is used, if such is given. Then wnte your own. sentence along ilie lines of the example in the dictionary -. '

All this will take only a -few. minute. or so, but it is necessary to make the practice a daily habit. Then the list in your notebook will grow and grow, . as will your

command of Eriglish. .

We.want, at this pdint; to help you gain complete.possession of any of the words in the first eight chapters that

may have once been unfamiliar to Y9u; . .

In this review. you have, as usual, . the responsibility of . grading yourself. After you have compared youranswers with those given at the end of the chapter, we will give you an interpretation of your score and you can then see

what progress youhave.made. . .

i;.The.stlldy of the origins of words or of word- 0., histories is called

(a) .philology; (b) verbology; (c) etymology

2, The "taxicabs" in ~cierit Rome gave :rise to (1)r

word . .

(a) calculate; (b) supercilious; (c) . captain

3. The Greek syn3;bl~ graph means

fa) seeing; (b) writing; (c)spealdng· . . .

4. The word run has approximately, dif- .

ferent dictionary meanings-

(a) 3; (b) 20; (c) 90 . . . '.'

5. Some words require~motional maturity to be understood .. '

(a) True?or to) False?

II' .

Each l;.hxasein. column B defines. a word in column A. .

Match the two columns.

A QUick Test of Your Progress to-Date

, . ~. '. ' .

A

1. vicarious

2. rationalize

3. gregarious

4. obsequious

. B·

a. appeal to the baser emotions

'h. tearfully sentimental .

c.company-16ving ,

d. second-hand or substitutional in experience '.

e. fawning and servile

f: justify,' usually unconsciously

(an unwortl;1y act) .

g. severely self-denying

h. refine; tum into. higher or socially • acceptable channels ..

i.: worn . out; sterile; exhausted , !ft'omrich or overindulgent liv-

ing,' .' .

j. unrestrained

,

5. maudlin

6. ascetic

7. 'pander 8, sublimate

9. wanton

lO;eDet~· '

HI

Check the correctforms: 1 .. The obstetrician:

(a)deJivers babies; (b) .treats babies; (e) tre~ts women's diseases

. 2. The osteopath: ,

(a) straightens teeth; (b) specializes in skin diseases; (C). treats diseases by manipulating the bones

3. The optometrist:' ,

(a) sells, lenses; (b) measures your eyes forglass~s'

'. (c) operates on your eyes . .. - ' .

4.\ The podicltl:ist:' .'

. (a) treats foot ailments; (b) treats mental ailments;

,(c) treats nerve ailments " .

·5. The psythia'tristis interested-in; .. ' ' '.

(a.). your stomach; (b) your mind] (c ) your eyes

68

:IV

Write the requiredverbs

1. To stagnate

2. To postpone

3. To cheat; to deprive fraudulently

4. To exclude; to ban

5. To atone for

. ' 6. To entreat

7. To sparkle

8. To disapprove of

9. To spend time in the country

10. To charge (someone with)

. I

V

NINTH DAY

v .

p

... , " ,

M ".~ ,; .

O· ., : ; .

E ~ t ••••

I· ; ..

S , ..

D' ..

R ..

·1 .

Fill in'each blank space ;"ith the type of person who

would be most apt to make sucha,stat~m:ent. .

1. "I have good taste in foods and wines."

2. "Governinent should experiment."

3. "Government must not experi-

ment."

4. "If they don't want war; giveit_ . to thexnanyway." ,

5. "My country, is the only one worthanything. "

6. "Pain will never .make me

wince."

7. "The other .fellow comes first."

8. '."1 come first above ail." . .

9, "The,re.is,no God." ,

10. h' doil't know whether' or not

there is a GO(t"A .. j .. ; '"

:U. "Ever"thing will hap, pen a~ it will, ' no m;tt.er what we do."F

E .

L' , : ..

-,

C ; .

J .... , ... : ....... ; ...

Cll.; , '

s ..

):'\ ; ;.",;0;.. ..

B· ···,·

./\ ., ;

, 'J

.-; ..... " •• " 3 ~ •. ~ •••• '" t

A Quick Test of Y our Progress to Date .

69



VI

La~!v:o!~; meaning ~f each. 'o~ the. fOllOWin~ Greek ~r

1. logos

2. theos

3. his

4. philein

5. rhisein 6~ monos

7~ anthropos .

8. polys ' : : ~ .

9. gamol' ~ ,. : ~ .

10. cuspis ~ .

11.- glotta .

.... . ,' ~ , .

., 1 ••• ~.: •••••• : •• " •• ;, •••• It

••• 0 , •••••••• ,'" •• ~ •••• o ~ .

. .

................................. '~ ~

..................................... ' .....

ANSWERS:

I: (1) c; , (2) a; (3) b: (4) c·

(5) a ..' ,

Scoring: . Two points each

ll: (1) d; "(2. ) 'f. ('3 YourScore: .

, ) c; (4) e; ..

. (5) b; (6) g; (7) a; >'(8) h; (9)j; . (10) i '

Scoring: Two points each

Your Score'

{3) b; (4) a; ..

ill: (1) a; (2) C; (5) b

. Scoring: Two points each'

IV: .. Your Score' -:----

(1) vegetate; (2) procrastinate: .

(3) mulct;·. (4 t ostracize; (5-;

expiate; (6)lD1portun{;;' (7) SCtn~mate;. (8) deprecate; (9)

. rusticate; ( 10) impute '

Scoring: Two points each

Your Score' .

V: (I) epicure; (2) liberal; (3) .

conservative; ( 4) jingoist;, (s)

i

I.

NIN.TH DAY ehauvinist; . ( 6 ) stoic; (7) .al:

... ist: (8)' egoist; (9) ath. eist;

truist; -" 11) f talist

(10) agnostic; ( a=

'S ring' Two points each

co , . , Your Score: , .

. " (1) 'W"Ord, . knowledge, study; Vl\~2). god; (3) twice, tw.o;. (4)

. lye; (5) hate; (6) one: ~~~

an, mankind; (8) Il!a~y, (11) '. tharriage; (10) point;

tongue . . .

/ S .. rin : Two points each • .

i co. g . . YourSc~re •.............

MI. umScore: 104 '" .

axim , Your Total Score: •...........

! . ....

I

'f

What Your Seere Means

! -: . ..... 'bTty tbatyou may

S8 or/under suggests the POSSI ~~ 0 along. Work ndt be thorough enough as ~l ,. ~ry to improve

·h~rder;. revie~ hmore ~eg~:~~alyiestof your progyqurscore on t e nex .:

ress. • bl . score. Can you do

60-70. is] an average 'a~dacce~ta e .

. 'stUl better next tune? e learning..Continue

72-86 sl1ows.. better-than-averag ,(1 no doors will ever

. b~il'.iJ ing yourwo .. rd power aJ-evertheless, improve

b¢ <!\used to yo~: Can you, n . . .

'. 'ydur score nextume? .. S8 Your interest and

88-1 04 indicate~re~arkabl~.Pgbro~~d 'yourrewards from

. self-motivation are 1, ....

k ill therefore be great.

this wor w . '. \

i~~ ~I 00 ~m ~(j 9 ~~ ~I;l a!1il'~

~~ ~H~OO ~!B '!iaJ ~m

~~ $00

. Wor4se4f1out crour.f'eIJowcMen

'. We have' now a wide and most important group 9f words

. to consider. These are the words that describe and catalog .

Ii few of the various classes of our fellowmen and that identify some of their activities," And' here ,is . a helpful' game that you migbtlike to try. Just jot down on tile margin of these pages. opposite each of the. twt;nty-fi.ve words that follow, the name of a friend of-yours or a well-known· actor or public ehara,Cler, who, you believe, would bestperson1fy the particular word under discussion .. Dranuatizing the word in this fashion will help fix its mean ...

lng in your mind. . . _

You v..i]1 meet some familiar words in this list, words that we have introduced in previou§ chapters. J3ut repetition is. a part of learning, and very often, whey! a 'Nord appears a secoud time, it.will bti presentoo in another form and with aconsider:abl:y enriched meaning.

Let us look. OV(~r a few· of the words that characterize the varied types .of persona1ities,whoinbahit our interest:' ing world'!,l -:

'71

--TENTH DAY

. ';,:

I

, 1. The coquette (ko-KET'). This girl prorriises much, flirts egregiously. and' delivers, very little.

2. The circe (SUR'-see). Her greatest pleasure comes from Iuring men to their destruction.

3. Th~ amazon (AM' -o-zon"). She's the tall, strapping, masculine kind of woman.

4. The Vl1'Qgo(v~RAY'-:gO). She is the loud-

mouthed, turbulent, batile-axe, type; a vicious nag

and scold. . - '

5. The adonis' (~-DOW-~s) .. He's thehal'idsome, Greek •. god type who makes the hearts of YO'Wlggirls

flutter. . .

II

1. The jUdas (Jlm'-!:iQs). Don't trust him. He's the traitor who will sell out his best friend for money.

2. The f'!J.tilitar;an ({yoe-til' ~~ T AIR' -ee-en) . The pessimist and cynic who sees-rio particular' point to any-

thing in life. ' .

3. The vulgarian (v!ll-GAIRf-ee-~n). He has vulgar'

tastes and manners.

4. The pedant (PED'-ant). His grea.testdelightis making an unnecessary show of. his learning, espeCiaUy by correcting. petty errors. He attaches exaggerated importance to minute and minor details of scholar-

ship.

5 -. The egoist aiB'-go-:isL) His credo is selfishness.

His interests come first, and no. one else matters.

6. The ascetic (1l.·SET'-ik). He livesa'severely temperate life and avoids human pleasuresaIid vices.

1. The esthete (ESS'-theet). He is a person of fine taste and. artistic flair. Hence, he is most responsive to,and delighted with,whatever is beautiful.

WOl'dsAbout Your Fellowmen

73

I!I····

1, Th~.d~magogue (DEM~-~-g()g'). By appealing to the pre!tidl~e)) and h~treds,"of thepopulation, he foments socl~l. discontent m orcer to further his own "political

ambitions, •

2'!h~martinet(mru·'-t<"l.:NET'). He's fanatlc in h' mSlsten~ on b~d discipline £torri hfs sUbordiuate~: . and a tiresome stickler for form and etiquette. . »

3. The sycophant (SIK'-~f~nt). By Insincere flattery ~d pr~tendedservil~ty,he hopes to make I rich or. mfluential ,people think of, him kindly, especially

when they have-some crumbs to throw. . .

iv

1.~e atheist.(AY'-thee.:ist). He's sure God is non-

existent. .

2. The agno~t!c ~a~-NOSS'-tik). He maintains thatthe . bum.a~ mm~ IS Incapable of penetrating the mystery of dIVIDe existence. Perhaps there is a. God perhaps

not. No man knows. . •

v

1. pte tyro. (T~' -rO).' He's a beginner-in some profes-

S10n, occupation, or art. '. .

2. The virtuoso (~'-choo:U'-so). He is the antithesis 0inJh~ tyro, having r~ached the greatestheights of Sf h ~d,. com., petence m music; painting or anyone

o t e nne arts. "

3. The philologist (f~-LOl/-:,)-jist). Hf~'S a scholar of

language and speech. ' '. J

4. The clairvoyant '(k'hl'( V'O"V! ., ..

.. '. ','.' (., - /Jl -ont). He claims the

ability to see things Dot visible to those with normal

74

TENTH DAY sight. Hence,·· he often makes prophecies about the . future.

VI

1. The philatelist (f;;)~LAT'-~-list). He's the stamp col- . 'lector.

2. The numismatist (n'oof-M;1Z'·ml)-tist). He's the coin • 'collector.

VII

.'

1. The gourmet (gcl6r-MA Y');. He is knowledgeable and fastidious about eating and drinking, devoting himself to excellent food, special wines, exotic seasonings, etc.

2. The connoisseur (kon'-:l-SUR'). He isa critical judge of excellence in. the arts, foodcdrink, women, etc.

VIII

Ted Your learning

Can. you fill the . blanic . line with the word thattlts each-

description?·' . I

L He does not believe in.God, A " ..

2, He is it skillful practitioner of

some.art, V ..

3. He collects rare coins.' . N .

4. He has an unusual appreciation of

beauty. . . ~ '.

5. He is ostentatious about his learn-

ing" 1) ...•............. ,.

6.' He will betray a friend; "7. She-is a flirt. ~" She is a destructive siren.

E ' .

J .

C ; ~ .. ; .

C .

ANSWERS: ( 1 ) atheist; (2) virtuoso; (:3 ). numismatist; (4) esthete; (5) pedant; (6) judas; (7) coquette; (8)' circe; (9) martinet; (10) egoistj (11)· ascetic; . (12) sycophant; (13) demagogue; (14), agnostic; (15) futilitarian; ( 16) amazon; ( 17) virago; (18) gourmet; (19) adonis; (20) vulgarian; (21) tyro; (22) philologist; (23) clairvoyant; (24) connoisseur; (25) philat-

'elist .

. Words A bout Your Fellowmen

9. He is an offensive stickler for dis- . cipline,

10. He lives only for himself.

11. He-lives a simple and • austere

, existence. . . .

12. He bootlicks the rich and power- ' ful.

13. He is a false leader of the common people •

14. He's not sure whether or not God exists.

15. He claims that life is completely

. futile.

, 16. She's a masculine woman, big and muscular.

17. She has. a sharp tongue and. a vicioustemper.

18. He hal good taste in food.

19. He's extremely handsome.

. ~O. He's coarse and uncouth.

21. He's a beginner- in his profession. 22 .. ' He's a student of words.

23. He says 'he can see things that you ca-i't,

24. He's an authoritative judge and critic in some fine art or other area of excellence. 25., He collects stamps.

75

M ,;.; .

E : .

A ..

S ;; ~ .

D .

A .

# " I

F .

P,;. .

V .

G : ..

·A .

V : ·

T .

PH .

C , ..

·c ; "

". PH ; .

- TENTH DAY

IX

Reinforce Your Knowledge

.. Re~dy for another try at the.same words? Check the one adjective out of three offered that most nearly fits e,ach noun.

I. coquette 2. circe

3. amazon 4. 5. 6.

virago adonis judas

7. futilitarian

8. vulgarian

9. pedant 11. egoist

11. ascetic

12. esthete

13. demagogue 14.' martinet

15. sycophant

16. atheist

17. agnostic

18. tyro

19. virtuoso

20. philologist

21. clairvoyant

22. philatelist

23. numismatist

24. gourmet

25. connoisseur

sincere, flirtatious, talkative untrustworthy, unapproachable, nagging

feminine, alluring, big

fierce, docile, . feminine ..

feminine; good-looking, wasteful untrustworthy, unapproachable, unassuming.,

optimistic, pessimistic, indifferent COl.U'teoUS, crude, clever

corrective, -sentjmental, soft-hearted ambitious, boring, self-c~ntered puny, puerile, puritanical

talkative, tasteful,' triumphant traitorous, troublemaking, temperate reckless, easygoing, demanding sincere,hypocritical. hand~cme irreligious, youthful, flatter~¥ god-fearing, skeptical, ambItIOUS expert.uncouth, unskillful .

skilled, indifferent, alluring' selfish, ill-mannered, scholarly prophetic, prote~ti?g,.fearful stamp-involved, coin-involved, bookinvolved, .

stamp-involved, coin-involved,book-. involved '

fastidious, vulgar, piggish ..

discriminating, ignorant, ambitious

II' ords About, Y our Fellowmen

77

worthy; (7) pessimistic; (8) crude; (9) cor:ective; (10) self-centered; (11) purltanical; (12). tasteful; (13) tr(mblemaking; p4~ .demandIng; (15) hypocritical; (6) JtreliglOus; (17) skeptical; (18) unskillful; (19) skilled; . (20) scholarly; (21) prophetic; (22) .stamp.:involved; (23)· coin-involved; (24) fastidious; (25) discrimlnm, ing

X

Further Reinforcement

- -

Every time you test your learning and correct your errors or misconceptions you nail down a little more securely your familiarity with these colorful words." In this final test, therefore, you should be so nearly expert that you Can make a. perfect, or nearly perfect, score. Can you meet the challenge? .

Choose the letter of the area from Column n that each person in Column I is involved in ..

I '1. coquette

, 2. circe

3. amazon

4. .virago

5. adonis 6, judas

7; futilitarian' 8; vulgarian.

9. pedant

10. egoist

11. ascetic

12. esthete

13.' demagogue 14. martinet 15; sycophant

n

ANSWERS: (1) flirtatious; (2) untrus~w,?rthy; (3) big; (4) fierce; (5) good-looking; (6)untrust-·.

a. strength,

b. uselessness

c. obedience

d. austere existence

e. preciseness

f. skepticism

g. gaining experience

h. all beauty

i. stamps

j. language

k. destructlon of males 1. insincere flattery

m. political power

n. marriage

o. flirting

TENTH DAY

p. coarsecess

-q, top performance'

r. self-interest

s. . extrasensory perception t, food

u. betrayal

v. high quality

w. male beauty'

x. coins

y. godlessness

z. .nagging

ANSWERS: (1) 0; (2)k; (3) a; (4).z; (5)w; (6) , u; (7) b; (8) p; (9) e; '(10) r; . (l1)d; (12) h; (13) m; (14) c; (15)

1; ,(16) y;" (17) f; (18) s.: (19) q;" (20) j; (21) s; (22) i; (23) x; (24) ,t;

(25) v

16. atheist

17. agnostic

18. tyro

lQ. virtuoso 20. philologist '21. clairvoyant

22. philatelist

23. numismatist

24. gourmet

25. connoisseur;

, We have discussed, with you, and thoroughly tested you ()D, twenty-five intensely human words. about human characteristics, professions, avocations. philosophiel. and attitudes. These words are dynamic, meaningful. warm to the touch. pulsating with life. They describe your friends and enemier;. your acquaintances and' colleagues-perhaps yourself on occasion?' ' ,

These words are valuable. Watch for them in your read- ' ing; listen for them in conversation~ Use them yourself in your speech and writing-you will be delighted to discover how compactly .and forcefully they express precisely what

you want to say. '

Wcmu for "ho'bins Gnd~ani"s

~Ve touched on a number of nor .

m t?~ last chapter. Now w 't . mal human characteristics '

malitles of the human mind e urn to a few of the abnermental ~ecu1iarities, neuros~sto the ,:"ords that particularize personalIty disorders... ' phobla.S, and mild or violent

I

Let us discuss first .6 ' , ' ,

kl ' , . ,v(': of th .'

eptomania, pyroma~{a i; . e l?Ost common manias:

