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- CFD

November 10, 2007

Jim Giuliani

Client and Technology Support Manager

Ohio Supercomputer Center

jimg@osc.edu

Agenda

CFD Tools

•Java Applets

•MATLAB Application

•FLUENT

2

Introduction

• A brief introduction will be given to the field of Fluid

Mechanics and the types of physical systems that can

be modeled

• Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD):

– Why CFD

– How it is applied

– What is the current state of the art

• CFD’s role in Education

– Design Tool for the engineer...doctor…???

– Educational tool for understanding

physical phenomena

“The story behind the simulation”

• Applications will be explored that allow computers to

help convey fundamental concepts in fluid dynamics

that allow for increased knowledge discovery

3

What is Fluid Dynamics

• Roughly defined: Fluid Mechanics is the study of

a system in which a fluid is the working medium

• Other fields

– Solid mechanics

– Thermodynamics

• Statics is the study of

systems at rest

• Dynamics is the study

of systems in motion

4

Classification of Fluid Mechanics

Continuum Fluid Mechanics

• Inviscid

• Viscous

– Laminar

– Turbulent

• Compressible/Incompressible

5

Classification of Fluid Mechanics

Problems are also classified in terms of the number

of dimensions of the problem

• 1-Dimensional

• 2-Dimensional

• 3-Dimensional

Most problems are 3-D,

but analysis based on

fewer dimensions is

often meaningful

6

Differential vs. Integral Approach

Differential Equations

– Equations formulated in terms of infinitesimal control volumes

– Solution of differential equations determines the detailed, point

by point, behavior of the flow

Integral Equations

– System under study does not require a detailed knowledge of

the flow

– Equations formulated in terms of finite systems and control

volumes

– Often easier to treat analytically

7

Navier-Stokes Equations

Du ∂p ∂ 2 ∂u ∂v ∂w ∂ ∂u ∂v ∂ ∂w ∂u

ρ = ρg x − + µ 2 − − + µ + + µ +

Dt ∂x ∂x 3 ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂y ∂y ∂x ∂z ∂x ∂z

Dv ∂p ∂ ∂v ∂u ∂ 2 ∂v ∂u ∂w ∂ ∂v ∂w

ρ = ρg y − + µ + + µ 2 − − + µ +

Dt ∂y ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂y 3 ∂y ∂x ∂z ∂z ∂z ∂y

Dw ∂p ∂ ∂w ∂u ∂ ∂v ∂w ∂ 2 ∂w ∂u ∂v

ρ = ρg z − + µ + + µ + + µ 2 − −

Dt ∂z ∂x ∂x ∂z ∂y ∂z ∂y ∂z 3 ∂z ∂x ∂y

•For an inviscid flow, where we neglect viscosity, we

simplify the equations to the Euler equations

•For an incompressible, constant viscosity flow, the

viscous terms simplify significantly (more applicable to

gasses than fluids)

8

Why Computational Fluid Dynamics

(CFD)

• Once we have classified our problem, we can derive equations that

describe the fluid system

• Due to complex geometries, or lack of realistic analytical equations, we

use numerical methods to approximate the fluid equations

• CFD uses computers to develop

solutions to fluid mechanic

problems

– Ability to solve more complex

geometries

– Ability investigate regions of the

flow where sensors cannot be

placed

9

The CFD Process

• Once the governing equations for a problem have been

derived, the task of solving them numerically can be started

• A fundamental aspect of CFD is to discretize the spatial

domain into small cells to form a volume mesh or grid

• A suitable algorithm to solve the equations is then applied

• Implicit tech.

solve the eqns.

directly

• Time marching

explicit tech.

