Sie sind auf Seite 1von 27

c

Active Electronically Scanned Ar r a y


ccc c
c c
c
c
 cc c cc ccccccc
c   c c c  c 
 c 
c  c c
c c c c   c  c c c   c c

 c cccc c c cccc
 c cc

c c   c !


c c
 c  c   c c  c c
  
c  c
  c
 c c cc c c cc  c c ccc c
c
c
 ccc
 c c c
 cc c
cc cc!
c
c"c c c 
 c cc c
c
 c
"  c  ccc c c 
 c cc


 ccc c c c c  c

c
c

=ontents
c

 c
########################################c

$ 
 c c############################c

%ccc#################################c

   c&c###################################c

'
cc
ccc  #############################c

()*c+c*c+,#########################c

  c  


cc


cc cc*  c  ######################c

(cc##c#c###c#c#c##c#c##c#c#c

#######################c


 
c-#################c

.c" cc##c#c##c###c#c#c##c#c##c#c# c

 c'cc 
c   c

c c###c

(cc%c/
 c$
cc/0   #c#c##c#c##c

c1c  c


  c c&  c'  c#############c

 cc c
c

c
 ccc##cc

   c-c(  cc$ c


 ##############c

) c2 cc  
###############c

& c   ##################c

*    #c#c##c#c##c##c#c#c##c#c##c#c## c

3
  ############c#########c

'   c####################c

c
c

Abstr act

 cc
 c
c

c
 cc c  c
c c" cc

 ccc cc c c c 
 c c  c 
  c c  c cc c
c


c cc c "c c

 cc c cc  cc

 c c$  cc  c ccc ccc c cc   cc

cc  cc ccc   


 c cc  cc "c   cc

 c
c

ccc  c c
cc cc  c c
c ccc  c'c
c c c   c c c c c  c  c c 
c   c  c c  c

  
 
c 
ccc c c cc c c c 
 cc c c
  cc
  
c 
c c c c 
 ccc c c

 cc c 


c 
cc ccc c c c 
 cc c


 cc  c$c c c cc  c c c  c c

cc  c

cc
 cc  c cc 
 c cc

c2 c. c c

 
 c  c c c 
"c c c c c  ccc c 
" c c
c c!
c c

c
c c! c
 c

c
c

ïntroduction to AESA-Radars

c c c2


c 
 c c  cc
 
c c c  c c c

 c 
 cccc c c c 0c2
c
cc 
 c c c 
c

 c  c c  cc c*cc


 c c4567cc c8c% cc c


 cc c* 
 c c cc cc
c c c  c  ccc

  cc c c
  9  ccc c
c*/c  c c

* 
 c/  c c c8 c1 c c cc
 cc c* 
 c/  c c

 c c

cc c c
  c

cc ccc   c  c c c c. c c


c c
 
c c c

2
c cc
 c cc 
 cc c c c c
c
"c c ccc  c

 cc  c  c c!