monomania. ' ('lpsomamaJ megalomania, and

1. !he pyromaniac (py'-ro-MA ' ~ ,

~~~ nlOrb~d passion for fire. He ~inbe-ak) has a,strange

_ . no slightest sense of m r urn down a house '

fas~mated br the flames. a Ice, but merely becal1se he is

. The dipsomaniac (d' , - '

controllable compulsion t:;'d:?-f:1N('-n.ee-~k) has an unin • HIS VIce IS a good deal

79

80

'ELEVENTH DAY.

, , • '1 . t h bit of course. It is an

more than a socially p easan " a \iriilkand get drunk'

emotional problem, and. he', must ' .

wh, ether he reallywant~ to(,?r not'.;.r_MAY'_nee_ak) has a

3' The megaloma, mac meg-a 0, C· . th t he has

..... h' N oleon or aesar, a

conviction that e IS ap • that he is God. He

enormous wealth;. or even, som~tunes., , ' ,

is co, ntinuallyobsessed' by delus~ns. of, ~andeakllr). . ,unbal-

aniac (mon'-o-MAY -nee- IS

4. ~he. monom '. "rythfu else except his own

anced m ]US~ one area, ~:)ll e:ve , ;e completely normal. pet and particular delusion he mal' Y' ak) has a

5 Th kl ptomaniac (klep'-to-MA ,-nee- , .

, .' . ,~ • e" al The victim of this aberration may be

~~ft~~l~~;~~~bject stolen may bef wo~~if!t~~~~~:~~:,

the 'kleptomaniac n~v~r h.as allalY u..;; .or t can't help taking nor any. plans for their dlSPOS . ,e jus ,,' .

them. '

II

Write in the blank lines the "maniac" described ,by each

of the following sentences : , ' '

1 ' He can't take one drink and then stop. , ..

2: Be is mentallyjl~,g g~ed .on, one, sU,bJect.. . ,

3, She is apt to ~ little object that

... ~ .. : ~ .. , "

shesees. '_

4 H "imagines he is God. ' .

5: Itei~:ngerous toJeav~bimalone with ~ .

matches.

. .

ANSWERS:

(1) dipsomaniac; (2) monomaniac; (3) kleptomaniac; (4) megalomaniac; (5) py-

romaniac

III

bi ? You haven't any? Don't be too sur'ra~~Y~:u~~o~~~t~~tled-turtle habit of ducking under

Words for Phobias and Manias

the bedclothes when the lightning crackles? Or your shudders when a snake crosses your path? Or possibly you edge away from the tops of tall buildings because height

makes, you feel funny? . . . .. . , .

If you are an average man you have, not one, but 2.21

. Phobias. •

If you are an average woman you have 3.55 phobias.

Here is a list of the twelve most common phobias. You need not try to remember them, as they will hardly ever be useful to you. unless you are a psychiatrist, in which

case you already know them. }

ceraunophobia morbid dread of thunder

.! astraphobia morbid dread of lightning

ophidiophobia morbid dreadof snakes

nyctophobia morbid dread of darkness

acrophobia morbid dread of heights

pyrophobia morbid dread of fire'

.. ' aquaphobiamo'rbia dread of water

ailurophobia . morbid dread of-cats .

. cynophobia. morbid dread of dogs

agoraphobia morbid dread of open spaces . .

triskaidekaphobia morbid dread of the number thirteen

.. clafl,ftrophobia' morbid dread of close spa~es -.

Three of these phobias are particularly common: .

1. Claustrophobia (klawss'-tr~-FU-bee-~). The victim. feels choked by.ismall rooms or crowded or confil}cd places, If. there is not plenty of open space around him, his discomfort is acute; he may even go into Ii panic.

2. Agoraphobia (ag' ~~-r~-FO'-bee-;:). Contrarily, .

someone suffering from this problem. cannot stand open spaces-very large rooms, public areas that have few people

. (empty-theaters, for example), etc. He finds it painful, if not impossible, to walk across a- deserted ball field. He is terrified, in short, by limitless horizons.

3. Acrophobia (itk'-r";,,ll'''(J':-bee-g), The person burdened with this fearispauic-stricken by heights; He cannot mount higher -than the third or fourth step ofa ladder, cannot look out of the top windows ofa tall building, is

82

ELEVENTH DA",

terrified, of rapidly ascending elevators, would rather die

than take a plane trip. .

IV

, Four more, people, with emotional or-mental problems:

1. The hypochondriac (hy'''po-KON'-dree-ak) continully complains about imaginary ills. A heart flutter meallL___ heart failure. A headache is a brain: tumor. An upset" stomach Indicateagastrlculcerser cancer. 'The 'only real . problem is, of course, a, morbid imagination.

, The ailment: hypochondrla (hy'-po-KON'-dree-Q)

2. The amnesiac (am .. NEE'-zee-ak) suffers from loss of memory.iThe cause is often a blow on the 'head or some sudden emotional shock, after which the victim's pastbecomes 'a complete" blank. He cannot even. recognize his faniilyand closest friends. In time, with treatment, there is usually a recovery.

" 'The ailment; (lmnesia' (ani-NEE' -zh~)'

3. The somnambulist (som ... NAM'-by~ .. list) walks in

his 'sleep. ' \

The ailment: somnambulism (sQm-NAM'-by~-liz-

. 1_'

:;lm)' ",; \

4.'Phe insomniac, (in-SOM'-nee-ak) is habituallyafflicted with wakefulness at times when he wishes to sleep.

The ailment: insomnia (in-SOM'-n~e-Q) ,

v

Who would be most'likely to say the following?

,1. "What a night. Ldidn't sleep a wink!" .,,, .... ,,.,, ....

2. "1 walked around the room last night?

\Vhy, I was' fast asleep."

3. "Who am I? I'vecompleteiy forgotten

" ~ .

, my name. , . ,

4; "1 don't care what the doctor says. I

know .I've got heart trouble."

....

4/

Word» lor Phobias and Manias

5."1 can't live in an apartment on the fiftij,' floor; Isn't there anything vacant lower

• down?" '"

6. "I'm getting out of here. This place is so ' ..... : ...... ; ...

small I think the walls are going to crush ' ,

me!" ,

7 ' ........• ' ..

.• "No 'thanks. I can't go fishfng with you

on' that enormous lake. It goes on for-

ever!" '

.............. ' ..

ANSWEN.S: (l~"insomniac; ,. (2) somnambulist; '(3) amneSIac;, (4) hypochondriac; .(5) acrophobe; (6.) claustrophobe; (7) agoraphobe ' '

VI

Four victims of very serious mental illness:

.,' 1. TJ;te manic-depresstve (man'-Qk-d~PRESS'-iv) has alternating moods of black depression and wild, uncontrol.Iableexaltation or excita.bility. Changes are unpredictable

, 'and tome without warning. ,i

The illness: manic-depression (man'-Qk-da-PRF..,SH'-

en) " , ' "

,;~. The schi~()I!hrenic (skiz'-~-FREN'-~k) is, a split or dlvidedpersonalhy, He loses 'contact with his environment. lives in an unreal world of his own making and

often i'n,agines he is someone else. .. \ '

The illness: schizophrenia (skiz" ~FREEN'-YQ)

'. 3.T~eme!ancholiac (rilel'-~n-I(U'-lee-ak) . has .fallen' mtoa fixed condition ofdespondencyHe oftea thinks of or attempts, suicide. '. , , +,'

Theillness:~ !~lancholia (mcl'.~n-KU'.'lee-;,)

4. 'T~e paranoiac (pair'~~NOY.'-ak) has delusions of' p~rsecutJ0f' ~fe i:';1.agines ~hat .people are trying to poison run:. that,.le ,tS being pursued by enemies, that, everyone is

against hun. " ,~" ' ,

'The illness: paranoia (pair/-~NOY'.:a)

ELEVEl'I'TH DAY

Words for Phobias and Manias 17. agoraphobia 1. 8. acrophobia

q. overwhelmlng sadness

f. sleeplessness .

VII

Accordin~ to Freudian. psychology, the. person who ·l~as· grown up without successfully adjusting to the parent-child relationship or to his own place in the family constellation' may develop either of the following: .'

1. An Oedipus (ED'-:,)-P~s) complex. The male so burdened is the typical "mama's boy" who has been overprotected and overbabied and prevented. from maturing emotionally. UnconsCiously, according to the Freudians, he has a repressed. desire to kill his father' and maqy his'

Dlother.· .

2. An Electra (:,)-LEK'.:.tr~) complex. This is the female

version of the Oedipal problem-the girl is hostile to her mother, in love with herfather.

I

ANSWERS:.(l)f;. (2)0; (3) a; (4)<1;' (5'J' (6)' b; (7) n; (~)c; (9) r: (10)e'~ (11) g; (12) q; (13) h: (14') i; (15) p; (16) m;(17) k; . (18)},"

IX

Wrffiteth,~word that fits each definition Initial I t,

are 0 ered to prod your memory. '. e ters

1. M ..............•• Continued gloom and d .

2. M, . M' . . . epresslOn

..... oods of v!olent excitement ;'It.

ti . h ... ,cr-

3. A . naung WIt .. black depression

. 4. S Loss of memory .

. 'Ya1king . and performing other aetions during .sleep

Uncontrollable ~ '[wing for alcoholic

liquor' .

M~rb~d anxiety. about one's health Delusions of. erse.c..'Utit)n

~arly and ahnorm'attachment of a girlfor her father. with hostility to

her mother .

'9. K U '

n~ontroJjable propensity to steal

. articles of little value .

'. Delusion! of grand em .

C:h~o~l~~jn~bmt.~r to fall asleep Obsession III a SlG~ear"'a

, UnC0l1t'r(mahl:,1~'e.a1 t.ot.;:;;~~~; fires

" ... " .. " .... ".. . Mental deraa ", .... " t. . ._

1,: .... ... '.'" ",d..[;c., s: ,t;'t.1.1) •. -characterized

uy loss of contact with re:aHty::"'pl~ ;

personality '.' , • " .... ,

Morbid dr. ;,..··ad.· of.' confined olaces

Morbk , ,.;" .t"'''' '",

.r: _ Old dJ",ad (j1f open spaces

Uu,csolved attaebmenr t '.

'1 ." .., ."'1. .enz .c' motner

"8 A' WIth. dccompanymg hatred Dr [ .... ,.t.

! •. ,,· .. " .... OO.H. ~J{rb·d d . id ~ "'" .• huer

. "', J, I rea of hdgIits .

VIII

S.D

....................

/,6. H., .

,7. P .

8. E" .

Can you match the problem area with the name of the disturbance?

PROBLEM AREA

a. grandeur

b. illness

c. sleepwalking

d. one single obsession

e. hilarity followed by gloom

f. fire

g. no contact with reality

h. persecution'

.' i. attachment to mother j. thievery

k: open areas 1. high places.

roo confined areas

n. memory

o. liquor'

p .. attachment to father

DISTURBANCE

1. pyromania

2. dipsomania

3. megalomtmia

4. monomania ~

5. kleptomania

6. hypochondria 7, amnesia

8. somnambulism

9. insomniac

10. rna.nic-depression 11: 'schhophre"ia

) 12. me!artcho!ia 13. paranoia

-14 Oedipus complex 15. Electra complex 16, . claustrophobia

10.]\.1: ",:.

11. I

12. fit , .

13. P , .

• ~ ,., •••• ~ j,; •. ,: ~ ,;,

14. S

1.5. C .

16 .. A .. · ·"'""·

17. 0 " ..

.. ~.' .. ~ .. ~~ .. ,,~

86

ELEVENTH D.AY.

i

I

''OJ

ANSWERS: (1) melancholia; (2) manic-depression;

(3) amnesia; (4) somnambulism; (5) dipsomania; I (6) hypochondria; (7) paranoia; ( 8). Electra' corriplex; (9) kleptomania; (10)megal,omania; (11) ~omnia; (12) monomania; (13) pyromania; (14) schizophrenia; (15) claustrophobia; ( 16) agoraphobia; (17) Oedipus complex; (18) acrophobia

After stlchach~pteras this, you may think that we are advocating the use of long apd difficult words. But the .words we have discussed here are the only ones that accurately' . describe the troubles and disorders' that afflict many people, l'here.· are no substitutes for most of. them.

, But let this rulegenerally hold. Never, or at least almost never, use along word where a short one. will do .. ' Words, as: you wellknow,are to express your, thoughts, not jo conceal ther ~'. The greatest poems and the' greatest

-; speeches, whether rt is Robert Burris's "My love is like a . red, red .rose" or Patrick Henry's "Give me liberty or give . me death" all.havethepower and charm ·of simplicity, Try ,to avoid the too frequent use of such Latin words as iu.xtaposition, animadvert; sal~tation, recapitulate, They tend to make your style heavy, dry, and pedantic. Shan

, Anglo-Saxon 'words have force-:-gi/t instead of donation; . poor instead of impecunious, There is a simple beauty in ship, shop, walk, jree, earth, mate, man, friend. The L~tiD. and Greek words are iniportant to know, but 'shouldbe used with discretion,and never to overwhelm a reader or .

Iistener;

SimplicitY and directness in language: are always ef-

fective;

Words·e4bout'l'our .t}:eelings

,During the last.f h .,.. . . .

k~ds •. of· .. pe()pl=-~it~Pt':t:;e have. oo.~n· dealing with all

·q~~.theirphilosophi~s~ the&~~liarltles, their mental ,!lth Id~ alone. Or shall w . eas, Now let us deal sider the terms that des' e get more personal, and con-

your attitudes, ;mdemoti~~~; your thoughts, your feelings,

C~nsider these five words:

. no~talgia (nos-TAL'-j~) • .

satzated (SAY'-shee-ay'-t;)d) benevo. Ie. n.ce (b~. NEV' 1

fr' -~- ~npe)

/}lStratLOn (frus-TRAY'-sh~ )

/lethargy (LETH'-Qr-jee) m

.;

, Are any of these'str~ '. .' '.

sentences that give a hint t gthe !O yoUz Consider them in,

. . o ell meanmgs:

. 87"

TWEL.FTHDAY

88

.- " " , , ·t· h· a ~ave of nOp~talgia whenever

1 He was overcome W1 .. • d

• he thought of his b6r~00d y.ears ill ScotIan .

2 The huge dinner lettldm satzated.. . ... 'ld' his

.... 'mortiin '. he was at peace With the wor ,

3. Th:"t de '. gd all'm.ankindwas one of benevolence. , attltu e towar od bent 4 All life he claims, is frustration. The g s seem

. on mis~hievously.th~arting his h0jepe;:d. ~~~biS. His illness left hun m a .state of t gy,

-tion, interest, desire were gone.

II

Take the italic~ed words in Section l and write each

one next to its definition. , . '

, State of apathy or indifference: I

1. homesi kn ss: a longing for the,

2. . Severe omesic e , "

pleasant past. . " th hari

3. ;.' Desire for the welfare ot.o ers; c all-

tableness ' .. gl tted

Filled beyond naturaldesire] u, , .

4. "~""""""'Failure or .inability to attain something

~. . ........ ....... desired '. ,

ANSW .. ERS: l~thargy; (2) nbstalgia; (~) benev(1) I. ·(4) satiated' (5) frustration

o ence; '

III

'11 be treated in the same 'way.

Five more words. WI :0.,,<,. <a .,.dings from' thl~ context of

Again, try to Jigure. out t elr:rpe *.. '.

the sentences in WhICh they appeal.

, 'enervated (EN/-~r-vaY'-t~d? ' weltschmerz (VELT'-shmalrtz)

ennui. (AHN'.:.wee). ' ,. I

compunction (kom-PUNK -shan)

, antipathy (an-TIP'-~the,e)

Words 'AboutYour Peelings

1. His all-night vigil completely enervated hi111•

2. Adolescents are often rather pessimistic about the future of humanity: This weltschmerz is u natural

, result of their maturing minds and bodies, ' , ' , ' .

3. Never had her life been so. stagnant and empty.

Never had she been so filled with ennui. "

4. He had no compunctions about cheating his. fellow- ' mario

S. He' had a violent antipathy to all political theories smacking, however faintly, of communism. ,.

IV

. ' ,

Can youpalr off each of our new words.with its ·defini~

tion below? ..

'1. . ..... ;......... Literally, world pain; sadness from a

gloomy world philosophy ; '.. <,

2. ....... ......... An .instinctive feellng " of aversion; or dislike.,',

3 Self-reproach for wrongdoing; slight re-' gret

4. Deprived of physical, nervous, andemo-. tional energy

S. A feeling of listless weariness resulting from, satiety; boredom, lor inactivity

ANSWERS: (1) weltschmerz; (2) antipathy; (3) compunction; ( 4 ) enervated; (5)_ ennui.

" V

Here is a third group for study in the same way. supercilious (soo' -p~r-SIL' -ee-os)

vindictive ("in-DIK' .. tiv).

misogynist (m~AlU' -o-nist)

misanthrope' (MISS' -cn-throp)

vicariously (vy-KAIR' -ee-os-lee)

go

TWELFTH DAY

L You are too supercilious,' what makes you think

you're so superior? . .' , .

2. Be careful not to hurt 'her feelings, for she'll never forgive you. You know, how vindictive some women

. ~~,. .

3. ,Queer chap-c-Lthink he's a misogynist, That's prob-' ably why he's never had a girl friend.

4. At heart, he's a misanthrope. No wonder he has no

friends. . . .

5.' Sinc«1 his accident he has been unableto take part' in

. the sports that he; used to love. Now he reads the

sports page and enjoys tennis, golf, and baseball . vicariously,

VI

Again, match each word to its definition.

1. , Manner of experiencing something in-

directly instead-of directly

2} : .. ~ A hater of mankind

:3. . ,....... A hater of women

4. ~ ~ Disposed to revenge; retaliatory

5. Lofty with pride; haughtily contemptuous

ANSWERS; (1) vicariously; (2) misanthrope; (3) misogynist; (4) vindictive; (5) supercilious

VII

, Now let's tty ~ reinf()rcinge~ercise with all fifteen, . words. Check your response to each question..

1. When, you have a feeling of leth-

argy, are you fullofbmince, pep. ','

and ambition? . ,,' Yes' . .. No .

,2; . Is . nostalgia ayearnitig for' the .

- past? ' Yes No .

Words About Your Feelings

~. Do kindly people often feel benev-

olent?

4. 'Yhen you haven't eaten for a long . time, do you feel satiated?

5. Is' frustration an unpleasant fed ..

ing? .

6. Dopessimistic people often expe ....

rience weltschmerzi . .

7. Do you feel antipathy" to people you like?'

8. Docs a cruel and hisensitive person have any compunction about mis.treating others? .

. 9. Is it normal to wake up enervated after a good night'. sleep?

. 10. If nothing seemsexciting or worth" while is it justifiable to experience

ennui? .

11. Is living vicariously " less fulfilling than direct experience?

12. Does a misanthrope hate everyone? ·13.Poes a misogynist enjoy the com-

pany of females? .

14. Do~s a vindlctive- person. forgive'

_. easily? '.' . Yes .. ~ ... No .......

15. Does !1supercilious'person usually

feel superior to others? ,. .

ANSWERS;

(1) No; (2) .Yes; (3) Yes; (5) Yes; (6) Yes; (7) No; (9) No; (10) Yes; (11) Yes; (13) No; .(14) No; (15) Yes

VIII

~{es., ... · .. No ...... ·

Yes No.. .

Yes No. ..

yes No., '.

yes Nq .

yes ...... No .......

yes ...•.. No:" ....

yes No .

Yes No .

yes No".,:.

yes, ..... No ... , ..

yes No .

(4) No; (8) No; 02) Yes;

Ready for more reinforcementfWrite S. if a pair of words are essentially the same in meaning,· 0 if they are more or Jess opposed. .'

i 92- TWELFTH DAY
r, . lethargy .. ~ ..... ~ ~ .... '.,' ~ .... energy
2. nostalgia It. < ................ ~ ••• homesickness
3, benevolence ............. ' .. , .. ill will
4. satiated ",.4,~." ~., ..... ",.~" full
5. .frustration .... ·" •.•• l •••. · ..... satisfaction
6. weltschmerz ...... 0 ............ happiness
.7. antipathy ......... 0 .. :." ••.• ~ .... affection
8. compunctions ~ .. ' ... , ................. scruples
9 . . enervated ~''' ...................... tired
10. ennui .. ~ 4 ; .................. boredom
11. vicariously ~ ... " ...... " .... ,. ~ ...... actually
12. misanthrope .. ~~ ••• I.~ ••• ~ •.•• ~ philanthropist
13. misogynist , ........... ~ ........ '.~. Don Juan .
l.a vindictive ................... ~ ..... forgiving
15. supercilious .. ~ .... ~ ................... .humble AN'SWEl,.s: (1) 0; (6) 0; {Ll ) 0;

('2) S; (7) 0; (2) 0;

(3)0; (4) s; (5) OJ (8) s; (9) s; (10) s; (13) 0; (14) 0; (15)0

IX

A. very usefulexercise, .. one that helps you use words in.

a variety of ways, ~eqj.lires you to-experiment with differentparts of speech-e-noun.adjective, adverb, verb. Can . . you make th~ proper changes asked for below? An illustrative phrase or sentence, and, where possible, an

analogy are offered to help YO\i'.. . .

1. Change lethargy to an adjective to fit into the fol-

lowing phrase: A , .. , ; attitude. _

(neuralgia-s-neuralgic) '.

2. Nostalgia to an adjective: A : feeling,

(etaustrophobio-cclaustrophobic )

3. Benevolence: to an adverb: He beamed : .

(lmpotence-s-impotenity}

4. Satiated to a negative adjective ending in -ble: He

Is an " reader.

,( estimated-s-inestimabie) .

"Vards About Your Feelings

T~

93

/ 5; Satiate~ to·~ noun ending in ;'ty: I've had a ." .

'/. of motion pIctures.. . (aflxious-anxiety)

6. Frustration to a verb: Why do you try to ; .

me? . . .

(appreciatian=-oppreclatev

7. Antipathy toan adjective: I am ~. to

such ideas.

(sympathy"---sympatlwic)

8. Enervated toa noun: The cause of his ~ " .•

(saturated-saturation)

9. Vicariously to an adjective: A .. : .

thrilL

(famously--'-famous)

10. Misanthrope, to another noun: denoting the person:

He is a ..... I........................ .

(ends ill -ist)

11. Misanthrope to a noun denoting the philosophy:

What is the cause of his .. _. '1

(philanthropist-philanthropy)

12. Misogynist to a noun denoting the philosophy:

What is the cause of his................. ?

tbotardst=botany)

13. Vindictive to a. noun; I dislike him mainly for his

(ucttve=-octivenessi .

14. Supercilious to a noun: Your .: ; will

make: you lose many friends. tjastidious-e-iasddiousness )

ANSWERS: (1) lethargic (h~-THAHR'"jik:); (2) uostalgic

. (no-S'I'Al.r-jik; (3) benevolently (ba-NEV'o-Iont-lee) ; (4) insatiable .( in-SA Y' -shee-obel) ; (5) satiety (sQ-TY'-Q-tee); (6) frustrate (J;'RUSS~-trate); (7) antipathetic (an'tee~PQ~THET'-ik); (8) enervation (QI1'-GrVAY'-shQn); (9) vicarious (vy-Ki\..IR'-eeQS); (10) misanthropist (m;)-SAN'-tbr;)~pist); •

~- - - - ~~- -~--------,

94

TWELFTH DAY (11) misanthropy (m~,.SAN/,.thr~,,pee); (12)' misogyny (m~SAHJ I':~..,nee); "( 13) vindictiveness (vin-DIK/-tiv-Il~ss); (14) ,supercilious;.' ness (soo' -pilr..;SIL' -ee-as-noss)

x

Now let's sock it home. Ifal{-your work with, andexposure to, the words in this chapter have finally made you masterof them, you will be able, without doubt or hesitation, to match the statement of feeling to each noun below.

NOUNS 1. lethargy , '2. nostalgia

3. benevolence 4.: satiety

5. f{ustration

6. weltschmerz 7, antipathy

• 8. compunction:

9. ennui "

10. enervation

STATEMENT OF FEELJNG

a. "I can't-do it!"

b. "You, do it, I'll watch." 'c. "All is boredom."

d. "I .hate everyone!" ,

e. "I'm' exhausted,worn out."

f. "1 hatewomen!"

go "I wish I'were home." h. "I can't stand itl"

I; "I'll get' erenl"

j. "I Can't move, can't re, spond."

k. "You're dirt!"

1. "The world isa sad. place." , .: m. "No more, please."

n., "I'd better not."

o, ,"1 wish the best for you. "

'11. vicariousness

12. misanthropy,

13. misogyny

1'4: vindictiveness 15. superciliousness

"

ANSWERS: (1 >J; . (2) g; (3) 0; (4) m; (5)a; (6) 1;(7) 11;, (8) n; (9) C; (10) e;:

j (11) b;(2) d; (13) f; ,(14) i; (lS)k:

