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Noida 201 303

Study Centre : NOIDA

Enroll No. : 17070105327

Date :

Course – MBA (EFT) IV Semester

ASSIGNMENT INSTRUCTION

(a) Total weightage given to these assignments is 30%.

(b) All assignments are to be completed in your own hand writing.

(c) All questions are required to be attempted.

(d) Three assignments i.e A, B & C are to be answered. Assignments A will

carry Five subjective questions (10 marks). Assignment B will carry

three subjective questions with a (10 marks) and Assignment C will

carry Forty objective type questions (10 marks)

(e) All the three assignments are to be completed by due dates (specified from

time to time) and mailed / given by hand for evaluation at the ASODL office

Noida / your Study Centre.

(f) The evaluated assignments can be collected from your study center / ASODL

Office after Six week. Thereafter these will be destroyed at the end of each

semester.

Signature :

Date : ---------------------------------------------------

() Tick mark in front of the assignments submitted

ASSIGNMENT – ‘A’

you can divide these techniques. Explain the modus of operandi of

each and give names of a few technique under each category.

approach to the fundamental problems involved in the control of system by

making decisions, a sense achieve the best results considering all the

information that can be profitably used. Thus it is scientific method

employed for problem solving & decision making by the management.

& responsibilities probably the most effective approach to handling of

some types of decision problems. A significant benefit of attaining some

degree of profiency with quantitative methods is exhibited in the way

problems are formulated. A problem has to well defined before it can be

formulated in a well structure framework for solution.

1) Business statistics

2) Operative Research

BUSINESS STATISTICS

Statistical data & statistical method are of immense helping the proper

understanding of the economic problem & in the formulations of economic

policies as well as evaluating of their effect for example in order to check

the overgrowing population, if emphasis has been placed on family

planning methods one can ascertain statistically the efficiency of such

methods in attaining the desired goals.

OPERATION RESEARCH

involving the operation of system. So as to provide these in control of

operation & optimum solution to the problem.

The modus of operandi of each are:-

1. formulate the problem

2. analyse the data & collection of data

3. analyse the data

a. central tendency

i) mean

ii) median

iii) mode

b. Dispersion

i) Standard deviation

ii) Mean deviation

iii) Skewness

Testing

Interpret the result

Complement the result

1

Q. 2 Show for the following function f(x) = x + has its minimum value

x

greater than its max. value.

1

Ans. f(x) = x +

x

Let y = f(x)

1

y=x+

x

Differentiating on both sides w.r.t. x

dy 1

= 1− 2 (1)

dx x

dy

For Maximum & minimum =0

dx

1

Q 1− 2 = 0

x

x2 = 1

x =+1

d2y

now find

dx 2

Diff. (1) with respect to x on both sides.

d2y 2

=

dx 2 x3

for maximum

d2y

<0

dx 2

2

∴ 3 >0

x

This is satisfied when x = 1

Hence maximum value of x is

1

x+

x

1

= −1 + = −2

−1

And minimum value of x is

1

x+

x

1

= 1+ =1

−1

1

∴ for f(x) = x + minimum value is greater than minimum value.

x

(a) weighted A.M. of price relatives &

(b) weighted G.M. of price relatives

% of expenditure (x) Price (1999) (w) wx

Food 35 70 2450

Clothing 15 45 675

Fuel 10 20 200

Rent 20 80 1600

Misc. 30 40 800

Σ w = 255 Σ wx =

5725

∑ wx

For the year 1999 A.M. =

∑w

5725

= 22.45

225

weighted A.M. – year 2000

(x)% of expenditure Price (2000)w wx

Food 35 90 3150

Clothing 15 50 750

Fuel 10 25 250

Rent 20 70 1400

Misc. 20 30 600

Σ w = 265 Σ wx =

6150

6150

For the year 2000 A.M. =

265

= 23.20

x% of expenditure (x) Prices 1999 log x F log

Food 35 70 1.8451 64.

Clothing 15 45 1.6532 24.

Fuel 10 20 1.3010 13.0

Rent 20 80 1.9031 38.

Misc. 20 40 1.6021 32.09

G.M. = Antilog

( ∑1log x )

N

= Antilog

( 172.4905)

100

= 52.84

weighted G.M. : Year 2000

Food 35 90 1.954 68.39

Clothing 15 50 1.6990 251.41

Fuel 10 25 1.3979 13.97

Rent 20 70 1.845 36.90

Misc. 20 30 1.477 29.50

Σ x = 100 Σ f log x

=174.30

G.M. = Antilog

( ∑ f log x )

N

= Antilog

( 174.305) = 55.34

100

data:

Ans.

