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08

Implementation
of Quality
Assurance Program
Case Study of SPS College
Swat

14
Academic Audit
as Quality
Assurance Tool
Case Study of CIFT,
Karachi
This Magazine is printed
23

QPSP, January-June 2008


with the collaboration of
Superior University
Ranking of
Pakistani
Universities
An Analysis of HEC’s
Ranking System in Pakistan

26

03
Key Factors
in TQM
Implementation
Unfolding Myths in the
Implementation Process of TQM
Volume 5
January-June 2008 30
Accreditation of
Higher Education
Institutions
Indian Experience

42
Implementation
of Statistical
Process Control
Case Study of a Local
Manufacturing Company Lahore
Declaration No. PCPB/66-Q
From the Desk of Chief Editor 05

Implementation of Quality Assurance Program 08


Case Study of SPS College Swat
By Adil Shah

Academic Audit as Quality Assurance Tool 14


Case Study on Bridging the Gap Between Theory and Practice
By Ambreen Asif Qureshi

Ranking of Pakistani Universities 23


A Review
By Prof. Dr. Khawaja Amjad Saeed

Key Factors in TQM Implementation 26


By Kamran Moosa

Accreditation of Higher Education Institutions 30


Indian Experience
By Dr. V S Prasad, Dr. Antony Stella

The Future of Six Sigma 36


By George Eckes

Implementation of Statistical Process Control 42


Case Study of a Local Manufacturing Company
By Imran Ahmed Rana

Career Management for Engineers 46


By Greg Hutchins

5S for Families 52
By Davorka Filipusic
QUEST FOR January-June 2008

From the Desk of


BI-ANNUAL MAGAZINE OF THE QUALITY AND PRODUCTIVITY SOCIETY OF PAKISTAN

Chief Editor Chief Editor


Imran Ahmad Rana, Treet Corporation Ltd.
email: imranrana@treetonline.com

Associate Editor
Dear Readers, Ch. Javaid Akhtar

Board of Reviewers
This is a great honor for me to have been selected as the Chief Editor of Kamran Moosa, PIQC Institute of Quality
QPSP magazine "Quest for Excellence". I am thankful to QPSP secretariat Dr. Nawar Khan, EME College (NUST)
for putting their trust in me and especially to the outgoing Chief Editor Mr. Dr. Niaz Ahmad, IQTM University of Punjab
Kamran Moosa (CEO-PIQC) who not only brought out previous issues on Dr. Ali Sajid, Center for Advance Studies in Engg.
matters of National Quality Importance but also provided a strong base to Dr. S.M. Naqi, SPELL Group
this quality magazine and prepared me for the current role. His outstanding Prof. Khawaja Amjad Saeed, University of Punjab
contribution will be long remembered and his excellent work will be Turab Ali Khan, Pakistan Tobacco Company
missed, however we are privileged of his presence on our Editorial Review
Board for constantly providing us his professional guidance and advice.
Advisors
Prof. Dr. Ch. Abdul Rahman
Quality and Productivity Society of Pakistan is being governed by its Prof. Irshad Hussain Naqvi
members, therefore active engagement at QPSP activities and regular Ms. Sofia Waleed
feedback will go a long way in truly addressing forthcoming quality and
emerging professional development challenges across the nation. As quality Designed & Produced by
professionals we bear an ethical responsibility to continue to deliver Summit International, Lahore.
consistent and improved professional services in our working lines. Tel: +92-42-6314383, 6307828
email: summit@brain.net.pk

The issue is on “Quality in Education and professional development”. Secretary General QPSP
Our readers are aware of the tremendous impact that the learning Choudhary Javaid Akhtar
environment has over human development. The purpose of current issue is email: secretariat@qpsp.org.pk
to bring to light and compare the good quality practices in education around Mobile: 92-301-4419028
the region.
Secretariat
Quality and Productivity
Our next issue will be on 'Quality in Healthcare' . This will also include Society of Pakistan
regular articles and case studies on Industrial and Services quality 15 A-1, PECO Road, Township,
improvement. I urge the readers to share their experiences and analysis by Lahore-Pakistan
sending articles, case studies and research features to magazine at Tel: +92-42-5124968
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to become World class. email: secretariat@qpsp.org.pk
URL: www.qpsp.org.pk

QPSP Senior Executive Council


Prof. Dr. Ch. Abdul Rehman Chairman
Syed Munawwar Shah Vice Chairman North
Imran Ahmad Rana Vice Chairman Centre

Imran Ahmad Rana Dr. Mirajuddin Shah Vice Chairman South

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By Adil Shah
Swat, Pakistan

Implementation
of Quality Assurance
Program
The Case Study of
SPS College Swat - Pakistan

SPS College, Swat, is situated at Mingora, Education - UK) School Model, and particularly popular South Asian
the commercial hub of scenic Swat Valley in Model of Students Quality Control Circles (SQCC). By the mid of 2006, all
the Northern belt of Pakistan. It is a private the procedures of QA were designed and later implemented in the college
School and College established in 1984, by 2007.
catering for the educational requirements of
scions of Middle-Income families. There are
around 2000 students in all the three To check the effectiveness of SPS Quality
sections namely J/G, Middle and Secondary, Assurance Program and to identify any area
each headed by a Principal and
supervised/guided by a Central Directorate of this program that can be further improved,
(secretariat) headed by a Director. SPS is
staffed by about 200 faculty members, PIQC Institute of Quality was requested to
majority of whom are the holders of post establish the Quality Assurance Structure and
graduate degrees in various subjects.
SPS College Swat has a long history of
Framework in the light of ISO 9001:2000.
making continual improvements through
matchless efforts with imbedded strong The objective of this case study is to share the experiences of SPS College
policies towards ethical and leadership Swat in its struggle to become a state of the art College in Pakistan. It
grooming of students, in addition to includes, among other, how was the structure of QA formed? What were the
achieving Academic Excellence. The overall steps of its implementation? What were the contents of its QA program and
aim of the Quality Assurance program what are the outcomes so far? It is hoped that this experience sharing will
established in SPS is to ensure the be valuable and beneficial to other schools and colleges, which are in
realization of its broader objectives to pursuit of World-Class Quality with the help of more systematic and
embellish the future generation with high professional methodologies/tools, frameworks and techniques.
level Academic, Moral, Social and National
goals. In order to integrate its existing good Implementation Steps
practices with the popular International 1. Gap Analysis:
Quality Assurance Programs, the institution
launched its own formal QA component in To check the effectiveness of SPS Quality Assurance Program and to
2006. It was ensured that the system being identify any area of this program that can be further improved, PIQC
designed and developed customized Institute of Quality was requested to establish the Quality Assurance
effectively to the needs of the institution. Structure and Framework in the light of ISO 9001:2000. As a result,
Various frameworks were used i.e. ISO external consultants carried out Gap Analysis and identified the current
9000, OFSTED (Office of Standards in status of Quality Assurance in SPS.
The gap analysis revealed a number of strengths and weaknesses of SPS
college. Some of the things pointed out in the strengths were: strong
commitment of the top management , strong initiative for curriculum
development, strong efforts on independence in internal exams, strong
processes for character building, strong academic culture, good academic
results compared to others in the region, good classroom environment and
student teacher open relations, and excellent extra-curriculum activities.
However, a number of gaps were also pointed out. Some of these included
the following broad areas: Quality Assurance Structure was presently not
effective, Strategic Quality Assurance Function was not fully organized, a
number of shortcomings in the Faculty Resource Management program,
some aspects of Academic Environment needed improvement, Use of IT for
Quality was not fully utilized, Process Management needed a number of
improvements, Curriculum Design & Development processes needed up-
gradation, Performance Management was not in line with world-class
practices, Problem Solving Activities were not organized, application of
Statistical Tools and Analysis was weak, and the Reward and Award
Programs were not fully rational.
A rating of 41% was given by the external consultants on the world-class
scale. It was pointed out that there was a need to design and develop
around 59% of the remaining systems as per the requirement of world class
academic quality systems.

QPSP, January-June 2008


2. Quality Improvement Plan
A core team for QA was established in the directorate. A Quality
Improvement Plan (QIP) was then developed keeping the above mentioned
gaps. The QIP included the following nine activities to be strengthened of their experiences for the solutions of
over the next one year. These included: problems related to their daily life in the
¨ Curriculum Up-gradation. school. SQCC are the small teams of
¨ Students Quality Control Circles (SQCC). students and teachers who work for the
¨ Strategic Quality Management (SQM). improvement of different issues related to
¨ Performance Management. their classes, school and community. In this
¨ Exam Up-gradation.

09
Cluster of Smartness Attributes
¨ Co-curriculum Documentation.
¨ Human Resource Management (HRM). 1 Knowledge on the subject
¨ Process Management. 2 Practical skills to work
¨ Record Management. 3 Communication skills to work
Nine different Committees were formed with different teachers, principals 4 Desire to excel
and academic staff of the college making them responsible for each of the 5 Far - sightedness
above tasks. A one-year Project Plan was devised for this purpose. A 6 Risk taking capability
Quality Manager was also nominated to carry out full time coordination of 7 Continuous learning
these activities. A brief description of the work done by each committee is
8 Self - confidence
given below:
9 Adaptability to new things
2.1 Curriculum up Gradation:
10 Physical stamina
Following steps were taken while working on curriculum: Formation of
Subject Committees, development of curriculum format, final Release &
Standardization of lessons plans, and preparation of Quality Assurance Cluster of Goodness Attributes
Procedures (QAPs). The QAPs were drawn up to ensure preparation of
a Commitments
lesson plans in accordance with the required international standards, to set
instructional objectives in the light of both the Islamic and National values, b Excellent human relations
and develop a linkage between lesson plans and exams with a view to c Working in a team
evaluate students' learning capabilities in the light of Bloom's taxonomy of d Positive outlook
education. e Honesty
2.2 Students Quality Control Circles (SQCCs): f Tolerance
The SQCCs have been formed in SPS to impart training to the students to g Sportsmanship
raise their quality consciousness and analytical abilities in order to prepare h Creativity
for the future quality professional. They are trained to find solutions for i Humor
different small-scale problems, and use different quality tools with the help j Religious-mindedness
QPSP, January-June 2008

way, they try to improve the quality of developed a standardized semester wise Quality report with a number of
teamwork in these fields. For developing quality objectives and metrics and their extensive measurement at each
10

Total Quality Personality of students, the class, subject, teacher and school levels. This exhaustive report has
following attributes of smartness and tremendously strengthened the visibility of Quality with minor details
goodness were focused: (Extracted from a considerations. It has also improved the decision making capabilities of the
paper of Professor Dinesh P.Chapagain, principals, head teachers and the faculty.
Kathmandu University, Nepal, on
A number of Quality objectives and their metrics have been developed after
"Experimenting with Kano Methodology",
an extensive exercise within each prominent area of SPS. So far, we have
presented in the 5th International
set 15 Quality objectives with 20 metrics for the following areas: Section
Conference on Quality (ICQ-05), held in
Manager, Stock Management, Human Resource Management, R & D,
Tokyo, Japan, 14th-17th September 2005).
Exams, Curriculum, Academic outcomes, Non-Academic outcomes, and
For the effective functioning of SQCCs, the Library.
Committee developed SQCC Students
In order to link the top management of school with the community and
Guidelines and a Standards Operating
stakeholders, SPS formed a School Advisory Board (SAB) with members
Procedure. The SQCC was launched in SPS
from all the stakeholders and the community. The main objectives of this
in October 2006. Initially, more than 100
board are: to ensure that the School operates for the benefit of its
circles were formed comprising of 4-8
stakeholders, to review the performance of school, to ensure that the
students each. They are supervised by
judicious policies are made for promotions and development of a quality
nominated faculty members. Out of these
100, 25 circles are in their final stages. More
than 20% students and 25% teachers are
involved in SQCC activities presently. For the effective functioning of SQCCs, the
2.3 Strategic Quality Management
(SQM):
Committee developed SQCC Students
The main purpose of the SQM is to
Guidelines and a Standards Operating
strengthen the quality of leadership and lay a Procedure. The SQCC was launched in SPS
quantitative measurement system of Quality
at the top level. The SQM Committee in October 2006.
QPSP, January-June 2008 11
education, to ensure that the SPS curricula competitions, Drill/P.T. Competitions, Fun Fairs, Annual Day Function,
(and co-curricula) fulfill the national and Cooking competition etc. They cover the following areas:
international needs in the light of Islamic a. Annual Calendar
values, beliefs and practices, and to set the
b. Frequency
yearly objectives and targets of the school in
the right direction before the start of yearly c. Evaluation Procedures
session. d. Yearly Report
2.4 Performance Management: The purpose of Co-Curricular Activities is to create a healthy environment
This function included: Management Audit, in SPS College Swat, which will consequently leave a positive impact on
Curriculum Audit, Quality Reporting, and the academics and character building of the students.
Quality Improvement Teams. The process 2.7 Human Resource Management:
of Curriculum audit is presently under trial
This area was found very challenging and the SPS management is still in
and will be fully implemented in the coming
the developmental stage. It has addressed the following areas:
months. However, the quality reports have
produced viable results. a. Teachers' Performance Measurement:Teachers' performance will be
measured by combining the following reports.
2.5 Examination Quality:
¨ Principal's Satisfaction Index.
The following points were considered and ¨ Section Head's Satisfaction Index.
improved while working on Exams. ¨ Students' Satisfaction Index.
a. Statistical Quality Control Tools (SQC): ¨ Result Performance Index.(RPI)
Extensive trainings were provided to all b. Best Teacher Award Procedure/Ceremony: QAPs have been developed
the Controllers of Exams, SQM for the selection of best teacher to be awarded in a befitting ceremony.
QPSP, January-June 2008

members, PM members, Principals, and


Section Heads on the following SQC c. Staff Data: Software for staff data have been developed which gives us
tools. all the required reports.
¨ Pareto diagram. d. Review of Job Descriptions (Jds): All JDs have been reviewed.
¨ Check sheet e. QAPs for Appointment: QAPs have been developed and implemented
¨ Histogram for the stepwise appointment/recruitment criteria.
¨ Cause & effect diagram. f. QAPs for Staff Training: These QAPs cover: Training Needs Analysis,
b. Exams Results Analysis: Presently a Training Process, Training Evaluation, and Yearly Training Calendar
report is formed by the Controller of
Exam which includes the following: Management Audit , Curriculum Audit,
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¨ SPS Branch-wise Result


Performance Index (RPI).
Quality Reporting, and Quality Improvement
¨ Section-wise RPI. Teams. The process of Curriculum audit is
¨ Best Principal.
¨ Best Section Head.
presently under trial and will be fully
¨ Best Teacher implemented in the coming months.
¨ Best Subject
¨ Best Students 2.8 Record Management:
¨ Subject-wise highest %age in SPS
Students’ records are being maintained in students' personal files as well as
¨ Subject-wise highest %age in
in soft-wares especially designed for this purpose. Documented procedures
section
were prepared for the Control of Documents. QAPs have been developed to
¨ Subject-wise Highest %age in ensure that all the Quality System Documents are properly reviewed and
class. approved prior to their issue; they are available at the point of use, and
c. Documentation & Standardization of changes to documents are properly authorized and controlled. The following
Exam Procedures:QAPs have been documents are under Document Control System:
developed for Entry Tests, Monthly ¨ Quality System Manual
Tests, Term Exams, Pre-Board ¨ Quality Assurance / System Procedures
conduction, and result ¨ Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) /Quality Assurance
preparation/analysis. Procedures (QAPs)
2.6 Co-Curricula: ¨ Job Descriptions
QAPs have been developed for existing Co- ¨ Legal and Regulatory Documents
curricular activities, i.e. Hikes, Treks, Tours, ¨ Technical Manuals, Guides & Standards
Exhibitions (Arts/Science/Flowers),
Similarly, a QAP has been developed to ensure that all records related to
Recreations, Sports Major/Minor, Speech
quality management system are properly filed, indexed, stored, retained and
competitions, SQCCs, Quiz competition,
disposed. The following records are generated in the quality management
National songs competition, Qirat/Naat
These QAPs have been prepared to
With the implementation of Quality provide a system for proper operation
and maintenance of SPS vehicles. These
Management System (QMS) in SPS, a QAPs include vehicles categorization,
marked improvement can be seen in all maintenance, attendants'
responsibilities, drivers' responsibilities,
walks of life. The QMS is further unfolding drivers' selection criteria, drivers' data,
its blessings and auspices each coming day route maps, parents' responsibilities and
accident report, etc.
and bringing new laurels for it. g. Computer Trouble Shooting &
Maintenance:
system:
Quality Assurance Procedures have
¨ Document-changes Record
been developed for back up, disaster
¨ Minutes of Management Reviews recovery, virus control and installation,
¨ Training and Qualification Records etc.
¨ Students' Personal Records
¨ Teachers' Records
¨ Admission Records
After going through a
¨ Examination Records structured process, we
¨ Project-related Records found that our pace of
¨ Complaints and Feedback Records
¨ Purchasing Records improvement is faster,

QPSP, January-June 2008


¨ Records of Correction and Preventive actions rational, sustainable, and
¨ Audit Records
2.9 Process Management:
systematic.
The following aspects have been covered under this theme:
Bringing improvement in the operating
a. Students' Counseling: system of an institution is always meant for
QAPs have been developed for both Students' Behavior Counseling and creating a pleasant change in the quality of
Carrier Counseling. life of its functionaries. With the
b. Purchasing: implementation of Quality Management
QAPs have been developed to ensure timely availability of all the System (QMS) in SPS, a marked