• I

Compactly, richly,efiectivelY"7""llnd as 'no others canthese words express deep, living, glowing. ideas .. Without, them you might 'haVe to fumble to express what you , mean.

'Words About Your Peelings

95

- . '.

Once 'you know the exact word, your ~deas come across in simple and im.ntediately understandable clarity. '

With a well-stockedarsenalof words .atyour command, you can become a more powerful; more-Influential thinker;

writer, and speaker. '

'"l.!, .. '

-

Words trlast 'End

in"Olo~"

Traveling at the rate of 186,000 miles asecond, a ray of light started toward the earth with the message that a star h~c1exploded somewhere in space. Thirteen . centuries passed 'by before it' arrived. Goethe, Shakespeare, Galilee, and King Arthur's Court all came and went. Napoleon strode over Europe like a colossus, lost his kingdom. and died. America was discovered. Great wars' began and, ceased and began again, while this glimmer otlight was ' racing on to tell our astronomers of a world-shaking catastrophe that had happened in the constellation of Her~ules.

This . message was read and understood. And that IS the

triumph of the mind of man. "

" His intellect can weigh the sun and measure the heat from the farthest star. His eyes can see a billion milesinto space and they can also explore the infinitesimal wor~d. of electrons. Man has struggled for his knowledge of medicine and archaeology. and geology 'and the multitude of sciences. We, by the miracle of words, can open some of these

96

Words That End in'''Ology''

97

, doors, and if they are so much as barelyopen, we may be tempted to walk in.

I

The Fields of Human Knowledge

1. Anthropology (an~-thro-POL'-~-jee). This word VI,Ie have had before and you will recognize it as "the science of 'mankind" 'in general, his habits, history, distribution, 'culture.

,2., Geology (jee-bL'-a-jee). The meaning of this word is crystal clear when we know that the "geo" -comes 'from the Greekgeos, "earth," plus logos, "study" or "science," Geology; then, is the science ofthe structure, forces, and, history of that whirling planet we call earth,

3. Archaeology (ahr'-kee-OL'-a-jee). This is the sci-

, "ence of antiquities: It deals with the old records that man leaves in such forms as buildings and pottery. .and in the

, physical remains of his industries. The key to the language' of the Aztecs of .ancient Mexico,.forexample, has. not ' been fully discovered, .but archaeologists ca,?- learn, much of the story of these people from the rums they left. (Greek archaios, "ancient," and therefore "the study of

ancientthings,") \,

4. Embryology '(em.'-bree-OL,-.,-jee)~ In the early stages of pre-natal development, the unborn child is called an enibryo. Once more the Greeks have helped us, for en in their language means "iII}' and bryein, ":swell";. so, literally. the word means "to swell inside," wblch is just what happens in pregnancy. An embry2;-/ogist, then, deals with the beginningsof life.

S. Entomology (cn'-ta-MOI.;'-a-jee). When. you know that, entomon is Greek: for "insect," the rest is easy to guess. The entomologists have, given" us a wealth of knowledge, about the home life, sex habits, and social customs of bees, ants, butterflies, and .othez members of'

the species. ' ,

98

THIRTE'ENTH- DAY

I '.

6. Ethnology (eth-NOL'-~-jee). White men,. brown men, black men, yellow men. What is their history? Where did they come from? Where do they live? How do they differ in mind, culture, characteristics? These are problems for the ethnologist to solve. From Greek, ethnos, "race."

7. Etymology.{et/-~-MOV-~Hee).Youwil1 recall that this is the study of the history and origin of words.

8. Ornithology (awr'-n~-THOL' -o-jee) i If you are told that ornis is Greek for "bird," you can find your own meaning. The lives and habits of eagles and whippoorwills, tanagers and sparrows; hawks and seagulls_':all such are

the province' of. the ornithologist. '

9. PJzilology(f~-LOL'-~jee). This word we are-already' familiar. with. The philologist covers the. entire field of words. and language, . the. whole area of linguistics.

, 10. Psychology (sy..,KOL'.,.g':'jee). Once more let's leaf over the pages of our Greek lexicon, andwe find.psyche, "soul," "mind." So the psyc}wlogistis. a student of, and an authority on,thehuman mind, andhuman.behavior in all

, of its. aspects. \ '.

i

, '" II / ", ,

Review Your'~arnjn9

Here are 'the ten ~elds of hum~knowledge once again, in simplechart .fo~m,w).th thescientistin parentheses next to each one-Can.you review in yourmind the area of interest of each s~ientist in preparation for a' reinforcing

test? I

,THB AREA

THE 'FIELD

1.' antfzropology (anthropvlogist)

- 2., geology (geologist) _ .'

3. arCh{le%gy (archa~ologist)

4. ,embryology (embryologist)' 5,entomo[ogy (entol'1to[ogist) 6, ethnotogy (ethnologist)

7. etymology (etymologist)

.................. ~ ~ .

.~ ' ~.

............. ;, ~ .

................. ," ~ ft.

I •

. '

ANSWERS: (l~ emb~yologist; (2) archaeologist; (3) p~ychologlst; (4) geologist; (5) ornitholo.,glst; (6) an!hropologist;, (7) entomologist; (8) etymologist; (9) philolOgist; , (10) eih-

nol\oglst ' '

. If' you wi~hed the answer to each. of 'the following questions, to which of the specialists in Section II would you

turn for your informatlon? ,'.'

1. ,What 'does 'the unborn baby. look like

'during the third week 6f its development?

- 2. How, many Mayan ruins are • there hi

. Central America? '.' \

3 •. What makes .. human beings' behave the

way they do? .' . '"

4. Wh~t kind of rock" is found, in Ten-

n,essee?, , ' " '

,,5. Is it true that the owl Is wiser than

. other birds? - .' "

~. What did the men of the Stone Age look like?

7. What is the life span ofan ani?

8. What is. thedetivation or origin of the

word boycott? . .

'9. How ~any 4ifferent languages are

• spoken m Europe? . , ~

10. Where a:re the yeli()w races found fu,

- greatest abundan;ce?, ", '

Words That End in <tOlogy"

8. ornithology (ornithologist) 9 .. philology (philologist)

10. psychology. (psychologist)

III

Where Does One Turn?

99

.......... : .

, '

............ \ .

..........................

.... : ;., .

•••••••• i .• ~ •••••

, , .

-.

.... \~ .

.................

................

.................

................. ,

................... -.

100

THIRTEENTIlDAY

IV " .

. ' Don't Stop NQwl

There are still many .things'yollean do with these words.

Say them aloud, many times. Thads the first step toward making them your own. If. you aren't . perfectly comfortable with their prommciation, you won't dare to use them. .

Try spelling them. Get a friend or a member of. your family to. help you by dictating the. words while you write them. Each step is a clincher that helps hold the words more firmly in your mind, helps. you feel more at home

with them. ., . . '.

Experiment with' theetyroologies-, Greek geos . means "earth." How easy it is then to read the meaning of

geography.geopolitica, geometry. '

. Anthropos is "mankind~'; thus misanthropy, philanthropy, and anthropoid (similar toman) fall right in place. , c/ Archaios .• "ancieht,"gives us archaic (anCient, no longer . ........ - used, old~fashioned), and archetype (tbeancient, or ongi-"

nal model), as well. as atchaeology, .

Psyche, "soul" or "mind," produces words like psychic, psychiatry, psychoanalysis; psychotic, as well as psychology. Once you &cogn~ the root, the word itself can no

longer be a complete mystery to you. .

The philologist loves words-:-froID philein, "to love,". and logos, oneof whose meanings is "word" (the other is "study of"). Philadelphia ,is the City of Brotherly Love; a philatelist loves sramps. a bibliophile loves books; a phi-

. lanthropist lovesma.nkindj a philosopher loves Wisdom; a philtr« ill- a love potion, Werep~at: Know the root, and the

"'word~8no longera mystery. . .

So. let's end the chapter by . giving : you a. chance to fix the rootsand :rneanings in your mind. Canyou matchl,hc two .columns below? . '

L anthropo.e (anthropology) a. earth.

2. archaios(archae,.J!ogy) b. race

,3. geos (geology) . c. insect

4. bryein (embryology) d. bird

ANSWERS: (1) f;' (2) j; (3) a; (4)i;' (5)c; . (6)

b; (7),d; (8)h; (9) e; (10) g . _

Words, That End in "Ology" 5. entomon (entomology)' 6.ethnos (ethnology) .

7. omis (ornithology)

8. philein (philology)

9. psyche (psychology) ,10. logos (etymology)

~Ol

e. mind, soul

f. mankind

g. word, study of

h. to love

i. to swell

j. ancient

. .;

Words, ... ,.

Humlllt 'J'1'1I.t.,

. Men and 'women 'have so malty forms . of behavior, and such a multitude of varied characteristics and points of view, that they have inspireda.host of. descriptive adjectives; We will introduce the new wordsfirst in a series. of . simple sentences to give at least a hint to. their meanings.

. I'

\

1. The loquacious (l(Ft(:.wAY'-sh~s) girl talks inces-

!!,ntlx_. . '.' .

2., The gullible (GU~L'-;).;,b;)l) housewife believes

'everything a canvasser tells.her. .

3. The suave (SWAIN) talker can persuade.you that

. blac15 is white. .'. . '.

4. The pompous (POM/-p~)person seems. over-

whelmed with a sense of his 'own, importance~ .

5. The esthetic (eS-THET'';ik) artist has dedicated his

life t() beauty. '

10~

Words for Human Traits

103

/

:6 .. The ta.citum(TAS'~;)-tt.trn) . husband ~swers his

· WIfe m grunts and monosyllables, if at all. .

. .1. The opinionated (~-PINf-yo-nay' .. ted) fool has a npnd so finally made up that neither hell nor high water.

can make him change it. . .', i' . ., .

8; The phlegmatic (fleg-MAT'-ik) person can't get' ex-

cited over anything, . . " . "'.

J' .', 9. The erudite (AIR';.;)-dite) maais full of book Iearn-:

mg. . , .

',10. The ~om!,l~c~nt (k;)m-PLAY':.sGnt)·f~how issure .

· that everything 18 going to come out all right.

'. 1 ~. The punctilious (punk-TaL' -ee-es) hostess. wor'. nes if so much as one fork is 'out of place on her perfectly

set table. .

• .' 12. The 'iruiefatig~ble (ip./-de~FAl","~gQ_ly,)1) w~rker' seems capable <?f gettmg, ~ong on four hours' sleep a day, 13. The vapid (YAP -ld) talker's conversation is com ..

pletely boring, . .' . .

14. The . ico.n0c.las~ic(eye-kon'-~KLASSqik) critic ~~o:~ such mstitutions as government, marriage, and

· .: IS. The, . misanthropic (mi~f;'~-gn-~fHROP'-ik) cynic

hatesthe world and everybody in it. . -

16.Th~ puerile .;q:>YU't1".~r~l) 'practical joker may have grown up p;~lyslcally, but is still a child emotionally. ,17: The ascetic (a-SET'~ik)person lives in. a hut and

likes It.' " ."

II

· '!hese words have been usedIn sentences that . aim at

· glVtn.g YoU enough ?f ,8. clue to spark yourmt~rest .iu figut'~g<put ~he. ~Qsslble me.anings. How iiuC(..'CssfuUy can you find ~h~ .ltah{;;lZ~~ ,word EP Section I that best fits each

of the followmg d{)~ruUOllS? -. .'

1. C .. ompletelyself-satisfied; ·sml . .l;' .

2 S ,·t. I 1 t::I ." .. u" ••••• ·<1!" .... ~ ..

'. mo:ow.. nittl,p easant m:rnaru.ler~ bland·

graclOU:;; smoothly ~lIgratiating ,.. "

1Q4

f FOURTEENTH DAY

3. By temperament, not easily perturbed; calm; emotionally sluggish or unresponsive

4., One who assails or mocks traditional

or cherished beliefs '

5. Simple; credulous; easily deceived

'6. Marked by assumed'self··importance;

pretentious , '

7. Apprecia\ing or loving' the beautiful; artistic

8. Characteristic of childhood; juvenile; immature and silly or trivial

9. Very Ieamed; scholarly

, 10. Practicing extreme abstinence; austere and rigorous in self-denial or self-dis-

cipline '

11. Extremely talkative

12. Habitually silent or unwilling to engage in 'conversation

, ,13. Unduly attached to one's own opinions; , . obstinate in holding on to beliefs '

14. Not exhausted by labor or exercise; never tiring

15. Hating mankind

; 16. Very exact or scrupulous ,in the ob-

servance of- forms of. etiquette,' cere-

'mony, or behavior ' .

17. Utterly lacking lnsparkle, 'flavor, or '

, interest; empty and flat .

., •••• !' •••••• , ••• ,

..................

..... , ..•.. ~ .

',. .

.................

.................

. ~ .

ANSWERS:

(1) complacent; (2) suave; ' (3) phlegmatic; ( 4 ) iconoclastic; (5) gullible; (6) pqmpous;(7)'esthetic; (8) puerile; '. (9) erudite; (10) ascetic; (11) loquactous; (12) taciturnj . (13) opinionated; (14) in-

"defatigable; (15) misanthropic; (16) punctilious; (11) vapid

Words for Human Traits

105

III

, Our theory throughout this book, a~ you have no doubt' already observed, is thatthe best way to.learnnew words effectivelyis the way that'; everyone~fr.om. Waneyo!):> learns them-namely, by gradual, step-by~step in,creasing of understanding. It is the repeated contact with a wo~d in

many different 'contexts that finally makes.you so familiar and comfortable with it that you eventually feel it was alw~ys in yourvo?abulary. It is at this point that you begin using the word ill your thlnldrig; speaking.' and writing ....... , "

. and you, do so unself-consclously, without effort. and so , unexpectedly that sometimes, you even surpris,e yourse1f.

, You have now had two exposures tel' the seventeen

, words that comprise this chapter-, .... oncein a sentence, once in matching them to their ,definitions. Here is ,vour third exposure: a series ofphrases, each of' which shClilld produce a flash of recognition. in you that.helps you react with

',' one of the seventeen words. Do not look back as you. do this exerclse--the initial letter of the wordis a sufficient prod to your power to recall. Several of the adjectives will be required more than once., ..,'

In this exercise you should begin. to feel the firstsurges ' of power and self-confidenceus you zip through writing

each word as itls ca1l~d for. '

1. Emotionally sluggish P : ;.~ ...,

2. Practicing self-denial. A ';r. ..

3. Disinclined to conversation T .

4. Having an antipathy for mankind M ,. . ., , .. ,

S. Easily duped " .' "G ., ..

.:J 6: .Insipid. , . V ~ :>. v

7. Scholarly E'

8. Talkative 0. i

9. Precise in the observance f;)f forms ~::::::::::::::::::

'~O; Ostentatiously self-important P .

11. ,Inane" .' y ; ~ .. ~"' -0

2. Responsive to beauty E., ; .

", \

-~~ ~~ -- - --~- -~~-------------~--~----------~~-

I

F,OURTBENTH DAY

13. Des~dptive of the attitude of one who attacks cherished beliefs as, shams -

14. Childish .

1.5. Polished in manner

16" Stubbornly set in opinions., 1"1 . Self-satisfied

18. Attacking established traditions

19. 'Having an aversion for the human

, race

20. Tireless _

21. Urbanely smooth and ingratiating

22. Contented wi.th oneself and with things as they are

I .

p .

S .

0 .

C ; ..

I' : .

M : ; .

I , .

S

c .

ANSWERS:

(1) phlegmatic; , (2) ascetic; (3) taciturn; (4) misanthropic; (5)g_ullible; (6) vapid; (7) erudite; (8) loquacious; <9~ punctilious: '(10) poropous;(ll) vapid; (12) esthetic; (13) iconoclastic; (14) puerile; (IS) suave;' (16) opinionated; (l7)~omplacent; . (18). iconoclasm; ( 19) misanthroplc; : (20) indefatigable; .(2.1) suave; (22) complacent

IV

Now test yeur increasing~understanding. ~f these seventeen .. words by rp:arkiogeach of the following statements

"true" or "false": . .

1. Talkative women ate called. [Q- , ~ .

. quacious. . .' lrue ; .. False .

> . 2. Country yokels areas a rule ."

suave. -, .. True ...... False ......

3. The stereotype of the truckdriv- .

er is usually esthetic. ' '.. True ...... False ......

4. Enthusiastic peopleare usually ". .

~ . "tacitum. True ...... False ......

Words for Human Traits'

107

S.The more impartial a man is,

the more opinionated~esounds. True False .. ~ .

6. Ph/t?gmatic people .. usually be- '. .

cqme panicky in an emergency •. True False .. ~ .

7. Pomposity is usually amusing. True False .

8. College ,professors are ofteneru- \

dite, True False .

y"9. "'SllU&"peoPle are never com- .' ....' .• .,. .... /

. P acent;'· . ~ True ...... False . .' •...

10. Punctilious people are stickiers '

for form, ',. . True False ;

11.- The beaver is an indefatigable

.. worker. True ..... : False ......

12. The' conversation of a conceited ,

bore is usually vapid. True ...... FalSe .. ; ...

13. The attitude of young people is

usually iconoclastic.T1J]e False .

14. Misanthropic remarks show a feeling of love and trust for

people. True FaIse .

15. Puerile behavior indicates rna-

. turity.. True False .

16. An ascetic existence is given',

over to sensuality. . ~ True False .

17. A young child is apt to be cul- '

lible. True False .....•

ANSWER~: (1) true;·'(2).false;. (3) false; -(4) false; (5) false; (6) false; (7) true; I (8) tnie; . (9) false; (10) true; (11) true; (12) true; (13) true; (14) false; '(15) false; .> ~ (16) false; (1.7) true

Continuing your gradual reinforcement of understanding through stimulus and response, try a different. type of

108 FOURTEENTH DAY test. Check the word or ~hrasethat best completes ~ach sentence,

1. Loquacity is an.inordinate amountoft a. singing

b.attention to details

c. talking ,

2. Gullible people fall easy prey to; .

a. doctors .

b. used-car salesmen

c. teachers

3. Suave men are experts at: a. home repair

h. surfing.

c. getting along with women

·4. Pomposity probably comes from: a; fear

b. obesity

c. vanity

5. Most likely to be esthetic is an:

a. electrician

b. aviator c.artist

6. Taciturnity would likely be found in: a.salesmen

b. public speakers

c. hermits

7. Opinionated assertions may likely lead to:

a. marriage .

h. arguments

c. truth

8. A phlegmatic person:

a. sheds tearsat' an emotional play

b. becomes hysterical in a: crisis .

J c. does not become easily emotional .

9. Erudite men are most interested in:

a. scholarly books

b. light fiction

c. the comics

WlI(1rds lor Human Traits

109

10. People who are complacent about their jobs will:

a ... take it easy \ '

h. worry about their future .

c. keep an eye on the help-wanted ads

11. A punctilious person is a stickler for: a. originality'

b.courage

c. proper etiquette

12. To be indefatigable, one usually needs a great ,

. amount of:

a. money

b. energy

c. education'·

13. Vapid people are:. ' a. boring

. b. successful

c. quarrelsome

14. Iconoclasts are opposed to: . a. change

b. , tradition

c. reform

15. A misanthrope dislikes:

, a: people .

b. good food c.literature .

16. Men are most likely to be puerile when:

a. they don't get their own way

b. they are reading , '

c. . they are eating

17. Most ascetics prefer to: a. drink excessively

h. eat sparingly

c. participate in orgies //

,~ ,

I

ANSWERS: (1) c' (2) . b; (3) c' (4) c· (5) c;
, , ,
(6). C; (7) Q; (8) c; (9) a; (10) a;
(11)c; (12) b; (13) a; (14) b' (15)
'. ,
a; (16) a{ (17) b FOU.Rl'EENTH DAY

VI

Ready for a final, and considerably harder, challenge?

Write the adjective we have studied that is essentially opposed .' in meaning to each of the following . words or phrases.-Do you now feel ~ufficien.l1y selt-confideat not to ' look back ~t previous pages as yousearch your mind rOI' . the answers?

1. taciturn

2. easily swayed to change one's

mind .

3. ignorant

. 4. philanthropic

5. blind to beauty

6. lazy'

7. dissatisfied .8. conservative 9~ mature

10. careless of etiquette; informal

11. voluptuous; pleasure-loviag

12. boorish

13. modest. humble

14. loquacious

15. hiW:!-strung_

16. -stteptiCal . .• .

17~ clever and interesting

II~.''' •• ' •••••••••••••• ,.'''' •• ''

e .

.'.,~" , .

................ "' .

. ' , .

" ' .

0 .

..... .; .

...... ~ .

......................... _.,.

-:

....... ' ~ ~ , .

..............................

(1) loquacious; (2) opinionated; (3) erudite; ( 4) misanthropic; (5) esthetic; (6) indefatigable; (7) complacent; (8)' icono-

clastic; (9) puerile; (10) punctilious; (n) ascetic; (12) suave; (13) pompous; (14) taciturn; (15) phlegmatic; (16)'gul~. lible; (17)_'vapid

ANSWERS:

'Words lor Human Traits.

111

VII

There are interestmgetylnologies behindmanj. of the

words in this chapter.. . .... . "'" " .

Suave: Latin suavis, "sweet" or "smooth." Iconoclastic: Greek eikon, "idol"; klaein, "to break."

An iconociast,then, is a breaker IOf idols, or, in the modern sense, a breaker of traditions.

Pompous.' Latin pompa, "parade" or "solemn proces-

sion!' . .

Esthetic: Greek aisthetikos, "perceptive,". became' refiner. in our language until itxefen;ed to the finer feelings . -and'perceptions in the field of art and culture •

Puerile: Latin puer, "boy." When aman is puerile he is acting like an ungrownboy,

Ascetic: Greek asketikos, "self-denying or self-disciplined . for purposes of· gymnastic excellence.' Eventually, our English 'word took on a more general, all-inclusive.'

meaning. .

Loquacious: Latin loquor, "speak." Eloquent and col;' loquial come from the same root. . .

Tacitum: Latin tacere, "be silent."

Opinionated: Latin oplnio, "thought" or "opinion," 'Opinionated came to mean too well provided with opin ..

ions,: and, finally, stubborn 'Oliset in opinions: - .

.Inaef~tigable: Latin in, "not," and deiatigare, "to tire out."

Punctilious: Latin punctum, "point." Punctilious is used in ourlanguage to refer to someone who is ve.ry attentiveto fine points. Punctual and puncture derive from

. the same root. .

Vapid: . Latin vapidus, "flav<>r1ess"_;and vapidus itself . is from Latin vappa, a wiri.e that has lost its life .or savor.

,-I

)K )tl~ ;(I~';& ~ lr"~ X~i.M , • ~(t ~J ~m 1(1] ~(I ~