c c c   c c cc
 c cc c  c

c c cc
  cc c   c  c c c  c cc c"c

c c
 cc  c  ccc

c 
 !c c c
 c c c c  c

    c c cc c 


c2
c c cc c   c
cc c
c

 c  ccc c"c c 


ccc
c 
c 
 cc


   c c
 c
c c c 
c
 c
c 
 cc c 
c

  c
  cc c c  c cccc

" cc

c c  c"cc


 
c c  c ccc c   c c


 cc ccc cc   c c  c 
 
c c c  c c 
c
c

c  c
 c
c  c c
cc   c2
c c  c c c c

  c cc cc   c  cc 


c"  c c
cc cc
  ccc cc!
c$ cc c
 cc  cc c"c cc  cc

cc
c c c c c  c 
 c

  c c c45:7c c   ccc 


c  cc c c  c

c c


c c

c
 cc (cc cccc(c "cc

c
c

 ccc c
c c cc c cc c
cccc c c

 c c c  c  cc c


 c c c
c c c 
c

  c   c c  c  c c 


c c c c  
c c  c  c
  c
  c c c c cc ccc
cc c
 c

c c
c

c cc c  c c  c c c cc(c


 c
 cc cc
c
c

c!
"c  cc   c

c c  cc c

c  c

(cc c  c c


c c
cc c c c
 c
 c c

"c c c cc c


 ccc c
  c   cc 
" cc   c c


cc c  c(c!
"c
c c c c c c 0c


 c c c45:7ccc  c cc c

c "c

cc c cc c  c c   c



c$ c c c c


 c cc c
 c cc"  c cc  c
c
c c c c


 c

ccc cc c c c!
c  c c"c cc


 c c  c  c 


c  c c 45;7c  c c  c 
c c
 9c

c c
 c c c
c c
cc  c c 9c  c c cc c

 c ccc


  c c cc 
 cc</c c,/c c cc c

c   c  c c c  c c c %c  c  c c c   c 
 c  c
  c

cc "c cc c   


 cc ,c c c 9ccc
  cc "c

c c   cccc cc(c c  c c  cc


 c c c

  c!
c8  "c c(cc c cc   c c c!
ccc

c cc   c c cc


cc
 c c c   c c c

c cc c


c c c  c
c cc 
c c c c
  c  c c   c   ccc c
 c
c cc
c c

 cc!
c cc c  c c
 c  c c!
c c cc

 c cc
 cc
cc  c
   cc c  c!
c c
c c

 
 cc c
 c ccc cc   
 cc c
 c
c cc c ccc ccc c c

c
c

eed for AESA Radar

c   c  c $ c 2 c   c c ! c  c   c c c c  c c  c

 cc cc

c  c  cc  c 


 cc  c c
 cc c  c 
 c  c

   cc c c  cc


c) c c 
 cc c
 c

  cc cc  c8  c c c45=7c


 c c!  c
ccc

 9cc c
 c  c c c
 ! c
cc  c  c
 c  cc c


cc   c c  c c
 c c8c
 c c c cc c   c


c

$ cc c
c  c
 c  c c 
 c c  
c
  cc  cc
c c c  c c 
c c c  c   c c  c   c c $ c c c

c c cc
 c c c

  cccc
c  c
c cc cc  c  c cc c
c

c45=7c

Evolution Of Radar

* c  cc

c2 c  c "c c, >?4cc



c c

 c
c  c

! cc cc c  cc



 c
c  c cc c c
c

  cc   cccccccc


 c   c c
c  c

c c

* c  c c c  c    c c c cc  c


 cc

0  c c
 c c c c


c! c
c  c
 ccc c c

! c c$ c cc c cc c c, c c'  c/ c ,'/c

c c:7c c@77cc

  cc c c  cc c  c c c c c c


cc c
 cc c
c  c  c/ c c  c cc c2c  c2 cc c
 c   c c  c   c 
c   c c c  c c c !c 
 c  c