10

The CFD Process: Gridding

Limitations

• To properly represent flow through any gap, should have at least 5 cells between wall surfaces

• Turbulence modeling requires first layer of cells on road and body to be ~0.5”

– This leaves only ~0.5” for remaining 3 layers; results in very high aspect ratio cells and misrepresented

ground/vehicle boundary layer interaction

1.5”

Boundary layer cells 0.5”

11

State of the Art in CFD

• Large companies understand the impact of numerical

simulations on R&D and are leading the charge

– SC07 Masterworks series

• Advances in mesh generation allow complex CAD

geometries to reliably be meshed from solid models

• Node and element counts in the 10 to 100 million range

BASE – 0.34

(Cd = Drag coefficient)

XV1 – 0.21

Stock

12

State of the Art in CFD

• Many commercial CFD applications now support

distributed memory parallel processing

• Production runs common in the 50 to 500 processor

range

• Leading edge runs in the 1000 to 5000 processor

range

• Example: Virtual wind tunnel

Solution driven by velocity inlets on

domain walls

pressure outlet

13

Roll of CFD in Education

• Fluid mechanics courses are in many undergraduate

curriculum

• Computational techniques, specifically visualization, offer

many educational benefits in helping convey fundamental

fluid mechanic

concepts

• Computer

simulations can

allow some lab

experiments to be

replaced with

on-line tutorials

• CFD courses are

mostly found at the

graduate level

14

Case Studies

• We will consider several fundamental problems in fluid

mechanics and examine how different computational

tools can be used to solved the problem and highlight

characteristics

• Applying the different tools to the same problem will help

compare an contrast the capabilities of the different

utilities

• Flow over a cylinder is a fundamental fluid mechanics

problem of practical importance. The flow field over the

cylinder is symmetric at low values of Reynolds number.

As the Reynolds number increases, flow begins to

separate behind the cylinder causing vortex shedding

which is an unsteady phenomenon (and a COOL

visualization!)

15

CFD Tools Overview

Three tools will be discussed in the workshop

• Java applications and Java applets

– Programs written in the Java programming language and

often integrated with on-line web pages

• MATLAB

– Commercial software package for general mathematical

modeling

• FLUENT

– FlowLab (educational product) integrates commercial mesh

generator (GAMBIT) and solver (FLUENT) with simplified

GUIs for students

cover the range of simulation ability, from simple Java

app, to cutting edge parallel CFD solver

16

Java Applets

Java is a very useful tool for education

Benefits

– Applets allow for easy integration into web based lecture

material and on line exercises.

– Interactive and often include graphics

– Excellent portability and distribution

– Many good applets already exist (some funded by NSF)

Drawbacks

– High degree of programming effort

– Java is not fast enough for many computational tasks

17

Java Applets - Example

engAPPLETS

– NSF funded project at Virginia Tech

http://www.engapplets.vt.edu/

– Fluid Dynamics

– Statics

– Dynamics

Applications that automate

calculations with data

visualization allow

students to interact with

science, not just observe

trends

18

Java Applets – Ideal Flow Machine

Ideal Flow Machine

– Ideal Flow Machine is designed for students learning the

foundations of fluid mechanics

– The term ‘ideal flow' describes the way in which a fluid (liquid

or gas) moves when the effects of compressibility and

viscosity are negligible

– Removing these terms from the Navier-Stokes equations

reduces the problem to one that can be solved analytically or

numerically

• Go to the engAPPLET web page

• Click on Ideal Flow Machine, which is in the left hand

column

• Click on “Launch Ideal Flow Machine”

19

Java Applets – Ideal Flow Machine

We will use

the following

options from

the pull

down menu

to examine

flow around

a cylinder:

•Free stream

•Circle

•Draw

Streamline

•Vortex 20

Java Applets – Ideal Flow Machine

• Choose the Free Stream option from the pull down

menu

• Type in 10.0 in the Strength input box

• Click anywhere on the mesh. An arrow will appear

on the left hand side showing the free stream

• Choose the Circle option from the pull down menu

• Click on one of the cross hairs and hold down the

mouse button

• Pull the mouse to the neighboring cross hare and

release

• You should see a green circle appear on the mesh

21

Java Applets – Ideal Flow Machine

• Choose the “Draw Streamline” option from the pull down

menu

• Click anywhere

on the mesh

and you will

see a

streamline

from that point

22

Java Applets – Ideal Flow Machine

• Choose Vortex from the pull down menu and

click anywhere on the mesh to add in a vortex

(flow circulating around a point)

• Click on Draw Streamline to visualize the

new flow

• Click on New Flow

and redo the

exercise but with

10.0 strength

and 10.0 angl

23

Java Applets - Example

• NASA Glenn Research Center – “The Beginner’s

Guide to Aeronautics”

http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-12/airplane/

• Java applications for:

– Aerodynamics

• FoilSim Interactive Simulator (very good)

• CurveBall Interactive Simulator

• Atmosphere Modeler

– Propulsion

– Hypersonics

– Model Rockets

24

FoilSim Choose between ideal flow

and flow with separation

dynamically change the

orientation and design of the

airfoil and see real time 25

Curveball

•Extends

the ideal

flow

simulator

by adding

viscosity

•Provides

real world

connection

(i.e.

viscosity

makes

Students to change spin of ball and see

curve balls

quantitative

possible) (lbs of force, change in streamlines)

as well as qualitative results

26 (ball / strike)

MATLAB

Benefits

• Graphical User Interfaces can be designed to lead

students through exercises

• Good quality and easy to implement graphics

• Software can be used for other academic purposes

Drawbacks

• Not as fast as native code

• Software has a financial cost to students

27

Navier2d – Example MATLAB CFD

Program

• Navier2d is a set of MATLAB functions designed to

simulate the motion of incompressible fluids via

numerical solution of the 2D, unsteady Navier-Stokes

equations

• Available from the MATLAB Central file exchange

– Go to http://www.mathworks.com

– Click on User Community

– Type Navier2d in the search box and click Search

• Solver reads in mesh, which allows flexibility to solve

different problems

• Mesh generator is available in a separate MATLAB

program

28

Navier2d

• Graphical User Interface designed into the

application to lead the student through the

different steps of the solution

– Allows for easy step-by-step example problems

– Separate mesh generator allow students to go

beyond the “caned” examples

• Allows students to gain experiences with the

terminology and work flow of computational

fluid dynamics, while still learning about the

flow problem at hand

29

Navier2d – How to Run

• Download the zip file and unpack on your local

machine

• Start up MATLAB and in the Current Directory

window, move to the

directory where

Navier2d resides

• Right click on

Navier2d.m and

click Run

• You should see the

applications main

menu

30

Navier2d - Mesh

Rather than build a mesh from scratch, we will use a pre-

defined mesh of a cylinder in a free stream

• In the “Mesh Options”

window, click Load

• In the file browser

that pops up, select

cylinder.mat

and Open

• Click View to see

the mesh

31

Navier2d – Boundary Conditions

• To set boundary conditions, click the

Velocity/Pressure button in the

Boundary Conditions window

• To set boundary conditions, click the Select

button

• With your mouse, drag a box around the

nodes you want to select and then press the

right mouse button when done

• With the nodes highlighted in red, click the

Set button to apply the boundary condition to

those nodes.

32

Navier2d – Boundary Conditions

• For this example, we will choose the following initial

and boundary conditions

– Inlet (left hand side)

• Velocity B/C

• U=5m/s, V=0m/s

– Top and bottom

• Velocity B/C

• U=5m/s, V=0m/s

– Outlet (right side)

• Outflow

(extrapolated)

– Surface of cylinder

• Velocity B/C

• U=0m/s, V=0m/s

• Click File->Close

when done

33

Navier2d – Initial and Solver

Settings

• Under Integration Settings, click on Initial and

set the U velocity to the initial value of 5m/s

• Under Integration Settings, click on Set to set

solver options

• Accept defaults, but change Maximum number of

steps to 2000 and then click OK

• Click Run to begin the solution

• Watch the vortex structure form as the simulation

progresses

34

Navier2d - Results

35

FLUENT

• One of the leading CFD

applications for research

and product development

• A wide range of physical

systems and processes can

be simulated using numerous

techniques and equations

– Compressible/Incompressible

– Combustion

– Porous media

– Flow with heat transfer

– Adaptive mesh refinement

– Parallel solver

36

FLUENT Capabilities

Simulation of a 1

gallon milk

container being

formed by blow

molding.