~~~IH~m~~U~m ~ID~® -

Words for



Have you ever met the carefree young bachelor whose . life seems to be one peccadillo after another? Does such a one have to be a man of some wealth, or can he follow his. manner of life in the midst of penury? Do his successes with the opposite sex tend to give him a touch of megalordania? His life is certainly an interesting 'one: that is, if you consider that one imbroglio after another makes . for" interest. JUst listen to him tal!~. His braggadocio may entertain.hisyounger acquaintances, but it certainly becomes tiresome to his older friends. ,

I

Pronounce each word carefully:

1. peccadillo (pek'-:;,-DIL'-o) ,

2. penury (PEN'-y:;,-ree)

3. megalomania (nieg'-:;)-lQ-MAY'~nee-Q) 4.' imbroglio (im-BRU'-lyo)

5. braggadocio (brag'-:;,-DO'-shee-o) 112,

Words for Human Faults

113

II

.. Prom an-analysis of theparagraph above can you match

each word to its definition? . .

1. Acomplicatedand embarrassing situation •. ~ .

2. A slight sin' . . '.

3. Empty boasting .

4. Abject poverty ..

S. Grandiose delusions of one's own importance

ANSWERS: (1) imbroglio;' (2) peccadillo; (3J braggadocio; ( 4) penury; . (5) megalomania .

III

. ' .

. What kind of person are you? Do you think money is a panaceai' Do you feel your life has been a rUlSCo,? What are some of your idiosyncrasiesi Do yo-q.,:~end to rationalize

" r~ther than face the truth? Are there anomalies in your hfe that you would like to see removed? The answers to these. questions may revealanumber of interesting things

about your character. '

IV

1. panacea (pan'-o-SEE'-':;,) .

2. {iasco(fee-ASS'-ko)'

3. idiosyncrasy (id'~ee.o-S1N'-kr:;,-see) 4~ rationalize (RASH'-:;)-na-llze')

5. anomaly (<l-NO¥' -:;,-lee) .

/

v

1 •. Something that Is iFreguJar o~iriconsistent 2. A cure for ail ills ,I. '.

114

, FH'TBBNTHDAY

3. A miserable and ridiculous failure ..

4. To react .uncoasciously with a. wo:dhy

. motive for a discreditable act .

S: A characteristic peculiarity ..

ANSWERS: (1) . anomaly; (2) panacea; (3) fiasco, (4) rationalize;' (5) idiosyncr~y,

VI

'Do you by chance have a neurotic friend who i~ so la~~

- that.he tends to malinger? Or one who belongs ;0 the eiue and Iookedcwn.hissocial nose at the parvenus, T~econ~ versation of such a person isaptto be banal, certainly not as interesting as that. of the intelligentsia. Or h~ve ~ou ever been up against a politician wh~ re~otts to Jingoism and chicanery because he cannot gam hIS end by honest

means? -

VII

'1. malinger (nl;;l-LlNG'~g~r) .

2. elite (ay' .. L~ET') .

3. parvenu (PAR'-v~ ... nOo)

4. jingoism (JING'-g~iz-~m) . ~ .'

5. intelligentsia (in-tell' -~-JEN' -see-a) 6, chicanery (sb~KAY'-n~ree)

7. banal (BAY'-nol)

Viii

) 1. The best Of most capable part of any

gr:oup , . f. ..1",".,

2. One who flaunts, somewhat w,.~;JI,,·J" n, .. w

Iy attained wealth (used coutf:.mpt'Qjou~lY)

3, 1:'0 feign sickness to shirk work Of duty

Words for Human Faults

4. Favoring a warlike foreign policy

5. The intelligent and. educated classes

6. Mean, petty trickery

7. Commonplace; without sparkle or origl'nality

115

.. ' .. , ..

,

-. •••• '! .•••••••••

ANSWERS: (1) elite; (2) parvenu; (3) malinger; (4) jingoism; (5) intelligentsia; (6) chicanery; (7) banal

IX

You have had your first involvement with seventeen new' words. Remember, your rum is to become more and

,,·morecomfortable with new words by meeting them in different situations, working with them indifferent ways. So now let's try this: Review the preceding pages of thiS chapter. pronouncing the seventeen .. words aloud often enough. to feel: quite . at home 'with .them. Then, without further reference, write each one next to the phrase below that is closest in meaning to it. The initial letter i$ offered -,

'as a guide, "

1. Extreme poverty or want p ..

2. The best. s , ..

3. !~ complete or humiliating failure F ..

4. Trickery '. ' C ..

S.1'o feign illness in order to escape

work . . -!v.I .

6. To find a wortbi~r motive for ' R ' ..

: 7. ~ deviation from type; '~irregul~Jt'- -

. Ity . " -A ..

8. Remedy for all diseases p .

,9. A bellicose foreign policy > J ,.; .

10. Educated and Intellectual peopie I .. ; ; ..

, 11. Ordinary; dull . B .

12.' Delusiens of grandeur M ..

13. Pretennoua boasting B .

14. A slightor tdfiing sin P '" ..

FIFTEENTH DAY

1].6

15 .• A confused and complicated situa-

tion " ,I

16.. A characteristic peculiarity I

17. A nouveau riche; a, newly wealthy

p

~.".""".'''''-'

..•............. '.

,

.......... ! .

person.

ANSWERS: (1) penury; ,(2) e~te; (3) fiasco; (4) chicanery; (5) malinger; (6) rationalize; (7) anomaly; (8) panacea; (9) jingoism; (10) .intelligentsia; (11) b~na1; (12) megalomania;' ( 13 ) bra:ggad~19; ( 14) peccadillo; . (15) imbroglio; (16) idiosyncrasy;

(17) parvenu

x

I

I

H~re's • another ex~rcise for stlUfurtherrei~orceme~t and continuing success. Check whether each parr below 18

nearly the.~amf! or opposite in meaning. , ' .' . , •

. '1 peccadiilo sliglit sin' Same ...•.. Oppos~te ..• ~ .•

2: ,pe'nury wealth '. Same OppOS!te ..

3. megalomania humi1i~ Same, Oppos~te ..

4. imbroglio . confuSIon Same Oppos!te .. , .

S. braggadoCio boastitlg Same Oppos~te .

6 panacea cure-all Same Oppos~te .

7;' fiasco success Same Oppos!te., ..

8. idiosyncrasy peculiarity Same Oppos:te ..

. . I' . J"us't:,j'", . Same OpposIte ..

9'ratwna lze u.~ , ,'...... '., "

10: anomalY' 4'regularity Same ...... OpPosIte ......

11. malinger 'pretend ill.;

ness . theworst

Same :. Opposite ..... /

Saine : .. Opposite...... . '

. 12. Bite

13. 'parvenu

114. jingo#m

15. in.telligentsia

• I

nouveau

riche - Same., Opposite .

.pacifi~m. Same Opposite .

the feebleminded honesty

. original

Same: Opposite ..

Same Opposite; .

Same Opposite ..

16. chical1Cry !1. l;!al'lal

'Wol'ds for Human Faults

ANSWERS: (1) same; (2) opposite; (3) opposite;

----(4} same; (5) same; (6) same; (7) opposite; (8) 'saine; (9) Same; (10) same; ( 11 ) same; . (12) opposite; . (13) same; (14) opposite;.' (15) opposite; (16) opposite; (17) opposite

. XI

Note ho'w other people have used some of these words:

1. ·As Professor Owen bas remarked, there is no greater anomaly, in nature than a bird that-cannot fly ..

,'1 . ," ' .. ,. \(DARWI~)

. 2. Owing to the disunion of the Fenians themselves, the ., rigor of the administration,and '. the treachery .of, in-

formers, the <l1:ish).,ebellion was a: fiasco. .\

(The Encyclopedia Britannicar-'

3. Id.iosyncrasies are, however, frequent; thus we find that .one .person has an exceptional memory for sounds, another -for colors, another for forms.

, '. . (The ~ncyelopediaBritamiica)

4. The'chemists', pretended it Was ·the 'philosbpher's ~tone,thephysicians that itwas an infalli1:l1e.pana7

ce!:l.· " . (WHAR"I:ON)

S. The Koran attaches much importance to prayer-a fact wbich is somewhat anomalous. in a ,\ysteril of

. ,religion so essentially fatalistic; (SPENCER.) .

6: Men who by legal chic~nerycbeat otbers out of

their property. ' (SPENCER)

, .. ~.-

7. Who doesn't forgive? The virtuous Mrs. Grundy. She remembers her neighbors' peccadilloes to 'the third

and fourth generations. (THACKERAY)

8;. I havea'i~ays observed through life thatyour par-: venu it is who stickles for what he calls the genteel,

. and has the most squeamish abhorrence for what' is .

frank and natural. (THACKERAY)

, !

'9."fislO\vebb.'9iitl1bis:aCCtlSers~hen su£11 peccadilloes

·'.asthese ~ep\lt in toswenthecharge~ .

.' (BISHOPOF AtTERBURY)

, .. .

You are now halfway through this book.

How is your work going? Do you feel you are making progress?H~re8J"e ~few suggestions that may Increase

tb:e~~()f Y01.ll'achiev~ment ' .', '. . . . ...•.. .

. Try lllyblgoUt a simple. ~finite:but nqtoveraDlbitiOllS

p~J6ry()urdaily study. if you haVen't already done so.

. ChOosing a fixed time each day for this work will be helpful.. But if tbat:should be fmpractical.thenleam the. fine . art of .lJSingyourspare momentA.JohD.Brskine. th~famous

. author; trained 'himself touse all those min1.ltea of the day that other people:wast\l~·and,.during these periods of salvag~~~pe W~.~stof.hianove1s.. -, ", . . ';Aboyeal1,~.~:presen~.litudy ahall~ :til;~getting .dressedor:~clres~e4.,.combingyour:hairor Jm1ship.g yOltt

. teet1l.s(l>tha~it<~ ilecom~a part of your life and you wj.1l.~ "~" it ~.Il:llIturallyas)()ll,havel'l"~~tinthe

gl<>rriing..) ,,' ,. .' ..•. •.. ' .....•. '. . ......•. " ". .

.. . ~~l1~eJs.atllle that bUsy men have foUnd invaluable.

AlwayS plan.yo~ neX$ day's work the night be~oi:e.

,,_", .....• ' .,."',,i""'" ''',,_-_ ," ".'-,'.;-' dC'· '.-' ,,;' '.":':' .. ::.

·~"",Belpto·CreGte tJlec4me·rIriGII .

~,."",e

- ~ - ---------- --------------------------- ------- - - -- -- --------- ----~~~

SIXTBENTH DAY

,ll2.G ,

, ' , , ". , ' ,,'. '. run, Pronunciations and mean-

, ,,~nd hon~red. .their ,m~~ed ~th just as' little reason., '

mgsat:errequently, :ro " ' ' .,' 0\1 control the language? ,"

How. tl:M;ll1".Sp€:C~ca1lt.tiis~~e;ent yea( about five thousand In t..biS way. Dunng .", our language. Intense and new words will come, into area1w~ys prolific in breeddramatic times such ,as r:se '" won't.' mint or" invent these' , -ing '.i1ew ' words. ,Th~ s~, 0 ars u The scholars will have

new words, They :will lust pop p', w the shall be pro- ,

thing whatsoever to say about ho Y 'Th will, be

no, ' 'seelled hat they shall mean. ey,

nounced 0[, spe " ~~, d defined pretty' much as the

'pronounced ,andspe" ,an,ask the editor of, $e ,Funk, '. public pleasell~ ,If you, ;e~ ~ctionary or of Webster's or ' & Waglla1lJNe~ Stan t~ r "Who decides about these new the p~?rd.oro. an~~ul~ 'answer, ~'YbU do," meaning, of words? ,thil edito~ons' of "you" who use our langu,..age. course, the many,.. tTelevision was invented. and

Let'iII take a case m pom ~word telecast as a parallel , ,one of you, thought uE t ,called' it a 'bastard type of term ~o brdadC~. ~ \ar,~le "far away," and half from , ,word, b~from d et ebut teiecast it was jusfthe'same~ , the Engltsh wor cas, , ple who included it. in the cur-

thank., to the common ~ , " ,

rent coin of theirtonve1"sati~n. , ',' ld words coni- '

In similar fas~?n~tha~ ls.~;S!~~become coarse,

pletelycbangcthe1f,Jlle,all1n~" bI" , ,.'

and coarse W?tda beco!Dt: rgc:, it~roriple of the latter move , Slang. for ,Instance, 18.. ,

on-the part of words. ,,',' once the slallg oftbe "

A great mas. of~ur .lang:;~e Wwrirld. A large part of it ' various ,g~ bouse dis~~C:ad track~. Purists and ~ighbrows came, from over th~railrted' . t it, b',ut'Uttleby ltttle com-','

" ted nd Mriuna agamstn, th'

protes an, " " ,', f those wordsso respectable at"

mon usage made m~n¥ () . ':' theinanciwere forced to

i\le WholaN ,'yer~ W1~~g to; use " ", ' '

include them m the dlctiO~~~ example, Dean Swiftw~ ,

. ~0UJ:ld,230"yearlag~ current useof,such slang words kicking (slang) at ~e,?,-e andhipa as "a disgr~ce to our"

as bubble.s~m, . ui Y'd' I, • them very happl!y. Let us

la:nguage." Now you an .use ',' .,'

You Help, to Create the American Language ' 1~1 recite a few more that were once slang: gin, boycott., cab,

'greenhorn, hoax, 'jingoist. ,

. You, see, the masses kept on using these, words until they' had to be' included in, out lexicons. And conversely, when these' or any other words such nt those that 'are included in this volume stopbeing commonly used, they will die and drop out of .our dictionary. You will determine

tHis, and our lexicographers will have nothing to do with it Now by.just.whatmethodsdld such words, for instance; as you have beenworking with in this book ever get'.into

, the dictionary? , ' ' ,

This 'is, the way. The, technique may be interesting to

you. ' '" ,("

• Somebody writes in and asks the dictionary' publisher about an apparently new word, ora staff reader discovers it among, the Niagara of words pouring out from the presses of the world. So they first checkit to find if it really

-ls new. They look for it in all the standard English reference" works that have" come out during the last two, centuries, H, they don't find it there, and since it D:light be foreign. they leaf through .glossaries ,'of, Sanskrit, Maori, Hansa, Urdu, Hebrew, Afrikaans, and ,all the .languages, , ancient and, modem, 'that were spawned bythe Tower ,of

,Babet If it still ,evades them, they take ~ look at the trade " ,"andprbfess'ionru dictionaries, say those of 'lace-making, politics, petroleum, draperiea.botany, and others too nu-

merous to count.. , , , ' ,

By this time it's a ,foxy word that's.going to fool them!

" If the term proves itself as new, they put it onfile. for

about five years. '

Now how does it get in?

.They watch its use 'by the, people during the probationary period. Authors may take it up,. Inquiries may

, .come to the office about its" meaning. At' the end of me interval the record of the neophyte is added up, and if its score, shows a sufficient. popular demand,' the, word goes in

the dictionary. Thus and no otherwise, ,

NoW, how mit defined? To be 'concrete, how werethe

SIXTEE.NTH DAY

definitiollsof the words in the 1~~ chapter origin~lly deter-

~Luedupon? ': •.... t

. . .As tbe rese~c:heIs watcha new. word in use they cOpy

'. thea,ctual sentences' in. whicll.thcvvordappears •. When a

. given dictIonary editQrfi~ally' ~its do \\Tn to make" '41pbls

.'. de,iinition. lie. Will have in .. fr()nt' of ., him a .. staGkofcards

. COlltai$g .sente4c.esfuat give. tbewordandthe. conteXt. The meanirlg, or t,4e meanings, that be gives the 'WordwUl be ba$ed, not in anyway .onhis 'own ppinion, but upon the ~he~ of popul~i·q\lot.~tions. be findsinfroq.tofh~. His ~ultbority, and the authority oftheuictio'nary, then,lic,nqtin this editor's particular scl1l)laIship, hut in your wbitll and in the whim' Qf the other millions who' have ilivented. pronounced, spelled, and defined the wordfor

him, ..•.... " '. ,.. ' '. '., " .•.... ' j

AYld so 'l.vhenwe study the English . language weare

~tuQyingour ()wnl1~diwork. It is as democratic as ' our nat~(,maLill:!Stit\lldons s . lind the so.:caUeci"c0ntnl0n people'~: are its inexhaustible lIollfee.The final auilidrityfor English . rests, . not '. witn ·.$om.e .dictiOnaryiIouse . of Lords • .but. with the House of Commolls,andthii!:iswhatgivesour language iw vitality, force and rich· humaiLity,' and is what hQJps to

make it suC',ha thrillirig study.-

Atthis .• . .

pOlft, weare going to challeng¢Y()l! with~s ." •

test. that will give you a .... ·yardstic.·k. by' ")h' h ..........• urp .... rue

sur th' . '. . W IC you can mea

. ee success you are hay' .'. ··k··· •............... ' "" - .your mind. .'. ..... ..... .mglfi e~Plfig~ewwords in

..• Weate\go~g to iake~ single-past.chapterand

Buccessf@yyou've mastered it. .' ..•..... '.: .: see how

.. "':\'-/,,-. . " ' .

," "

.. IIerearf;1th~fifteenwordsfro!n ChapterXn:

lethor~ . enervated _'

nostalgIa .'. ennui

bet1fvolence Yica,.iQ1fV1y

fr6ati~ted. ... •. mi$anthrope

us ration misogynist

wel~schmerz vindictive

antipathy . . supercilious

compunction

lZ4

II

Write each word . next to its synonym or synonymous phrase .. Some words may be required .JD.0re than .once,

. 1. Aversion' . . ~ .. ~ .

2. 'Exhausted .

:t Indirect 9r second-hand . .: .....•............

4. Sluggishness .....•..............

5. Tedium .; .

6. Weariness of life; sadness for. the

. world

7. Remorseful feeling

8. Revengeful

9. Dislike

, 10; Deprived of vitality

11. Longing for the past

12. Womaro-hater

3 .. Conde.:cendin . 4. Inahi1itv to succeed or achieve

15. Pkilosophical' and emotional world-

........ : .

....................

•.••••••• ', ••• ~.'! •••••

................. ~ ....

•...... ' ~ ~.

.......... , .

'. .

.......................

. ~ -

•••• oi •••••••••••• •••

sorrow

16. Kindheartedness

17. Regreifor wrongdoing

18. ,Filled full

.....................

....................

11 ••••••• •

......................

/ . 'ANSWERS:

(1) antipathy; (2) enervated; (3) vicarious; (4) lethargy; (S? ennui; . (~) . w:elt- sclimerz; . (7) compunction; (8) VlDdlctl'~e-' ness; (9)' antipathy; PO). enervated; (11) nostalgia; (12) m!sogymst; (13) supercilious; .(14) ·frustratton; (15) weltschmerz; ( 16) benevolence; . (17) compunction; (18) satiated

I .

. A. "Pop Qui~'

JII

.Sbme ofthe following statements are false, others are

true. Check the correct response. .

1. Misanthropes have an' antipathy

toward their fellow men. . True ...... False: .....

2.Siaying up an night is enervat-

!ng. .. True False ..

3. ,One. can get a vicarious. thrill

from the movies. True : .. False .

4. People full of eitergy are usually .

lethargic. True ...... False .... .,

5. Young girls are filled with ennui

. at their first party. . True False .

6 .. Optimistic people are. weighed

downwith weltschmerz. True False ,

7. A military conqueror has strong compunctionsab<&ut taking other

people's land. True ..... , False~ .....

8~ Vintiictivef:,ess isan exceedingly

attractive trait. True ...... False ......

9; Nostalgia is a prevalent ill among young people who are / away. from home for the first .

time. ' True ...... False ..... ' ..

10. Haters of women, are called

misogynists; '. . True -False .

11. The intelligent members of motion-picture audiences have had

a satiety of bad pictures. True. ..... False ......

12. The depression generation of the. 1930's experienced poignant

frustration. .' . True False .

13. Adolf Hitler was famous for his

great benevolence. - , .True.: False ..

14. Modest people are supercilious. True False .

.126

SEVBNTEENT~DAY .

ANSWERS: (1) true; (2) true; (3) true; (4) false; (5) false; (6)faJ,se; (7) false; (8) false; (9) true;' (10) true; (11) ,trpe; (12) true; . (13 ) .false; . (14 Hatse

IV

Hereare twelve words and pbrrises, e~cIi 'one opposed in meaning to one of our fifteen words. ~an you s~mon , from your mind. the word" that· is antonym pus to each of . the following? .. '

1. Joy inlivin.g

2. Exhilaration. ':!. Chivalry

4. Forgivfug1les~

5. Sympathy .... "

6. First-hand 'experience.

7. Keen.fnterest .

8. Heartlessness . . 9. Hunger

10. Feeling of'inferiority IhSuccess'

. 12. Malice

............ ~ .. " .. ~, .•. ~

, •• !O ..............••. ~,I' ••

.~" •.• '~ •• !' ••• ~ .. ~, ••• '.~ ,

.... , •• "_ •• , ••• _ ••• ,~"" "0'

. . - '. ~

,.~ ... ~ ..... ~, ... ,~'~~~.~

. .

. .

.. .

.....................

•••• ",0,' •.••• ~ •• , .....

....................

....................

.......... , .. '~ ..... ''. ....• '

ANSWERS:

(1) weltsCfmierz;(2)eJiervati6n; (3) mi", sogyny;( 4) vindictiveness; (5)' antipathy; (6) vicariou&ness;(1) ennui;(8) .~m-_

. PUllction;· (9) satiety; (l<»" ~upercilious- , ness; HI) frust.ration; (12}penevolence

v

Complete. each of the following sentences by' one. of.our i fifteen words, or by .some fOrm. of that, word. Not all the . words may be required, and some words may be asked for

more than once. .

,,"Pop Quit'

1. Wh(~nJrefle~t9IJ:t,4eple~s~tmemories of my

- , child4ood~ 1~1l19'1erc()~e bya -VVave of .

2. Nothing I .. doJSspcc:~ssf~;iaIl.·aU is : .

3. I wou1dbaveto()maJiy, .. :~:.,.: .• ,,~,:,,;,,; to deprive him of bisone ch&l1Ceqf hltppine,s.s.:-.

4. Whatislife?Wb'atjstobe.~.e·future of humanity?

Shall .' we.al1·firlaui.c!~str()Y:One .. another? I am weighed down with' ... ;';;. ;;: .... ,., .•.. ,.. .

S •. No, Tdon't car~tom~et thafbealJti+ul1ictress. You

forget thai I am ..... ,:.'~.;.;; .. ;;.. '. .' _

6. No wonder you are bored and blase.You are- suf. feringfro.tna •.. > ... s.. '.' ...• ";',.o.fp1easui'e.

7. Oh, I thi~ I'shall die if·soniethin.g doesn't happen

to relieve my .

.8. You 8110W Ye>Ut s1.lp~riotitytpO·(lpenly. No wonder

your friends dislike you andean you .

9. I have been unable to accomplish anything for the past two years. I. seem' to have s1.IDk· into a state

of .

10 ,' , have an : for worrlen.

11. Yoll, treat your employees with a. pretended gener:osity arid .. ;:..... .....,.:, l?utthey see through you

andknow that you actllally have an , ..

for the, working classes. •.... ' .

12. • Staying up with that invalid a.ll night •. has :reduced

me to a state of .