c c   c c  c Ac $ c  c c c c c c  c  
c c
 cc cc c c c c 
c c

c
c

( cc  cc

( cc  c "c c  ccc



c c c ccc c

 c  c

 c
 c c  c c
cc  cc c c
c
 c c

c  c  c c cc cc c  c  c c


"cccc
cc

( ccc ccc c c c  cc


  c  c
 c
cc


c c  cc cc c     cc
c  cc
0c

 "cc
 c   c c cc
cc cc cc c
  c  cc

 c cc c cc c 0ccc c


cc c
c
c

c

 c
c  cc"c c cc  c c c cc
cc

   cc c  c c   c c cc


cc cc  c cc c c c  c c
c "cc c c
c c

 c     c c  c c  c c 


c c c c   c  c c


 c

  c) c

c  cc cc  c
 c cccc

(cc c
ccc

cc c cc c  c c   c



c$ c c c c


 c cc c
 c cc"  c cc  c
c
c c c c


 c

ccc cc c c c!
c  c c"c cc


 c c  c  c 


c  c c 45;7c  c c  c 
c c
 9c

c c
 c c c
c c
cc  c c 9c  c c cc c

 c ccc


  c c cc 
 cc</c c,/c c cc c

c   c  c c c  c c c %c  c  c c c   c 
 c  c
  c

cc "c cc c   


 cc ,c c c 9ccc
  cc "c

c c   cccc cc(c c  c c  cc


 c c c

  c!
c8  "c c(cc c cc   c c c!
ccc

c cc   c c cc


cc
 c c c   c c c

c cc c


c cc c
c cc
c c cc

c
c

  c  c c   c   ccc c


 c
c cc
c c

 cc!
c cc c  c c
 c  c c!
c c cc

 c cc
 cc
cc  c
   cc c  c!
c c
c c

 
 cc c
 c ccc cc,c c
 cc cc c cc

c ccc c c

¢asic pr inciple of oper ation


c c*c  c


c c  cc0 
cc c c$cc c ccccc
  c c
c
c

"cc c cc
c

c
ccc c c c cc c
ccc
c
c  c c c c c cc ccc c
  cc c cc c c  c

"c c c c c  c c c   c c  c c  c  c c  c  c c
c c
c c  cc c  
c  cc c c
c  c
 c c
c

*c  c cc
 c+cc0 
c c c   c  c 9 c c

*c  c

c c c c   ccc


cccc c2
c*c  c

c c0 c
 c
cc cc)Bcc c   c*c  c cc

c c c c  c0  c c c c" c c- Bcc c cc
c
 c cc

 c:7c ccc c c c c c c+c cc c c c c  cc c

c
c c c c
ccc c cc c c c c  c ccc

 c$ Bc cc c" c cc c cc cc


 ccc c
cc

*c  c

)Bc c cccc c  c c c c c" c c c 0c/c 
cc


  c Bcc Bc:77cc c0
cc c  cc c Bcc  c

 c  c$ c  c c


c c   c c c c0
c4c cccc c c  c c

 cc0
c c  cc c cc c c c  cc c
c cc
 cc cc:77cc. cc cc cc 0
 cc  c c c  c4c c c:77c