13
necessary items required for the institute, at the right time, right place, improvement can be seen in all walks of life.
and with superior quality and standard. Besides this, lists of suppliers, The QMS is further unfolding its blessings
service providers and inventory were updated and upgraded. and auspices each coming day and bringing
Procedures for stock maintenance and issuance were developed. new laurels for it. We hope that through this
glitter of QMS, Inshaullah, SPS (though
c. Maintenance: remotely located in a mountainous area) will
The QAPs for maintenance of the buildings and campus have prepared be ranked among the top Quality
the objectives to provide hygienic environment for the students and all Educational Institutes of the country in near
concerned and to keep all the areas safe and sound, comfortable and future.
clean.
Maintenance and beautification includes Building, Campus, Furniture, Conclusion
Electric Supply, and Installation Maintenance. Maintenance /Repair SPS College is, Alhamdulillah, a
Plan and Check Lists have been developed for this purpose. progressing school and college with forward
d. Safety: looking management. However, after going
Safety means being careful with potential dangerous objects so that no through a structured process of Quality
one gets hurt. QAPs for safety include Emergencies, First Aid Assurance and Total Quality Education, we
Equipments, Burning causalities (water/electric/ sun/ chemical burns found that our pace of improvement is
etc), and injury, Shock, Traffic Accidents, Fractures, and their first aid. faster, rational, sustainable, and systematic.
We strongly recommend all the schools and
e. Hostel: colleges to adopt world class quality
The sole aim of Hostels is to realize the vision of SPS College Swat, practices and generate a strong momentum
i.e. "To Prepare the Generation of Today to Face the Challenges of of improvement for a world-class Pakistan.
Tomorrow”.
Procedures have been developed for hostel admissions, annual schedule About Author
of activities, daily activities, co-curricular activities, boarders diaries,
Author is Chairman R&D, SPS College Swat. He can
daily report, result follow up activity (RFA), visitors, ethical policy, be contacted at:
cleanliness, and kitchen and water tank.
ad_saath@yahoo.com
f. Vehicle Maintenance & Operation:
By Ambreen Asif Qureshi
Karachi,Pakistan

Academic Audit as
Quality Assurance
Tool
A Case Study of
CIFT, Karachi

Abstract training needs. Other issues include lack of accountability processes at


institutes, lack of support processes and follow up activities to see whether
Concerned at the declining educational the teachers apply the new techniques learnt or not. In the absence of any
standards in Pakistan, Commecs Institute of credible data regarding quality of services, the parents and students have to
Faculty Training (CIFT), a not-for-profit rely on the Principal’s / Management’s claim of quality in their academic
organization providing professional services.
development opportunities to teachers and
educators, realized that inspite of best
human and material resources, quality
CIFT carried out an in depth research on
cannot be ensured at any educational how this vital area is dealt with in other
institute unless it has a well structured and
robust internal and external quality countries. Our main source are the
assurance system in place. Through the case
study of a private college, the author
educational standards developed by Office of
discusses how academic audits helped the Standards in Education (OFSTED) UK and
institute in successfully implementing the
QA program.
European Network of Quality Assurance
1. Common Quality Issues in
(ENQA)
Education Therefore, after extensive research into quality issues in education, CIFT
introduced its External Academic Audit services in 2003 to validate the
Till 2003, CIFT was involved in catering to
organization’s claim to quality education, and at the same time benefiting
the professional development needs of
faculty members in terms of recognition of performance, professional
teachers and educators from a broad
development and career guidance.
spectrum of academia and social and
educational backgrounds. These courses The main objectives are:
included nationally and internationally ¨to validate the institutional claim in maintaining a culture of
recognized diploma and certificate systematic and continuous quality development and improvement in
programs, as well as customized skill-based education
faculty development workshops. ¨ to evaluate institutional capacity to plan, act and report on quality-
However, CIFT soon realized that there are related objectives and achievements
many quality assurance issues that make ¨ to facilitate the organization in identifying and evaluating the work
even the best of the training session performance of its staff and students for future direction
redundant and ineffective. Foremost is the to benefit faculty members in terms of recognition of performance,
trainees’ inability to identify their own professional development and career guidance
1.4. Involvement of Partnering
Govt.’s Poverty Reduction Strategies Organization

“The Delivery of Quality Education at all Since 2003, CIFT has contributed to the
measurable improvement, policy
levels for improving the quality development, implementation and
monitoring of quality assurance programs at
of social capital is to be achieved by all schools and institutes that it has audited,
rewarding expertise, providing including Commecs Institute of Business
and Emerging Sciences, Sir Adamjee
access to improved teacher training program, Institute of Technology, and all schools
curriculum reform and managed by the Citizens Foundation (TCF)
throughout Pakistan. The success of CIFT
innovative project.” External Academic Audit program can be
gauged by the steps undertaken by all these
Reform Agenda quality conscious organizations as the
Education Sector Reform (ESR) outcome of valid, reliable and analytical
2001-2005
Academic Audit reports produced by CIFT.
1.1. Establishing External Academic Audit Framework For the purpose of this article, we will take
CIFT's interaction with one of its partner
CIFT's External Academic Audit program calls for a series of observation institute, CIBES, and will prove how
and staff appraisal practices, where every staff member is observed at least Academic Audit, both internal and external,
thrice a year; a SWOT analysis is done, outcomes are discussed with him / can be used as a direct tool for effective and

QPSP, January-June 2008


her and improvements made. At the end of the year, the final analytical sustainable Quality Assurance program.
report is submitted to the Management along with recommendations for Through evidences it will be proved how the
training and further improvement. institute achieved Education Quality Process
In the absence of any educational Quality Assurance standards in Pakistan, Maturity, when the faculty, management,
CIFT carried out an indepth research on how this vital area is dealt with in administrators, and staff were engaged in
other countries. Our main sources are the educational standards developed continuous self-assessment, peer review and
by Office of Standards in Education (OFSTED) UK and European Network external validation.
of Quality Assurance (ENQA), which were restructured according to local
contexts and needs.
2. Quality Assurance System
1.2. Focus of Academic Audits 'Quality Assurance System' is the term used

15
to describe the overall framework and the
Based on these internationally developed standards, CIFT's external quality various standards, steps, stages and
assurance service encompasses evaluation of two main areas: processes involved in quality improvement
The Quality of Teaching Standards comprising subject knowledge, process. In simple form, the system is
course planning & development, teaching methodology, assessment of represented by a cyclical process (Figure 1)
& feedback on students' achievement, extra/ co-curricular activities, involving four key interrelated elements -
and research and development activities Planning, Implementing, Reviewing, and
Improving (PIRI).
The Quality of Resources & Opportunities available at the institute
including academic culture, infrastructure, teachers' selection process, 2.1. The Issues
students' admission and support processes, learning and professional By 2003, ten years after its establishment,
development opportunities for students and faculty. CIBES was already enjoying a very good
After the completion of the external audit, CIFT provides a detailed report reputation as the leading Inter Commerce
on QA practices in the institute, comprising quantitative and qualitative
analysis of compliance and intervention.
1.3. Advantages of Academic Audits as QA Tools Plan
¨ Engage faculty in interesting and practical dialogue about quality of
education. Through adherence to standards of Best Practice, they
analyze, compare, and monitor their own progress
¨ Demonstrate that even modest efforts to improve EQP can benefit both Improve Implement
teachers and students
¨ Academic Audit as a Management tool, promotes Teamwork:
collaboration, cooperation, coherence, consensus, and collegiate
culture Review
¨ Fuse the improvement and accountability agendas without threatening
faculty
¨ Can be done at low cost
Figure 1: Quality Assurance Diagram
which had more than 280 schools throughout Pakistan catering to the needs
Systematic Validity of approximately 23000 students and 1800 teachers and principals.
CIFT conducted its first academic audit project for CIBES in the academic
“Education policies are year 2003-4. It was followed by an extensive professional development
systematically valid if training of the faculty, on the gap areas identified during the internal and
external academic audits. Next year the performance measurement bar was
they result in decisions raised and again internal and external academic audits were carried out. The
third academic year i.e. 2006-2007 since CIFT had joined its external audit
and actions that lead to processes with CIBE's internal audit practices, witnessed CIBES Quality
progress toward one or Assurance practices reach their maturity.
more intended goals The best aspect, however, of this whole exercise was the commitment and
relentless adherence to quality improvement standards exhibited by all
without causing stakeholders at CIBES, including parents and students. Though main
regression with respect objectives of having external academic audits remain the same, yet more
and more indicators were added to the list of areas to be observed and
to other goals”. reported upon. This step-by-step approach required many structural,
cultural, and administrative adjustments at both the ends internal and
Braun & Kanjee; 2006 external. The main concern was ensuring the validity and reliability of the
results because the complexity of a full accountability system did not just
and BBA college in Karachi. From the 1st require gathering of data, but a more principled approach a systems design
year of appearing in the Board of perspective with the involvement of all stakeholders, in order to make
Intermediate Education, Karachi, Commecs a synonym of quality in education.
QPSP, January-June 2008

examination its students have been clinching 2.2. The Challenges


at least 3 out of top ten positions with 100%
pass percentages. Its BBA students secured i) Unlike the corporate sector where Quality Assurance processes were
highest GPAs in IBA exams. Renowned for already established and where the standards were already developed and
its discipline, excellent results, and character accepted by all parties concerned, the education sector has not, as yet, fully
building exercises, it was the 1st choice of opened itself to this concept, especially in Pakistan where the quality
parents and students alike. Employment at assurance concept is a totally new phenomenon. In the absence of any
CIBES was considered to be the best national educational standards, it was a real uphill task for CIFT team to
opportunity due to better working develop performance indicators and standards for an institute poised to
conditions, and higher monetary and other enter the higher education arena. However, standards developed by internal
agencies like Office of Standards in Education UK (OFSTED), European
16

benefits.
Network of Quality Assurance (ENQA), and International Network of
However, the Management wanted to do Quality Assurance Agency in Higher Education (INQAAHE), American
more in order to further improve its quality. Society for Quality (ASQ), Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award
It also wanted an external agency to validate framework, were of great help in this regard.
its claim of 'excellence in education', find
gaps between theory and practices, and help ii) The second challenge was to convince the faculty about the importance
it ascertain the professional development of Academic Audit as a main tool in improving the quality of teaching and
needs of its faculty so that steps may be learning, and to motivate them to employ best teaching practices learnt.
taken before CIBES gets its own Charter as CIBES has been having an annual Faculty Development Program (FDP)
Degree Awarding Institute for which it has since 1995, and training teachers on use of latest teaching practices and
applied to the Ministry of Education, Sindh. approaches to cater to the needs of all students. Systems and policies were
Another reason for getting its practices already there; efforts were needed to bridge the gaps between theory and
endorsed by an external quality assuror was practice.
the fact that many other like minded iii) Another major challenge was faculty's resistance to academic audit as a
philanthropic organizations were requesting tool for 'accountability' and 'compliance' measurement and their fear that it
the Trustees to take up the academic may be biased. Special meetings were arranged with the faculty and they
management of different schools and were assured that maximum care would be taken to make the processes as
colleges they were managing or running, much evidence based and valid as possible. Nobody would be fired as an
and implement CIBES best practices. outcome of audit results, and maximum professional development
Therefore, CIBES Management requested opportunities will be provided to those whose performance would be below
CIFT, a ‘not-for-profit organization’, to desired level of competence.
carry out CIBES Academic Audit as third
party assuror. iv) The normal, accepted procedure of performance appraisal in any
institute is the standardized assessment (BIEK) results, which had become
By that time, CIFT was already involved as the corner stone of the validity for use of test-based indicators in faculty's
external Quality Assurance agency with accountability. Therefore teachers pay more attention to exam-oriented
some of the leading school systems in studies than concept clarity. Although CIBES required its teachers to
Karachi, including the Citizens Foundation prepare lesson plans with clear-cut learning objectives based on Bloom's
Taxonomy, yet not all faculty was using the same approach. There was need of the quality assurance diagram. At each
to create awareness amongst all faculty members that CIBES need a level, performance indicators were proposed
structured approach that recognizes the differences between systems, yet and evaluated with respect to: objectives,
also addresses areas of major concern, with the goal of developing an constraints, threats, relations to features
overall plan for improvement. associated with other goals. Care was
2.3 The Solutions however taken to implement multiple sub-
indicators for each goal because asymmetric
CIFT adopted a Baldrige based approach to the academic audit process as a attention to one goal sometimes results in
tool of quality assurance in the institute’s learning and improvement. This harming one or more other goals. Specially
comprised: designed field forms asked questions like:
¨ Self-study prepared by the department or assessee to be observed ¨ Does the overall administration and
¨ Orientation meeting with all teachers and other staff members to management confirm to rules /
discuss the criteria and criteria specifics based on core values specifics guidelines laid down by its policies?
¨ Making connections between criteria and organizational best practices ¨ What value addition is being ensured to
through: make the institute stand out amongst its
¨ Class observations (minimum 3 class observations per teacher) competitors
¨ Evaluation of the documentation procedures, including lesson planning ¨ What steps are being taken to ensure
and preparation that faculty and students pursue
¨ Observing assessment processes (both summative and formative), research and development activities?
including paper setting and marking procedures, and feedback 2.5. The Code of Conduct (for Auditors)
procedures
¨ Observation of steps taken for underachieving students CIFT Quality Assurance Framework has an
ingrained Auditors' Code of Conduct, which

QPSP, January-June 2008


¨ Evaluation of provision of students moral, social and cultural
is strictly followed. It requires all auditors
upbringing
to:
¨ Interviewing the teachers, parents and students
¨ evaluate objectively and impartially;
¨ Quantitative and qualitative analysis of data gathered
¨ report honestly and fairly ensuring that
¨ Preparation of the audit report, with recommendations observations are accurate and reliable,
¨ Training and further development exercises fully supported by evidence;
¨ Follow-up session ¨ do all they can to minimize the stress on
2.4. The Objectives and Desired Outcomes those involved in the audit and act with
their best interests and well-being as
The best part of integrating 2003-4 external academic audit results with
priorities;
internal audit results was that it led to faculty's acceptance and eventual

17
ownership of the quality assurance process over the years. This resulted in a ¨ respect the confidentiality of
growing list of objectives and desired outcomes of academic audit process. information; and
Table 1 shows the gradual additions to the Audit Objectives and desired ¨ respect the presence of teachers, for
outcomes: example, when entering or leaving
classrooms, wherever and whenever
The strategy adopted by CIFT was to propose different sets of indicators to possible;
achieve each objective, and then evaluate each set with respect to the
3. Impact of Academic Audits on
Table 1: Gradual Increase in Audit Objectives and Desired Outcomes Overall QA
Description 2003 - 2004 2004 - 2005 2006 - 2007 Based on the report of the external
a) To identify the training a) assess scale of a) assess scale of implementation of lessons learnt Academic Audits conducted by CIFT,
and development needs implementation of during training, especially those related to Teaching
of CIBES faculty institutional policies and and Assessment methodology;
CIBES decided to take certain steps in order
members in order to add suggest changes, especially b) examine achievement of teaching and learning to make informed decisions about quality
value to its annual FDP those related to Teaching objectives at the departmental level;
through focused training; and Assessment c) provide quantitative and qualitative analysis of the improvement and to ‘walk the talk’.
Main b) to identify the methodology; relationship between teacher's stated learning &
Objective/s strengths and weaknesses b) conduct SWOT analysis educational objectives, and actual teaching practices;
Changes were made to faculty performance
of using of its faculty and staff
About Authors
academic and appreciate good
of teachers' performance; d) observe how teachers add value to curriculum evaluation system, training and professional
c) facilitate the organization enhancement, character building, feedback to
audits as performers; in developing competency students, especially remedial ones; development opportunities, re-structuring
tools for c) to identify the areas based job descriptions of e) conduct SWOT analysis of teachers' performance
quality which need more input faculty and heads; in academic, co & extra-curricular activities;
students' counseling and career guidance
assurance both in terms of material d) recommend improvement, f) identify gap areas between skills and competencies system, streamlining internal examination
and human resources. on individual and collective developed by the institute in students and market
basis; demand and recommend improvement, on short-term and feedback system, use of technology in
e) identify subject based and long-term basis;
training and development g) identify subject based training and development
managing MIS system and other instruction
needs; needs of each teacher; supplementing mechanisms.
h) facilitate the organization in developing
competency based job descriptions of faculty and
heads. As a result of these steps to improve the
quality of its services and facilities many
relevant criteria. This process naturally led back to data collection and academic and other processes were
eventually to educational goals and objectives. Therefore CIFT worked improved. These best practices are being
backward from each academic objective of the institute through each level shared so that other institutes / academicians
may benefit from the lessons learnt and assessment tasks and intended learning outcomes. Faculty was divided into
improvements made by CIBES. different groups according to the level of teaching experience and
3.1. Lesson Planning and Preparation departmental position, and trained on how to create assessment tasks that
validly and reliably determine the learning outcomes, award grades that are
Every year, before the summer break, all the meaningful representations of the level of learning, and give feedback on
faculty members of each department discuss actual performance. Training was also provided on test development
and decide on the main teaching objectives principles and procedures, item writing, mark scheme development and test
and jointly prepare Macro plans of the construction.
subjects assigned to them. Once approved
by the Academic Council, each teacher start Though CIBES cannot do much about the quality of external examinations
preparing his/her Micro lesson plans i.e. BIEK exams, yet as part of its internal QA processes, the measurement
keeping in mind Bloom's Taxonomy and and reporting of student outcomes their knowledge, skills, achievement or
learners' need. Though teachers are given performance have now become a major reference point for academic
full autonomy to follow whatever lesson standards at CIBES. Now both the faculty and students are becoming aware
plan format they want, yet all lesson plans of what is expected, what is valued, and what will be rewarded. Formative
must clearly mention the learning objectives, (quizzes, research-based project work, oral presentations, assignments etc)
teaching techniques that will be employed, and Summative (tests and exams) assessment techniques are used to
reference material, assessment and feedback monitor students’ academic progress, provide guidance and make informed
methodology. These lesson plans are decisions. Emphasis is placed on concept clarity rather than syllabus
verified by the Head of the Departments and coverage.
validated by internal program reviewers Figure 3.1 presents a comparison of CIBES BIEK results for the Academic
3.2. Communication of the Learning Year 2004-5 and 2005-6. It clearly shows that CIBES focused efforts in
Objectives bringing quality improvement in Assessment methodology have resulted in:
QPSP, January-June 2008