13. I bear you no grudge for what you have done. I

. am Dot : .. ~ : ,

14. I see the: m.otiOIl pictures ...... : ....... , ...... evynthough I am blind, for my friends come home and tell me

all about them. .

I ..... :.'

ANSWERS: • (1 )nostalgiaj· . (2 r .. frustration; . (3) compunctions; .. '. (4) .weltschmerz; (5) misogy-

nous or wisogynistic; (6) satiety; . (7) ennui;. (8}supercilious; (9) letharlP'; .(10) misogynists, . antipathy; ... (11) benevolence a.ntipathy; . (12}cl1ervatio'n; ". (13)vindiC-:. bye; (14) vicru:io\1sly . T .

Words cAbo"! 'Personalities

Language, most naturally, is an hitenselyhnman subject, and all werdsleadfinally to man.. .

We will turn to terms that deal directly with. your . friends and. with you. Here.are.twelve words.that describe different •

kinds of personalities. - ' . ,

I

What Kind of PersonalifyDo You Happen tC?Have?

.1. Areyou moody, quiet, bappy to be alone? Do you spend much of your time thinking of yourself? You. are

probably an introvert. . '.' ) ..' I

,2/ Are you a good mixer? Do you prefer the company of others to solitude? Are' you rarely self-conscious and usually more. interested in the outside world. and in the other fellow than you.are in yourself? Would you be apt to makea.good salesman? You are probably an extrovert.'

3: Do you feel.that you have some ()f the qualities.Ilsted

12~ \

Words About Personalities

129

in ,(I) combined with some of those listed in (2)? In common with most people, few of. whom are pure introverts orextroverts,you are, most like~y an ambivert.

4. Is your mind so selfishly occupied with your own thoughts. desires. opinions, and needs .as to make you indifferent to the interests of other folks? You are egocentric.

S. Do you often wish to do perfectlyinnocent, or perhaps not so innocent. things which your Puritan conscience, or' your fear of ridicule, or your conservative upbringing, , p~events you from doing? You are. in~~b~ted~,'

6. Are you so completely lackingin modesty and selfconsciousness that you delight in making a spectacle of yourself? Do you make a' play forthe spotlight and are _ ' you eager to put on a one-man show at every 'gathering? You are an exhibitionist.

.7. Do 'you always think of that witty remark after you get home? Do you feel that youropinions are not worth expressing? Are you so completely lacking in self-confidence that you rarely achieve the success or recognition , that your talents and ability . seem to deserve?Y au are

diffident. , , .

8. 'Are, you' generally' sparkling, happy, bubbling' over'

with zest and high s~irrts? You areefJervescent.' "

9. Are you happiest when you are with a crowd? Do

, . • '. I

youprcfer people to solitude and do you feel emotionally

most' content in thecompany of friends? You are gregarious.

10. Do you walk around with a-chip on your shoulder?

Are you always ready to do battle'tAre you savage, fierce, ' ruthless. unyielding in' your manner and in .your argu-

ments? You ese truculent, .

11. Are you grave. gloomy, heavy, foreboding? Do you . rarely smile'} You ese-satumine.

, 12. Are you chivalrous, .romanticand Idealistic almost to a. ridiculoiis extr6me? Are you the. opposite of practical? , Do you place woman on so' high a pedestal. that she is unapproachable? Arc you always chasing rainbows? You are quixotic.

, '

EIGHTEEN.l'H. DAY,

II

To'gainfiimer.conttol over these weirds; pronounce. themaloud:'_several,timesl

. ,.1. ,introvert(IN"-tro-vUrt')

2> extrovert (EKS'.;tro",vurt/)

3. iimbivert (AM' ... bee-vnrt')

4. egocentric (ee!~go",SEN'-trik) 5: inhibited (in-HIB'4~t~d)

6:·· eXhibitionist (ek' .. s>BISH'-~,..nist)

7:di{jident ('DIF';_~-d~tit)... .

8. 'ejJel'vesci!nt (ef",.~r- VBI)S' -ant)

9.gregarious{~-GAIR' -ee-es)

1 O. truculent(TRUK~ -yo-lant} 'a.saturnin.e (SAT'-Ilr-nine') 12. quixotic,(kwik-SOT'-ik)

Ill,

.. Can you match each. word -tojtsdefinition'lI~tl~ letters .: will guide you; But don't look. "ack"ple~e.

1. Possessed\vi$ self-distrust; . shy;

timid. .. ' •••••... '.". D ..

2 e . Bubbly, lUldspar~gJn~~s{)p~lity 13.······.····:·.;; 3. Looking at everything from a per-

..... sonalpoitlt of.\Tiew . ', , ,E ..

4.'DeJightmthputting'on an actin

, froytof others .. .. '.. ~ ;.;;.;

5. One ~hose chiefmterests ar~ 0u.tside t>

.~~~~mselfan~'Yh.o.makes fne,n.ds E ........ ;.; .....

6. ' Preferring the company ofO,thers to

! solitude' .. . ..0.;'0 ,,, .

'7. One . whose interest . isdire c tedi:I1"

... ward, Who is turned in 'Upon himself, and who is much alone

·8. Idealistic but unpractical

Words Ab()ut Personalities

9, Morose, gloomy. he.avy, dull S ..

10. Savage and pugnacious in character T ..

11. One whofinds bis. satisfactions both

. witbfuandin the outside world . A ,; ..

12~ Held back by conscience, early train-'

. ing.fear~Je~liilgs of sh:rness, de. 1 ; ...... ; ........

ANSWERS: (1) diffident; (2) effervescent; (3 )egocenttic;(4)exhibitionist; (5) extrovert; .. (6) gregarious; -. (7) . introvert; (8) quixoti~; (9)satumine;· (10)ttuculent; (11) ambivert; (12) inttibited

IV

.c: 1

Tryonceagain, without initial letters. h Cruel, ferocious '

2. ~hy and timid

3,Bubblifig over .•.

4. Considering self the. center of every'thing.··

S. pSychically restrained •..•.. ...•.... . .i>:

6. One who loves to be the center of'~t~ tention

'7. One whose interests aredirecte4 out-

ward .,... .. . .....

S~ J .. ikmg to-be )VifJ,()tbet· people .. ..

9. Ollewhose interest is directed in",ai:d,.

:10. IdeaJi8tiCl>U~jIUp~aCtica1 .: .

. U. Gloomy and m.orose . ,.

12.· one who finds his satisfactions both

inside and olitsiaehimseJi '

• .;.~ 0· .

................... ~ ..

••• ! ...... ".-,.,~ ••

:-.""" ... ; ......

~\'" .. ,.",'

.~ '~

.. ~ "" .. ~ " "

ANSWBkS: (1) trUculent; . (21 diffident; (3) effervescent; (~)i (~gocelltdc:; (5) inhibited; (6) exhibitionist; ... '. (~rJ 'extrovert; ( 8) gregarious; on introvm:t;" (10) quixotic. ( U) saturrune; (12)ambiveJ1

132

EIGHTEENTH DAY

v

. Nouns often end in such characteristic suffixes .'s -tion ei -ston, .. tism, -ence.i-ness, and -ity: Call you figure out the . noun form of each adjective? .

1. introverted (as in: characteriZed by )

2. extroverted (as in; known for his , :.) .

3. ambiverted (as in: most people tend toward

I' )

4. egocentric (as in: hated for his annoying , )

5. inhibited (as in: a prey to oppressive )

6. exhibitionistic (as in: accused of )

7. diffident (as, in.:projects a poor image because of

his ' ) ..

8~ effervescent (as in: delighted with his charm and.

............ , ..... )

9. gregarious (as in: a slave to . his. unending

.................... )

10 .. truculent (as in: «owed ~veryone with his

...... : )

11. quixotic (as in: such ridiculous :.)

, 12. saturnine (as in: oppressed b:l7, ~ )

ANSWERS: (1) mtroversion; (2) extroversion; (3) ambiversion; (4) egocentricity or egocentrism; (5) inhibitedness or inhibition; (6) exhibitionism; (7) diffide,lce; (8)eiIervescence; (9) gregariousness; (10) truculence; (11) quixoticism; (12) saturninity (sat'-~r·NIN';'

o-tee) .'

With each chapter, your power over words is growing.

And yet Y(IU are. doing much mote than merely learning' lists. of words. In addition to the new words you have k?rned. youbave also opened upnewa,enues of thought . for yollfself. An improved. vocabulary leads to . enlarged

horizons, new vistas, experience with ideas not previously

Words About Personalities

133 experienced, It-is no accident that successful an' d in t III

PI h th' 1 ." . .' . e gent

. ~op e av~ .: ' e argest vocabularies. Their competence

WIth worrl.s IS a token, aresult, of their breadth of thinkin

and expenence" . '. ., g

I . i

-- ---------------------- ----~-

elJdlectlves qlve 4Yoaa'.Power

~

A vocabulary of power gives you the ability to condense a , highly involved thought into asingle word. Thus, if .you wish to describe an action that is soordinary and undistinguished • and common that it immediately. marks its per-. petrator as a person completely lacking in imagination (notice howmany words we have used. to express this thought), you will use the word plebeian. On the other hand, . an: act that indicatesexceS'sive desire to be over attentive, with attendant evidence of insincerity and a suspicion of ulterior motives, might. be characterized as obsequioU1. Again, an action-that is sickeningly sentimental. and indicative of emotional immaturity, and one that is often accompanied by tears; _ could be called maudlin.

There are many such words that compress a wealth of. meaning and emotion into a few syllables. Note how eX'. pressive the following phrases are:

. 134 .

Adjectives Give You Power

135

1. A.plebefan(pl~.BEE'-:m)'outlook on life

2. Obsequ~ous (ob-SEE'-kwee-~s) attentions of the

headwaiter . . ' .

3. A maudlin(MA WD'-lin) motion picture .

4. A perjunctory (p~r-FUNK'-t~-ree) examination by a busy do~tor who has y~ry little time for' you'

5. An abortive (~-BAWR'::-tiv) __ attempt to gain his'

ends> '

6. A surreptitious (sur'-rep-TISl:I'-~s) movement on

, the part of the thief . .

7. A presumptuous (pr~-ZUMP'':'choo-~s) question to

put to the Governor .'

8. The sadistic (s~-DISS'-tik) treatment of the prison. er by ruthless guards

9. A flagrant ~FLAy,,.gr~nO misuse of company funds

~O. An mane (m-AYN') remark. . .-

II

~rom an analysis of the phrases you have just studied

wnte each _ word next to its definition: _ ,

.'1. Openly. glaringly wrong or scandalous

.. 2. Senseless; silly; empty _ . .. .

3. ~ade foolish by .liquorj tearfully affec- " .

bonate or sentimental '

4. Overcourteous and servile in _ manner· .. ···· .. · .. ····,

5. Done mechanically and without iri- .

terest; superficial and careless '

6 Unduly- tid .. •.. :''' '.~II

. .- ., con . entor bold; audacious;

arro,gant; taking .too much for granted

7. Inclme~to cruelty; getting pleasure out .

of hurtmgothers .

8. J~yse';ret or stealthy means

9. C_ onm. ,10n; . coarse; vulgarly d'

1 orcmary,

,mt~(.l?Cre, or commonplace

10, . _Commg _ to . naught; failing

.ANSWERS: (1)· flagrant; (2 ~.) . inane;

;. ~ ..

\

... ~ ..... ~ •...........

.. ~.

( 3) . maudlin' .

. ,

NINBTEENTH'o.AY

. ,.'", (5) perfunctory; (6) pre(4) ,obSeq~ou(s7") . sadistic' (8 ) surreptitious ; sumptuous, '\, '.,

(9) plebeian; (10) abortive

Ill,

, . , . th' • od With another nst' of valuable and

Try the s~e .me ' " ,

expressive 'adJectives. .' .

1. Wanton (WAHN',;.tan) .cruelty

2 eras, (KRASS') bel;1avlOr .

3' Macabre (ma-KAlP-oor) myste~ 4' Doginatit' (dog-MAT'-!k) as~ertion

. V' '. l' (vil' ree-OL'-ik) satire, , , l'

S. uno ~ , . -; , MIT' .. ant)', ringing of the te e-

6. IntermIttent (In-ter- ,

ph,' one . , (', b ... 1TTIl'_siv, ),.aCtivitiesof people.who 7 'SubversIve sa -Y1V.L'-, " . , " t '.

• , . rthr . .the governmen . " '

wish to ove ow, \). flitting from one sub-

8. Desultory (DESS'-al-taw-ree " '.

ject to anothf?r '. '.

9. A sardonic (sahr-DON'-ik) smile

IV

. " ~ fr" an~YSiS of the phrases in Section TIl,

Agaro. om an ',,' .' d fiuiti

Write each word next to Its e ~n., " .

, . I' fr' 'oneihing to an-

t Passing irregular yom"", ' , .

• other;' changeable; without method or i ,

plan ' , , . . " tated in an

2' Descriptive,. of an OpUllon S " "

. . ." d arrogant msnner ' ... ; ...... , ..... ~ ,

. overposmve . an .' " ' heartless;

3. Recklessly mconsldeJ:1ate or , ... i ...... , .....

(, 'unrestrained; extrav.ag3:llt." ' " '

, derate way .

4. Stup'l'd, in agros,sl.y mcons.l , .' ,

.. . .. , ,~ .

5. Ceasipg and startmgll.gam. . .. , .. ; ..

. 6' "B'tte scornful. and sneering

" • 1 r,." '. '.' di tive of or sugg, ',est-

, 7 .Pertainmg to" lU ca ,

.. ',

4djectives Give You 'Power

ing death; hence, gruesorne,grim, ghast-

ly, horrible .

8. Ememely biting or sarcastic; figuratively-

caustic or bitter, '

9. Tending' to ,overthrow from the very foundations, as of. a moral or political force; aiming to destroy' , .

137

• ..... ;, ..... <I.O ... ~

.....•..... "' ......

ANSWERS: (1) desultory;' (2) dogmatic; (3) wanton; (4) crass; (5) intermittent; (6) sardonic; ,(7) macabre; (8) vitriolic; (9) subversive'

v

You will recall from the previouschapter that a noun often and .characteristicaljy ends in such suffixes at; -ity (saturninity), -ness (gregariousness), -ion (inhibition)>> ,. -ism (ascetiCism),~nce (diffidence), -ance (circumstance), -ency or -ancy tpotenc .. y, occupancy), etc. , .Adverbs end in;,ly, as diffidently, gregariously, etc. '

Can you change each, adjeetiv~ as required' below?

, 1. Obsequious\to,a noun: "His .: ....... , ....... was annoy-

ing." ", . ','

2. Perfunctory to an adverb: . "He did his work

, ••• ~ •••••• 0·0 ••••• "... " :"

3. Surreptitiouss to an adverb: "He, crept through the

house , " . '

4.;;:~;:&~f,0us t9 a noUh:~¥.our .. ;.will be

S. Sadistic to 'a npun denoting the person: "He is

, .a : ". .

6. Sadis,tic. t?a' nd~ ~e~otin~ the 1'~OS9phy: "He was a VICtim of ijiSi wlle& .... , ..... I ..... , ..

7. Flagranttoa nd~:"I,cann()t,Wl4etstand .how you

,can break the, law With such r !· .,' .

8. Inane toa plur~,noun: "His speech is full of

"

................•

NINETEENTH DAY

9. Wanton to an adverb: " , she broke her

husband's heart." .

10. Crass to a noun: "His makes it impos-

sible for him to be accepted by refilled people." 11: Dogmaticto a noun: "Why do you always speak

with such . .. " .. ?" . . .

12. Intermittent to an adverb: "The rain came down.

"

13"D~;~it;~y"to 'an adverb: "He works .......... ; ...... "

ANSWERS: (1) obsequiousness; (2) pe~functorily; (3) surreptitiously; ( 4) presumption or presumptuousness; (5) sadist; (6) sadism; (7) flagrancy; (8). inanities; (9) wantonly; (10) crassness or crassitude; ( 11 ) dogma ... 'tism or dogmaticness; (12) intermittently; (13) desultorily .

VI

First, review all nineteen words carefully . (including their noun' and adverb. forms), pronouncing them aloud once again to fi;x:. them in your mind. Then. complete each of the following sentences with one of the words. or. forms

that you think will fit best. . .

1.. He made im attempt to, regain the

governorship; his defeat left him a. sad and. ?i~ter man who thereafter spoke ... ; ......... ; .. of his political

past. .

2,' Can you think of anything quite so cruel

as war? .

{ .3. Pompous people delight in r.~ · attendance

on their every wish. . .' .

4. Thievery will out,' and anything yon do : ..

will some day be found out. . '. .

5. Please don't-state so ....... ".: .... that democracy 18 a. 'fiasco. Time will show the stupidity' of such a state-

ment.

Adjectives Give You Power

.139

6. He .disliked hie; job heartily, and therefore it was no

s~rise that he discharged his duties so , ; .

7. WIth what maliciousand satisfaction the

prqse~u~o'r made the witness reveal his pastl ,

8. Re~, with a purpose; reading is neither

.: satisfactory nor sensible. . .

'. 9. During a political campaign, candidates often de-

, scend to making .. attacks' on their op-

ponents. .

10. Iht .was an overcast day, withonIy ........ ~ ........ sun-' s me.·'

. 11. This error is 'so gIaringand : that I'm

amazed you didn't catch it. ',.

12. ISIl't it rather for a p f: . .

" . " . .,.............. erson 0 yourreputa-

. . bon to ask to be my friend? . .

q,. H~ has a , .. tongue; his biting sarcasm has

alienated everyone who knows him

14. Peaceful people are aghast at th~ de-

struction of life and property that occurs during

.wars and riots." .

IS. He made a futile, .. , ........ : .... attempt at rescue,

16. Such .:': : ....... , .... materlalism will. never lead to real

happiness, . '. .

ANSWERS: (1) aborti,:e, sardonically; (2) wantonly' (3) o~seqU1ous; . (4) surreptitiously; . (5) ~ogmat1cally;, (6) perfunctorily; (7) sadispc;' (8)clesultory; (9) flagrant. inane, wanton, crass~ or vitriolic; (10) intermittent; <!1) .flagrant; (12) presumptuous; (13) vitriolic; (14) wanton; (15) abortive'

(16) crass ' , .r::"::' ,

'J'?e '. answers given above. are. not necessarily the onl ,pOSSIble . ones. ID:_some of the sentences several of th~ . w~rds will fit. Asaperso~ whose vocabulary is becoming

~aily larger and larger, you realize. that there area multitude. of ways of s~ymg the~ame thing . But the, particular ~o~d 1'ou cho~e. will determine theflavor of your thought. I'his . 1S the priceless value of a Iarge vocabulary. Out' of

NINETEENTH DAY

your . wide range ofwords you can pick and choose t~e exact term that will best express each subtle . nuance m .

your mind; . .

\.'

VII

\ . .

Now a quick and fina] run-through to reinforce'.' your learning, Is each. pair of~ words .nearly. the' same or more

nearly ,!pposed in meaning? . .

1. plebeian Unusual Same Opposed ;

". 2. obsequious brusque Same Opposed .

. 3. maudlin' sentimental Same, Opposed .

.: 4.' perfunctory superficial Same Opposed .

5. abortive successful Same Opposed .

ro 6.' surreptitious aboveboard Same ; .. Opposed .

7. presumptu-

ous -, '.hllIllble Same Opposed ,

a. sadistic cruel Same Opposed ;

9 •. flagrant hidden Same Opposed.:· ..

10. inane ~meaningful Same. ;.Oppi:>sed .

11. wanton restratned. Same Opposed ..

12~ crass . refined '. Same Opposed ..

13. macabre eerie Same... Opposed .. : .

~ dogmatic opinionated;" Same...Opposed.; .

15. vitriolic sarcastic' Same .. ., Opposed: .

16. intermittent continuous Same Opposed ,~.

17. subversive "protective Same Opposed ..

lS.desultory . aimless Same Opposed, .

19. sardonic bitter Same, Opposed .

ANSWERS:

(1) opposed; (2) opposed; (3) same; (4) same; (5). opposed; (6) opposed; (1) opposed; (8) samej- (9) opposed;' (110) opposed; (11) opposedt (12) opposed; (13) same; (14). same; (15)

. same; (16) opposed; (17) opposed; (18) same; (19) same

l.ellnlin"Words

. (.

""e"CModern··WG~

. This book is not a memory course. .... ' .'

",Merely.memorizing lists of words by rote happens to be theslowestand most difficult way to remember them. If you follo\V such ar~utine you will :find that you have

forgotten. most of the.list by the next day. '.

What,. then, is. the correct procedure? . .

Just this. <. .

Look at thewo~d first, if you can; m its context: in the . paragra~h W!tere It~pp~ars.: The very senseof the para- .' graph will ~ve you an inkling of the significance of the word-evenif you-have never seen it. before. Y 6u naturally become eager to know the definition of the word in . order !O understand the sentence pattern in which you have seen It. Yo~ app.roacb. ~hen,. ia. ~ndirecta1id psychological, because you WISh the information, not as an end . in itself, but, as a ~eanl to an end, You realize that if you learn the meaning of the word you will comprehend themeaning ?fthe .sentence. y~~ are using whapscalled thernodern inductive method, mthat youfust, discover the word at ..

141

142 \ TWENTIETH DAY

'w()rk, you are challenged by it, you guess at its me~ning, .and you then confirm otcorrect your guess by refernng to

the dictionary. ','. ' " , , '

When youuse this method, the words are no longer so

much dead wood, to be piled up .in your mind. but, are living entities, charged with action and emo!ion. They then

become hard to forget. , ,

Let's be specific and illustrate our point. , .

We will discuss thirteen adverbs and two adverbial

phrases and try to prove how much easier it is to learn by the indirect, inductive, and psychological route. '

Give your' careful attention to the following sentences ' in Groups A, B, C, D, andE. In each Isentence you will, ' find art adverb in italics. If the word is new to you, try to '

guess at'itsmeaning.

/~/ '

GROUP A '

1. He complained acrimoniously.

2. We argued acrimoniously. ,

3. They mocked each other acrimoniously. ,-

(You can feel the unpleasant overtone of this word,

can't you?)