ccc0
c c  Bc cc c

%c Bcc  c c


c c c cc c:7cc$ c  ccc cc c

 c Bc cc0
c c  c+c c cc c 0
 cc) c c c

 c cccC6c
 c Bc
c c
c cc  c 0 c cc c c  c c

c c c c cc c  c  c cc    cc


c c c Bc


c c c c c cc c  c'
c c
c c c c c  Bc

c
c

c c c c



c c C6c 
c  c c


  c c  c  c c c
c c

c c c c cc  c c c 
c c 
 c cc

ccc cc ccc


c
c c c  c cc

c c c
c

cc
cc c c cccc c c

c


c cc
c cc
c c c cc cc c
cc
c c

  c cc
c cccc
c c c cc cc c
cc
c c


  c

cc
c
  c
c c

c c cc  c c cccc ccc

 c c
c   c cc cccc c c
ccc
c c
c

'
cc
c c   c c c  ccc c cc

c c
c

ccc
c c c c c

c cc  cccccc  cc

c

cc
cc
c c c cc
c c   c

c

A DcA AYcADAcYc

c c c c cc c c c 


c
c c

c c

c cc   c


c cc  c c'  c  c c c c

c c cc c 


c c 
ccc

c c c


 c 
c 

c   c c

c c  c c c   c

c   c c 


c!c! cc
c c c c cC7777c

c  c c c


c
   c c  cc?4c 
 c
c c?:c  c

c
c

% c> ccc c c c


c  cc cc c:7cc

 c c  cc cccc c


c
c

c
 cc

c c c c$ c


cc  c ccccc
  
c c45=6c c

c  c
cccc  c2 c4=cc c c45;Cc c"  c c 
  c

cc c    cc c



 cc  cc   cc    c   c
 c


 cc&c? c    ccc c  c cc2 c cc c c? c

   ccc c  cc c


c c c  c c, 
 c

*  cc&c@c    cc c c c


c!  c c
 c


c

cc c

c
 ccc c c c. c c c


c  c cc
c c
c
 c c  c

 cc cc6 c    cc  c cc c


 c c  cc c@c    cc

c6 c    cc c!  cc c cc c!  cc c

 ccc c cc c*c c c  cc c


 c c   c

 c
  c
c c
c cc c  c
c c  c c

 c c c c

c
  cc" c
 c  c c6 c    cc c c


 ccc
  c c c
  c c  c !c  cc c

 c  cc c!  c c c


c c c c   c c

c  c    c  c  


cccc c  c. c c c

 c .3c'ccc  c c c  cc cc  c

 c
cc?;c
"cc c  c
ccc c

c
 c c  c c  c

  c c c   9c cc c


  cc 
 cc c
c

c
c



c
cc cc  c

c
c


c cc c c    c

cc
 c
c  c/ c  c

 cc  ccc c


c  c
 c
c 
c
  c   c c

c4c   c


 c
c  c c45;Cc c
   c
cccCc   c  c


 c  c c455;cc6c   c
 c
c/??c  c c

  c cc

 
c
 c c   c  c

 c c Cc   c
 c
c  c
 c


c   c 
c c c  c  c c   c 
c
  c
c c

"/c#c 
cc c
cccCc   c  c 
c


 
c c  c   ccc $c   c
 c
c c c c%c


 c c  c   c c 
c&c
  c 
c cc 
c 
cc

 
cc c&  c c cc'
  c c'#(cc&  c 
c

c c 
c  

ccc cc  cc  c c c c#)c

 c   
c'  c
 c
c 
c c

45=7c*c/ c c c cc


 c  c 
c

45=6c*c/ c 


c cc'c

45==c*c'c/ c

45;Cc*c ''c/ c


 c
c4c  c45;;c*c/ ccc?c  c

45;5c*c/c#

c   c( cc/??c

4554c*c c/??c#
c

455Cc *c / c c +c @c   c 455=c *c '  c c (==c 6c   c 455;c *c
, 
ccccccccc6c  cc

c
c

45=?c*c(cc.3c'cc c  c  c

45=6c*c/c
c*  cc.3c

45;?c*c*  cc<cc c % c c

45;5c*c/  c cc c


ccc c c

4556c*c/  c  cc 
c  c  
c cc ,3,c

455;c*c(  cc, c



c
 cc$//c

?777c*ccc=@=c.+3c,cc3 
c

?77?c*c/  c/c
c,c$//c  c

þ ased Array Radars

c"c c  cc


  cc c

c  cc cccc 
 !c

 c  c  c ccc c  cc c  cc c c45=7c


ccc

c cc  c c


c c ccc c
c c c c  cc

 c c
ccc  c c
c   c  cc cc c 
c cc c

 
 c cc c  c 
 c
cccc ccccc


c cc ccc  c  c"c cc  c c c cc

'c cc45;7c c 


  cc c c c c0  cc c
ccc c

  cc

c  c c cccc c 
 cc  cc

cc c 
 c
 cc c
 ccc
 c  cc cc  cc

  
 c
cc  c"c c cc cccc c
cc cc


c c c ccc c
 c  Ac c cc cc  cccc

cc
 cc 
" cc  c  c c ccc c
 c  c c


 cc  c   c c  ccc c
 c  c

c  c%$$(c%744,c'cc c c c@7,1$c c c%$$(c'?5ccc c


c c c c, >?5,?c cc c c$/cc0cccccc'c4'c
' c c  c 
c c 45;7c  c  c %(D4:6c c  c  c  c 

