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DTH stands for DIRECT-TO-HOME television

DTH is defined as:
The reception of satellite programmers with a personal
dish in an individual home.
DTH does away with the need for the local cable
operator and puts the broadcaster directly in touch
with consumer .
The DTH utilizes a technology which enables a home to receive video
channel with a suitable set capable of demodulating mpeg-2 (4)
standard video channel with a suitable set top box

The DTH service provider has to lease ku band transponders from the
satellite .

DTH does away with the need of local cable operator and put the
broadcaster directly in touch with consumer.
(Central hub of the
Broadcast center
The broadcast center converts all of this programming into high
quality, uncompressed digital stream. At this point the stream contains a
vast quantity of data about 270 mbps for each channel .
 In order to transmit the signal from there, the broadcast center has to
compress it.

Encoder (MPEG-2)
The base analog or the high quality digital video- audio are
converted to the DVB standards of correct size and format .
With digital compression the satellite can transmit about 200
channels .

Mixes these signals
The modulation converts the message signal into a form that is suitable
for transmission over communication channel. This involve varying some
parameters of a carrier wave in accordance with the message signal.

After the video is compressed, the provider needs to encrypt it in order
to keep people from accessing it for free. Encryption scrambles the
digital data in such a way that it can only be decrypted if the receiver
has correct decoding satellite receiver with decryption algorithm and
security keys

Once the signal is compressed and encrypted, the broadcast center
beams it directly to one of its satellite. the satellite pick up the signal
amplify it & beams back to earth where viewer can pick it up .
Receiving station ( for the reception of the signal being
beamed from transmitted station)

Receive type
solid offset
Set top box
antenna LNB feed
Interface cables
Feed horn
Receive type solid offset
When a beam hits the curved dish, the parabola shape reflects the
radio signal inward onto a particular point, just like a concave mirror
focuses light onto a
particular point.
The curved dish focuses incoming radio waves onto the feed horn. In
this case, the point is the dish’s feed horn, which passes the signal onto
the receiving equipment.
Advantages of using offset fed antenna
The offset paraboloid eliminates aperture blockage , reduces antenna
noise temperature , and resist the accumulation of ice and snow by
placing the feed below the reflector and angling it downward .

There is no feedhorn blockage an important consideration when the

antenna aperture is less one meter in diameter the

The offset feed antenna can achieve higher efficiency levels then
prime focus antenna normally attain , usually in the 70% range .
low noise blockdown converter, or LNB.

The central element in the feedhorn is low noise blockdown converter

Low Noise Block-down convertor (so called because it converts a
whole band or “block” of frequencies to a lower band).
An LNB sits on the end of an arm and faces the parabolic reflector
(“dish”) which focuses the signals from a satellite into the “feed horn” of
the LNB (see pictures below). The LNB converts the signals to a lower
frequency and sends them out to the cable connector, which you
connect to your satellite receiver via coaxial cable.
Lnb amplifies the radio signal bouncing off the dish and filter out noise
(radio signal not carrying programming and also converts the ku band
frequency into if bassed on local if


Universal LNB
“Universal” ku band LNB is available that can switch electronically
between 10.7-11.7 and 11.75-12.75 GHz frequency spectra to provide
complete coverage of entire ku- band frequency range.
The receiver send switching voltage (13 or 17 V dc ) to the LNB that
automatically changes the LNB input frequency range to the desired
frequency spectrum.
Set top box (STB)
Qpsk demodulation
Mpeg decoder

 A set-top box (STB) or set-top unit (STU) is a device that connects

to a television and an external source of signal, turning the signal
into content which is then displayed on the television screen
Block diagram of STB
Conventi Qpsk
LNB Synchroniz
onal ADC demodul
er vitiebri
mixture ation

transport Mpeg
demultiple decoder

Control access Video
process encoder

Demodulation (Qpsk)
the process of conversion of signal into its original form transmitted at the
transmitter is called demodulation .

Digital demultiplexing
After Qpsk demodulation the digital bit stream contain several
multiplexed Channel as well as error control bits. The bit stream is
processed to correct and detect error , de interleaved and decrypted.
The digital demultiplexer then extracts the bits for wanted channels.

Mpeg decoder
It de-scrambles the encrypted signal. In order to unlock the signal, the
receiver needs the proper decoder chip for that programming package
(smart card having correct keys for decryption is required to view paid
channels )
 The provider can communicate with the chip, via the satellite signal, to
make necessary adjustments to its decoding programs.

The DAC finally generates analog audio and video signals to derive TV
Some other important terminology related to DTH service
Geostationary satellite plays an important role for DTH system
They are positioned at an exact height above the earth about 36000km
As they remain stationary and they are ideal for use as communication
satellite and also for remote imaging as they can scan the same point
on earth beneath them.
The satellite solves the problem of range and distortion by transmitting
broadcast signal from satellites orbiting the earth.
Polarization is a way to give transmission signal a specific direction. It
makes beam more concentrated .
Signal transmitted by the satellite can be polarized in one of four
different ways linear (horizontal and vertical ) or circular ( left hand or
right hand )
To use the channel available for broadcasting as efficiently as possible
both horizontal and vertical polarization(and left and right circular
polarization) can be applied simultaneously per channel
In such case frequency of one of the two is slightly altered, to prevent
Future technologies in DTH
Enabling cable and DTH for internet and interactivity

Voice over internet protocol telephony
Benefits of DTH
Cost effective communication, information and entertainment to all
Small size terminal can provide up to 4000 channels and 2000 radio
channels through a click of button and thus bring worlds information ,
news entertainment to your home
DTH services bypasses mediators and thus content provider comes with
customer directly .
DTH services are transparent providing digital quality video , audio,
radio, and IP to all at equal prices and other benefits with reliabilty

Direct to home connects urban , rural and remote areas of the country
and provide desire information, communication, information, education
and entertainment at the click of button.
Thank you