GROUP B

,1. He completed the operation adroitly. , ,

2. He droveadrnitly through the maze of traffic.

3. Adroitlysbe knitted the complicated stitch.", " '

(This word obviously applies .to some manual ac-

tion.) ,

GROUP C

, 1. He moved slowly and circumspectly through the

:f;tnge of fire. , ' ' . . '

2. Fem;ing a trick, he answered all questlOnsclrcum-

spectly. '

] earning Words the M adem Way

143

3. By walfing cir~umspectly he avoided an ambush. (There s a feeling of, watchfulness about .this word.)

GROUP D

1. T?~se two build~ng leases run concomttantly,

" 2. Lt~mg and learning go on concomltantly. ,,' t

3. Ram, snow, and sleet, all came down concomitantly. (Y ~u probab!y know why two or more. things must be lnvolved inthese actions, even if you happen

never to have seen the word before.) "

GROUP E

1. He examined the plans cursorily. ' ._

.2. He ran thrb.ugh. the pages cursorily, then threw the'

, ' nove~ down ur disgust. " ' ,

3. ,Hedi~hl.~homework so cursorily that he flunked hi exammanon. IS

(This word, should carry an impression of superficial haste.)

" Now pronounce the words aloud.

1. acrimoniously (ak'-r:}-MU'.;nee-~s-lee)

2. adroitly (~-DROYT'·1ee)

3. circumspectiy (sur'-k~m-SPEKT'~lee)

4. concomitantly (kon-KOM'-~-tont-Iee)

5. cursorily (KUR'-s~-ro-lee) .

III

Let us t~ :Qve more words, using the sam .' . '. , and productivemethod. Again try to figure o:t :.tngul~g

able meanings of the italicized Words e pro -

1. Teachers are apt to talk didactically. '

2. Extreme~y modest :persons usually speak of their own "accomplishments disparagingly. '

144

TWENT~ETH DAY

3. People with extremelyfacileand ready tongues can

talk glibly. '. . .' . . .

4. The person who isIooking for sympathy. talks plain-

· tively. ." . ....

· . S. Pessimists usually speak ominfJusly of the future.

,

IV

Pronounce them;

, 1. 'didactically (dy'-DAK'-tik-Iee) .

,2. disparagingly (dis-PAIR, .. a-jing-ly)

. 3. glibly (GLIB'-lee) -. i '

· _ 4. plaintively (PLAIN'-tivrleel'

· 5. ominously (OM'-~~n~s-lee)

V

'. And still another five, in the same way.

1. Man c~nnotbreak the laws of nature with .. impunity.

2. He placed his hand on the hot radiator inadvertently.

3. He was a disagreeable old man who answered every

question irascibly. , " ,. " , . .

4. Inasmuch as' the plans were executed 'sub rosa, the stockholders realized too late bow completely they.

had been defrauded. ' . . . '

S. He never gave up quietly .. He always complained vociferously' if . he, thought be had been treated .• un ..

, fairly. - .

VI

{

Pronounce them:

1. impunity (im-PYUU'-n~-tee)

2. inadvertently (in-ad-VUR'-t~nt-Iee) 3, irascibly (eye-RASS'-Q,-blee)

,. • '. ',4 " .

O.K. You have looked at, thought apout,and tried to understand fifteen useful adverbial expressions. Now take the next step in the learning process: write the word (or phrase) in the blank line next to its definition. Initiallet-

ters are offered as guides. . '.

1. Expertly;dextewusly; with skillful

use ofthe.hands or mind A ..

2~ Accompanying; occurring together ' C ..

3. In the fashion of a teacher; . as if : teaching a lesson

. 4: In a manner of smooth ease and '. fluency; without hesitation'

S. In a heedless manner; without care;

. inattentively

6. Forehodingly;in a way portending

, evil " . " 0 ~' ' ,

7. in strict confidence; privately , S .

8. In a loud-voiced manner; vehemently; noisily

9~, Expressing sadness or melancholy

10. Angrily; irritably;. in hot-tempered fashion

'11. With freedom from punishment or with 1 .. : .... : ..

injurious consequences

12. Speaking' slightingly of" in a way to'

. undervalue and discredit . D .

'13. Hastily and; superficially, without

due care and attention .

14:¢autiously with watchfulness in 'all . . directions .

, 15. Ylith 'sharpness and bitterness of speech 'or temper

Learning Words-the Modern way 4. subrosll-(sub-RU'-z~)

,5.· vociferously (vo-SIF'-~-r~s-lee)'

VII

145

D .. , ..

·0 · .

'1 .

v .

P .

.I .

C .

C , .

A ,

TWENTIETH .DAY

ANSWERS: (1) adroitly; (2) concomitantly; (3) didac-

, t . tically; (4) glibly; (5) Inadvertently;:' (6)

ominously; (7) sub rosa; (8)vociferous!y; (9) plaintively; (10) irascibly; (11) WIt~ impunity; (12) disparagingly; . (1~.). cu_rsonly; 04) circumspectly; (15) acrimoniously

VII!

Next, you reinforceyour learning even more. Here' are forty~sixsYnonyms or synonYD1ousp~rases that fit the thirteen adverbs .and two adverbial phrases you havebeen working on. Each adverb or adverbial phrase will be r:~ quired two or more times. ,Ca~ you. go t~rough this

. exercise happily, smoothly, and with anmcreasl1lg"~nseof confidenceand power? You' are on your.own, with no initial letters to help you.

. 1. hastily ,

'1// 2. ~ __ ,_ .'.

To'in a teacher-like manner

4. irritably

5. in a, way foreboding evil

6. sadly,

.,.-7. in a hidden manner

8. loudly ,

.:> 9. inauspiciously 10. angrily, . U. dexterously'

12. cautiously .

13. slightingly

14. fluently

15. caustically

v/ I~~:,-~~~£t:~metime .. '

IS. 'with anger ~nd\annoyance ,1,19'J.~L_. e. ..,

20. withexemption nom punishment " ;"" ,

21. smoothly' . ,

........... 0 ,. ~ '~ .

. ;, .. :"'~ .

.. -.-."~'~ ..

................. , .

.................. ; .

••••••••••• 6 •••••••••••••••••

........ ,; ~ ~ ..

... , ~ ' .

. .

. . ,

...............................

.. ~ ~ ,. ~" ..

....... 0 ~.~ .,.' ·0···· ..

......... ~." ~ _ .

.............. ,; ~ .

......... .: :" .

••.•••.••••••••••.• , •. 0: •••••.

............................. ~ ~ ..

.'~ .••.• ." ' ·0' _,f

\./

~ '" ~ ~ : ';'~ " , ..

Learning Worqs the Modern Way

147

. 22. stingingly /

• ~~.thougntlessly (2~~)deprecatingly

Z5. conjointly .

,26. without danger of punishment

27. bitterly

28. unhesitatingly

29. depreciatively

30. skillfully

31. irately

32. in . a way expressing coming danger or misfortune

33. sorrowfully

34. without incurring penalty,

,harm, Or loss

35. - rapidly and hastily 36. like an instructor

3'7 .. -rnournfully 38. secretly .

. 39. clamorously

40. in loud tones

.. ' 41. noisily. ,

42. instructively 43. ' confidentially

44. in a melancholy way

45. belittlingly

46. superficially

... ' .

...............................

D •• t , ,' ••• ·w ••• .- ••• ~ ••••••••••

.............................

•· ••••••••••• 10 .

' .

. .

.. ~ .

. .

• '0' ~ ..

ANSWERS: . (1) cursorily; (2) circumspectly; (3)di":

dactically; (4) irascibly; (5) ominously;.

(6) plaintively; (7) sub rosa; '(8) vociferously; . (9) ominously; (10) irascibly; (11) adroi~ly;.. (12) circumspectly;· (13 ) disparagingly;, (14) glibly; (l5)acrimoni"-· ously; : (16) inadvertently; (17) concomi-

'. tautly; . (18) 'irascibly; . (19) circumspectly; (.10) :withi.mpunity; (21) glibly; (22) acrimoniouslyj' (23 )inadyertentIy; (24) disparagingly; (25) concomitantly; (26) with

~--~~-~---~--------------------------~~~

TW-ENTIETHDAY

impunity; (27) acrimoalously; . (28) glibly; . (29) disparagingly; (30) adroitly;' (31). irascibly; (32) ominously; (33)pIaintively; (34) with impunity; (35) cursorily; (36) dldactically;. (37) plaintively; (38). sub rosa;' (39) vociferoUsly; (40) vociferously; (41) vociferously; (42) didactically; (43) sub rosa; ( 44 ) plaintively; ( 45) . disparag-

ingly; ( 46) cursorily . .

IX

Find an adverb or adverbial phrase that will best fit each of the seven situations described below.

1. You are a burglar. You have just entered a wealthy home through ali unlocked window. Allis dark, and alas, you have. forgotten -to bring your searchlight with you. To add to your troubles; you can't, ~d the electric switch, How will you move-around m

this room until you can get your bearings? _

2. You are ali irritable, touchy old, man, and as you walk alongthestreeton this cold, raw morning you feel nothing- but enmity toward the. whole world. A beggar stops you for a coin. How do you. re ...

fuse? ,........... '.

3'; A friend has been importuning you for weeks to look over a novel. he is. writing and give him yourcriticism. Knowing your friend you are certain that the novel is bad. even before you read it; besides, you are a 'very busy' man. Rather than. give' your friend

. a blunt refusal, however, .you take the manuscript home. one evening. How do you' examine it?

4. y~~"~~ill"~~n wishes to know why it snows. You are' well versed in . the natural. sciences and have made it a habit to answer all your son's. questions' as clearly and accurately _ as possible .. How do you an-

swer' hun'? , ".

..

Learning Words the Modern Way'

149

5. You have influence with the chief ofpolic~, and furthermore, your wife is the mayor's daughtervConsequently, you . never trouble to obey, traffic laws. In

fact, you can break them • ,. - .

,6. i\woman has broken your heart purposely; and with malice aforethought. She has left you adisillusioned man. It takes-you years even to begin to get over it. And then one day you meet her again. She . is gay, debonaire; she has obviously forgotten what

she has done to you. This angers you and you intend to sting her when you remind her. In what fashion

do you speak to her? ..... ~ ...... "........ .

7. You area very modest person. Rather than praise anything you' have .done, you .prefer to take as little credit-as possible for your accomplishments. How do

you usually speak of yourself? ., ..

ANSWERS: (1) circumspectly; (2) irascibly; (3) cursorily; (4) didactically;' (5) withimpunity;

(6) acrimoniously; (7) disparagingly . .

x

An important step in improving .your vocabulary is to practice changing parts of speech; Drop the . -ly of the. thirteen adveibsand 'you have adjectives; choose the proper suffix (-ness, -ion.-ence, -ance, -isni,-ity) and you

.. can form a noun from the adjective. .

. Bythe way,. two noun endings we have not yet discussed. will be required in this exercise, -ony ( as in.'" ceremony from the adjective ceremonious) and -ment -(as indevelop-_ ment from the adjective developing),

Ready to turn adverbs into nouns?

1. acrimoniously .

2. adroitly

3. circumspectly

4. concomitantly

5. cursorily

. , .

••••••••• ~ •• , ••••• ','''~' 0' •••••• ,

.... ' .

••••••• ·0'.·0 ~." ' •••••••. ~ •••••

TWENTIETH nAy

6. didactically

7. disparagingly 8 .: glibly' '

9. plaintively

10. ominously

11. inadvertently

12. irascibly

13. vociferously

................. ~ ",. ~ .

.............. ~ ., 0·0 •• ..

................ ~ ~ .

..... ~ ................•.....

...... , - .

..................................... ~ ..

........................... ~ .

............ ~ ..

ANSWERS: (1) acrimony; (2) adroitness; (3) circumspectionj (4 )concomitancej , (5)' cursoriness; _ (6) didacticismj '(7), disparagement;' (8) glibness;, .: (9} plaintivenessj' (10) omi-

. nousness;' (.11), inadvertence; '(12) irasci:

billty; ( 13 ) , vociferousnesS . \

'Most, adjectives " can, be made 'into ,nouns .by adding -ness, althtmgh this is not always the most sophisticated suffix. Therefore •. altemateformsfor 1, 9" 4, 6, 7; 11 ,and 12, art. acrimoniousness, 'circumspectness, concomitantness (not the- happiest of choices), didacticness, disparagin8f1ess ,(again. awkward), inadvertentness Jawkward),andiras-

ciblenes,!f. '

Occasionally you may feel that these exercises are time-

'consuming, .But we urge you never to let the lack at time stand as an obstac1eto this work. Thomas Carlyle,the great philosopher, claimed. t,patthere is time~in" every man's life for a career within a career. Even so-called geniuses, are 'geniuses largely because they arewiUing· to use. the time that others throwaway. It was Michelangelo who said: "If peOple only knew how bard, 1 work to gain my mastery it wouldn't seem so wonderfiu at aU:',Alld Alexandre pumas, the tnmscendentFrench novelist, ,cQn~

I fessed: "~Infatuated;half thtoughcol1crit, half through love of my art; I achieve the impossible working as none else

ever works: .•• " , '

Careers are, not bad by wishing and hoping. They are

bought withwm:k and enthusiasm.

A~arge part of our English 'r. b I ' '

?cnves from Latin. This lan' ,o~a u ary, as we know,

in the .somewhat modifi d f~age IS ?00 longer u~ed except .

L '. ewnar mocme orm of Church 1:.' t; ,'" Old

atin was no longer a spoken" " ',' a,n., . I

began; yet English' is such' ',t~ngue wheD; modern English

has steadily fed uon 1,a1' a ~'1tal and avid 'ton~!le that it sp~ech is constandy take;n6vand; even t~ay this Roman

philologists, and scientists. er rota English by scholars, ,

Any time you run a l' ..•

Ianguage y ,"'t, 1 inquisitlve iplow through our,

b • ou urn up Latin roots everywhere.

!

There is t~f~ simple word (mima.l WI . ~- ., .:

use the wont 'animal instead 1"" ly particularly do W(~ syllr1hles'/ '"' x ,o~ome other combination of.

, ,A,ninwl is: from Latin "",' " ".' '

, " •• ,_ " , .e "una mind ""h! ' ,l..." "

or spirit," a'ad ,of cou~,~"" '/'j ',' " eatn, ' ",ont,'"

.' ' ,,~,,' ,mILlet S as OJ',n"s d t .

.' OT, inanimate' obj ects ,~' br '.;.' ' C ,y~;,e., I) ,mmc.ra1.s

",' ," " ,J.O I eame and rl' ' "

mysterious ~(1'mething that giv .' <"; > ,.h "~) possess that

" " , .(, es.,L!;;..m, a ute .not foundin

151,

TWENTy,.FIRST DAY

"Ll1animate" things. The. root. anima is found in a host of common English words: .

aninzalcuk---a tiny live thing

animate-to breathe life into '.'

equ.animity:.--;equal or placid spirit or mind m.agnanimous-of large, ornobl~,spirit

unanimous--of one mind .

inanim{~te-without a soul; hence, not alive animosity_:"vehement enmity: literally, with one's mind

against . ..

pusillanimous-.faihthearted; cowardly: literally, of

small mind

animadvert-40 turn the mind to; to notice; to criticize

II

, .

In many cases,' English words are formed-by combining. parts of two or more Latin. words. Thus. "equ~imity'~ i~ a fusion of aequus, "equal," and anima. You will. recogruze. the root aequus. (spelled equ- or -tqu in English) in. such \ words as equation, equality, equity, iniquity. Magr;amm.ou3 combines magnus; "large," with anima. Engage ill a little etYmolugical exploration, if you will, 'and see what other words you can turn: up with the stem of magnus, "large." ,

1. ..... :.......... A person large in importance, as 11) an

.. inpustry ;. .

2. To make large ' . .

3 , , .. "..Splend~r; grandeur .

4. Speaking big or in pompous or flowery style

5. Bigness or greatness

6. A large bottle (two quarts) for cham-

pagne Or other wine . '

7. A great work; a literary 9r axti.sticwork

of importance .. .

ANSWERS: (1) magnate; (2) magnify; (3) magnifi-: cence; (4) magniloquent; (5) magnltude; . (6) magnum; (7)nillgnum opus

. Words from Latin

III

:1153

. Let us pronounce the words we have discovered so far.

For pest results, say themaloud several times. .

1. animalcule (AN'~m;}l-kYOol')

2. animate, verb: (AN'··~mayt/)

. adjective: (AN'-'.'!i·'m~t)

3; equanimity (ee' -kw'OI·NIM' -~tec) 4; magnanimous (mag-NAN'-~-m~s) 5 .. unanimous (yoo-NAN',.~-tn~s)

6; inanimate (in-AN'·a-m~t)

7 .: animosity (an'-:~-MOS'''Q-tee)

8. pu~illanimou$· (pyoo' -s~,-LANf -e-mos): 9.anlmadvert (AN'--....mQd-vect') . . ..

10. magnate (MAG'-nayt).

11. magnify (MA<Y-n"-fy)·

12. magnificence (mag-NIF'~~-sgnce)

13. magniloquent (mag-NIV-~-kw'Jnt) -14. magnitude (MAG/-n~-tood/)

15. magnum (MAG'~n~m)

16: magnum opus (:MAGH' .. nom-Os-pss)

IV

.NoW.i to give you practice in spelling these words and to reinforce your learning, we ask you to write the word that

fits each definition. . .

1. Large-minded; notpetty

2. Small-minded; cowardly

3. Strong hostility

4. To invest with life 5, Make larger "'

6. Without life

7. Tum one's mind to

8.· Agreed to. by everyone 9. Usingflowery language

.M ; .

~,::::::::::::::::

A : ..

M "

r ..

A ~ .

U : .• : , .

M , ..

- - - - - -- - -----------~-------------~------~-------------~-----------

154

TWENTY-FIRST D~Y

10. Placid, unruffled temperament .

11. . Great literary or artistic work' .

. 12. 'Two-quart bottle: . 13,Lal'gen~ss; large size 14. Greatness; grandeur ',15. 'Important person ill

industry .

vi.' 16. Very small creature

(1 )magriani!nous;(_2) pusi1lanin:lous;~,3 >. animosity; (4- J- animate: (5) .'. magnify',

(6) inan~a.te; (7) animadvert; (8) ~n~ru: mons; (9) magn.Uoqoont~ (10) equanimity; (11) magnum opus;. (~2) magnum; (H) magnitude; (14) magnificence; (15) magnate; (16) animalcule

E ..

M O· ·;.

}'Il: .

11 ~ ;~.... .

·M .

M ..

A .

ANSWERS:

v

" ,,' ,. ". "mind"

. 'Unanimous combines unllS, one, with, amm.a, .. ' ". :

Can yon think of some other English words \l!hlCh contain

linUS?' .

1. .

Make into one .'. ..' . '. .'

. A fabulolls animal with a single, straight

horn' '.

Of one form or kind .

The state or being united .' . ..... .

Descriptive of' the only 0l1e Qf tts k1r:d . Harmony;. also, a joining together m

scund :

A single one

2.. . .. ~ ~ .

3 0 ..

4.

~~:

..... , , .

..................

7 .

ANSWBRS:

(1) unify c,runitc; (2)' unic~rn; . (3) iorm; (4) union, unity, ?r u~lfi:cation; unique; (6) unison; (7 j unit

uni(5)'

. Words irom Latin

155

VI

Pronounce the new words':

1. unify (YOU'-na-fy~)

2. unite (yoo-NITE')

3. unicom (YOU'-n~kawrn)

4. uniform (Y"UU'-na-fawrm,)

5. uni01i(YUUN'-yan)

6. unity (YUO'-na-~e)

7. ulli/ication (yOo-n~f~KA Y'~shan)

8. 'unique (yoo-NEBK')

9. "unison (YOU'-na-san) 10. uni: (YOU'-nit)

VII

Continuing our etymological exploration, let us next eonsiderthe word benevolence; Itsmeaning-c-c'a feeling of. good will toward others" . or "a charitable action f-or the

.: benefit of others"-can be understood better when we analyze' the two Latin roots that have' been welded together to form the word: bene, ''well,''andvoiens, "wishing." Benevolence means. literally, "wishing others well." Bene iii found in other words.Here area few:

benefit . beneficiary ~ benediction benefactor

The root volens, "wishing," also appears frequently:

volition '. voluntary volunteer

If we now dissect two of the words containing bene, we

will discover that new Latin roots can easily be added to ~/ our ~rtoi:re;. benediction; "a blessing," is, literally, a"saying well," The root die is from Latin dicere., "to say"

or "to tell." You can see it in the following words:

dictate dictaphone diction malediction indict predict .

Again, benefactor, literally "well-doer," contains the Latin' facere, "to do" or "to make." Watch how this root is employed in the following. words.-

-- -_--=-- - -- -------------------------------------------------------

TWENTY-FIRST DAY factor factory manufacture fact - factotUm

jactl,lal --~

VIII

Thus, the study of a few of these simple words brings to. light eightnew.roots, Here are the Latin roots with their meanings. Can you recall an English word using each root?

ROOT, MEANIN"G EXAMPLE
1. anima, soul, spirit, mind .............. ~ ......
2. aequus even.equal ....................
3. magnus large, big; great ....................
4. unus one, single ... ~ ...................
5. bene well ......................
6. volens 'wishing .....................
7. [acere to do, to make •....................
8; dicere to say, to tell, ........... _ ........
IX , ,

Can you recall the other Greek and Latin rootsthat you have learned in previous chapters? In, the chart below you will find a list of them, each with an example. Can you fill

in the English meaning of each root? "

ROOT EXAMPLE MEA1'IING'
1. monos monocle I .............................
, ,
. 2 . bis bicycle .. ...........................
.t 3~ polys polygamy ............................. , ..
4. misein misogyny,' , ....... -;, ............... ·0 .'~ ••••••
5. gamos bigamy ..............................
6. theos monotheism .............................
7. anthropos anthropology . .............................
8. ' philein: philatelist . ...........................
9. logos philology .............................
10. cuspis bicuspid' , ......................... ' ....
11. glotta polyglot .............................. Words from Latin

157

ANSWERS: (1) one; (2) twice, two; (3) many; (4) to hate; (5) marriage; (6) God; (7) man' (8) to rove; (9) study of, word; (10) point; (11) tongue

You will findIt excellent practice to keep a weather eye out for these roots and for their various and varied combinations in your daily reading. There are so many of them that it becomes n fascinating sport to try. to trace. them.

, !h~te.is the !:atin word signum, or "sign," which gives us ll;vzgnt;1" the Sl&nS you wear; signal, a sign;signify, make a SIgn; and such othersas design, signatur~, insignificant We also have the Latin portare,"to carry," which leads to porter,one who carries; portable, able to be carried; reporter, one ~ho carries news back; deport, carry away; import, carry in; and export, carry out .