c  c
cc'4c'  cc0 c  c 
  c c c%(D4;4c c 
"cc

(ccccc cc ccc cc ccc8 c

c  c c c  c  cc c   c) c c  c ccc

cc c
c cc
 c) cc
 cc cc c c c cc

 ! c
 c cc  c
c  cc cc c c cc
cc

47c
 c c  cEc c c c ccc c c c
ccCc c

c
c

AESA

 c 
c 

c  c c c "c c

 c c  c  c c   c c  c
 c$  cc  c ccc ccc c cc   cc

cc  cc ccc   


 c cc  cc "c   cc

 c
c


cccc c c   c
 c
 cc ccc " "c

  c  c c cccc


 cc c c
ccc   c
 cc

cccc c cc c


 cc"c   c c
 cccc c

c
 cc  c "c cc cc c   cccc c
 c

 c c   ccc2c c c c cccccc


 cc

 c c cc c  ccc


 c  cc c cc c c

 cc
c c
  c  c c c ccc

c c47@7c cc  cc


  cc 
 c   c c ccc

 c  c
 c  
c c0   c$ c  c c c c   cc

c  
c c
c   c cc 

c
 c
c cc c c

c 
  c c  c
 c 
  cc    c,'/c c 
 c c

47477c c  c  ccc ccc



cc c c c c c c

 c 
 c c c cc c

c
 ccc c c
cc  c

ccc cccc c ccc c47Fcc ccc c cc

 c  c
c ccc c  c
 c cc c c
c/cc

   c c c


c  c 
c   c
c c ccc
cc

 c ccc


 c
 c cc c c
c c c  9c cc

c  c

Tec nological Leap

c 
  cc  c cc c
! c$ cc
cccc
c c c

  c$  cc  c c  c c c  cc  
c


 c   c

 c ,,$3c c c"c c c c  ccc


  c

c
c

ccccccccc

c

c c-(;4c c(=5cc  c

 c
 c c
  c c. cc
 c 
c ccc c

   c
  c 
c
 cc  ccc. cc cc/c c''c

  cc c c   c  cc c



 c cc c/
c
  cc


c. cccc/4Cc cc/??cc   c c"/c  c
 c c

cc
 c  
c c
 c
c  c c 
 
c

$ c"/c

  -
 c-'c c ccc c0c   0c-'c c
 c

c
cc $

cc 
 c
 c c c
c
c'c c c 
c  c  c

cc c'c c c


c c1?777c/ c  c c c cc4777cc?777c
c 2c  ccc c2cc  c  c
c
c c 
c c16c  c

c
c

c

o c in cofcAAc

c
 c  c  c c

cccc    c c
c c c
 c c' c
c  c c    c c
 c c c   c c  c 
c     c  c c
 c


 -
 c 
cc cccc c cc c 
 cc  c c

  cc

 c 
c cc c 
 cc c 
c c


 ccc
 c 
cc c c  c
 c cc 
 ccc


   c
 c ccc  ccc  c c c c c

c
 c c

 c c
 c
 c cc c 
 c cc

c 2 c/  c c

cc$c cc c c 


c
cc
  ccc/ cc3  c

/)3cc c
 c  c  c c4?7Gc:7Gcc c:7Gc c

c
 ccc c
  c4 5c  c   c c c  cc
 c c
 c  c
 c c 

c
c c c   c
 c c   c  c  c c

c


 c 
c c c  c  
   c  
 c #c c 
 
c
 c cc 
c  c
c c
 
c c  c   c  ccc  c
 c c c

c   c 
c c 

c c  c c c 7774c c c  c
c c
c c c cc c 
 c c c

c   c  cc6-c6Cc c c$ c c
  c c c  %c
 c c 
 
c 
c   c 
c c 
c c c  
c c
  c
 c
cc  2ccc
 c c  c cc 
c

 
c

c

( c  c  c ccccc   cc 


 c   
c c
%  cc

 cc
c/ c c c

c
 c  c  cc  c  ccc

c
c

   c! c'  ccc!'c


c c c)%  c7