The biggest proof of CIBES' claim to quality ¨ Increase in number of students getting A+ and A grades
education is the manner in which each ¨ Decrease in number of students getting below C grades
subject is given equal importance and is ¨ Almost 80% of CIBES students get
integrated with other subjects to make the Table 2: Intermediate Board admission in top level national and
learning a sustainable and enriching Results international universities and
experience. This is achieved by planning professional colleges
# of CIBES POSITIONS
and delivering each lesson by keeping in YEAR (OUT OF TOP 10) 3.4. Currency of Subjects / Curriculum
mind its learning objectives and its
significance in the overall mission of the CIBES has a formal mechanism for the
2006 4
institute. Moreover, it helps the institute in approval, periodic review, updation and
2005 3 monitoring of its programs. The Heads of
18

measuring and ensuring the output and


outcome through significant changes in the 2004 6 the Departments, being members of
students’ pattern of behaviour and internal QA team, hold regular syllabus
2003 6 enhancement meetings with the subject
competence.
2002 2 experts and the representatives from the
The teachers discuss these objectives with corporate sector / institutes of higher
the students before starting the lesson. At the 2001 3
learning in order to design / add value to
end, a recap is made and both the teachers 2000 3 the curricula suited to market needs. At
and the students assess whether these BBA level, CIBES has introduced such
1999 3
learning objectives have been achieved or subjects as 'Business Ethics’, ‘Corporate
not. 1998 6
Figure 3.1: Quality Improvement in BIEK Results
All teachers have been provided extensive 1997 4
training on writing SMART objectives. 1996 9 70.0%

3.3. Effective Assessment Methodology 1995 4


60.0%
50.0%
The assurance of academic standards 40.0%

embraces a wide range of institute's Governance’ etc. Plans are 30.0% Year 2004-5

activities beyond the assessment of student underway to introduce 20.0% Year 2005-6

10.0%
learning. However, nobody can deny that Literature as a credit course in
0.0%
implementing effective assessment and order to ‘humanize’ the A-1 A B C

grading practices is perhaps the most business studies syllabus. Grades

important safeguard. CIBES overall pass


At Intermediate level, the
percentage has always been 100% and its
management realized the importance of Mathematics and IT for the future
students have bagged top positions since the
commerce leaders. Therefore, both these subjects were being taught as
1st of its batches appeared in Intermediate
value added courses till 1998 when BIEK made them compulsory. Now,
Board exams in 1995.
Business Communication and Computer Studies are being taught as non-
The Academic Audits reported that a lot credit courses to Commerce and Science Groups.
more needs to be done in terms of aligning
3.5. Professional Development 3.7. Programme Evaluation
An increase in faculty's interest in professional development was observed CIBES has an Academic Council consisting
after the first two external audits, as more and more members participated in of leading academicians and educators
conferences, seminars, and continuing education programs, both on drawn from a broad spectrum of society.
personal and institutional level. CIBES also changed its policy and This Council meets twice a year and
wholeheartedly sponsored teachers' enrollment in subject enhancement oversees formation of academic policies
programs/ workshops. Some were given long leave to pursue their PhD. based on new developments in the academic
Annual Faculty Development Program was divided into different batches world. In order to strengthen this process
based on training needs and years of service at CIBES. Master trainers were further, the audits recommended that the
being trained from amongst the core faculty, through Cambridge Academic Council should be assisted by an
International Diploma for teachers and Trainers. Other members were Academic Committee comprising CIBES
provided training on computer and English Language Skills. Their expertise core faculty members so that they can speed
was later used by CIBES to conduct free teachers' training workshop for up implementation of new academic
other schools, as well as training new inductees. policies, evaluate them, and discuss the
outcome with the Academic Council
All faculty members have been trained to develop and maintain personal
members. The Academic Committee was
portfolios to keep record of their professional development and value
formed in 2004, and has been contributing
addition. From the year 2006-7, all faculty members have started writing a
effectively to the academic processes.
Reflective Report, on teaching and learning assignments they had
undertaken. In coming years, core faculty members will become part of Apart from the Academic Committee's
internal QA Team. assessment, all academic programmes are
3.6. Character Building evaluated by:
¨ the Students

QPSP, January-June 2008


CIBES has always emphasized on personality grooming of its students. One
¨ Heads of the Departments
of its mission objectives is: “To prepare future leaders of business and
society and inculcate in them a sense of pride in performance and a high ¨ Vice Principal / Programme Director
level of ethical and moral standards” ¨ Principal
¨ External Subject Specialist
The audits reported CIBES continued adherence to achieving this objective
through different strategies e.g. The data is then compiled and qualitative
¨ Cibean Code of Conduct for Students and Teachers analysis is made. Recommendations are
¨ Making CIBES a No Smoking zone for all made and steps for quality improvement are
taken in the light of these recommendations.
¨ Motivating Students to participate in social work for which a special
committee has been formed. This committee carries out activities like 3.8. Peer observation

19
collecting donations for earthquake victims, holding blood camps for Cohen and McKeachie (1980)1 identified
cancer patients, teaching at non-formal community schools in low- ten aspects of teaching that peers are most
income areas in the evening, visiting SOS villages to give donations competent to evaluate. The three external
and spend times with the orphans and needy, participating in walk- a- Academic Audits conducted till date, used
cause events etc. all these aspects during the peer review
¨ Other committees like Garden Committee create awareness about the process carried out by CIFT subject experts:
environmental risks and concerns. Students are motivated to plant trees ¨ Mastery of course content
and flowers and participate in efforts to save the environment. For the ¨ Selection of course content
last four years, CIBES students have been participating in horticultural ¨ Course organization
shows. They have won awards as well.
¨ Appropriateness of course objectives
¨ The institute has its own prayer hall where teachers and students offer
¨ Appropriateness of instructional
their zuhr prayers together
materials (i.e. readings, media)
¨ The cafeteria acts as a hub of activities where social and behavioral
¨ Appropriateness of evaluative devices
values are nurtured through informal interaction between faculty and
(i.e., exams, written assignments)
students.
¨ Appropriateness of methodology used
¨ Guest speakers sessions are held throughout the year to provide a taste
to teach specific content areas
of the practical world to the students and to raise their awareness about
moral, ethical and intellectual issues ¨ Commitment to teaching and concern
for student learning
¨ In 2005, CIBES established a students counseling and career guidance
committee which has been a huge success ¨ Student achievement, based on
performance on exams and projects
¨ To promote spirit of patriotism, students are encouraged to participate
in special events held on national days. The day starts with Qirat and ¨ Support of departmental instructional
singing of National Anthem during the morning assembly. efforts
¨ Special awards are given to students on exhibiting excellent Figure 3.2 present a graphical view of
performance in these character-building activities. This includes awards gradual improvement in different faculty
for highest attendance, best library users, best gardening committee performance areas after each academic audit
member, best social worker, best team leader etc. conducted from 2003 till date, and as
Figure 3.2: Quality Improvement onwards. This brought a tremendous improvement in this important area
through Peer Evaluation and CIBES students not only participated in Inter college sports
100%
competitions throughout the country, but won laurels for their alma-mater as
90% well.
80%
70%
60% Managing Committee
50%
40%
2003-4 30% Executive Director
2004 - 5 20%
10%
2006 - 7
0% Principal / Prog. Director
Course organization

Course objectives
Selection of course content
Subject Command

Support of efforts
Student achievement (BIEK)
Instructional materials (i.e. readings,

Commitment & concern for student


Teaching Methodology
Use of Evaluative devices

Academic Committees Operational Committees Departmental Committees


learning
media)

Attendance Academic Programs Publications Admission Examination

Research & Dev. Assembly Social Works Medical Library I.T.

Timetable Counseliing Gardening Feen Endowment Science Sports

Seminar Discipline Marketing Alumni Cafeteria Transport

observed by a team of external Subject


specialists. ¨ Gold Medal in 4x100 M Free Style Madly Relay Race
3.9. Value Addition - Operational and ¨ 2 Gold, 2 Silver and 5 Bronze Medals in Sindh Open Swimming
Support Committees Championship
QPSP, January-June 2008

CIBES Management Manual is the driving ¨ Gold Medal In Sindh Open Boxing Championship
document which comprises Induction ¨ 1 gold and 1 silver medal in Pakistan Junior Swimming Championship
Manual for Teachers and Students' 2006
Handbook. Different committees consisting ¨ 1 Gold, 1 Silver and 1 Bronze Medal in Sindh Open Swimming
of faculty members, administrative staff and Championship
students oversee CIBES academic and ¨ 1st Position in Intercollegiate Volleyball Tournament
operational processes. Detailed job ¨ 1st Position in Intercollegiate Boys Lawn Tennis Tournament
descriptions have been designed for all b) CIBES Publications
faculty members including their
responsibilities as committee members. CIBES QA practices do not end only with imparting quality education.
These also incorporate efforts to develop healthy reading habits, creative
20

3.10. Co / Extra Curricular Activities


thinking, and effective writing skills. It has three publications: 'Payam-e-
One of the main objectives of CIBES CIBE' an annual magazine for all types of readers, 'Commecs Post' the
mission is a full rounded personality annual newsletter to cover all events that happen on campus, and 'Commecs
grooming of the students. Throughout the Gazette' a monthly gazette for students and teachers to contribute research
year, different co-curricular and extra- based articles on a particular topic.
curricular activities are planned to build
confidence and promote healthy competition Quality is maintained not only in the selection and publication of articles,
amongst the students. These include Inter- but in meeting the timelines as well. The dates on which all these
college Naat & Qirat competitions, quiz publications are to be made available are mentioned on the academic
competitions, declamation contests, flower- calendar that is given to each student at the beginning of the academic year.
arrangement competitions, English and Urdu For the last four years, Payam-e-CIBE has been rated as one of the best
plays, Science and IT competitions, etc. college magazines of the country.
a) Achievements in Sports 3.11. Corporate Relationships & Linkages
Each year an annual Sports Gala was held Building strong relationship and linkages with the Corporate Business and
and attended by Cibeans only. However, the Industry is another hallmark of quality education at CIBES. This helps its
Institute started focusing more attention on faculty to be aware of the market demand. It is achieved through Guest
sports and recreational activities from 2004 Speakers sessions, Seminars, Internship placement, and Corporate and
Industrial visits. There is strong bonding with Alumni of CIBES who have
entered the practical life and now hold top-level positions at leading MNCs,
Banks, and renowned business houses.
3.12. Beneficiary Feedback
CIBES's internal academic audit system has a fully functional beneficiary
feedback process which helps it in maintaining and improving quality of its
services. All stakeholders are involved in one way or the other, including
students and faculty.
a) Students
¨ Course Evaluation versions of textbooks.
¨ Faculty Evaluation e) Book Fairs
¨ Suggestion Box In 2006, a two day Books Fair was
¨ Monthly Class Representatives meeting organized for the CIBES students and
¨ Direct On-line Access to Chairman faculty, as well as for the residents of the
¨ Cafeteria / Sports Service Evaluation neighborhood, in order to promote zest for
b) Faculty & Staff reading and knowledge.
¨ Performance Evaluation Peers f) Philanthropy
¨ Performance Evaluation Students The students and faculty are encouraged to
¨ Portfolios participate in different philanthropic events
¨ Suggestion Box each year. These include blood donation
¨ Faculty meetings camps, setting up small workshops for
¨ Direct On-line Access to Chairman physically handicapped skilled laborers, and
¨ Annual Critique session science or comp3uter laboratories at schools
run and managed by NGOs, etc.
¨ Cafeteria Service Evaluation
3.14. Recruitment Process
3.13. Public Service
It follows the following steps:
Commecs, being ‘not-for-profit’ organization, ensures that a certain
percentage of its revenue is allocated for public service. These public ¨ Vacancy Announcement in leading
service initiatives are not only institution based but go beyond as well. newspapers
¨ Receipt of Applications & Screening
a) Fee Endowment & Scholarships

QPSP, January-June 2008


¨ Interview / Test
No student is denied admission on the basis of inability to pay the
educational expenses. Table 3 shows increase in amount spent on fee
endowment and scholarships each year Table 4: Annual Hajj Draw
b) Commecs Park Year Name
2003 xxxxxxxxxx (Faculty
A very beautiful gift to the local residents is a park adjacent to CIBES main
campus in Gulistan-e-Jauhar, which has been developed on international 2004 xxxxxxxxxx (Faculty)
horticultural standards and is managed by CIBES.
2005 xxxxxxxxxx (Office Boy)
c) Free Training Workshops
Each year CIBES hold two free full day training workshops for Principals 2006 xxxxxxxxxx (Faculty)

21
and Teachers of other schools and colleges on subject-based teaching
practices, assessment methodology, and leadership skills. A Certificate is
awarded at the end. ¨ Demonstration of Skills
d) Curriculum Development Workshops ¨ Induction on Probation
In its bid to contribute to the society in general and educational sector in ¨ Inductees Orientation Program
particular, CIBES held Curriculum Development Workshops so that subject ¨ Performance evaluation for
specialists and renowned teachers of Commerce subjects at Intermediate confirmation
level sit together, discuss subject related issues, and add value by ¨ Confirmation
recommending changes / additions / deletions. Earlier, the workshop 3.15. Personnel Policy
working documents were produced by comparing curricula and syllabi of
various educational boards of the country, as well as those being taught in It follows the following steps:
India and at O'Level-UK. Recommendations have been sent to the Ministry ¨ Education Subsidy to Employees'
of Education, Sindh. children (60% of tuition fee)
¨ Holidays / Paid Leave
CIBES has also offered its services in writing and designing the revised ¨ Salary Matrix Revision every three
years
¨ EOBI
Table 3:
Fee Endowment & Scholarships ¨ Provident Fund
¨ Loan Facility against Provident Fund
Year Endowment (Rs.) Scholarship (Rs.) Total ¨ Maternity Leave
2001-02 898,948 260,100 1,159,048 ¨ Sick Leave
2002-03 2,055,700 227,750 2,283,450 ¨ Education Leave
¨ Medical Facility
2003-04 2,348,708 294,900 2,643,608
¨ Annual Hajj Draw (sponsored by CET)
2004-05 2,286,734 432,750 2,719,484 ¨ Faculty Development Programme
2005-06 1,743,314 423,775 2,167,089 ¨ Annual Increment
Medical Entitlement A paradigmatic shift in the cultural ethos
1,000,000 was brought about to make improvement
Entitlement

800,000 mechanisms more meaningful.


600,000
400,000
Management's commitment, pragmatic
200,000 approach to improvement and willingness to
0
2001 2002 2003 2003 2005
act decisively resulted in increased
-2 -3 -4 -5 -6 involvement of all stakeholders,
Year

¨ Performance based Merit Increments (application in process)


¨ No restriction on outside remunerative ¨ Establishment of the City Campus
work ¨ COMMECS UNIVERSITY
¨ Sponsored Participation of Faculty in 4. Lessons Learnt
Seminars & Conferences
3.16. Grievance Settlement Procedures This case study proves that a systematic and well-designed external
Outline Academic Audit coupled with Internal checks and controls are the best tools
to ensure provision of quality in education. However, it also proves that
a) For Students: mere standardization was not enough. A paradigmatic shift in the cultural
¨ Behavioral Guidelines at Orientation ethos was brought about to make improvement mechanisms more
QPSP, January-June 2008

¨ Counseling by Student Counselor meaningful. Management's commitment, pragmatic approach to


¨ Reviews by Disciplinary Committee improvement and willingness to act decisively resulted in increased
¨ Complaint Lodging, Review and involvement of all stakeholders, a shared sense of purpose and in bringing
Investigation by AVP / Vice Principal about the required improvement in quality. Some very difficult decisions
¨ Final Decision by Principal had to be taken to address key issues arising from each audit inspection.
Schools, colleges and universities striving to establish Quality Assurance
b) For Faculty & Staff practices at their respective places can bridge the gap between theory and
¨ Critique Session practice. In other words a robust academic audit system can help them ‘to
¨ Direct On-line Access to Chairman at walk the talk’!
opinion@cet.edu.pk
22

¨ Suggestion / Complaint Box


3.17. Conflict of Interest Policy References:
¨ No Benefit to Trustees Boice, Robert (1992) The New Faculty Member. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers
¨ No Benefit to Donors
¨ Teachers are not allowed to give tuition Braskamp, Larry A., Brandenburg, Dale C., and Ory, John C. (1984) Evaluating Teaching
Effectiveness: A Practical Guide. Beverly Hills; Sage Publications, Inc.
to CIBEANS
¨ Merit based admission. No preference
Braskamp, Larry A. and Ory, John C. (1994) Assessing Faculty Work: Enhancing Individual
in admission is given to children of and Institutional Performance. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers
CIBES faculty / Managing Committee
members Cohen, P.S. and McKeachie, W.J. (1980) "The Role of Colleagues in the Evaluation of College
3.18. Certification Teaching." Improving College and University Teaching, 28, 147-154.