A knowledge, of . Latin and Greek roots is a splendid

vocabulary stretcher.·' _

There is one thing that we cannot. overempl'\asize in this daily word study. and that is the high importance of continually reviewing the work that you have done ', New words that. come into your vocabulary are. as elusIve as little 'Ihiningeels. and unless you rehearse them constantly

. you will find that they will wriggle.out from·hetween your

mental fingers and "lip hack into the sea of language. "

,If you want to make swift progress, take each page of this book ;;eriously. review your work ;:ts a matter of

course and so secure the ground as you proceed. . ,

Her~ is another hint. Be sure to finish 'his book. Forty-'

. nine out l)f fifty p.:p;ons, don't thoroughly finish what they begin. This is what will mak~.uccess. so easy fo~ you. Use your willpower. Will pl)Wer IS often .lust an.othel name for courage. Per.,;everance is energy made hab~tual. \.~d per- ' severance •. conuriuously appJied. may I)ecome genius .. S? don't just finish this book-or this chapter- -and lay It aside; Put it to, work. Too roanypeople are forever learn-

ing and never doing. '. .' . . ' ..

Rigl;lt now we are going to challenge you wIth. a review

of Chapters X to XXI.. Th~, t8ests that follow will not be I' 15

"est Your Progress

159 .

easy, for they are intended to show up any weak spots in

your methods of study.' . ..' .

Match the descriptions in Column B to the words in

ColumnA. .', '

A. B.'

1. atheist a. Loud-mouthed woman

2. virtuoso b. Connoisseur of good food

3. virago' c. Disbeliever in God .

4. gourmet d. Beginner

. 5. tyro e. . One who . leads an austere life

6. philatelis, f. Stamp-collector

7. ascetic g.. Traitor

8. pedant h. Boot-ticker

9. judas. i. Skilled practitioner of the arts

10~ sycophant j -. 'One who is ostentatious about his learning

II

Write the word with the indicated initial letter ,that

satisfies each definition. \ .

1. Insane desire to set fires P ." , ..

'. 2. Uncontrollable propensity to steal K ..

3 .. Forgetfulness of the past A- .

4. Sleepwalking S ; : .

5. Alternating fits of despondency and

6 hSilarity . M .

. plitpersonality S : :

~. ~eru; of closed spaces C :

9" ontinuous drunkenness D : .

1 (f- ~ersecution cf.;!11plexP , V

. . ear of large spaces A , .

TWENTY-S'ECOND DAY

III

'Choose the. word in group A that satisfies each of the' definitions in Group B.

. A lethargy weltschhmerz

nostalgia antipat Y

benevolence compunction

satiety enervation .

frustration ennui

superciliousness vindictiveness' misogyny' misanthropy vicariousness '

B 1. Homesickness :; : ~ ..

2. Good win to all ; ,; ..

3. Repletion ~ ~ ..

4 Thwarting ; .

·5:·-i5iS1Ike-~.:~ : · .. .i.:», .. ,··· •· .. • .. • .. •• ~: ..

6. World-SQrrow ~ : .

7. Hatred of women , ..

8. Scruple ,' .

9. Revengefultiess :; , : : ..

10. "Haughtiness '.;:.~ ,

II. Sluggi~hness ; , .

12. Exhaustion ..

13. Boredom : ,.: : .

14. Hatred of mankind , ; : .

. 15. lndirc'ctexperience , ..

IV

Write in the science that d.eal~ with .each of the tonow-

ing subjects. The initial letter 1S grven, . 0

. 1 Mankind A , I gy

'. G' log"

2. Rocks . .. 0 .)

3. Ancient relics A ~ gy

. . '. E logy

4 U born babies ' •

. n E'" logy

, 5. Insects , .: : 0

.6. Distribution of races E logy

7. Derivation of words E I gy

Test Your Progress

8. Birds

9. Languages

10. The human mind

o logy

. P : . .. logy

P logy

v

Here are two columns of ten word! each; Where the words opposite each other are synonyms, write the letter "S" between the pair. Where they have opposite meanings, write "0." Where the words have no relationship to each

other, write "N." .

it. loquacious talkative

2. gullible shrewd

3. suave happy

4. pompous C01!91jl~d~.~

5. taciturn, silent

6. phlegmatic excitable'

7. erudite ignorant

8 .. complacent constant

9. punctilious careless

10. indefatigable tireless'

VI

In column' A are ten definitions; in column. B are ten blanks. each with an initial and final letter. The .definitions

. in column A and the words to be -supplied in column B do not necessarily face each other. It is up to you to unscramble the columns and fill in theremaining letters of each word, For instance, start. with number 1, "minor indiscretion." Now run down columnB and see if (with' the: initial. and last letters: to guide you ) you can recall

the word that the phrase "minor indiscretion" describes.

When yon succeed if' remembering it, fill it in. .

A. B.

1. P y

2. M _ r

1. minor indiscretion '

2. poverty

162

TWENTY-SECOND DAY

3. bQastfulness

4. cure-all

5. failure

6. characteristic peculiarity

7. irregularity

8. warmongering

9. pretend illness

10. trickery .

3. J ,,,. m

4. B 0

5. P a

'6. P' 0

7. F 0

8. A : ·y

9. C ~. Y

10., I ' Y

VII

Match the two colnmns ..

, A.

1. one whose' mind is turned inward

2. 'self,·centered .

3. restrained .

, 4. modest '

5. bubbling over with high spirits

6. company-loving , 7, fierce; ovel'bearing

8. gloomy .

9. extra,vagantly chivalrous

10. one whose mind is turned outward

B. ' ::t.·diffident

b. extrovert

c. .lnhibited d.satllrnine

e. egocencric

f. quixotic

g. introvert

, h. effervescent

i. truculent

j. gregarious

, VIII

In each 0f the five lines below there i~ cine word that correctly e,xpresses the meaning given in the word or

. words in italics just ahead. Check a, b, or c. .

l.'c~mmon, ordinary:. a.plebd;:lu,' b. obsequious, c.

, maudlin· .

2. miserably failing:a. perfund0ry, b. abortive, c. su:r-

reptitious .

3. iruel: a: presmnpmous, h. s::distie, c. flaGrant

4. vulgar: a, inane, b. wantCi1, c. crass

5. biting: a, macahrc"b. dogn{,:t),c, c. ·vi:.LioEc:

Test 'Your Progress

IX

Proceed as in Test VIII.

1. at the same time: a. acrimoniously, b. adroitly c

concomitantly .' ," .,.

2. caalr1efuUy: a. circumspectly, b. cursorily, c. didacti-

c y ,

3. smoothl~:a. dispara¥ingly,b., glibly,· c. plaintively

4. threateningly: a .. ominously, .b, with impunity c. in-

advertently , , .,

5. secretly: a. irascibly, h. sub rosa, c. vociferously

X

'Yrite the English meaning of each italicized Greek or

Latm root.

,1. magnanimous 2., unique .' 3,. unanimous

4: benefit

5. benevolence , 6. dictaphone

. 7. manujscture . 8. monogamy

9. theology "

10. bicycle,

. .

............................ ~.

.... ,,, ', .' ~ .

.. ,' ." ~ ,;,~ ', .. ~

.............................

....... , , .

.......... ,.-.,. , .

~ ••• '.,\" ••••••••••••• ! ••••••

~ ..... ~ ' .. ; ... .- .. ',' . " .. :.~ " ... --. .

ANSWERS:

1:(1) c; , (2) i;(:3)a; (4) b; (5) d; (6) f: (7) -ei ,(8) j; (9) g; (10) h ~

II: (1) _pyromania;. ('2)' kleptomama; (3) amnesia' ( 4 ) somnambulism; (5). 'ma~ic-' depression; ( 6 ) schizonhrenia; . (7j- claustrophobia; (8? . dipsomania; (9) para~ nOla:, . (10) agoraphobia .

TWENTY-SECOND DAY

III: (1) nostalgia; (2) benevo .. lence: (3) satiety; (4) frustration' (5 ) antipathy;

, .' ' .

(6) weltschmerz; (7) .ml-

sogyny; (8) compunctIon; (9) vindictiveness; (10) superciliousness; (11) lethar-, gy;' (12) enervati.on; , (13) ennui; (14) misanthropy; (15) vicariousness

IV: (1) anthropology; (2) geology; (3 ) archaeology; (4 ) embryology; (5) entomology; (6) ethnology; (7) etymology; (8) ornithology; (9) philology;. (10) psychol-

ogy , '

V: (1) S; (2)0; (3) N; (4)S; (5)8; (6)0; (7) 0;, (8) N; (9) 0; (10) S

VI: (1) penury; (2), malinger; (3) jingoism; ( 4) braggadocio; (5) panacea.. (6) peccadillo;' (7) fiasco;. (8) anomaly; (9) chicanery; ( 10) idiosyncrasy

VII: (1 j g; (2) e,; ,(3) c; (4) 'a;' (5) h; (6) 1;(7) 1; (8) d;(9) f; (10) b VIII: (1) a; (2) b; (3) b; (4)

c;(5) c ' ,

IX: (1) c; (2) a; (3) b; (4) a; (5) b .

X: (1) .large; ,(2) one; (3) mind Of spirit; ( 4 ) well; (5) wish; "(6) say; (7) make; (8) marriage; (9) G,'d; (lO)two, twice

Test Your Progress

Scoring: one po~t for, each' correct answer

Maximum score: 95 i

, Your Score': ..

80-:,-95 ,E.xceliellt

70-79 Good

S 1-69:Passil1g 0-50 Poor'

If your .score Isn't: as creditable as you would like, don't ' feel the least bit, discouraged. And whatever your .age, don't use the excuse that "you can't teach an old dog new tricks. " ' , ,

. This ancie!1tb~li~f .has been.cntirelY disproved by an, exhaustive series of tests conducted under-the-direction of Dr. Irving Lorge. brilliant young psychologist of COlll1Jt1bi~ University, He established the fact that thehuman mind retains its full powers up to the most advanced age. The speed of thinking is usuallyalittle less, but withoiit excep: lion, the power element shows no decline whatsoever with people even up to ninety years of age. , ",,',

So Dr. Lorge has deprived us of the easy and comfort-

a'b1c alibi of agel ' ' , , .

, '

Call cr'e" Weet 'crh,j',ChGllenge1

."', .

, '

"Continuing the inductive, psychological, and indirect method'of\luilding vocallulary that we discussed in Chapter XX,W( shall m~throwy():u pell-mell intoaquiz to test your understanding of a group of wordsbefore going on to 'consider then In each of the fifteen sentences that follow you will 'find oneortwo words in italics: If the'words are

"strange to ~ou, read the sentence carefully. Then; in each case,put a check. after the particular ,phrase-'ll, b, orc-

, that you think COmes nearest-the meaning. .

,\\

1. If.spelling.is your hete noire,

I a; You love spelling. '

.b, You are a good speller. ,c. YO~l hate spelling. . '

2.Uyour friend looked cadaverous. youwottld say to

hUn: '

166

\

I

Can You Meet This Challenge?

l()Y

a. When did you getup froni sleep?

b. Better stop eating so many sweets.

c. \\'hat cemetery do you live in? ' ,

3. If the, ' Pre~ident(wantscarte blanche in allocating

defense funds, "

, a. 'He, wishes no. strings to be .. attached to the money.

,.b. He does not want specialfundsearmarked':

c. He wants instructions fromCong..ess on' how to

spend.' "

4. Esoteric knowledge is

a., Knowledge possessed by a few.

b. Useless knowledge, "", ' '

c. ~owl~~!!e ~a( was buried with the iall of an-

'. cient civilization, . ; , ' "

S. The man who says that psychology is his 'iorte

, ~eans ' ' I

,W- l:Iehates,the subject. ' " ,

.~. He's particularly good in the subject.

c. He loves the subject. "

,6~ When you come to animpassei,

a. Stop. look, and listen!," ~'

b, y?U ~d .yourself completely blocked ~ a cer-

tain 1I1tuatlon. " , , '

c. Wait for a guide to show you the way out.

.7. Incongruous means, ", .

a. Outot place or character,

I? Not honest,' '

c. Not useful.

8. Docile people are

a. Stunid;

b. Lovable,

9,. c.' Ea,>ny managed. "

Miscegenation is marriage between'

a. A Pre~l>ytcrian and an Episcopalian.

b. An heiress and a pauper. '

c. People .,f different races.

10. Moribund institUtions •

'a. Are passing out of-existence.

. .... '.

, ,

"

. Tvt>'ENTY-TIURD DAY

b. Are in charge .of :dishone,st pe.ople.·

c. Are uild~m.qci,atic~ . ,

11. \A nebulous, idea is one tha~ is

. . a.Heaven-sent.

b. VagUe.

c. As pure as clouds.".

12. People . who indulge .in, recriminatiollSare . probabl)1

, ll~ ~laying a game.

, b. Quarre1ing.

c. Writing letters.

13. The repercussions of an event must .happen

a. Before.

b.After. . J

'C. At t~~ same time. -: ", ..... . '. ,

'14 .• \ .. urrilces language would more than likely be heard .

i~.l ,_,,,,, ,', - .' , '\

a. The. halls of Congress.

b. A quarrel between.two stevedores.

c. Asetmon. .

. 15.Sopori/ii' speakers tend to

, a. Stimulatt you to action. .., . "

b. ApPeal t() your nobler ins,tincts.

c. PUt you to sleep. . .

ANSWERS: (1 )c; (6) b; (11), b; c

(2) c; 1(3) a; (4.) a; . (5) b; (7) a; (8) c; .(9) 'c;,(10) a; (2) b; (13) b;' (14) bj (15)

II

N~wprOJiounce the wordHeVt;ral times. ,ae,arthem in your oWD,voice,and you begin . to feel more and

more at home witb them! .• " " .

1'- . befi' noiye(bet-NW AHR'J

2.' cadave"olll s (k>DAVP~~r:;,s) , 3.' carte blan,che- (kart.:,:al.AHNSH') 4.' esoteric (es' -~~tAIR.'-ik)

Can. You Meet This Challenge?

5. forte (FORT')

6. impasse (IM'-pass )

7 •.. incongruous (in-KON(¥-groo-~s)

. ...•. noun, incongruity: (in' -k~ng-GRm1' -o-tee)

8. doczle (POSS' -~l) . . . .... .

.' noun, docility: (doss..slL'-;)-tee)

9. misc,egenalion (miss'+j~NA Y'7sh~D,)

10. moribund lMA\VR'+bund' ()rMA~'~bund') ; ll.nebulou. (NEB'-y~l~s) . . . .' , .

12. recrimina!ion(r;)-krim'+NAY'-sh~.o,)

13: 'rep'er~u$6lon (rep'-;.lr-KUSH'~n) ..

14. 8cumlauf (SKUR'-;)-l~sl '

15. 8opori{ic (sop'+RIF'-ik)

" .' . You'ye~ulIedthe. words and their meanin~o"er in· your mind, Y ~~'vesaid them aloud. Now Write them, one fto each definition. (Some of the words may be required

more than once.) . . . .'. . .

1. A particular object of hate or dread . B

2. Pale; ghastly • . .. .

'3; Unconditional permisslonor ~1ithor- C i ..

fty ,.. '.

4 .. Confined to a select circle .

S~ One's strong point

6. COrpselike .

7. A 'blind alley; an insurmountable

obstacle' .

8. For the' initiated few

'9; Inadaptable; out of place

10. Tractable" . '

11. Dead end ,'.

12. An objeCt of dread.

13. Marriage of mixed races

14. In a dying state

15. Hazy; -indistinct

16. Charges retorted; abusive argument ..

III

169

C .. ; ..

E .

F ..

C .

1::; ; ..

'E .

I .- i ..

D .

I. .'

-B ::::::::::::::::.

M i ~.

¥ : ,

N _, .

R ~ .

.. .'. ).\.' .

TWENTY';'TH,IRD DAY

17. Reverberation~

18. Grossly offensive or vulgar 19: Tending to produce sleep 20; Pale and gaunt

ANSWERS: (1) betenoite; '(2)~adav!!rous; . P) cart~ . blanch. e;(4) esoteric; (5) forte, .(~).(c;)

'. . (7) impasse; (8) esotenc, .. .

daverous, d . ile: (11) impasse; .

Incongruous; . (10) oc~, . ' .. ('14).

(1.2) bete noire; (13) miscegenanon; .,

lbund: (15) nebulous; .( 16) recnrmnamon . '. . .(18) urrllous: tions; (17 ) repercussions; .. . sc ..,

(19) soporific; . (20) cadaverous

~ : .

S· .

S .

C·· ..

IV

Here is another list of twentydesQ1ptive ph::S~S.W; . have shuffied]he words, and~~ain h~ve. repeate . severa.

·.Follow,·the same 'procefdrl1arcee~·m .SectlonIll. M .: .. , ... , .... ; .. '

1. Intermarnage o. ' ..

ft d t .. a.arti.c. ular. clT.cIe E ..

2. Con ne . 0 a r ... • .•. , C

3. Permission without condition . ...: .

4. Ine:)ltricablt diffi~ulty ." I : ..

5 Incoinpatible' I , ..

6: On the point of dying . M : ..

7 Confused and hazy ~ N .

8: Vuliarlya~usive. '. ~ ::::::::::::::::

9. Black marnes white 1 ; ..

10. Deadend C :.:; : .. ,

11. Ghastly . B ~ .. ; .

V--12. BugabQ_o~ . . ..... '. . 1 F'

, 13. Somethin:l1O which one exce S D ::::::::::::::::

14. Managea e N ... L .........

'15 H .

1· • azy R .: .

. '16. Echoes S , .

17. Producing sleep. . . . M ..

18. Occidental weds Onental E , .

19 .. Fora few F ,.\ .

. 201 Specialty

\,

Can You Meet This Challenge?

-

ANSWERS: (l) -miscegenation; (2) esoteric; (3) carte

blanche; (4)iropasse; (5) incongruo!JS;' (6) moribund; (7) nebulons.. (8) scurrilous; (9) miscegenation;' (10) impasse; (11) cadaverous; . (12) bete !!_oix'e; (13) forte; . (14) docile; (15) nebulous; (16) repercussions; (17) soporific; (1 S) miscegenation; (19) esoteric; (20). forte

Let's try something. new now; putting ·you more on ·your own. Write the word that best completes each sentence.

1. Some people think that fidelity in marriage ~.

'" ........•.... ··.·.v

2. Knowledge of Oriental magic is highly .: ,

3. If you hate cats with a purple passion, then cats are

. your ..

4 .. ' A man suffering from consumption m~y look

........ ' ~ ....•

s, The facts behind. a politician's statements are of-

. ten : : ' ..

6.~atis the~one thing you hate or fear' most? What

lS your particular ....... , ...... '" ? .

. 7. After a .dyIiamicPresidential speech . one often

hears. abroad. .

8"Mar~iage between- people of different races is called.

............ : ........•

. 9. When a husband and wife quarrel' they frequently

indulge in bitter ". '

1 O .. A lecturer with a monotonous voice often produces

··a effect. . ,

U. Angry truckdrivers frequently use : ~ ·.Ian- .

• guage. . . . J

. 12. What ~re you most skilled at.? Wbat isyo1.U' special

. , .. : : 1

13: The cow is a very animal.

,~~--------------------~--------------~~----------------------------------,,----""

~

~ . I

'\

17Z TWBNTY·~THRRD DAY

14. A fat and awkward girl would look .... ; ... .,', .. :; .....

, in the ballet. . .'. " . " ,

H.Shegave her. husband " "' to mVlteany-

one he wanted-to the patty"

ANSWE.RS: . (1) moribund; (2) esoteric; , (3) betenoire; (4) cadaverous; (5) nebulous; (6) hete noire; ,'(7) . repercussions; (8) miscegenation; (9) rt!cl'iminations; (10). sopori?c; (11) scurrilous; (12) forte; (13) docile; ( 14) incongruous'; ( 15 ) carte blanche

I,

VI

Your tasKS are beoomfug more challenging withea~b new exercise--and here isa particularlyhard one. Write the wordthat is opposite in meaning to each of the fo~lowing phrases. Note. Well: Opposite. not synonymou:sl

. Again, some-will be required more thanonce,

1. Known.to- all " .

Z, Caucasian marries Caucasian ; , •...

3 .. In keepinywith surroundings ' ; ..

4. Stin1wating likecoffee , ...

50 Radiantlv healthy ..

- \.'." . .,

·,6.'\:~imited power

1. Crystal clear . '8 .. Easy sailing . . 9: One'e weak suit

10. Restricted power

11. Mutual praise

.' 12. The thing you love most

13. Decent in expression' . . ,

14. Something in which one isunskilled ..

15. In a healthy state .

. 16. Stubborn 17. Not the least bit hazy ·it:. Esoterlc

\.

, \

••• e ••• b .

• ".' .. o." ••• ~ ••••• '. I ••

••......................

........... ~ ~ , .,.

•• ~ •••• ! •••.•••.••••••

•••••• ~ ••• 1, ••••• ~ •••

.....................

........ 6. ~ •• " .

.oo ••••• " •••••••••• ~.

• I

~.m You Meet This Challenge?

~.73

19. Keeps you awake' ,. ..

iO., Marl'i~ge of white to white ..

ANSWERS: (1) esoteric; . (2) miscegenation; (3) incongruous; ( 4) soporific; (5) cadaverous; (6) carte blanche; (7) nebulous; (8) impasse; (9) forte; .. (10) carte blanche; (11) recriminations; (12) bete nOll'e; . '(13) .scurrilous; (14).f()rte; '(5) moribund; (16)

\ docile; (17) n~bulou~;(18). esoteric;

(19) soporific; (20) miscegenation

VII

It isextraordin.arilydifficult to~itethedefmitiobs of a word, And yet your understanding .9£ a word must .be somewhat nebulous if you can't define it. 'Try your hand at writin~ brief .definitions. of thefolk)wing words: '.

1. hete notre " , :.; ..

2; ~~~~~;.~~~ .. ::::::::::::::::::::::.:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: .

'. . , .. , ;'; , , ~.,' , ; ..

3 ". carte blanche , ~ , .

4. ·~~~t~;i~··::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::.::::::::::::::::

5 ", f··;;;~~ .. · ·· '····· .. ' .. ········ · .. · .. ·· .. · .. · .. · .. ···· .

••••••• ~ ~ - .• , o, •••••••••• ,. ~ ••

6 .: : ~ , , ...

. 'zmpasse :,' : ; ;' , ~.: ; .