cc c?77= c

/cc c?77;c c c  cc c


 c
 c  c  cc c 
cc

  ccc   c c  c c c  c  c cc-(4c  cc

c Hc c c)c


cc/ c  c  c
 c

   cc
 c  c

  c 
c c c 
c c

c


in c p bilit cofcAAc d
c

( %c
 c c  c
 
c
 ccc

  c cc

c 
c

 cc/??c(==c(c
 c c
 c  cc c
  c@c c c
  c

  cc457cc?4Ccc@C7677c% c cc   cc


c c
  c774c c c  c c

8C7cc57c% cc
%c! c
c!c cc  c
c c@7c  c

  c c


 c   
cc c  cc  c c 
 c  c %cc

'?=c cc c  cc  c c


 c  c %cc'33-'==cc 2c

'33(-'==cc c c
 c cc

cc 2c'33(-'==c

 c c'3'c
  c c
c  c!c c %cc'
%cc
c/cc

 c
c# c(ccc
 c
  c cc/??c(==cc

c c
c
 
c c$
cc

c ccc c   2c  c c

cc(==c c' c'  c 


c    c c

c
c

c
c

c ccc c cc  c


 
c   c c
 2  c
%c

/  c
c c   c  c  cc
 c c
%  c
 
c c

  c  c c
 
c 
cc
 2  c

c ccc
cc
 cc

$c  c  c 
c c

ccc  c  ccc c cc

(
  c cc
 c c
%c c 
cc
 c

cc c  c  c

c

c
 c c c   c cc  c cc
  cc c
c

c  cc c


%cc
c)ccc%c c c cc

ccc

 
c 
cccc cc
 2  c

c

 c' c'  c 


c    c c

cc Hc c  


c

c  cc-(=5c %c c 
 c c

 c c c  c  c  c c /   c


 c 

c  c   c 9c 
c
 cc  c ccc
  c c   c9cc(=5c c c

 c c    c c


%  c  c  
c  c cc  c c

c! c

c 
c

   c 
 c
c c
c c  c  ccc
cc c

 cc(=5Hc c c  c c  c c cc


 c  c  c

  c   c c  cc


 cc
 
c
 c c ccc

 c 
 c 
 c c 
 c
 c c   c

( cc c/
 c
c c/$   c

c  
c
 c
 -$
c cc(=5c c  c

  c cc

  cc  c c c



 cc  cc  c  c c

c

c
c

c   cc(>=5cc
 c 
"c 
 cc   c  c
 cc c

 c
 c c c c   c c c   cc   c$ c c c

   c!  c c   c


c  c 
c
c "c c  9cc


 c c  9c 
c"c& c c
 
c$ c  c c

(
c. c c c c
 
c
 c  9c

c c

3&c
  c c c
c c .c c(>=5c   cc

 
 c
c c   c c c
c$ ccc  c  c c c c

c ccc   c  c  c cc c c5Cc cc c0 cc

 c c c c  


c
cc47c c?7cc$ c  c cc cc c

.c"c cc c c c cc0  cc c

 c   c  c c   c cc c c c 


 c
c  c

  c
 c% "3 
c3  c c/ c 
 c c(>=5 c0   c

 c   c"c c c   c  c c c c   c  "c c
c'  c

 c
c c 
  c  c c cc 
c c cc   c

 c  c   c  c  c  c c


c
  c  c c   c $ c
c

c/4;/c c
  c ccc c c c c c c c  c c   c

 "c 3 c c  c c /4;/c c (>=5c c    c 
  c  c

  c  c
 cc c c c c  c c c8c% c
 c c c

 
c c c  c c  c c c    c  c  c c  c

  cc c(>=5c

c
c

Ac YcA¢LIc=LYcADc AIALc¢Ic

c
 c6 c
 c cc#c c

c%c   c
 ccc cc  -'
 ccc-'c c

 cc c
   c( c
 
 c( c   c
 c  c, c c


 
 cc%c
  c cc
  ccc c  c cc 
c

c c  


c
 c   c

 c#c
 c#c
 cc

  