CIBES, as the flagship of Commecs Charlton BG (1999)” The Ideology of 'Accountability'” Journal of the Royal College of
Educational Trust, has been certified by Physicians of London 33: 33-5
Pakistan Center for Philanthropy (PCP),
Practices as a ‘not-for-profit’ Non- Dyson, Freeman J. (1997) Imagined Worlds Harvard: Cambridge, MA, USA.
Government Organization, on its
Management. Plans to go for ISO 9001- Edgerton, R., Hutchings, P. and Quinlan, K. (1991) “The Teaching Portfolio: Capturing the
2000 Certification are also underway. Scholarship in Teaching”, Washington, DC: The American Association for Higher Education.
3.19. Future Projects
¨ Introduction of Pre-Medical Discipline
at the Intermediate Level
¨ Participation in the Academic About Author
Management of other Philanthropic
Educational Institutions Author is working as Manager Programs, Commecs Educational Trust in Karachi Pakistan.
¨ Degree Awarding Status for CIBES She can be contacted on: manager_programs@cet.edu.pk
By Prof. Dr. Khawaja Amjad Saeed
Lahore, Pakistan

Ranking of
Pakistani
Universities
A Review

Prelude universities were granted Degree Awarding


Status in good faith and as of today, have not
Higher Education Commission (HEC) of Pakistan released ranking of fulfilled the criteria laid down by the Federal
universities of the country on September 28, 2006. This was a step in right government. Despite serving notices by
direction and HEC deserves full appreciation for their initiative and HEC, they have failed to meet the criteria
productive effort. We hope that this process will be carried forward with and are enjoying the luxury of extra time to
zeal and vigor in future and will provide feedback for consideration by the detriment of high quality standards. One
various universities for further improvement towards achieving the wonders what is their basic objective and
hallmark of great heights in the context of quality education in Pakistan. how long they will linger on with their
The motivation for the above ranking was provided by the Prime Minister current status. The best approach is to be
of Pakistan; the initiative was undertaken by HEC through its Quality proactive and self driven for meeting the
Assurance Committee. Federal government criteria at the earliest.
Table : 1 (Table 02)
Methodology Assigned Weights for Ranking Universities
A comprehensive Particulars Weight% Categories Of Universities
questionnaire spread over 1. Faculty 27 HEC identified six categories of universities
the following weights was 2. Research 26 for ranking. These are tabulated below:
distributed for collecting 3. Students 17
information from the 4. Facilities 15 It is hoped that more refinement will take
selected universities for 5. Finance 15 place with the passage of time and we will
ranking. (Table 01) Total 100 have an improved identification of the above
categories in future. For the time being, it is
an excellent beginning. (Table 03)
A Specialized Ranking Board of eleven persons was set up for deciding and
declaring the ranks; two external experts from private sector were also Top Positions
included. In the six categories of ranked Universities,
The Scope For Ranking top positions were bagged by three
belonging to Punjab, two to Islamabad and
As of October 31, 2006, there were 114 recognized institutes / universities one to Karachi. This shows high
in Pakistan. Their position is tabulated below: geographical concentration in Punjab and
Out of above 114 recognized institutes / universities, such private sector Federal area. In three ranked ones in Punjab,
universities which currently did not meet the minimum Federal Government University of Agriculture, Faisalabad,
Criteria for establishment of universities in Pakistan were excluded from the LUMS, Lahore and National College of
ranking. Their total is 55 (48%). It is apparent that these institutes / Arts, Lahore achieved the honour of top
ranking. The two belonging to Islamabad
Table : 4
Table: 2 Criteria of Rankinh
Recognized Institutes / Universities Particulars Weight%
in Pakistan
1. Faculty 27
Particulars Number 2. Research 26
A: Public Sector 3. Students 17
1.Universities 50 4. Facilities 15
2. Degree Awarding Institutes 09 5. Finance 15
59 Total 100
B: Private Sector
1. Universities 37 Averages of Ranked Categories of
2. Degree Awarding Institutes 18
55
Universities
Total 114 An Analysis of the above reveals the following:
1. The overall performance of the ranked
universities is very low i.e 38.40%. Only one
Table : 3 category (Agriculture) obtained an average of
Categories of Universities Identified for Ranking 53.36%. The lowest average earned is in the
Particulars Number Table : 5
1. General Universities 23 Performance Related Averages
2. Engineering 13 of Ranked Universities
QPSP, January-June 2008

3. Business / IT 08 Category Average%


4. Agriculture / Veterinary 04 1. Agriculture 53.36
5. Health Sciences 04 2. Health Sciences 45.32
6. Art / Design 03 3. Art / Design 44.12
Total 55 4. Business / IT 31.43
5. Engineering 29.90
6. General 26.27
were Pakistan Institute of Engineering and general universities Overall Average 38.40
Applied Sciences and Quaid-e-Azam category i.e Highest Average-Agriculture 53.36
University. The other one category belonged 26.27%. This is a Lowest Average-General 26.27
24

to Karachi and was Agha Khan University. wake up call for


concerted
Criteria For Ranking homework to be undertaken by the management of these universities
Selection for indicators as criteria for for attaining high quality standards. Surprisingly, Engineering which
ranking universities continues to be a subject has earned 29.90% needs to go a long way for improving their
of debate at home and abroad. However, academic and research standards.The management must rise to the
room for improvement always exists and occasion and get out of the syndrome of Rip Van Winkle sleep.
search for a ‘better than the best’ criteria is 2. Business / I.T category has earned a low grade (31.43%). They
an evolving process. The five components need to meet the quality standards to produce high degree management
selected for forming the criteria relating to executives.
ranking universities are tabulated below:
If 50% is taken as a minimum qualifying threshold, only Agriculture
On the basis of this criteria, the highest rank Universities qualify. The remaining other five categories, on an
was earned by the University of Agriculture, average, are all below the above cut-off level.
Faisalabad (66.44%) and the lowest was
earned by City University of Sciences & It is high time that the management of our universities should
Information Technology, Peshawar undertake reviews for positive feedback. It is imperative to enhance
(11.17%). The gap is 55.27% between the their quality standards to meet the challenge of improvement.
highest and the lowest. This is too high and Institutionalized efforts should be undertaken with breakthrough effort
indicates enormous heterogeneity in quality of attaining high quality standards relating to higher education in
in Higher Education in Pakistan. Pakistan.
Averages were worked out on performance Range
basis. These are tabulated below:
Range determines the difference between the highest and the lowest average
within each category. Range has been calculated for each of the above
categories in the descending order and is tabulated below:
Some of the research conclusions are as under:
1. The highest range as percentage is in Business / I.T category Faculty
(48%).
Seven indicators shown in the descending
2. The second highest range is in general and engineering order were used and their position is
universities’ categories and is around 46%. tabulated below:
Improvements on each of the above
indicators should be pursued as an active
Table: 6 agenda.
Range amongst the Ranked Universities
Category of University Range% Percentage Compared to average Some Suggestions For Future
1. Business / IT 48.28 154 1. A long way needs to be treated to
2. General 45.93 175
3. Engineering 45.78 153
4. Health Sciences 39.53 87 Table : 8
5. Agriculture 26.25 49 Indicators for Faculty as Criteria
6. Art / Design 24.25 55
Component Weight%
1. Ratio of Ph.D faculty to 9
total faculty
The above research analysis reveals that considerable homework needs to 2. Student teacher ratio 5
be undertaken by stakeholders in general and management of universities in 3. Amount of funds obtained 4
particular, for achieving the goal of high quality in higher education. through competitive for grants
research projects / faculty

QPSP, January-June 2008


Two Criteria Component Analysis 4. Full time Ph.D faculty 3
5. Full time faculty having 2
Research: The two critical indicators in the criteria carry 53% weight
M. Phil / 16+years of education
(faculty (27%) and research (26%)). Indicators selected for research
6. National & international awards 2
components are tabulated below:
won by faculty
*(one point each for number of journals published by the university, number 7. Trainings received by faculty 2
of books published by the faculty members, number of papers presented and Total 27
published at referred national conferences by faculty members and students,
university organized conferences/symposia/seminars/workshops at national
level sponsored by other agencies and M. Phil produced/faculty) achieve a level playing field to be

25
The above presents guidelines and challenges to be met by various compared in the Ranking Process. Steps
universities. If the management of universities begin with KAIZAN spirit may be initiated in a phased program by
and institutionalize it, significant improvements will follow. KAIZAN is a all the stakeholders.
Japanese Management Model which ensures continuous improvement as an 2. The criteria needs improvement for
active agenda. including some other factors such as
expansion in new disciplines to meet
market driven needs, innovations in
curriculum development activities, and
Table : 7 greater weightage for sports and co-
Indicators for Research as Criteria curricular activities.
3. The management of various
Component Weight% universities should undertake research
1. Number of research papers published by faculty members & 4 work to identify gaps for improvement
students during 2001-02 to 2003-04 with a breakthrough approach as a
2. Research papers / faculty 3 continuing agenda across the detailed
3. Number of International collaborative research projects 3 indicators constituting approved criteria
4. Ph.D produced / faculty 2 of Higher Education Commission
5. University organized conferences symposia/seminars/ 2 against which the universities have been
workshops at International level sponsored by other Agencies ranked.
6. Number of patent designs/formula approved varieties 2 About Author
7. Gross score of all faculty members as determined by PCST 2
8. Gross score point/faculty members 2 Author is currently Principal, Hailey College of
20 Banking & Finance, University of the Punjab,
6 Lahore Pakistan. He is Founder Director,
9. Other aspects*
Institute of Business Administration (IBA),
Total 26 University of the Punjab, Lahore (1973-1996).
He can be reached at: professor@kamjadsaeed.edu.pk
By Kamran Moosa
Lahore, Pakistan

Key Factors
in TQM
Implementation

The implementation of Total Quality countries they succeed in implementing TQM effectively; whereas they fail
Management (TQM) or any of its in another. A uniform way to implement TQM remains a myth.
tools/methodology is not a standard process.
Although case studies provide good guidelines in this aspect, yet the
Most of its framework (e.g ISO 9000),
problems faced are (1) they usually lack adequate details on the social
models (Quality Awards), check sheets
aspects of TQM Implementation and (2) lack sufficient framework to
(Deming Award Criteria), tools (Cost of
understand the implementation sequences and details. Even most of the
Quality, QFD, etc.) or methodologies (e.g.
academic literature available is focused on principles and techniques of
Six Sigma) define the contents or
TQM instead of the Implementation phenomenon. Consequently social
requirements and are usually known as
aspects are underestimated / undermined during the implementation phases.
Assessment Models. There are no
implementation models for the organizations
to follow and little guidance is available in Successes or failures of TQM largely depend
this domain throughout the world
organizations feel difficulty when it comes
upon its effective or ineffective implemen-
to implementation. Successes or failures of tation. Successes and failures are generally
TQM largely depend upon its effective or
ineffective implementation. Successes and attributed to social and other aspects of
failures are generally attributed to social and organizations which are ignored during the
other aspects of organizations which are
ignored during the phases of its phases of its implementation
implementation, e.g. the context, history,
competence of people, leadership style and TQM Assessment Models vs TQM Implementation Models
focus, organizational culture and
environment, resources, knowledge level of Many professionals, including TQM practitioners’ sometimes confuse these
people, organizational priorities, two models with one another. The TQM Assessment Models are commonly
management priorities, turnover rate, market known as Quality Award Criteria, Business Excellence Models, or even ISO
pressures, level of ownership, employees, 9000 QMS. They provide the Contents of what may be considered as TQM.
etc. Organizations behave in a different way Whether it is the PDCA model of ISO 9000 (Management Responsibility,
in different circumstances at different point Resource Management, Product Realization, and Measurement, Analysis &
of times, and even at different locations. Improvement) or the Business Excellence Model of European Quality
Even some of the multinational companies Award, they all provide a check list of what is required from a firm or an
tremendous resources and skills fail to organization. These checklists are made up from the point of view of
implement TQM with the same efficiency, assessors who can assess these organizations at the end and declare whether
effectiveness and even values in their they fulfill these requirements or not. However, when it comes to
different plants and offices. In some deployment or implementation of these models, people do not see any
standard methodology or model which describes how to implement them. organizational culture and context. Thus, its
For example, ISO 9001 QMS is a set of requirement of the standard, implementation and impact can not be
whereas ISO9000 and ISO 9004 are the guidelines which describe what is generalized. Therefore, TQM
meant by ISO 9001, not guidelines on how to implement the requirements. implementation processes and styles differ
As mentioned earlier, it is difficult to come up with a common standard from company to company, country to
because every organization has different resources, context, history, country, location to location, and even time
competitive position, skills, technology, leadership, focus of attention, etc. to time. Benchmarking helps, but does not
N.P. Lascellesand Dale (1991) identified six levels of adoption of TQM. provide customized solutions.
These levels are: Uncommitted, Drifter, Tool Pusher, Improver, Award
Secondly, like human beings, TQM itself
Winner, and World Class. However, if we look at them carefully, we find
has a learning curve in organizations. As
that they are actually not the stages of TQM implementation but types of
people go into its implementation, they learn
TQM Implementation.
more about it and attain maturity. It usually
The success or failure of the TQM programs is not attributable to Contents; starts with naïve steps, progressively gets
it is the mode of Implementation which contributes most either way. matured and is reflected by an S-Curve as
Although not much data is available on what is the failure or success rate of shown above:
TQM implementation; it is generally believed that only a small number of
organizations who start TQM programs succeed, mostly fail. Harari (1993)
states that at best, one third of the TQM programs have achieved significant Many people get frustrated
improvements in organizations. Eskildson (1994) states, based on the
survey results, that there are two main reasons for TQM failure, i.e. vague
in the first or second phase
definitions of TQM and inappropriate implementation. during the teething
Judgement on Effectiveness Implementation of TQM problems of TQM and

QPSP, January-June 2008


It is not that easy and simple. It is also not easily quantifiable. Good abandon it at a pre-mature
outcomes, especially financial, are not necessarily the result of good TQM state.
only. Similarly, bad financial outcomes are also not necessarily the result of
poor or no TQM. There are many other enablers, such as technology,
attitudes, automation, inventory management, etc. It is generally proven that There usually are three distinct stages in
TQM helps in improving the performance of organizations; not the other attaining maturity: (1) Immature State, i.e.
way around. Not having TQM does not necessarily mean that the company the starting state where it may or may not be
will not perform well. integrated fully with other organizational
functions, (2) Amateur State, i.e. a state
Two Unique Characteristics of TQM Implementation where people are at the basic level of know-

27
Phenomenon how and lack experience and (3) Mature
State, where TQM becomes robust and
Firstly, TQM implementation phenomenon is not one-phase process. It strewn into the organizational culture,
comprises multiple phases extending over years. As an analogy, consider resulting in the culture itself undergo a
the Root Canal Treatment of a tooth. It does not take just one visit to the radical change. People normally play around
dentist to have the root canal done. Patient requires many sittings to have in the initial two phases and tend to neglect
the treatment completed. Dentist proceeds with next step of the treatment the daily routines. In fact, these stages
only when sufficient progress has been achieved in the preceding sitting. require regular reinforcement and follow-
At times, these sessions may stretched to 3-4 times or beyond as progress ups. If these first two stages are
differs from patient to patient. Thus, duration of treatment can not be fixed successfully over, the stage of maturity sets
in terms of time. Similar is the case with TQM implementation. Say for in. Good practices slowly become part of
example, the Suggestion System. One can take technical guidelines from routine habits and the need for
experts, but each organization will have its individual experience of the reinforcement is minimized. New habits
effectiveness and efficacy of this procedure depending on their diverse improve overall organizational culture.
Building strong habits by itself is one of the
characteristics of maturity. Many people get
Immature Amateure Mature frustrated by the teething problems of TQM
in the first or second phase and abandon it at
a pre-mature state. If the pace of learning is
Effectiveness

slow in the first two states of the project, the


maturity is never achieved and people tend
either to abandon it or standardize immature
practices for some time.
Is “TQM Implementation” a
Project or a Program?
1st Year 2nd Year 3rd Year This is a very common debate among
Fig 1: An S-curve of TQM Maturity
academicians and practitioners. Quite often,
the debate is based on the literal meaning of studies. The Seven Stages are: (1) Envisioning, (2) Strategizing, (3)
the words, rather than its broader concepts. Developing, (4) Implementing, (5) Improving, (6) Sustaining, and (7)
In fact, TQM implementation has both Abandoning.
components as shown in Fig 2:
Stage 1 - ENVISIONING: This is the initial stage where an interest in
The Project Phase of TQM is generally Quality is created among the management of organizations. This interest is
known as the initial development and trial initiated mainly through some training, conference, observation, study, etc
phase. In this phase, consultants are usually and builds up with increase in knowledge in this area. This interest takes
hired; hence, the terminology of “Project” is the shape of a Vision for attaining a higher level of Quality, only if the level
of understanding is strengthened. A number of
in-depth trainings are required to strengthen
Project Phase Program Phase this vision. Supported by critical analysis,
training and observations, the vision generates
confidence and trust in implementing TQM or
any of its tools or frameworks. The most
PHASE I PHASE II PHASE III common tool for this stage is the training of the
DESIGN TRIAL RUN REGULAR IMPLEMENTATION top management. Company visits and
conferences are also effective tools.
Stage 2 - STRATEGIZING: This involves the
Time Line in Years
real intent to implement TQM and the decision
Fig 2 Implementation – Project and Program Phases to start the project, creating a focal point for
QPSP, January-June 2008