Simulation

includes the

arison extrusion,

pinch-off, mold

closing and

inflation steps

37

FlowLab – Academic Interface for

Fluent

• Integrates the following three steps:

– Preprocessor

• Meshing the object or domain to be analyzed

• Applying boundary conditions

• Set application/solver control parameters

• Usually graphic intensive

– Solver

• Read in the mesh and supporting input files and solve

• Longest step, usually CPU, memory and disk intensive

– Post Processor

• Read in solution and visually display data

• X – Y plots, histograms, contour plots, animations

38

FlowLab

• Provides a virtual fluids lab for teaching and virtually

reinforcing concepts in fluid flow and heat transfer

• Acquaints students with the following:

– Terminology of CFD

– Basics of geometry and mesh generation

– Setting up a problem

– Concepts of accuracy and convergence

– Post processing

• Several fluid mechanics text books include FlowLab

modules

http://flowlab.fluent.com/collaborations/index.htm

39

FLUENT – High Performance Computing

Example

• Now that we have seen examples of CFD on the

desktop, let’s examine a larger application

• Motivation

– Examine more complex flow systems

– Experience the full modeling process

• Pre-processing

• Solving

• Post-processing

– Introduce the concept of parallel processing

• Solve models quicker

• Solve bigger models

40

o *

Mixing Problem in 90 Elbow

o

A cold fluid at 20 C flows

into the pipe through a

large inlet, and mixes

with a warmer fluid at

40oC that enters through

a smaller inlet located at

the elbow

• Heat transfer, 3-D,

Turbulent flow

• Will run in parallel on

4 processors

41

FLUENT – High Performance Computing

Example

provided for access to Ohio

Supercomputer Centers

IBM 1350 Opteron cluster

• Due to network load, slow graphic

performance is very possible

1. Open up a CYGWIN terminal

2. SSH to the Opteron cluster:

ssh –X wrk###@opt-login1.osc.edu

where you will replace ### with the number given to you

42

First Steps – Starting a Remote

Application

• To run parallel FLUENT, we are going to request 1 machine

and all 4 processors within that machine

• A graphics window will return after we start FLUENT

– It is possible to do perform tasks through menu interface

– For speed, we will type in most commands

• To request 4 processors

qsub –I –V –l walltime=1:00:00 –l nodes=1:ppn=4

• To start FLUENT In this exercise,

text in a bubble as

module load fluent seen here are

rm -f pnodes commands you will

type into the

cat $PBS_NODEFILE | sort > pnodes FLUENT command

setenv ncpus `cat pnodes | wc -l` window.

fluent 3d -t$ncpus -pinfiniband.ofed -cnf=pnodes

43

FLUENT Command Window

44

Read in Model and Partition

parallel partition auto use-case-file-method

yes

rc elbow3.cas.gz

print-active-partitions

Solve initialize initialize-flow

45

Display Parallel Decomposition

(NOTE: These are mouse/keyboard commands)

• Click on Display

• Click on Contours

• Change “Contours of” selection

to “Cell Info…”

• Chose “Active Cell Partition”

from the box below

• Change “Levels” to 4, which

is the number of processors

we are using for this run

• Choose “symmetry” from

the “Surfaces” selection

• Click Display

• Click Close

46

Parallel Decomposition

47

Set Initial Conditions

(NOTE: These are mouse/keyboard commands)

Type command:

file write-case elbow4

Click on Solve

Click on Initialize

Click on Initialize

Choose “velicity-inlet-5”

from “Compute From”

Change “Y velocity” to 0

Click INIT

Click OK

Click CLOSE

48

Solve the Model

solve iterate 200

(when finished)

file write-data elbow5

parallel timer usage

49

Display Results

(NOTE: These are mouse/keyboard commands)

Click on Display

Click on Contours

Change “Contours of” selection

to “Custom Field Functions…”

Chose “dynamic-head”

from the box below

Change “Levels” to 80

Choose “symmetry” from

the “Surfaces” selection

Click Display

Click Close

50

Simulation Results

51

FLUENT Observations

• Many problems have static solutions

• Students not familiar with Fluid Mechanics seem to like the

interactive process and obtaining the solution, as long as

step-by-step instructions are given

• Students with Fluid Mechanic behavior will benefit from

being able to interact with solution results and see system

characteristics that have been covered in lecture

• High school students can handle geometry design and

meshing, along with setting initial and boundary conditions

• Junior undergraduate students are able to develop and

solve complete models

52

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