c

cc

c


 c

 cc

c c c c cc    cc c.' c-'c c

 c6=c#c

c c cc c c   c c c c c c cc

 
c

c(
%  c
 c c c c2
cc

cc c-'c c c

 c c/ c?c



c-'c c
 c c
 %c
 cc

c47c! c c

c4@c! c

 c
 cc  cc@7 c6c c
  cccc
c c cccc  c


 c c  c cc-'c c
c  c ccc c  cc

 c
c-'c c

#c.' c-'c ccc47c! c


 c c c cc
c  cc4777@777c1cc

  
c
c
 c c c cc  c c c  c   c c
c c

 
c cc   ccc c 
c c
 ccc
 c c
 c*cc

  c c
 c   c

   c  cc
   c
$c


ccc
 c

c
c c'  c

c
c

c
A AcA ti c s dcA

c d
c nuf tu
dcbc lscd
l ndc

('c 
 c ( c  c '  c c c 
c c  
 c   c /'c  
c c

cc c cc cc c c
 c

c
c c/'ccc
c c c 
   c 
c ('c c 

c
c c  c  c ',c   c
 
c
 c c,c c


c',c c c   c3 c 
c'  c3'c c c cc
 c  c

 
c c
%  ccc677c% cc c c c
c  c!  c c!c

c c ccc)c  c!  c!c




ccc c45;7cc
 

c

 c c


c c c c.c c/'c

c c c,c c3'c
 cc
 c

    cc

  c

   cc3'c c
 2cc c  c
 c c


%  cc  c  cc/'c c
 2cc   c  c c


c
%  cc  c

c c c 2c 


c c  c   
c
 c

c  
c  c  c  c  c c 
  c c 
 c /'-3'c    c c
 c
c/  cc  cc)c


c c cc c c'c c c c

 c c
c  cccc  c
 c c

c c ccc


c6Cccc c 
 c -  c: c c

 ;cc4;C7c   c@c  c c c cc %c c



c c
c

0 c c


c c cccc
 cc  ccc
0c'c c  c

 cc cc  c  c 


c  c cc 

 c cc(c c0 cc c

 
c c 
c c:;c %c   c 0c c c c c
 c  cc

   c(2
c/ 2c

 c %c c 


cc
  cc$
c c  c  c 
c %c ccc  c


c  c c ccc %c
c c    c#    c  c 
c cc

c
c

"cc c c cc


c cc cc c! cc "c* c c c

c
c c     cc   c ccc c ccc c:
;c"c

 cc cc% c


c c4;C7,c- c cc c
 c c c c

c6Cc c$ c ccc cc%&c c c%&c  c.c c c

%.c c cc.c cc


   ccc
 c3c
c

c c,/c ccc%&c c cc c cc   c  c c c c
 c

c c  cc!


Ec c cc c

cc c c
c c cc c


cc c,/c 
c c
c
cc
c"c c "c 
 c c
 c

c
c

Advantages

$ c  c c c   ccc(c  c c


"cc

c  c c c

  c cc cccc c
  cc  c c c cc c

  c cccc c,cc cc "cc 


 c cc   c
c

 
 c  cc
ccc 
c

-c(  cc$ 
 c

c c"cc  c cc c c  c   cc c


cc   c2
c
cc
c c c cc c   c c2
c c c c!ccc   c c c
 ccBc
 c  cc c c ccc  
c
c ccc c
! c cc  c c c  c c cc cc
c c c c

cc c c c c cc c c c c


 cc
 c cc c c


 c$ c c
 c cc
cc
 c c c   c c 
 c c 
cc


 c8  "c cc c
cc c c cc c c  c
 c c
 c c

  Bc
 cc  c c c
 c c c c ccc cc c!cc

  
c c c  c c
 c cc c c   c c cc c cc cc c

 cccc c 
c c c cc cc
 cc c   Bc
c
c c

  cc cc c0 cc   c c c 


"c c  c c  c c  c

c  c c cc  ccc c c c cc2


c c 
"Ec  c c

 c c cc  


c

 c  c
 c c ccc c c ccc cc c
 c

.c8  "c cc


c" c
c 
 c c c  c c c c
 c c

 cccc  c cc c  c c


c c c
c c c c  c c


 Bc c c   c cc c cc c" c 
c
c "ccccc

 c  c c c c c


"  c
c.c c c 
cccc c

 cc c c


c  c
 c!
c cc  c!
c   cc

 cc"  ccc c 


 c
 cc

 c cc  c  cc  c
 c c  c
 c  c  c 
 c c  "c c c c cc   c
c  c 
c c  c   c 
c  c 
 !c c 
c c c    c c c

c cc
 c
 c c!
c

 c  c c  c  c c c  c c  c !