used. The project closure is supposed to be


7th Stage
a successful initial run of the procedures ABANDONING
(with the help of a mentor, Internal or Stop implementation
External Consultants), or initial certification 1st Stage
as in ISO 9000 QMS. However, as the ENVISIONING
Awareness, Training
consultant or sponsors (or auditors) leave, Need Analysis
the project ought to run independently as a Confidence building
routine activity with its full efficacy. The 6th Stage 2nd Stage
project ends at this stage but the program SUSTAINING STRATEGIZING
continues to run. Some of the mechanics of Controlling Intent, Focusing,
the Program stage differ from the Project Regulating the Resourcing, Organizing,
28

program Forming policy


phase. For example, in the initial phase, it
was taken up as a challenge or an
assignment for that particular period. As the 5th Stage 3rd Stage
project is confirmed as successful, the IMPROVING DEVELOPING
assignment usually ends and new challenges Analyzing initial trials Forming structure
and assignments are given to the same Correcting / improving Making procedure
Initial procedure
people. The accountability of TQM 4th Stage
generally ends here and is not customized. IMPLEMENTING
First Trial of
Rewards or Awards are given for the first Implementation
time or a few times and their direction also Regular © K. Moosa
changes with newer interests being picked implementation

up by the company in each subsequent year. Fig 3: Seven Stages of TQM Implementation (ESDIISA)
The Job Descriptions are not revised, TQM
activities diminish in terms of priorities
focus and efforts. This is the point when TQM, planning the project, identifying and creating necessary resources,
most TQM programs collapse and are organizing the project and forming a policy on Quality and TQM. It sounds
altogether abandoned. so simple, yet this is the most important part of the entire project. Sufficient
know-how is required to identify the required structure. Just forming
Seven Stages of TQM committees and a TQM Manager without details of their roles,
Implementation responsibilities and authorities does not push forward the project effectively.
The need for a particular type of structure suitable to the organization for
Having studied the process of TQM both the Project as well as Program stages is a careful and thoughtful
Implementation in a large number of consideration that requires experiential inputs as well. People who learn
organizations during last ten years, the TQM through books usually jump to the next stage i.e developing, without
author has identified Seven TQM fully grasping this stage. If the program is based on a weak structure, it is
Implementation Stages. The conclusion is bound to stall, sooner or later. Tasks are usually assigned to individuals
based on practical experience of working as without any consideration of their existing role and efficiency. It is
a consultant and conducting empirical important not to restrict the thinking on TQM Implementation to initial
trials; it should be directed towards regular implementation in subsequent Cultural changes take place at this stage.
years. Improvement made as a result of problem
solving and kaizen etc., actually create the
Stage 3 DEVELOPING: This includes two main activities: developing
waves of change. If sustained properly,
the necessary roles and appropriate project structure, and developing TQM
changes take root; if not, changes are blown
procedures and processes. Competence on minor details is required at this
in the air. Un-doing the changes mean that
stage. Benchmarking also helps. If company lacks such expertise or know-
people are reverting to old and original
how, hiring of consultants is a MUST.
practices.
Stage 4 IMPLEMENTING: The initial implementation phase of the first
Stage 7 ABANDONING: This is
year is usually the trial phase; the successes and failures encountered in the
necessarily not the last stage. This may
initial phase are not necessarily the real Successes or Failures. It is like
happen at any stage, and most commonly
honeymoon period which is not in reality a guarantee for the success or
after the initial implementation, i.e. the trial
failure of a marriage in subsequent years of life. Incomplete roles,
phase. Abandoning could be due to
deficiency of resources, identification of un-necessary resistance posed by
numerous factors, but most common are not
certain individuals who are either not capable or not interested, lack of
the technical ones. These are rather social
cohesive approach to TQM in the senior management, and incapability of
issues discussed earlier in this article.
the Quality Managers, etc. are mostly the main discoveries of this stage.
Implementation is the stage where actions start. The earlier stages are Lessons for Quality Managers
mostly discussions, trainings and planning. With respect to Project
Management, careful and forceful project tracking is required at this stage. Traditional and contemporary Quality
The CEO and Head of the TQM program at this stage need to push some, Managers are focussed more on their
drag others, and penalize some others. This stage is bound to suffer if such technical knowledge and skills related to
a driving personality is not present in the organization. If this happens, TQM contents. For them to be more

QPSP, January-June 2008


people tend to blame the TQM itself, instead of their own mis-management successful, they need to learn and master
of the project. The Implementation Phase usually involves one or more two more areas, i.e. TQM Program
cycles of Implementing TQM framework or Tool processes. The Project Management and TQM Sociology, i.e. the
phase is usually over at this point and is followed by the Program phase. social aspects of TQM implementation.
Stage 5 IMPROVING: After the successful or unsuccessful initial References
implementation phase, people tend to either give up or reduce their synergy. 1. Dale, B.G. (1994), “Managing Quality”, Prentice-
This is due to many factors such as: a decision of success or failure by the Hall Europe, London
top management is also a declaration for its future course of direction. In a 2. Eskildson,L. (1994),”Improving the odds of TQM's
project like ISO 9000, many organizations consider certification as the end Success”, Quality Progress, vol 27, No. 4, pp 61-63
product of the project. This is because certification is usually considered

29
3. Harari, O. (1993), “Ten reasons why TQM doesn't
and planned as the project end. Certification by a third party is declared work”, Management Review, Vol 82, No. 1, pp 38-44
success, even without achieving the actual quality outcomes, i.e. 4. Hellsten, U. and Klefsjo, B. (2000), “TQM as a
performance improvement. This phenomenon has misled hundreds of management system consisting of values, techniques
organizations. Usually, no TQM process is either complete or in its right and tools”, TQM Magazine, Vol. 12 No. 4, pp 238-244
shape in the initial year. There are two requirements at this stage: check the 5. Oakland, J.S. (1989), Total Quality Management
The Route to Improving Performance, Butterworth-
Heinemann, Oxford
It is important not to restrict the thinking on 6. Kakale T., 1998. The Effect of Organizational
TQM Implementation to initial trials; it Culture on Successes and Failures in Implementation of
some Total Quality Management Practices. Acta
should be directed towards regular Wasenia. No. 65. Industrial Management Journal.
University of Vaasa.
implementation in subsequent years. 7. Moosa, K. “Practical Guide to ISO9000
Implementation”, Ibrahim Publishers
8. Schein E.H., (2004), “Organizational Culture and
improvement trends and verify whether the TQM process worked correctly Leadership”, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Jossey-Bass,
USA
to achieve the desired goals. If these requirements are not met, then the
9. Westbrook J.D., (1993) “Organizational Culture and
policies and procedures need to be revised and improved. In case of positive its Relationship to TQM”, Industrial Management.
trend in improvement, this process needs to continue for many more cycles January/February 1993, 1-3
with the same energy, zeal and leadership. In addition, there is also the
need to plan for the expansion of TQM to strengthen the overall program About Author
and make further improvement goals or enhancing the scope of the project.
Kamran Moosa is the CEO and Principal Consultant of
Stage 6 SUSTAINING: After fixing initial teething problems and PIQC Institute of Quality (formerly Pakistan Institute of
removing initial deficiencies, the TQM project needs to be transformed and Quality Control). He has Masters in TQM and is the
author of three books and a Chapter on Quality
maintained into a regular program. Maintaining the program does not mean Management. He is on the panel of Reviewers in Quest for
only the continuity in the defined procedure, but also continuity in the Excellence of QPSP Magazine, Journal of Institute of
Quality Assurance UK and Quality Progress of American
leadership strength, interest, motivation and the priority level. The new Society of Quality. He can be reached at:
procedures and priorities actually change the organizational culture. kamranmoosa@piqc.com.pk
By Dr. V S Prasad & Dr. Antony Stella
Bangalore, India

Accreditation of
Higher Education
Institutions
Indian Experience

The Indian system of higher education has NAAC; the Chairperson of EC is an eminent academician in the area of
always responded well to the challenges of relevance to NAAC. The Executive Officer of NAAC is the Director who is
the time. Two decades ago, when the system its academic and administrative head, and is the member-secretary of both
came under severe criticism that it had GC and EC. The NAAC also has many advisory and consultative
allowed the mushrooming of higher committees to guide its practices, in addition to the statutory bodies that
education institutions (HEIs), compromising steer its policies. The NAAC has a core staff and consultants to support its
the quality of educational offerings, the activities. In addition, it receives assistance from a large number of external
Ministry of Human Resource Development resource persons from across the country who are not full time staff of
(MHRD) and the University Grants NAAC.
Commission (UGC) took initiatives to
restore the standards of higher education.
Consequently, the National Policy on
The activities and future plans of NAAC are
Education (1986) that laid special emphasis guided by its vision and mission that have a
on upholding the quality of higher education
in India noted certain policy initiatives. On
focus on making quality assurance an
the recommendations of the Programme of integrated functioning of the higher
Action (1992) document that provided the
guidelines for the implementation of the education institutions
National Policy on Education (1986), in
1994, the UGC established the National Paper presented in the NAAC-COL Round Table Conference on
Assessment and Accreditation Council "Innovations in Teacher Education -International Practices on Quality
(NAAC) as an autonomous body to assess Assurance", March 17-19, 2004, Bangalore
and accredit institutions of higher education
and its units thereof, with its headquarters at
Vision and Mission
Bangalore. The activities and future plans of NAAC are guided by its vision and
mission that have a focus on making quality assurance an integrated
Governance functioning of the higher education institutions. Its vision is
The NAAC functions through its General To make quality the defining element of higher education in India through a
Council (GC) and Executive Committee combination of self and external quality evaluation, promotion and
(EC) where educational administrators, sustenance initiatives.
policy makers and senior academicians from
a cross section of the system of higher The mission statements of the NAAC aim at translating the vision into
education are represented. The Chairperson action by the following engagement:
of UGC is the President of the GC of ¨ To arrange for periodic assessment and accreditation of institutions of
higher education or units thereof, or specific academic programmes or accredited institutions are graded on a nine-
projects; point scale. Institutions, which do not attain
¨ To stimulate the academic environment for promotion of quality of the minimum 55% points for accreditation,
teaching-learning and research in higher education institutions; would also be intimated and notified
¨ To encourage self-evaluation, accountability, autonomy and indicating that the institution is "Assessed
innovations in higher education; And Found Not Qualified For
¨ To undertake quality-related research studies, consultancy and training Accreditation". The assessment outcome is
programmes, and valid for a period of 5 years. With these
¨ To collaborate with other stakeholders of higher education for quality methodological elements NAAC has seen
evaluation, promotion and sustenance. various stages of development.

Striving to achieve its vision and mission, the NAAC primarily assesses the From Apprehension to
quality of institutions of higher education that opt for the process, through Appreciation…
the internationally accepted methodology.
From the initial phase of apprehension about
the philosophy of external review, the
The self-study report to be validated by the country has gradually moved to the current
phase of appreciation for the intrinsic
peers is the backbone of the whole exercise. benefits of accreditation. Hundreds of
Manuals have been developed to suit seminars organized by NAAC throughout
the country, have created awareness among
different units of higher education, with the stakeholders on quality related issues.
detailed guidelines on preparation of the self- The publication program of NAAC has
ensured effective dissemination of

QPSP, January-June 2008


study report and the other aspects of information about assessment and
accreditation. The way NAAC developed
assessment and accreditation. the manuals and guidelines through a large
number of national consultations and
The Methodology workshops, involving the cross-section of
the academia, has led to the acceptance and
The NAAC follows the following three-stage process, which is a appreciation of the methodology of NAAC.
combination of self-study and peer review, for assessment of a unit: With stakeholder behaviour making it clear
¨ Preparation and submission of self-study report by the institution that the outcome of assessment by NAAC
¨ On-site visit of the peer team for validation of the report and for will form the basis for some of their

31
recommending the assessment outcome to NAAC decisions, large number of institutions have
¨ Final decision by the Executive Council of NAAC approached NAAC for assessment. The
following characteristics of NAAC that have
The self-study report to be validated by the peers is the backbone of the greatly contributed to this acceptance and
whole exercise. Manuals have been developed to suit different units of appreciation deserve a mention:
higher education, with detailed guidelines on preparation of the self-study
report and the other aspects of assessment and accreditation. Quality Assurance Framework: The
overall quality assurance framework
Criteria for Assessment followed by NAAC incorporates elements of
The NAAC has identified the following seven criteria to serve as the basis all the three basic approaches to quality
of its assessment procedures: assurance - accreditation, assessment and
academic audit. NAAC accredits institutions
¨ Curricular Aspects
and certifies for the educational quality of
¨ Teaching-learning and Evaluation the institution. It also goes beyond the
¨ Research, Consultancy and Extension certification and provides an assessment that
¨ Infrastructure and Learning Resources classifies an institution on a nine-point scale
¨ Student Support and Progression indicating where the institution stands in the
¨ Organisation and Management quality continuum. A small team of external
¨ Healthy Practices peers is sent to the institution mostly as
generalists and the report is made public as
The self-study report is expected to highlight the functioning of the in the case of academic audit. In practice
institution with reference to these areas. this has been found to be the best choice for
The Assessment outcome the huge and diverse system of higher
education we have.
The validation of the self-study report by the peers results in criterion-wise
scores and a detailed report. The criterion scores are further used to arrive at Unit of Assessment: The unit of assessment
the overall institutional score. The NAAC assigns the institutional grade on appropriate to the objectives of assessment
a nine-point scale based on the institutional score. If the overall score is and the national context has been chosen
more than 55%, the institution gets the "Accredited status" and the based on clear rationale. Since putting
systems in place was seen as the major development of instruments and methodology, fine-tuning the
objective to met first, NAAC decided to implementation and ensuring the objectivity of the process before the
promote institutional accreditation in the outcome is made public. Thus NAAC does not stop as a mere co-ordinating
first cycle. Further, the Indian context with agency but strikes a balance between the co-ordinating functions and
regard to the following also strengthened the steering the assessment and this stand has been found to be appropriate.
leaning towards institution as the unit of
Multi-prong approach: While working towards the support of the
assessment: Feasibility of Coverage within
academia, NAAC was aware that it would not be possible to expect 100%
the cycle of assessment, Usefulness of
acceptance of all its efforts. Whatever be the strategy followed, there would
outcomes to Stakeholders, Size of
always be a minority group to criticize it. The reason need not be based on
beneficiaries, Impact on Policies,
ignorance or lack of conceptual clarity or skepticism but may be due to
Centralised Facilities at the institutional
genuine concerns also. Keeping this in mind, NAAC followed a multi-
level, Collective Impact being more than the
pronged approach for information dissemination on the assessment
sum of parts, Inter-disciplinary Approach to
philosophy and principles targeting the various stakeholders. Care was
Programs, Linkage to Funding, Critical
taken to ensure that its strategies had the following elements:
Mass of the unit, Sustainability and Public
Consciousness of Quality. ¨ Broad involvement and consensus building to ensure widespread
support in evolving the norms and criteria
¨ Careful development of the methods and instruments for assessment
NAAC does not stop as a ¨ Transparency in all its policies and practices
mere co-ordinating agency ¨ Rigorous implementation of procedures
¨ Safeguards to enhance the professionalism of assessment
but strikes a balance
Incorporating these elements, NAAC applied multi-pronged strategies at
between the co-ordinating
QPSP, January-June 2008

various levels-awareness programs to reach out to the academic community,


functions and steering the publication programs for dissemination of information, workshops on
development of instruments, training the experts for assessment, discussions
assessment and this stand with administrators to rope in their support for the HEIs, consultations with
policy makers to ensure government support and so on. Involving people
has been found to be from various backgrounds and interests also helped to enhance the insights
appropriate. of the group process.
Contextualising Assessment: During NAAC's early studies it was found that
instruments and standards set should not be followed blindly. The broad
Reporting Strategy: The reporting strategy guidelines by NAAC may provide an external point of reference for
of NAAC is an overall institutional grade evaluating the quality of the institution under assessment, but they cannot
32

supplemented with a detailed assessment


report, which is made public. NAAC was
aware that "confidentiality Vs public Involving people from various backgrounds
disclosure" of assessment report is a bone of and interests also helped to enhance the
contention in many countries, and that both
the points have valid arguments. However, insights of the group process.
the evolving systems are more towards
public disclosure and NAAC consciously be interpreted in void. Contextualizing, synthesizing and sensitizing the data
opted for public disclosure. After ensuring to objectives are essential, and for this, peer assessment is inevitable. For
through appropriate safeguards that the example, NAAC had developed some indicators to guide peer assessment.
report qualifies to be a NAAC document, the But, the peers have an important role in synthesizing the outcome on
full report is made public. individual indicators to arrive at an overall assessment and also in
Role of the council in Steering evaluating the contextual framework of the institution.
Assessment: Some agencies keep their role Collaboration with other Professional Bodies: The Indian system of higher
in assessment per se minimal and only co- education has many regulatory mechanisms to ensure the satisfactory
ordinate the assessment visits and in other functioning of the HEIs. The National Council for Teacher Education
agencies the agency staff participate in (NCTE) is a statutory body established in 1995 to regulate and maintain
assessment. NAAC started its assessment norms and standards in teacher education. The NCTE signed a MoU with
visits with the assumption that the staff of the NAAC in 2002 for all teacher education institutions to undergo
the agency need not be directly involved in collaborative assessment. The methodology is the same but the criteria have
assessment per se. Minimising inter-team been slightly modified, to suit the context of the teacher education
variance in this model is a substantial task institutions. Combining the subject expertise of NCTE and the quality
and it has been achieved through training of assurance expertise of NAAC, the methodology has been implemented for
the assessors. To further ensure the the teacher education institutions of the country. The efforts of NCTE and
consistency and credibility of the assessment NAAC to ensure and assure the quality of teacher education in the country
process, NAAC plays a major role in are complementary to each other. While the norms of NCTE ensure the
planning the evaluation framework, minimum requirements that is essential for quality education, NAAC's
framework for assessment looks for the quality and excellence of the of coping with the needs of the present
institutions. In the years to come, NAAC will enter into agreements with world. The autonomous institutions that had
professional bodies for collaborative assessment, in areas where it is the freedom to innovate in curriculum and
required. the affiliated colleges that were offering
additional programmes of their own
The fact that the NAAC's model given above suits the national context and
restructured the curriculum. In the scheme
the other considerations of the Indian higher education system is evident
of assessment of NAAC, the criterion
from the acceptance and appreciation academia have demonstrated towards
Teaching-learning and Evaluation carries the
NAAC's process. The impact analysis conducted by NAAC brought to
maximum weightage. It gave a positive
limelight that there are two major areas where NAAC's process has made a
stimulus to institutional attention and
significant impact on the HEIS - the value framework of the HEIs and the
oriented the institutions to improving their
various innovations triggered by NAAC's process; they stand testimony to
quality of teaching-learning by going
the suitability of NAAC's model to Indian Higher Education.
beyond the routine examination-oriented
Value framework of NAAC outcome. Improved teaching methods using
educational technology, projects and student
In this era of values losing their significance, the accreditation framework of seminars, providing of computer skills,
the NAAC has made higher education institutions in India think about the encouragement of co-curricular activities,
values they practice. The focus on values practiced in the functioning of and incorporation of community orientation
higher education institutions has been rekindled due to the salient features were observed.
(critical elements) of the NAAC's model that are based on certain
assumptions of values, i.e. desirable practices. The appreciation of the While the characteristics mentioned above
desirable values is expected to result in a better understanding of the and the impact the process has made among
practices, particularly in the context of varying realities. the accredited HEIs is very encouraging in
the case of first timers of the first cycle of