, • I

7" i~~~ft~;~h~~···::·:::::·::::::::::::~::::::::::::::::::::::.::::::;:::::::::::

8 .: d~~ii/~::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::~::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::~

. ,

• > 9 -. ·#zi;t~g~~~ti~~ .. ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::':::::::::::::::::: -,

10 .. ~~;jb~~d··::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::

. ~ ~ , ".,',,' •.. ~ -,,', ,; ~ .

I I'

- .~,I

174 TWENTY-THIRD DAY

: . .. . i .

. 11. nebulous ; ..........•.... , .. ~ .

. . .

• ~ ~. ' •••••••••••••••• ~ •••••••••• ~ •••.• ' ••••••• ~. _ •••••••• " t .••• ," ••••

12. recriminations ..........•..................... : .. ;.: : .

••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• ' '". ,', ~ ••••••••••• ',;' 1 ;: ••• ~ , •••••••• ~ ••• -, •• ,

.. 13; repercussions .: ~ , .. . , ...•....................

.;, • ,' •••••• : .", ,,' •••• : ••••••• , ', ••.••• -: ••••••• ' ••• 1 •••••• ;' ••••• ~ .: ,., •• ~ ~.

14. scurriloUs .; : ; , .. ~ : L ; " ..

' ••••••••••••••••••• ' ••••• , ••••••• ' •••• _~ ••••••••• _ •••••••••••••••• o •••••••• •••• ~ •••••••

15; soporific : , : : ,

. . '_,' .

_ •••••••••••• '0' ;. •••••••••••••• '0 • ~ ••• " ••••••••••••••••••••••• ~ •• ' ••••••• t • .,. ,. •••.

. ANSWERS: 1. A person or object of fear or aversion; a bugbear·

2. Pale.ghastly,corpselike - .',

3. An order signed in blanki- unconditional

authority

4. Adapted' exclusively for the initiated and

enlightened few .. .. '

5. Your strong point; that skill in which you

excel

6. An impassable road. or way; a blind . alley;

an insurmountable situation .

7.' put nf place; inharmonious

8. Easily led and managed

9. Marriage . between· people of ·two different

race': mixed marriage.

10 .. In a dying "ta,te· .

11. Hazy; cloudy; amorphous

12. Accu!lations repelled by other acc~ations; .

. abusive arguments

13. 'Reverberations; echoes

l~.Coarse. opprobrious abuse· .

. 1'5. Tending to cause or to produce sleep,

. ,

You have learned the. words in this chapterip:the way that you normally learn words in your everyday life: Th~t . is, you first COmeaCTOSS a new word ina book orin your newspaper, Of you hear !loroeone.speak it. You wonder at . its . me aning. Your understandir:g of the word gradually

'I

t;an You Meet This Challenge?

. . 175

clears, and each tiJll~ you see . or hear it again you find that your knowled~ebf i~isbecPf!1ing.more secu;e. Finally Y0!l.learn to know, It so well t!tat YQti ~are to use it in your wnting and speakI?~' . ~ ()u.mlght even be . able to define it, as you have done.in this chapter, if you were called upon !o do so, although this is' the hardest challenge of all. That IS, the ~ethods weare using in this book are the methods by which you .nat~rany and unself-consciously learned , most of the words ~n your vocabulary before you picked

up and started working with us. .

':, ,

Words crfaGt· '.Deseribe'lfo" .

• . d this important point in reference to y~ur

Keep m mm. If ou can per~onalize

vocabulary impr~vement pro~fue: bear some relationyour new words. If you can m f living you then materially ship to.yourself and y~urf W~g thes~ words a permanent increase your chances 0 m

Part of your vocabulary. . . . T·hat 18' . if a word

. . 1· w"cds m a vacuum. ,

You cannot earn v .• ill if it cannot

cannot be made-to have.a hearing on YO~ou~ts if it can-

be brought withinthefcirc1e ~~:urpe~:ality o. r ~f your at-

not be made a part 0 your •

titudes, .then that word will remain useless to you.

. . ds i this chapter should, therefore, be thought·

The wor sm. . If Let us for the next few pages,

of in reference to yourse • d life

. consider your o,:",n atti.tuhdes tO~:fn degr' ee of tolerance the

1. Do you View wit a ce. .

176

fVords That-Describe YoJ

177

eccentricities and foibles of other humans? Are you broad, minded,sYmpathetic,inclined to see the other person's point of view? Do your tastes cover a wide range? For'· example, in your reading, canyon .. be interested in everything from detective stories to Russian novels? In your eating. do your likes run the gamut from a New England dinner of boiled beef to a gourmet's delightof.exotlc sea-

.fo04?Yes? Then we will characterize you as a person whose tastes, interests, desires, and sympathies are, in one word,catholic.

2. Do you make trouble by YCJ1Jl: unreasoning, irascible, and vainglorious patriotism? Do you carry your jealousy of your country's' honor to an absurd and ridiculous ex-

treme? You are chauvinistic. .

3:' Are you inclined to give up the struggle before the battle js . lost? Are you. all lao ready to lay down your arms .and admit defeat ata time when braver and moreoptimistic souls would see manyreasons for carrying on? You. are adt-/eatist.

4. Do you .like to dabble in the arts or .the sciences?

Fool a little bit with photography, only to abandon it, say, for stamp collecting? If you flit like a butterfly from in, terest to interest, never concentrating for any length of

time on one.you are a dilettante. .

S. Are you one whose main purpose. in life seems to be theattainment .of pleasure? Do you put: too high a value on the luxuries of life? Are youfond of eating and drinking, and are you an expert in the choice of wines and foods? You are an epicurean.

6. Perhaps you find yourself in such a financial position that you must calculate closely the money costs of all your activities. Then, of course, you must practice economy. But are you too close-fisted. with money? Do people call you stmgy? You are parsimonious.

7. Do you look with contempt upon artists and those witill an artistic tesuperament? Are you ignorant? Prejudiced? Blindly conventional? Narrow .. minded'? Do you tend to have low aimsin 'life and are, you ii;AcHn.ed to be materialistic? You arc a philistine ..

TWENTY-FOURTH DAY

,

8. Are' you wasteful, extravagant,inclined to spend your. money; time, energy,and talent without care or thought?¥ou are aprofligate~

9 .. Do you meet th~ tragedies of Ilfewith a stiff upper lip? Do you conceal your emotions, no matter h9wgreat . your mental orPl:tysical suffering 'may be? You are a stoic. . ,

10. Finally, do you·happen to. know a man who is so absurdly and slavishly devotedto his wife that he is the

joke of the neighb.orhood7 He is uxorious. - ,

,II

Now that was a big order. Possibly many, or even all, of the words. of this chapter arc unfamiliar to you.· If so, the exercises to come will. make '.' them your best friends. Or possibly you are well acquainted with mostor aU of them. In that c~se,. the, pages that follow will provide an

. opportunity for. an. even. warmer' anddeepcr intimacy.

First, of course, we pronounce them .aloud~everal . times. As you say each one, thlnk of, or check back on, the meaning, .and decid.~whether the .. adjective or noun does: or does 'not, fit you, personally,; then check the

pr9pcr box. . ,

1. catholic (KATH'-~-lik)

'2. chauvinistic (sho-v~·NIS'~tik)

3. defeatist (d<l-FEE'-tist) .

4. dilettante (DIL' .. ~~tahnt';' al,~oJ

.dil-~-TAN'-tee) Yes .. : No, •. ; ..

5. " epicurean (ep'-;]-ky~-REE'-:m) yes ., No ......

6 .. parsimonious (pahr .. s~-MO' -nee-

;)s)' . yes ...... No, .....

7 •. r;hUistirut (FII"'-~steeri' or fl)-

. LISS'-tili) .

8. pfofligate (PROF'-l<J~g;')t)

9. stoic (STO'-ik)

, 10. uxorious (uk~SAWR'-ee-;]s)

Yes .. .: .. No '

Yes : .. No .

Yes No; .

yes No .

yes , NO :~

Yes, No .

'yes ,. No · .•.

'J

ea!o geton still better terms with. these ten words fill letterso:~e mpr:~ JO:s key phrase or statement II:itial

. . . ec, ry not to. look :It Sections 'lor II

except as.a desperate last resort. '.

.' .. KEY·.

A-I. A dabbler in. art matter~

2. Undulysp~ring in money

3. Narrow-mlnded: uncultured

4. Always expecting failure . .

. S. ,~ith liberal vie:;"s and wide tastes · R·1.NIggardly . .

· 2. Exaggeratedly patriotic '

-. 3.Fo~lishly devoted to one's wife 4.'Beheve..o; that pleasureis'chief good

· 5, Recklessly extravagant .

c-r. Absurdly nhti6nali~tic

2. Materialistic

. 3. "<?iveup the ship!"

4. Stmgy .

5. Superficial amateur·

D-1'. Penny-pinching' ."

2 ". Indifference,to pleasure 'or pain

, 3. A severe ascetic .

4. Ig;'l0rant and narr0w-minded .

v5- GIven to dissipation' .

. E.:.1.· Cornpn~hensive in~ympathies

2. Follows. a. branch of knowledze

superficially ", . 1;>_

3. l:0Vt~S ~herefinemei1ts of pleasure

4. Excessively patriotic .:

5. "Eat and be merrvl"

. F-:- 1. W!th, exquisite taste in . food and

drink .

'. ~bandoned in character and prin- E .

.~iples .... .

~ Insensible to virtueand decency

<,

Words That Descrt.be Yo. u

'~":'f :

III

179

WORD

.D ...... , ....... .,

P ,

P ::::::::::::::::

D ..

C ; .

P .

C ..

U ..

E .

P , .

C .

P .

D , ..

p .. , ".

D .

i. ~;:: !!';::,:,,::

. .

p , .

'C , .

D ..

i ::::::'::: :::

p ..

p .. '

................

TWENTY-FOURTH DAY·

4. Wasteful of money .

S. Excessively fond of' one's wife

. p : .

u ; ..

. ANSWERS: A. (1 ) dilettante; . (2) parsimonioliS; . (3 ) philistine; (4) defeatist; (5) catholic

B. (1) parsimoI)ious; (2) chauvinistic; (3) uxorious; ( 4) epicurean; (5) profligate

C. (1)' chauvinistic;- (2) philistine; (3) defeatist; (4) parsimonious; (5) dilettatite D. (1) parsimonious;" (2) stoic; (3) stoic; ( 4) philistine; (5) 'profligate

E. (1) catholic; (2ldilettante; (3 )epicurean; . (4) chauvinistic; (5) epicurean ., F. (1) epicurean;. (2) protligate;(3) profligate; (4) profligate; (5) uxorious

IV

Each of the nine paragraphs that follow· describes one of the words that we have been talking about. Can you . tell which one and write it in?

1~ My. taste is highly cultivated for aUthiIlgs.While

I am not b¥ any means promiscuous .in my intereats; still I can always see the other person's point of view.l am tolerant to a great degree, for my syrp.pa.thies ate comprehensive and au embracing; I am

...................... ;... . . . \..'

2. :Ftugal1 To thetast ditch! people have even accused

me .of l'cing tigh.t~fisted and . stingy. and I am afrllid. that if they are' referring to my attitude toward

spending money. ihey are correct. J' am ~ .

3. I llavebeen accused of bein .. g .wit"hi\)ut emotions, but the fact is that I have merely tfaine.d myseJf to be indiiIerent alike to pain. andpleasurc: l.am If: (an)

. 4.,1 a.mgreatly bit-crested in the fine arts, bllt b~~,ing a person.ot in.depeud.ent me.ans I don't. have to really ,work hard at 'them, .,udit isn't necessary for roe. to

.......... , ••.••.••• ',' .' 011

I

. TWENTY;';'FOURTH DAY

v

'By now YQuare developing real and assured control over tpese words. Therefore, you Will, be able to sail . through the next exercise with .the greatest of, ease and' a

. perfect 01' near-perfect score. Check a; b, or ,c.

1 •. A person of catholic tastes is

a~ religio'Qs. ' "

'b. moraL" '

c. sympathetic.

2. If you met an American chauvinist it would be safe,

totemark:

a."1 would really rather live abroad."

. b. "I' loye . my country and Id~spise all· other

nations.", .

c. ~·LiSten. Amer1<:a has plentY, of black marks on her'recordI How about the Spap.ish-American··

war?'" .... : ". ,

3. Thedefeatilt is a

. a.cOward.

b~ pessimist.

c.bully.' ,

4 •. Anybody knows that a,clilettanteis a. ~ master of the arts.

b.' a struggling young art~t. .

c. one who follows the arts as a pastime.

S. The epicurean's greatest delight comes from

a. pleasurc~ , . '

, b.~ruelty.

c. 'self-torment.

6; ,PQ1'simonWU!? He's 'a , a. miser,

{ b. spendthrift. ,

c; philanthropist. .. '

1. While the word' philistine' is of Biblical orlgin, if noW merely refers to a, person. who is

.a, hypocritically pious. ,

I

I

I.

Words That DesCribe, You

1.~3

b. ~:ow-:minded; opposed to progress and !ear~-

c. wealthy and .hardhearted. ' •

fs. Few people teal' th ~

a .' 1___' ' 1Ze. at a stoic doesn't mind,

, . p,u;;aa~re and Pain. ' ' . . ,

b. .pe~din8 money •

c. gettmg~,

9. An uxoriolU man '

ba. ~ooU.Wy ~dfondly dotes on his wi£

• 15 .completely pennil' ." ,. e.

at ess.'

. - c. . waYIl oomplains of thew .

, 10. A. profligate person is ., e way life treats him.

a. dishonesL' ,

b~msincere •

c. ·wasteful.

, I

I

ANSWERS: (1) c; (2) b;'

. (6) "a:, (.7) 'b,' (3)b;(4),c; ... (5) a'

# (8) a; '(9) a; (l(»c ~,

VI

,.An~ DOW for the acid test ~f .. "1"'" ','.

" chec~g back to an re' '. y~>ur earntng, Without

word next1Oittde~~on~ous matenal,can you Write ~cb

, .1. ~r( ad-mm. • .ded iIi views . '. :

,2. :.xaggetated patriot ' ..

3. Fo oWR,the nnIi " • . .

, ~. 'T"de . r" CYOr, practice of admit- .

'. img. feat too quickly , .

I~;g:e who dabbles in art and lette~ ...

.. ' e who-makes ap~~"";" f' .

, sure. A coen '"L ..,.,slon 0 pIea- ,do,"

6 N' .• (>JSse~ of ood and wine

. v.uneceasarily frugal' " .... , .... : ... J.ti I ,

7 . A person .th . . t -l .. ',f i. I

• An. :_-': .Wld 'al"Plebe~an type of mind. .. .. •· .. · .. W··I·'I .. ·.·" . u.lW!I U , of materialistic

,who JS. mterested nel'th'er' ill; atttastes

letters " , . nor '

,8., <;ompletely given' up t dis • ' ' ......... ~ ...... , :;'.

solute;wastefUt ' •. 0 'slpation;4is_'

. I

TWENTY~FOURrHDAY

9.: A person'showing no. 'en1otion over . pleaSure 01' pain .. .

'10 .. Extravag:mtly submissive to,:w,d doting

. _ upon; one's wife .' ".

.1. .

I

.......... ~

'ANSWERS: (1 ) catholic; (2) chimyinist; (3tdefeatist; '(4) dllettant~;(S) epiC1iJ:ean; (6) parsimonious; .•. (7) philistine; (8) proffigate.; (9)

stoic; (10) uxorious ' I

. lnalllikellhooo this has not been an easy chapter: But it " is true, isn't it, that. an·learniilg and all the. skillJare acquired ohlyby dogged. systematic, and intensivework'l Afierall. the greatest obstacle to anyone'agetting ahead is just plaip:lazjness.The average man m~e. a fair suecess with very ordinary effort, aJld cop.ver$~ly,most people I Jose out in life 'just because theywon'f takethc'trou1:J1e to win. ,That'. whytherc's always so much room at the top.

n youwiU make use of the ideas in thi.1?ook. they will

" . open in~ydoon to you. n you will make the precepts of . this book a lifetime habit, tbe habit will take care of you. and leatlYO\lto. $fCater su~. Su(:cen itselfis.~ hltbit. :Li.fe bas ntanypri~a Viaitfugfortbe winner. And,aiter

aU,it'salot less eXhausting to Win tbatdo worrY. .

_'

t .1;

/

tJtr~lI4'''r,"es ' Cit'ouCan U.e

I,

"'

The rivers of alfIan .' ..... .' .'

ervoir 'of.·En. 'glis. 'h' guages have flowed into the vas'. t .

. .' "res-

~e ,following paragraph ~iJl .' . '.

vane~l !JO~ces. Each of th " ~v7 you Just a hintof its .

I :an.~shfroma foreignlang1.l:g;~a1iClZ~d words came~to '

. . The sky was.teemina: o· .' ..'. '

. lnfiuen~a;' He came up 'o:t~~e~~ .boss. has a. tpucn .. ~f moth umbrdla;entered .• th '. . nda, put.d?WI1 hls·m.amroom, and.. liat doWn. H: 'rutmfort;~ble, oasu .of hisliVfug

. Vfarmoo himself 'first .' illed his pipe . With tobacco . listened tohlspetca~~ '~?t cocoa, then coffee.·' and .'

Here VIe the .' .. g... .

. parentages of these words: -'

sky Old Norse oasis . '.

boss .: .nu Egyptian

'infi' ' .• :................... rtch- tobacco .. ~·; '. .' '.-

uenza... . . Ital: ..... _' . . . •••••• nCit Indian .. '

...... -... ww coco" '

veranda. . Po u..... . -.' a Me"'.··,. . an.

· .. i .. ··. A~ 5uese coif . . ~

mammoth ; •.. ,RUSSian canaryee Ara?i~

umbrella ltali" .' ; .. S. p am ., b

, an '" .

\ .

185

"

TWENTY-PIPTH DAY

The Diain contributors to English, however, are not the language .. from which the a'bove:examples have been 'tak~n. They are, rather .French. Utln. and Greek, ,. . .

. French, as woUld be undemandable 'haa, added a 'large number of delicate and graceful worda and phrases to our '. speech. Many of these have been ~4opted so recently that

Ij,-;'/ they still retain their Qalli£.~!~ , ,... " .

lIer~-are ten common: French importations:

I.. If a prisoner of war werebeingtortured and were-on

. the point. of tteath; the final, stroke that killed him. would-be th~ coup (It grace. Any blow that Puts a suffering and greatly ,weakened animal; person. . or institutioJ;lout of its misetyisllcoup dlgrace. Thus, we Will say, a conqueror hasallowed a subject nation to continue fora time, with

, nominal~depeiJ.denceWhen and if thatconquerord$ides . to overrunthe vanquished nation and completely destroy

. itslas~ vestige offreedom,he,.will be delivering the coup

de grace. . , . .' .

2. Anyone who is. in the way,' out, of place. or not wanted is .tk trop. If li~e brother insists on sitting in the living room when his sister's beau CQmesa-calling he is

considereddc trop. ' .,. . .',

. ,3. In' asophisticated CQ.Jlversatlon, slightly off-color or' , improper remarkaare som'etimel made in terms that seem 'innocent Any word orpbraSe that haa twomeanings, one . of them an. indelicate one, is called a double-entendre .:

4. You are enrapport with someone when there is a perfect meeting of minds and a eompteteabsence: offric-

tion. . - .

'.. 5. ,A cooperative spirit on - thepart' ofagroup, COIDbihed .with an enthusiastic submergence of self-interest. for

. the sake of the common good, is called esprit de corps. A crack regiment is sometime.' fanted for Jt$ esprit de corps.

6. ,:Napoleon, proved .himself to be Ii leader par excel'limce.Esc,offier,notedthe world over for his cuisine, was

'" " ,', ,'. '. "..' ," '. '.,

French Phrases You Can Use

, '. 1137

.a . chef par 'excellence. :Ralph Waldo' . .

say, was the interpreter of PlatOrtQ1' . Eml~;so~. we mIght

7. If your mind is. .. rfe .... It '. exce tence,

Ings, if you. are alive peand c: ~ttUI1~ to' Y01,~ llu1'!0tmd-' around. you, if you areon . e to, ,that lS 80mB on pectanr, you are on the ~Ui vf{,~;d, WIde aWake~eager. ex-

. .8. A !!!_et!!_eX of things, an assOrt d d'

. DliXtureof great vmety' . caIJed' . e an. heterogeneous v"""'/

9 ~dlO; Have o~lI ~ pOlpoum.

'. 'perfect' 1 . '. y e~er met a man or Worn. an wi~f.·

· .' poise Do you notice how h h . LB4

tbeCQrrect and charming,th0 . the or: 8 eliays exacdy ,

is, such. a person guilty of igt ~t epro;er time1Never mIstake; on 'the c.ontt .. ' '. eMX pas,. an embattassing"

ticated, 'cosmopolitan ~ ~o~ ,phed.ectly. poised, !lOP:I:lliJ..

· loire.' '. n 1S .~. e possessor of iav.oJr.

II

The pronunciation of w ds . fr ,'. . .

l'~quire a Gallic accent-aif h~veo~:e French does no* CJZed. When you Use luch '. . ." iomewbatAngli_ occasionally will, dorttt . aa W{Y~d -: an~ ,wee~ that you

~boutto bresk into BOD ~ orieU:ignificantly as if you Y'~i:e' .'. unporr as natriraU . g ume contrary, (jay the Pansm.n

Upotithousands, 1:':? ?ther word--after aU, tboUSMd~ .

'tongues: fromdreek . L::h O~dr::comefrom. foreign Italian. P.orrugue.'le ci·. ,n.] .' one, " German" Dutcll,

T '. • mese, apan\.~e etc

· rue. WIth French :imports A .. 1~!': ..

quite as far as with most' . tb . i.ll6"'ClZaU,?n· has not gone .

tbatthe sounds you Will'~ e~o d? not beuw:pnsed . allthe~f!tters.in every word. m . g will not,aCOOWlt.fOE

. ~Here.then is a close ap' ..•. ..' t!te. French. Practice tbenfr~!r~:on of Om' tenns from tzmes. ." y, ruoud.and mmy

, 1. coup de grace (koot-Og-GRAHSS') ,

. 2. d~trop (d;)-T.RU)' , .

!.double-entemlre, (Drro'~bl~ahrt-IAHN' ..lI~)

• en rapport (alm'-ra'-PAWR.') ' .. --"