c   c  c c
c

c
c

 ccc c c cc c


"  c  c%cc cc c c cc 0cc

  c!
c
c
 ccc  c c c c c 
c   c
c c

 c
c  c.cc cc   ccc

) c2 c  
c

< c c " c


cc 
 c   c cc  c2c c cc

  c c c!


cc cc c  c
 cc c c c c
 c c


 cc c
c c ccc c
c c c2Bc c 
 !c"cc cc

cc c
  c c
 c c c!
c. c c   ccc
 c

"  c c  cc  c c cc


c  c cc ccc

!
c c
c cc2c
c   c c c c!
c c
c c c

 cc c2c


c cc
 c c c!
c c cc cc c!
c
c

c c c  c cc cc2cc


cc
c  c c c c c c

 c c c  c   cc c c!


c  c c c cc  c

 c c c c c!


c c
cc
c c
 c, cc
 cc

c cc
  cc cc c2 c cccc
c c 
"c c


c  c  c! cc c
 c cc c

ccc
cc 
 c c 
c cc
ccc c
 c cc c
  c  c c
 c
 c
 c c c cc cc

cc c 
c c
c cc c c   ccc c  c c c c cc c 
c  c
 c c c
 c

Ot er advantages


c
c c ccc ccc c
 c
cc c cc c

  cc& cc c c


 c cc c c c
  cc
 cc

 c   c c ccc cc c


 ccc
c

 c
 cc

c c c   c c c c cc cc
 ccc c

 c   c c "cc/@Ccc  c


 c c c c c  c 
 c c

c c  c c  


c 
c c  c   c  c  c  c  c  c c
c
  c

ccc
cc c  c cc(ccc c
c
cc

 c   cc c c c c c c
c c c  cc c c

c
c

ccc  c cc  c c cccc67c c:7c cc

c ccc c    ccc c   c


cc

c
 cc cc 0cc c 
cc c c/4;/cc
)  c
 cc
c c 
 Bc cc

 c 3c cc c 
cc c
c  c c c  c   c cc cc c  cc

c
 c c c
  cc

c
 c c cc c cc
  c

Äisadvantages

3 c c c c c c cc1c:c c=c   c 


c*c c c cc  
 c
,c c c c c  c  c c c  c  c c
 c 
 c c ! c
'cc  c!
c c
  cc  ccc c  cc c c
c c
 c c   c c . c 3 c  c 3 c .3+3c  c  c c ! c c
0  c  c

c
c

=onclusion

. c c   cccc c  cc  cc c.c.c$$cc


c c' c c c cc c c 
cc  c,2c c cc


  c   c c " c  
 c
    c c 
c  c  c
  c

 c
  c& c c c
c c c
  cc
c

c
 cc

ccc c"c 
c c c
 c cc  c 
 cc c c


c
c cc c c  cc ccc c  c 
 c
 c 
"c c   c

c c 
 cc c  
cc cc c  c cc0c/??c
 c 
"cc

 c  ccc cc677c"cc c cc c c cc2 c


c
c c


cc ccc  c!
cc

cc
 c 
"cc 
 c  c c 
 c c"  c  c cc c


"c. c c  cc c

c
 ccc ccc c c

 cc  c c c c


  c 0  c cc c0
cc  c c c c
 c

c c2 c cc cc

c
c

¢ibliogr ap y

c >" c+c
c (cc Ic)  c c( c,c(9  c$   c
 c 
c, 9 cc c(9  c%$$c3  c
c$c$  c?77=cc
c * 
 c c &   c 
c (c c (9  c $   c  c  
c
, 9 cc c(9  c%$$c3  c
c$c$  c?77=c
c * 
 c c J' c 
c (c Ic 
c c ."c  c (9  c $   c
 c 
c, 9 cc c(9  c%$$c3  c
c$c$  c?77=c
c   c c  c c 3
c  c (c 3 c ,c c J c 
c (c
c  
 c (9  c $   c  c  
c , 9 c c c (9  c %$$c
3  c
c$c$  c?77=cc
c >" c +c  c /  c 3c (9  c  c ' c c (9  c $   c  c
 
c, 9 cc c(9  c%$$c3  c
c$c$  c?77=c

c
c