QPSP, January-June 2008


The value framework of NAAC starts with its right choice of 'unit' of assessment, the way NAAC moves forward
evaluation, namely institution as a whole, which promotes a holistic value. with the re-accreditation also needs a
The institutional accreditation that focuses on the policies, facilitating mention here. Based on a large number of
aspects and evidence of healthy practices of the whole system strengthens a national consultations and building on the
healthy interdependence among the campus community. Gradually it lessons of experience, the re-accreditation
promotes the holistic mindset that is essential for developing institutional methodology is being firmed up.
excellence and institutional 'dharma', subsuming individual excellence and
individual 'dharma'. Re-accreditation Method
Added to the holistic approach to assessment, the criteria-based assessment The discussions held so far have

33
of NAAC that forms the backbone of the whole assessment exercise recommended that the same three-stage
promotes judgment based on values. The key aspects identified under each process - submission of self-study report,
of the seven criteria serve as Indicators of Quality and they reflect the peer validation and final decision by NAAC
values of the system on which assessment is made. For example, the - should be followed for re-accreditation.
criterion on "Research, Consultancy and Extension" promotes the values The value framework regarding the
such as Knowledge Creation, Knowledge Dissemination, Knowledge obligations of the institution in nation
Application, Social Responsiveness and Community Orientation. The building and serving the various
criterion on "Organisation and Management" promotes the values such as stakeholders also have to remain the same.
Participation, Transparency, Integrated View of Things, Team Work, Justice, However, the point of time when re-
Self-reliance and Probity in Public Finance. The values to be promoted by accreditation is initiated may warrant a re-
NAAC are also made explicit in the criterion statements. look at the assessment framework. First
assessment has already initiated a quality
The process of undergoing the accreditation itself has been a rewarding
culture among the HEIs of the country and
experience for the institutions to rethink the values they should be
re-accreditation has to further strengthen
practising. When institutions worked on the accreditation framework of
those initiatives. Therefore, along with the
NAAC and prepared the self-study report, they realized that it promoted the
core values to which all higher education
values of Self-realization and Participation. Gradually it has triggered an
institutions should relate themselves in the
objective 'self critical' approach to one's own behaviour and has led to self-
changing context, the framework for re-
realisation, which is very essential for an educational institution that stands
accreditation should also consider the
for autonomy and self-regulation. Self-knowledge has to precede self-
impact of first assessment. In other words,
regulation, which in turn is a prerequisite for self-realisation.
the framework for re-accreditation has to be
Innovations Triggered by the NAAC's process built on two major considerations - core
values in the changing context and impact of
The impact analysis revealed that the NAAC's process made a significant first assessment.
change in all aspects of institutional functioning - pedagogical, managerial
and administrative. One could see that the institutions had become more The following five core values have been
open and sensitive to the needs of the stakeholders. The need to keep identified for the re-accreditation process:
abreast of changing trends was felt by one and all, and institutions now ¨ Relating to National Development
found it easier to introduce innovations as every one realised the importance ¨ Fostering Global Competencies among
Students accredited period.
¨ Inculcating the Value System Quality Enhancement: It is proper and educationally sound to expect that re-
¨ Promoting the Use of Technology assessment has to bring to limelight how institutions have progressed over a
¨ Quest for Excellence period of five years with accredited status. It is reasonable that the re-
In general, the re-accreditation framework assessment will give a due place to the quality initiatives promoted by the
will assess the institutional functioning with first assessment and the consequent quality enhancement that has taken
reference to the contributions the HEIs make place.
towards the five core values mentioned Acting on the Assessment Report: Much of the quality enhancement has
above. The HEIs are expected to been a result of institutional efforts to act on the assessment report and the
demonstrate how they contribute to the core re-assessment has to take note of that too. The post-accreditation reviews,
values through data collected during the feedback from the accredited institutions and the outcome of national
accredited period. The evidence to the consultations indicate that the first assessment report has been a useful
realization of these objectives may be in document to initiate quality enhancement activities. The re-accreditation has
to address how the HEIs have taken steps to overcome the deficiencies
mentioned in the first assessment report and also build on the strengths
noted in the report.
The preparation of the With the special emphases discussed above, the methodology for re-
self-study report has accreditation has been evolved in consultation with the academia and there
is a consensus that the methodological elements have to be similar to the
served as a catalyst for first assessment. The existing seven criteria will be followed with revision
institutional self- and re-organisation in key aspects. The current nine-point scale will be
continued to award institutional grades. To facilitate the HEIs to move
QPSP, January-June 2008

improvement. towards demonstrating the special emphases mentioned above, institutional


preparations for re-accreditation have commenced recently.
Milestones of a Decade…
terms of inputs, processes and outputs. The
re-assessment by NAAC will take a holistic Promoting a dialogue on quality related initiatives, during the past decade,
view of all the inputs, processes and outputs NAAC has promoted partnership with stakeholders for pro-active measures
of an institution and assess how the HEIs to promote assessment and accreditation is a significant achievement of
have progressed during the accredited NAAC. Many states have established quality cells to promote assessment.
period. In particular, the re-assessment Moving beyond accreditation, NAAC has expanded its scope by
would have a shift in focus in assessing strengthening its advisory role. In states where at least 20% of higher
34

three aspects - quality sustenance, quality education institutions have been accredited, state wise analysis of
enhancement and acting on the assessment accreditation reports have been initiated for policy initiatives.
report - that relate to internalizing the
quality culture.
Quality Sustenance: During the first
In addition to promoting the cause of quality
assessment, the NAAC's process has education in the country, NAAC is a leading
triggered quality initiatives in many aspects
of functioning of HEIs. The preparation of QAA in the international arena with valuable
the self-study report has served as a catalyst lessons of experience for the emerging
for institutional self-improvement. The
participation of the faculty members, QAAs of the other countries.
administrative staff, students, parents and
alumni has lead to new initiatives.
In addition to promoting the cause of quality education in the country,
Interaction with the peers has assisted this
NAAC is a leading QAA in the international arena with valuable lessons of
process and also provided a means for the
experience for the emerging QAAs of the other countries. It is active in the
wider dissemination of information about
international forums and as a member of the International Network of
educational development. It has triggered
Quality Assurance Agencies in Higher Education (INQAAHE), which is the
many innovative practices and paved way
largest network of quality assurance agencies in the world, NAAC
for institutionalising those practices.
organized the sixth bi-annual meet of the membership in 2001 at Bangalore.
Establishing internal quality assurance cells The NAAC is the co-convener of the Asia-Pacific Quality Network
to coordinate the quality initiatives and use (APQN), which is a regional sub-network of the INQAAHE. While the
of technology in the learning process as well developments present a rosy picture, the path taken by NAAC has
as for administration are a few such challenges also.
initiatives. These changes have a direct
bearing on the quality of education and the Issues of Concern…
re-accreditation will consider how these The points highlighted so far indicate how NAAC is making a steady
initiatives have been sustained during the
progress in the field of quality assurance in higher education at both procedures of NAAC have triggered a lot of
national and international levels. The developmental path is not free from healthy practices in the system of higher
concerns, but most of the concerns NAAC is dealing with today continue to education and the HEIs that have undergone
be the concerns world over. A few of them are as below. the process have become quality conscious.
At this juncture one of the biggest
Large Volume Assessment: As on 16 February 2004, 1138 HEIs - 104
challenges for NAAC is to help HEIs in
universities and 1034 colleges have been accredited by NAAC. With the
sustaining these efforts. Institutionalising
UGC's decision to extend financial support for assessment and accreditation
and internalizing the quality assurance
processes has the key to this challenge. To
make quality assurance an integral part of
To make quality assurance an integral part of functioning of institutions, NAAC is
functioning of institutions, NAAC is promoting the establishment of Internal
Quality Assurance Cell (IQAC) in all higher
promoting the establishment of Internal education institutions in general, and in
Quality Assurance Cell (IQAC) in all higher accredited institutions, in particular.
Establishing an IQAC is a pre-requisite for
education institutions in general, and in any institution that comes forward for re-
accreditation.
accredited institutions, in particular.
of universities and colleges through NAAC, with effect from 1 April 2004, Fine-tuning the
more and more colleges are expected to volunteer for assessment. The
implication is that NAAC has to assess a large number of HEIs without
instruments and reducing

QPSP, January-June 2008


compromising the quality of the process. Consequently, alternative models the inter-team variance in
of co-ordinating assessment visits and ICT enabled strategies to meet large
volume assessment are being worked out. Following the alternative model peer assessment are the
of employing the services of external member conveners and Chair cum- two areas where the QAAs
conveners, the capacity of NAAC to assess institutions has already been
enhanced to around 200 institutions per month. If this trend is maintained, look for better ways of
NAAC can assess all the UGC recognized colleges in a period of two years,
provided they submit the reports to NAAC. To support the new model of
steering the quality
on-site visit with member-conveners, the database of experts has been assurance processes.
expanded through nominations, rigorous training programs, orientation

35
programs and roundtables.
Professionalising the Process: Quality assurance being an evolving area the To conclude, during the past nine years, the
question-"is there a better way of doing things"- is always a concern for all NAAC has made a niche in the higher
the QAAs. Fine-tuning the instruments and reducing the inter-team variance education scenario of India. It will continue
in peer assessment are the two areas where the QAAs look for better ways to uphold its upward growth to ensure its
of steering the quality assurance processes. To address these issues, NAAC leadership at the international level in
continuously fine-tunes the instruments based on field experience and general and in the Asia-Pacific region in
feedback collected from the accredited institutions, at the same time particular. The next few years will show
maintaining the consistency of its evaluation framework. how NAAC moves ahead successfully
balancing both the national context and the
Subjectivity that creeps into any assessment involving human factors has international expectations. With the support
been well understood. However, the world over, none of the quality of the enlightened academia, policy makers,
assurance agencies have found a better alternative to the central place given and dedicated staff, one can be sure that
to peer assessment in the quality assurance procedures. Having accepted NAAC will face the challenges reasonably
peer assessment as an integral part of its methodology, NAAC brings in well and prove its mettle.
consistency among the peers by appropriate safeguards, training strategies
and discussions. A notable effort towards this direction is the development There are many miles to go……
of the 'National Cadre of Assessors'. Experts from different parts of the
country are selected through nomination and advertisements and through a
rigorous selection process. For the assessors thus selected, NAAC organizes
a 3-day residential training program to induct them into the 'National Cadre About Author
of Assessors'. This training strategy has given a professional dimension to Dr. V S Prasad is working as Director and Dr. Antony
NAAC's process. Further, developing indicators of quality that can guide Stella as Advisor of National Assessment &
peer assessment is an ongoing exercise. In addition, roundtable discussion Accreditation Council (NAAC) Bangalore , India.
for the Chairs of the assessment teams to discuss the issues of concern is an They can be contacted at: prasadvs99@hotmail.com
QPSP is thankful to respected authors for granting
annual event. Continuous efforts are taken to reduce the subjectivity and to their permission to reproduce their work in South
strengthen the professionalism of peer assessment. Asia’s largest quality magazine Quest for Excellence.
Sustenance of Quality: As mentioned earlier, the quality assurance
By George Eckes
U.S.A.

The
Future of
Six Sigma

Overview latitude in how they complied, Six Sigma thus became the first quality
initiative in history to be made a corporate mandate.
As Six Sigma celebrates its 30th birthday, it
is experiencing both a renewal and Through the 1980's Motorola practiced MAIC with significant
evolution. In this article written by one of manufacturing results. In the first eight years of implementation Motorola
its earliest proponents, George Eckes takes a had documented 1.5 billion in cost savings while claiming 15 million in cost
brief look back and a look forward to savings through 2004 (1.)
discuss what six sigma will look like in the
coming years. While remaining optimistic, Six Sigma began 30 years ago at Motorola as
he discusses the concerns of many who see
six sigma changing so radically as to not be a defect reduction program. In the mid
important anymore. He outlines these 1980's Motorola was faced with such stiff
concerns and more importantly discusses the
challenge to overcome them. international competition they were
A brief review of Six Sigma producing a product for what their
Six Sigma began 30 years ago at Motorola competition was selling theirs.
as a defect reduction program. In the mid
1980's Motorola was faced with such stiff Motorola contributed much to the success of Six Sigma as its originator.
international competition they were They took a host of disparate quality tools and threaded them together into a
producing a product for what their meaningful whole. While MAIC later developed into DMAIC where
competition was selling theirs. Faced with elements of Define were added, the original methodology which closely
such an alarming statistic, Bob Galvin, followed the scientific method was a sure fire method to improve both the
Motorola's Chief Executive Officer sought effectiveness and efficiency of any process, manufacturing or otherwise.
out internal experts to deal with the crisis.
One soft spoken engineer, Bill Smith has Motorola did other things well. In addition to making Six Sigma a
written a highly quantitative analysis of corporate edict, they filled quality positions with some of the best engineers
Motorola's situation and had recommended a in the business. Prior to Six Sigma, the quality position in an organization
methodology of improvement that later was was based primarily on the inspection standards made popular in World War
made popular through a far less soft spoken II. Once mastered, inspection became a necessary evil and did not attract
engineer at Motorola, Mikel Harry. Galvin the best and brightest in an organization. At Motorola, Six Sigma
made the methodology named MAIC participants were highly skilled engineers and statisticians who dutifully
(Measure, Analysis, Improve, Control) a applied the rigor and discipline of the tools and techniques.
corporate edict. While those business units Additionally, once Motorola won the Malcolm Baldrige Award in 1987 they
making their target numbers were given were required to share their knowledge about improved quality. Suddenly,
they became the personification of benchmarking where companies like
Texas Instruments and Asia Brown Boveri started to spread the word of Six
Sigma.
In the early 1990's AlliedSignal began their implementation efforts and
expanded Motorola's initial deployment of Six Sigma as a defect reduction
tool. Their CEO Lawrence Bossidy saw the power of Six Sigma as a
business enabler and added a strategic component. All executives were
trained in Six Sigma and required to select projects that had a direct impact
on the most strategic business objective at AlliedSignal, operating margin.
Soon, AlliedSignal had grown operating margin from single digits to double
digits and Six Sigma was given significant credit. In addition to adding this
strategic element to the power of the DMAIC methodology, AlliedSignal
and Lawrence Bossidy had more management involvement in their efforts
since the managerial bonus pool was so significantly judged on operating

By the end of the 1990's, Six Sigma had It was this last element that was most
important. The philosophy of Six Sigma
generated overwhelming popularity. was results based and this last element was
in keeping with data driven and fact based
Companies small and large were adopting performance.
Six Sigma as their management philosophy. The first black belt and master black belt

QPSP, January-June 2008


However in the last several years several certifications were a source of great pride.
However,in recent years, opportunists have
alarming trends have negatively impacted the seen the profit potential of offering
future of Six Sigma. certification to individuals. Sold as a way to
increase career opportunities, Six Sigma
certification mills began to spring up in the
margin. Soon, an old boss of Bossidy came calling. early 21st century. They had lots to sell.
During the fifth year of tracking salary
In the mid 1990's Jack Welch adopted Six Sigma, later to claim that it was differences between those with Six Sigma
one of his three most important initiatives in his 20+ years at General training and those who didn't, Quality
Electric.(2). If Motorola had created the tactics of Six Sigma and

37
Progress (3) reported that a Master Black
AlliedSignal made the strategic contribution it was GE that contributed the Belt averaged $37,419 more in income than
third and most important element, the Six Sigma Culture. someone without Master Black belt training.
There were a host of new elements under the cultural umbrella that GE However, in recent years, the project
contributed to Six Sigma. More than any other organization, Six Sigma was element of certification has dissipated.
a corporate mandate. In the first year of implementation Jack Welch Some certification mills now simply require
dictated that 40% of bonuses would be dependent on Six Sigma "simulation" projects where actual work is
achievement. Additionally, GE went on to make Six Sigma involvement a not done but the participant works through a
condition of promotion and rotated Six Sigma quality professionals into fabricated case study.
business positions.
The biggest problem with this certification
By the end of the 1990's Six Sigma had generated overwhelming popularity. surge is the failure to recognize what made
Companies small and large were adopting Six Sigma as their management Six Sigma successful. Unlike other quality
philosophy. However in the last several years several alarming trends have initiatives, management, particularly
negatively impacted the future of Six Sigma. executive management was directly
The overemphasis on certification involved. They were involved as they were
at AlliedSignal and GE by actively selecting
By the late 1990's GE had pioneered the concept of certification. Between projects, sponsoring those projects as
internal experts and their external consulting agencies like Eckes & champions and ultimately in selected cases
Associates, Inc. we created three requirements that were established for an participating in process management.
individual to be certified to Six Sigma.
In recent years my consulting company
First, the individual black belt (team leader) or master black belt (internal receives calls from the newly certified black
consultant) had to matriculate through an appropriate set of coursework. belts and master black belts asking for
Second, the participant had to pass a thorough and challenging written advice on how to complete projects when
examination. Finally, and most importantly, the participants had to their management has not committed to Six
participate and successfully lead a series of projects that met or exceeded Sigma. Sadly, I have no good advice for
certain performance and cost goals. them reminding them that the likes of
Motorola, AlliedSignal and GE succeeded in
their Six Sigma efforts because of executive used to drive out cost in a business. A growing trend among some Six
management's direct involvement. Sigma practitioners is using Six Sigma to enhance value.
While discouraging those individuals who Since the time AlliedSignal implemented Six Sigma there has been a
seek certification should not occur, those strategic element. This strategic element referenced earlier links projects
who provide certification services should be with increasing operating margin. Through the vehicle of Business Process
actively marketing their efforts to Management, organizations are identifying processes that align with
organizations and the executive management strategic business objectives and either improving or in some cases creating
that drive Six Sigma in the organization. processes that enhance value to the organization.
Unfortunately, the near future of Six Sigma
Figure 1 shows a recent example from our client base. Here, a partial list of
is jeopardized by the focus on certification
such key processes as Product Development, Channel Management, Loan
of individuals.
Origination, Talent Management and Customer Maintenance nicely align
with three of the four strategic business objectives. However, one of the
While the emphasis on four most important strategic business objectives to this organization was an
improvement in Growth by 15% annually.
certification is a disturbing
While this organization was well managed by bright, hard working
trend that may negatively executives, they had neglected to lay out how such an important and
influence the future of six aggressive goal and objective would be achieved.
sigma, there are In working with this client we identified the importance of sub processes
under Product Development and Channel Management for high profile
encouraging signs of six DMAIC projects. Furthermore, we created new processes through Design
for Six Sigma (DMADV, Define, Measure, Analyze, Design and Verify).
sigma growth and
QPSP, January-June 2008

This client now has achieved their aggressive growth targets two years in a
adaptation. row and likely would not have without Six Sigma. Instead of driving out
cost this client is truly using Six Sigma as a strategic weapon.
Another example of this approach is the second largest pilot certification
Six Sigma Evolution organization. Though doing a superb job of re-certifying commercial and
While the emphasis on certification is a private pilots through their base of international simulators, they have used
disturbing trend that may negatively Six Sigma to create a process that identifies potential pilots, develops their
influence the future of six sigma there are skills so when they become pilots they naturally gravitate to this
encouraging signs of six sigma growth and organization for their ongoing training needs.
adaptation. One area is the expansion and
38

evolution of other process improvement A growing trend among some Six Sigma
methods that have generated renewed
interest based on the success and popularity practitioners is using Six Sigma to enhance
of six sigma. value.
Lean manufacturing methods have been in
use for decades. The initial work of Shingo Summary
to simplify work streams were used in Japan
in the middle 20th Century. Today, Lean While Six Sigma continues to be a popular management philosophy, there
and Six Sigma are being used are growing trends that could be seen as alarming to its future. The focus
simultaneously since many of their tools and on individual training and certification at the expense of organization wide
techniques merge nicely together. Six Sigma launches is a growing and disturbing trend. . However, there is
Techniques like value stream analysis, root much room for optimism as many organizations now utilize Six Sigma far
causation and the 5 S's are now more more strategically than the tactical tool to drive out cost it has been in the
popular and used in conjunction with more past.
traditional six sigma work.
References:
One aspect of Six Sigma that has made it so 1.Six Sigma Execution:How the World's Greatest Companies Live and Breathe Six Sigma
popular is the active involvement of George Eckes McGraw Hill 2005
executive leadership. Because of this 2.Jack-Straight from the Gut Jack Welch Warner Business Books 2001
important aspect of project success, other
3.Quality Progress December 2004 page 45
executives who like the appeal of lean now
understand the importance of their direct
involvement in project sponsorship and
selection.
About Author
Six Sigma and Value Enhancement
George Eckes is President and CEO of Eckes & Associates, Inc. He is a prominent
There is good news for the future of Six international colsultant on Six Sigma. He can be reached at: eckesg@aol.com
Sigma. Traditionally, Six Sigma has been
QPSP PROFESSIONAL CERTIFICATION

CERTIFIED
Certified Quality
Improvement Manager
Awarded to
QUALITY
IMPROVEMENT
Mr./Ms.

has qualified Certified Quality Improvement Manager held


at on . and awarded
this Certificate

MANAGER (CQIM)
The Quality and Productivity Society of Pakistan is pleased to announce a professional
credential for professionals with sound foundation of TQM Body of Knowledge. The
Certified Quality Improvement Manager (CQIM) is a credential which is a symbol
of the key credential of any Quality Manager, Auditor or Consultant in Pakistan and
abroad. Being the member of Asian Network for Quality (ANQ), Asia Pacific Quality
Organization (APQO) and Middle East Quality Association (MEQA), QPSP's
credibility is highly recognized throughout the world.

Body of Knowledge
a. Leadership for Quality (organizational structure, culture, and team processes)
b. Strategic Plan Development and Deployment
c. Quality Management Systems (ISO 9000, ISO 17025, TL16949, TL9000 etc.)
d. Business Excellence Models and National Quality Awards
e. Quality Management Tools (Seven basic QC Tools, Seven Management Planning Tools, Process
Improvement Tools, Cost of Quality, Benchmarking, etc.)
f. Measurement and Metrics
g. Customer Focused Organizations (Customer Identification and Segmentation, and Customer
Relationship Management)
h. Supply Chain Management
The Exams are prepared and conducted in line with the top of the class international certifications.

Pre-requisite
a. Academic: Graduation (BA, B.Sc, B.Sc Engineering, MBBS, etc.), Associate Engineering with
recognized college or university
b. Experience: Minimum three years in the field of Quality with Bachelors degree or five years with
Associate Engineering degree.
Exam Duration
Three hours. It will have two parts:
Part 1: 1.5 hours, four descriptive/essay questions
Part 2: 1.5 hours fifty multiple choice questions

Recommended Text Books

The following text books are recommended as reference books. However, people are encouraged to study all
relevant material on the subject.

The Certified Manager of Quality/Organizational Excellence Handbook: Third Edition, published by


ASQ (USA), Reprinted in Pakistan by Pakistan Institute of Quality Control/Ibrahim Publishers
Guide to Quality Control, by Kaoru Ishikawa, Published by Asian Productivity Organization
Juran on Quality by Design: The New Steps for Planning Quality into Goods and Services by J.M. Juran
Priciples of Quality Costs: Principles, Implementation and Use, Third Edition by Jack Campanella
Quality System Standards, e.g. ISO 9000, ISO 17025, TL 9000, TS 16749, etc.

EXAM FEE EXAM DATE


QPSP Members:
Rs. 5000 June 2008
Non Members: Application Deadline: May 29th 2008
Rs. 8000

EXAM CENTRES QPSP IS MEMBER OF REGIONAL


QUALITY CONSORTIUMS

Exams will be held at ANQ


designated exam centers
in the following cities

l Islamabad
ASIA PACIFIC QUALITY ORGANIZATION
l Karachi
l Lahore
l Peshawar
Middle East Quality Association

For further details, please contact Choudhary Javaid Akhtar


Kamran Moosa Secretary General QPSP Secretariat
Head of QPSP Certification Program Quality and Productivity Society of Pakistan
Chief Executive Offices, 15 A-1, PECO Road, Township, Lahore-Pakistan
PIQC Institue of Quality Mobile: +92-301-4419028
Tel: +92-42-5140001-2 Tel: +92-42-5850078, 5124968 Fax: +92-42-5140003
Email: kamranmoosa@piqc.net.pk email: secretariat@qpsp.org.pk
By Imran Ahmed Rana
Lahore, Pakistan

Implementation of
Statistical Process
Control
Case Study of a Local
Manufacturing Company

1. Introduction sections worst affected were raw material purchasing and pressing. These
became major bottle necks in a continuous production flow system. Three
Pakistan’s engineering industry is among a visible factors were in need of immediate corrective measures:
few handsome revenue generating industries ¨ Machine breakdown rate and departmental efficiency
for the country. This industry now requires
¨ Achieving speed to respond market requirements
infusion of the newest process control tools,
techniques and technologies if it is to ¨ Productivity and quality improvement
maintain and improve its ability to deliver Sensing the gravity of matter, improvement task was assigned to a team of
competitive products that meet customers' experienced technicians under the supervision of a newly trained Company
requirements. These process control Process Analyst (CPA). The role of this team was to identify and fix root
requirements can be addressed through causes of these problems. The team members in their first meeting
realistic implementation of Quality undertook, step by step, study of various activities in each process. Before
Management Systems (QMS). Furthermore, embarking on this project CPA considered existing knowledge base and
QMS helps manufacturers meet various training needs of his team and some of other associated professionals.
international regulatory standards such as
certifications on ISO 9001:2000. In recent 3. Assessing required Training base for SPC work
years, Statistical Quality Control (SQC) and CPA divided this assessment and development process under three different
its subset, the Statistical Process Control levels namely awareness, skill and knowledge. Each level was having its
(SPC) have proved effective in maintaining own needs based on work interaction and scope. The details of this
and improving the quality of products and assessment is given hereunder:
facilitating compliance with good
international manufacturing practices in line Awareness: With particular reference to Top Management; awareness
with ISO 9001:2000 measurement, analysis implies the responsibility of engaging skilled and knowledgeable people to
and improvement section. ensure that organizational objectives are being met. This stage involves
awareness about SPC reports, comprised of selected KPI which are being
2. Background of the Study exhibited in regular production /services processes evaluation reports. It
Owing to the rising demand of medical does not require much skill or knowledge. This was created by discussing
devices in international market, production SPC-Case Studies with Top management. Two sessions were conducted
has increased about three times. As per our with top management each having 45-60 minute duration.
traditional business practices, this rise was Skill: This requires that an individual should be able to do a specific task
not adequately planned, resulting in unusual properly by following a set of rules or procedures. Deep knowledge of SPC
machine breakdowns, variations in product was kept subject to applicability of whole mechanism as long as the work
quality and delayed receipt of semi finished scope is concerned. SPC skill implies awareness but not necessarily
goods from vendors. The manufacturing knowledge, in this case the need exists for a review of the work done by
someone with deep knowledge to ensure smooth functioning of correct basic reasons of machine breakdowns and
design or operation. This portion of training was applicable on departmental yield team also pointed out factors of low
managers. Three sessions were conducted with top management each process yield and rising scrap percentage.
having 1-1 ½ hour duration.
This step was facilitated with specially
Knowledge: At this level an individual must have a firm grasp of the designed check sheets. For example, table #.
fundamentals of the SPC -both theory and practice - and be capable of 01 shows the data collection efforts of cycle
applying this tool to evolve an efficient and effective process. It follows that time reduction team vis-a-vis. supplier order
the theory is understood and is used on a daily basis to solve real problems. delivery performance and quality
Knowledge implies both awareness and skill. A training course was performance ratings.
designed and conducted by CPA. The course comprised of a series of 10
discussion cum training sessions each having 1 ½ hour duration. 4.3 Process Analysis
4. Managing problem solving & decision making a. On the basis of above process
measurements, data was analyzed to gauge
mechanism the existing performance of ratchet grinding
As discussed above, suitable training programs were conducted for all staff process. Histogram (Figure 01) shows the
members. The main focus of this development exercise were the production measure of key process indicator heat
supervisors and junior management officers. During this training program, applied. A histogram is a graph in which a
participants were requested to regain the work of quality control circles, continuous variable is grouped into various
because the organization of problem solving here calls for the use of teams. categories and the value of each group is
These quality control circles were kept under three separate management plotted to give a series of bars (Figure 01).
teams i.e. each for reduction in machine breakdown, enhancing process b. Then the teams conducted their separate
yield and supply chain improvement (cycle time reduction). This sessions on the causes of the defects by

QPSP, January-June 2008


mechanism focused on company goals under 3 main problems mentioned using cause and effects diagram (also known
above and also aligned the objectives of each separate group and QC circles
in order to ensure that any solutions arrived at will be reinforcing. These
teams comprised of machine operators, technicians, and process engineers (Figure 01)
200
from concerning areas. 180
160
4.1 Problem definition 140
120
Team members identified the critical activities of operations that were being 100
considered as causes of existing bottle-necks. Team members did not have 80
60
clear concepts or in-depth knowledge about the existence of problems. The

43
40
first task for CPA was to have a precise definition of problems, selection of 20
performance indicators, setting improvement target. Each of three teams 0
19º 20º 21º 22º 23º 24º 25º 26º 27º 28º 29º
were thoroughly brainstormed on various aspects of existing problems,
determining the impact of fixing problems, documenting problems and 800

schedule improvement initiative. 700


600

4.2 Process measurement 500


400

The team members then started measuring their respective processes 300
200
through recognized sampling plans for selected performance indicators 100
against set improvement target. The purpose of this step was to qualify for 0
6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
improvement opportunities and also to quantify the potential for HEAT

improvement. Firstly, product cycle time reduction team gathered data for
all supplies received from various suppliers against a certain order of a as fish bone diagram). The cause-and-effect
particular item. Similarly, machine breakdown reduction team collected diagram is a quality tool to analyze process
Total
dispersion. Purpose of this diagram is to
Orders Total Number of Number of relate causes with their effects. Diagram
Supplier Number
received transaction DPR** defective lots/parts QPR**
of purchase
on time made parts / lots received denotes: Dispersion analysis, Process
orders classification and cause listing. This
Smart care 11 6 48 55% 240 1440 166666 diagram indicates: Effect = problem to be
resolved, opportunity to be grasped, result to
Racks Ltd. 6 2 14 34% 122 1510 80794
be achieved. Through each bone of this
InterOff 1 0 2 O% 47 451 104212 diagram, each team tries to find various Xs
that influence their improvement goal. This
Total was done through brainstorming on:
** DPR = number of orders or items received on time/total number of orders or items × 100 (Figure 02)
** QPR = number of defective parts / number of parts received × 1000000 (PPM) ¨ What impact employees (Manpower)
Table # 01
have on the defects?
PEOPLE MATERIALS MANAGEMNET
80 (Figure 04) 100%
Commitment
Hiring Vendors Quality Policy 76 95%
Responsibilty
72 90%
Costs
Orientation Specifications 68 85%
Customer Needs
64 80%
Training Inspection
60 75%
Leadership
C 56 70%
QUALITY
IMPROVEMENT O 52 65%
Design
Devices Controlled M 48 60%
P 44 55%
Maintenance
L 40 50%
Calibration Uncontrolled A 36 45%
Capability
Standards I 32 40%
Quality Impact N 28 35%
T 24 30%
(Figure 02) S 20 25%
EQUIPMENT MEASUREMENTS ENVIRONMENT
16 20%
12 15%
8 10%
¨ What impact Machines performance has d. Like other teams, process 4 5%
on the defects? yield enhancement and scrap 0 0%
¨ What impact Material has on the control team starts sending DC Over Conta
Co
Circuit Fuse ntr
defects? regular histograms (process Motor
Fault
Problem Open
Load
Trip
ctor
Fault
oll
Other
er
¨ How do the working Methods influence evaluation reports) to top
the defects? management and all sectional 20 % 80 %

¨ How do the existing Measurements managers to elaborate


influence the defect? existing performance of a
particular process and measure the effectiveness of corrective and
QPSP, January-June 2008

¨ How does Environment influence the


preventive action taken. The need was felt to highlight the on-going trend of
defects?
each performance indicator occurred over a certain period. For this
Applying the above tool, machine purpose, team started presenting required information by displaying control
breakdown reduction team skillfully plotted charts on this report. Control charts are one of the methods in Statistical
fish-bone diagram by clearly highlighting Process Control. These charts enable the control of distribution of variation
every cause with its corresponding effect. It rather than attempting to control each individual variation. Upper and lower
is being described hereunder in figure 03: control and tolerance limits are calculated for a process and sampled
measures are regularly plotted around a central
line between the two sets of limits. The plotted
Man Machine DC motor Material Problem of line corresponds to the stability/trend of the
44

Gear Box Carbon brushes


Sub Standard
process. Action can be taken based on trend
Un Skilled
Wiring Expired DC rather than on individual variation. This method
motors
Unable to read helps in preventing over-
drawing
correction/compensation for random variation,
- troubleshooting
of control wiring which would lead to many defects. Figure 05
Un able to Difficult to
highlights the improvements made at gold
read drawing troubleshoot plating section in three selected time frames of
previous years. Ist section refers to
Measurement Method No drawing
available (Figure 03) performance of this process during initial
period, section-2 presents analysis during major
improvement period and section-3 highlights
c. After analyzing causes through cause and current performance.
effect diagram, need remains to prioritize
the crucial and urgent problems for 4.4 Process Improvement
improvement. This step was facilitated with 4.4.1 Communication in SPC Problem Solving Mechanism
the use of Pareto principle. This principle
These teams help building adequate communication measures between
suggests that most effects emanate from
process operators and other team/QC circle members. Teams meet once a
relatively a few causes. In quantitative
day during their problem solving project. The objectives of these daily
terms: 80% of the problems come from 20%
meetings are to review previous day's work in the light of set target, update
of the causes (machines, raw materials,
everyone on the progress of action plan, to listen additional improvement
operators etc.). Therefore, effort aimed at the
ideas from team members and to discuss the problems with reference to
righting of 20% causes can solve 80% of the
individual members' tasks. This system improves the working cooperation,
problems. The figure # 04 exhibit that 20 %
reduces process defects and helps create lines of communication that are
problems of press no. 2 & 4 were due to first
useful in problem solving.
two factors which is vital one and the 80 %
problems of press no. 2 & 4 were trivial, 4.4.2 Providing Incentives to Solve Problems through SPC
also dependent on the first two factors. These teams highlighted the performance of their members by
(Figure 04) recommending individuals/team members for monetary rewards on the
(Figure 05)
teams are arranging six monthly continual
Xbar Chart
improvement conferences to share best
14
practices and present their projects before a
13.5
UCL=13.5608 panel of experts. The approved
project/proceedings of these conferences
13 CEN=12.9192 serve as reference standard against the
prevention of potential problems. This
12.5 improvement trend can best be understood
LCL=12.2776 from figure 07. Scrap percentage of this
12 1st section 2nd section 3rd section company before SPC implementation was
11.5
10% in 1995 -96, it dropped to just 1%
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 during data collection and target setting year
i.e. 1997-98. Over a 10 years period, scrap
basis of transparent merit evaluations. This system was developed to foster dropped around 5.7%. (Figure 07)
a culture of innovation and creativity in organization. Furthermore, these
teams also created an "I Recommend" box where all process 5. Future Process Control Plans
operators/technicians can recommend ideas to managers. If an idea is found Application of described above SPC tools to
useable, it is adopted and the initiator receives a gift and certificate directly diagnose and solve problems at this
from top management. In this way, operators feel that they are not only organization is approaching a maturity level
properly honored but also the management accommodates their suggestions where seeking further improvement has
seriously. (Figure 06) become very complex and difficult too.
Due to the implementation of SPC techniques in this company to control From the last few years, statistical measures
quality variations, reduce processes scrap and narrow down the performance plotted for key performance indicators

QPSP, January-June 2008


exhibit a stagnant trend in processes
(Figure 06) performance (refer to figure 06&07). CPA
10.00
9.63 9.56 9.53 9.45
9.21
9.49 discussed this trend with national
9.07 9.00
9.00
8.91
/international quality experts, professionals,
9.06 9.16
8.94 8.81
industry statistician to conclude that the time
8.00 8.64
8.40
8.18
7.97
8.50 had come to move forward from the
7.00 traditional QC tools to the application of
6.00
modern quality management and design
tools like Six sigma and TPM. Presently a
5.00
batch of Engineers is being trained on Six

45
4.00 sigma principles. Management is very
Dec-02 Feb-03 Oct-03 Dec-04 Mar-05 Dec-05 Mar-06 May-06 Nov-06
optimistic that these professionals after the
Product
completion of this certification course, add
value to existing operations and achieve the
gap in comparison with foreign competitors, performance of its products target of 2.5%.
has improved a lot and is now comparable with that of its mentioned References:
competitors positioned in developed countries like Germany. Figure 06
highlight this trend. 1. R. T. Amsden, H. E. Butler, and D. M. Amsden, SPC
Simplified: practical Steps to Quality. Productivity, Inc.
, 1998.
4.5 Process Control
2. Dan Rascher, Problem-Solving Structures:A Case
After witnessing the high benefits of this SPC project, plant management Study of Two U.S. Semiconductor Fabs
decided to spread its blanket coverage to all Manufacturing, Engineering 3. Pande, Peter S., Robert P Newman, and Roland R.
services, HR, and Purchasing sections. These sections were instructed to Cavanagh (2000). The Six Sigma Way, McGraw-Hill,
identify their key performance indicators and present monthly reports on the New York.
same for top management decision making and better process control. After 4. Wheeler, Donald (1993). Understanding Variation:
years of experience with these tools, currently 11 Quality Control Circles, 5 The Key to Managing Chaos. SPC Press, Inc.
Quality and Productivity Improvement teams are working in this 5. Moosa, Kamran (1989) Feroz Sons Lahore.
organization. To standardize and control their workings, all QC circles and 6. Younas Khan, Shami Rafique “SQC in Treet
Corporation Ltd.”
10 Years Non-conformances reduction (Figure 07)
9
8.47
About Author
8 8.14
Author has done his Masters in Public Administration and MS-
7 6.85 Total Quality Management from the University of the Punjab,
%age

6 5.9 5.94 Lahore-Pakistan. He is Vice Chairman QPSP and Chief Editor


5
5.3
5.06 4.91 5.13 QPSP magazine ‘Quest for Excellence’. He is currently
4.66
4.64 4.56
4.35 4.43 4.51
4.33 4.48
4.29 4.47
4.28
working as Management System Head, and Manager QCQA
4
Treet Corporation Limited. He is regularly contributing his
3 pure industrial research work to the Journals/Magazines of
1997-98 1998-99 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 International repute. He can be contacted at:
imranrana@treetonline.com; qsipak@hotmail.com
P-1 P-2
By Greg Hutchins

Career Management
for Engineers
Engineers-particularly electrical and you are going to adapt, Develop a career strategy for change. The workshop
electronic engineers-were once insulated is available on IEEE-USA website. Lindborg and I believe the career
from outsourcing. That's no longer true. lessons learned for electrical and electronic engineers apply to quality
Outsourcing of U.S. commodity engineers and quality professionals.
engineering, importing of South Asian and
Let us look at some of the critical takeaways and actionables from the
Chinese engineers and use of low cost,
workshop.
offshore engineers have forever changed the
engineering landscape. Quality engineers Engineering and Technology Changes
and professionals face the same challenges.
Engineering has changed fundamentally in recent years. Each decade has
New Rules of Engagement introduced and reinforced a new model for career success. See how many of
the changes apply to you.
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics
Engineers (IEEE) is the world's largest In the 1960s, corporate engineers planned on lifelong careers with a single
technical society. IEEE-USA, the company. The engineer had an understandable career ladder and received
organization has taken the lead for ample health and other benefits, including a retirement plan and companies
transitioning U.S. and member engineers to were investing in their employees' success.
the brave new world of work.
In the 1970s, wise engineers invested themselves by adding value through
Paul Kostek, current chair IEEE-USA career learning new technologies. Engineers participated in continuing education
and workforce policy committee put the to maintain technical currency.
challenges in context:
In the downsizing 1980s and 1990s, transitioning engineers worked as
Engineers are struggling with the changing consultants on temporary employment contracts. Contract engineers often
employment landscape and the impacts of earned more than they could as full-time equivalent employees. Most
globalization, outsourcing and just-in-time importantly, times were good.
employment on engineering careers and
Things then changed dramatically. In the 2000s, the international engineer
employment opportunities. Many questions
has emerged due to rapid deployment of new technologies and corporate
arise: How will these changes, along with
globalization. Employers are hiring for skills rather than people. Employers
transfer of skills development and education
do not feel an obligation to hire domestic, U.S. engineers, instead preferring
to the individual, impact engineering? How
to hire the best and brightest engineers from around the globe.
will people be forced to change their mind-
set on how they are employed and utilized? Understand the Present
With entitlement gone, how can engineers
be value adding and deliver demonstrable What can you do about this? First tip: Get real about your technical skills in
results? What impact will a multigenera- today's turbulent job market. Today's job market is characterized by the
tional workforce have on competitiveness? following:
Ed Perkins, on career issues, adds, "We are 1. Organizations are focusing on innovation and productivity, which means
in the era of just-in-time employees; further head count reduction. 2. Outsourcing and offshoring will continue
employers expect to be able to find workers during the next few years. 3. Career path and career management are your
who are immediately available with all the challenges, not a company's problem. 4. Your work and career success
necessary skills to do a job and then let them depend on your initiative, not a company's success. 5. Most, if not all, of us
go when it is done, even if this is an will evolve into project or just-in-time employees.
unreasonable expectation. Employees have
become commodities." As quality
How Can You Be Successful?
professionals, we face the same challenges The bottom line is the fate of your job no longer figures into corporate
and similar solutions. How can ASQ and its decisions unless it is related to head count reduction.
sections help?
Understand this: Employers hire skills they need when they need them,
Career Survival Workshop without making a long-term commitment or investment in costly employee
benefits. In addition, employers do not want any ramp up delays-they want
IEEE-USA has developed a workshop called employees who can add project value immediately.
Career Survival in the New Millennium. The
workshop has three objectives: Understand About Author
your present career paradigm, Know how GREG HUTCHINS is an engineering principal with Quality Plus Engineering. He is ASQ member. This article
was originally published in ASQ Quality Progress magazine. Published with prior written permission of ASQ.
Quality and Productivity Application Form for
Society of Pakistan Corporate Membership
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G. Experience
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H. Professional Scope
Indicate up to 4 areas which can be supported by your experience/education.

1. Agriculture & Fishing 7. Pulp, Paper & Paper Products 13. Pharmaceuticals 19. Electrical & Optical Equipment 25. Transport, Storage & Logistics

2. Mining & Quarrying 8. Publishing/Printing 14. Rubber & Plastic Products 20. Ship Building/Shipping 26. Information Technology

3. Food Products, Beverages 9.Oil & Gas 15. Media 21. Telecommunication 27. Consulting/Training
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4. Textile & Leather Products 10. Healthcare 16. Retailer/Distributer 22. Electric, Gas, & Water Supply 28. Education

5. Leather & Leather Products 11. Government 17. Basic Metals Fabricated 23. Construction 29. Defense
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Signature Date:
MEQA 2ND ANNUAL CONGRESS
DUBAI - APRIL 07-09, 2008
Creating Architecture of
Quality and Excellence in the Middle East
RESPONSIBILITIES, CHALLENGES AND STRATEGIES
The Middle East Quality Association (MEQA), in partnership with the e-TQM College is privileged to conduct the
2nd MEQA Annual Congress on April 7-9, 2008 in Dubai, UAE.

ABOUT MEQA:
MEQA represents the reinforcement of the principles of Burj Al Arab Declaration which the Government of Dubai under the
leadership of his H.H. Sheikh Mohammed Bin Rashid has initiated and signed to advocate a Total commitment to
transformational change through a leadership style that builds harmony, partnerships, common understanding and society
based benefits. MEQA operate as a non-profit organization. Its activities are devoted entirely to the promotion and
dissemination of philosophy, theory, and practice in the field of quality.

THE PURPOSE OF CONGRESS:


Lessons from the industrial Countries explicitly suggest that it is the architecture of quality and excellence that differentiates a
successful organization from others. How can organizations operating in the Middle East create a solid architecture or at least
foundations based on the tenets of quality and excellence? The MEQA 2nd Annual Congress will provide an international
forum to address the various dimensions of this critical question facing organizations in the Middle East. Keynote addresses,
research papers, case studies, practitioner viewpoints, poster presentations and submissions from academic researchers,
doctoral students and practitioners are invited to this Congress. The papers are expected to be an amplification of the
Congress focal theme. Creating Architecture of Quality and Excellence in the Middle East: Responsibilities, Challenges and
Strategies in one of the following tracks:

l TQM Implementation across Cultures in the Middle East l TQM in the Services Sector
l Emerging Competitiveness Issues and Challenges in the l TQM and Change Management
Middle-East l Quality and Sustainable Development Quality and
l TQM and Public Sector Management TQM in the Supply Chain Management
Education Sector l Mechanics and Dynamics of ISO Certification
l The Impact of Globalization on Service Quality in the l Case Studies on TQM, Excellence and Best Practice
Middle East l Strategic Management of Quality and Excellence
l Six Sigma Movements in the Middle East Corporate l Best Practice Models
Social Responsibility l Human Resources Development

CALL FOR PAPERS


Those who wish to present a paper/join a panel discussion, are required to submit their abstract in 100 words along with a
brief resume (100 words), contact details & passport size color photograph. All papers should be typed on the A4 size in
Microsoft Word Format in Times Roman, font Size 10 and sent on a CD or by e mail.

The paper and the brief resume are required to be e-mailed to MEQACongress@etqm.ae or l.Akkila@etqm.ae.

The last date for submission of papers is February 15, 2008. All presenters are entitled to exemption of Congress fees
this year!

FOR FURTHER ENQUIRIES REGARDING PAPER SUBMISSION & CONGRESS PLEASE CONTACT:
Congress Technical Committee at n.dham@etqm.ae
Eminent Keynote Addresses have been invited;
venue and further information will be uploaded on the College web site soon.
Paper will also entitled to the Best Paper Award, and to be published in one of the College's refereed International
Journals of Excellence; e Journals URL: http://ww.etqm.ae/journals.
Quality Professionals are invited to this important quality event.

Quality and Productivity Society of Pakistan


Supported By: Founder Member MEQA
A Basic Quality Tool
By Davorka Filipusic
U.S.A.

5S for Families
Many articles have been written about 5S Define & Develop
programs and their applications in the
business environment. As a quality The first thing I had to do was define and develop a 5S program for our
professional, I have been involved with family in terms my 4-year-old son could easily understand and respond to.
teaching, implementing, supporting, The next step was to provide designated areas in the house, as well as tools,
improving or revitalizing such programs in for organizing and storing items. This was probably the most challenging
several manufacturing and service part. While thousands of storage solutions are on the market today, our
organizations. challenge was to find stor age elements that would fit well in our home, have
When I started, it didn’t occur to me that an acceptable appearance, and be functional and child friendly.
these principles would one day have such a After we settled on the first threeS’s—sort, set in order and shine—it was
significant impact on my personal life. time to decide as a family how we were going to standardize (fourth S) and
My son was born four years ago, and sustain (fifth S) activities on a daily basis. To standardize, we coop erated to
because he didn’t come with an instruction develop our family’s 5S policy. We also decided it would apply to each
manual, the last four years have been family member.
challenging for my husband and me. We had The focus of our 5S program was to quickly identify unneeded items
to get used to our new roles as parents while (clothes, toys, books, CDs, DVDs, mail, magazines) and process them to
remaining full-time working professionals. their designated places while considering recycling or reusing options. All
Many articles have been written about 5S 5S activities were to be implemented continuously in all areas of the house.
programs and their applications in the Our objectives were to improve the appearance of our home, contribute to
business environment. As a quality the personal safety of all family members, and improve our mental and
professional, I have been involved with physical well-being while teaching our child valuable life lessons. To
teaching, implementing, supporting, measure and sustain our 5S activities, we decided that at the end of each
improving or revitalizing such programs in day, we would rate our individual 5S efforts with smiling or frowning face
several manufacturing and service magnets on a special magnetic board.
organization.
For children our son’s age, using face symbols for feedback is very
As our son grew, so did his needs and space effective. Our son is very competitive, so he is willing to do anything to
requirements. One of the biggest challenges avoid being rated with the dreaded frowning face.
we faced was the increasing clutter in our
house that came with our son’s growing Back in Contol
assortment of toys, books, games and
Shortly after implementing 5S, I regained control of the house, and
whatever else he decided to collect. As the
everybody in the family, including me, is doing his or her share of daily 5S
toys became bigger and bulkier every year,
activities. My son now applies 5S steps in whatever he does without any
and because some of them were dangerous
extra effort. It has become part of his daily routine. When someone in the
to step on, they started to present a home
house says “5S,” everybody understands what it means and knows what
safety hazard in addition to an aesthetic
needs to be done.
problem.
Explaining the importance of good
Implementing 5S in your family is an amazing learning experience for kids
housekeeping, organization, safety and
and parents. To succeed, all family members must be involved, but parent
recycling to a 4-year-old child isn’t easy.
participation and guidance are especially important. Parents must lead by
However, I realized it was something that
example. In my case, this was easy because my husband also is a quality
should be taught to children at just that age.
professional and he supported the idea from the beginning.
A solution was desperately needed, so some
decisions had to be made quickly. At the
5S is a lot more than a cleanup project. It is important that both children and
time, I was successful ly teaching and
adults have fun while doing it and at the same time learn important habits
implementing a 5S program in a business
and behaviors at home. The orderly appearance of your home will improve
environment. This gave me an idea: Why
the quality of your life, and the lessons learned will remain with your
not apply the same principles at home and
children for years to come.
take back control of my house, while
ingraining these fundamentals into my son’s About Author
daily routine? Davorka Filipusic is a quality manager for Hafele America in Archdale, NC. She earned a master’s
degree in industrial engineering from the University of Zagreb in Croatia and is a senior member of
ASQ. This was published under prior written permission from ASQ.
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