Wages No. of workers Mid values Fx

0 – 15 12 7.5 90

15 – 30 18 22.5 405

30 – 45 35 37.5 1312.5

45 – 60 42 52.5 2205

60 – 75 50 67.5 3375

75 – 90 45 82.5 3712.5

90 – 105 20 97.5 1950

105 – 120 08 112.5 900

∑ fx 13950

Mean = = = 60.65

N 230

230 − 107

Median = 60 + × 15 = 62.4

50

X F 76.5 Fu U2 Fu2

u = x−

12

7.5 12 −4 −48 16 192

22.5 18 −3 −54 09 162

37.5 35 −2 −70 4 140

52.5 42 1 −42 1 42

67.5 50 0 0 0 0

82.5 45 1 45 1 45

97.5 20 2 40 4 80

112.5 08 3 24 9 72

Σ Fu=−105 Σ fu2=733

2

∑ fx 2 ∑ fx

C= − × 15

n n

2

733 105

= 15 x −

230 230

= 15 × 1.72

= 25.9

Also calculate

(a) Coefficient of correlation

(b) Interquartile Range (Q3 – Q1)

(c) Skewness

A) Coefficient of correlation

X y xy x2 y2

15 12 180 225 144

30 30 900 900 900

45 65 2925 2025 4225

60 107 6420 3600 11449

75 157 11775 5625 24649

90 202 18180 8100 40804

105 222 23310 11025 49284

120 230 27600 14400 52900

Σ x=540 Σ y=1025 Σ xy=9120 Σ x2=45900 Σ y2=185399

Coefficient of correlation

∑ x⋅∑ y

R = Σ xy −

N

2 2

∑x ∑y

= ∑x −

2

∑ y −

2

N N

( 540 ) ×1025

= 91290 −

8

2 2

540 1025

= 45900 − 185399 −

8 8

= 0.978

B. Interquartile Range (Q3 – Q1)

N

A. Quartile = < + j − Pef × ilf

4

For Q1, j = 1

N

N = 230 , = 57.5

4

This falls in the range of 30−45.

30

< 30 + 57.5 − × 15

35

= 4178

for Q3, j = 3

3N

N = 230, = 172.5

4

Range 75−90, < = 75, Pef = 157, j – 45

15

Q3 = 75 + 1725 − 157 ×

45

= 80.166

Interquartile Range

= Q3 − Q1

= 80.166 − 4178

= 38.386

C) Skewness

median

Skewness = mean −

standard deviation

Mode = < + fm − f I (2fm −f 1 − f2 × h

f1 = 60, fm = 50, f1 = 42, f2 = 45, h = 15

60 + 50 − 42

Mode = × 15

(50 − 42) + (50 − 45)

= 69.23

69.23

Skewness = 60.65 −

25.9

= −0.33

Q.4A Which of brand of tyre would you use on the fleet of trucks & why?

Ans.

Class Freq. Mid 32.5 f ⋅d fd

Interval point d = x−

5

0-25 08 22.5 −2 −1 32

25-30 15 27.5 −1 −15 13

30-35 12 32.5 0 0 0

35-40 18 37.5 1 18 18

40-45 13 42.5 2 26 52

45-50 9 47.5 3 27 81

N=75 Σ fd=40 Σ fd2=118

∑ fd 2 ∑ fd

C= − 2× I

N N

2

198 40

= − ×5

75 75

= 7.67 (Brand A)

Brand B

Interval point d = x−

5

0-25 06 22.5 −2 −12 24

25-30 20 27.5 −1 −20 20

30-35 32 32.5 0 0 0

35-40 30 37.5 1 30 30

40-45 12 42.5 2 24 48

45-50 0 47.5 3 0 0

Σ fd=22 Σ fd2=122

2

∑ fd 2 ∑ fd

C= − ×I

N N

198 40

= − ×5

75 75

= 5.412 (Brand B)

Hence, Std. Deviation of Brand B isles than Brand A. It has a high degree

of uniformity of observation as well as homogeneity of a series. So Brand

B, of tyres would be a better choice.

1. The income of a person in a particular week is Rs.50 per day, find mean

deviation of his income for the week.

Ans. Income

Day 1 50

Day 2 50

Day 3 50

Day 4 50

Day 5 50

Day 6 50

Day 7 50

Σ I = 350

I

Mean deviation = ∑ = 350

N

median &variance of each observation is multiplied by 3.

Median = 35 × 3

= 105

New 6 = 1.6 × 3

= 4.8

Variance = (4.8) × 2

= 23.04

respectively. Find mode & std. deviation of 8 is added to each observation.

Mode = 55 + 8 = 63

Standard Deviation= 4.33 (no change)

4) The mean & std. deviation of a distribution are 15× 2 respectively. Find

std. distribution of each observation & multiplied by 5.

Mean = 15 × 5 = 75

Std. Deviation = 2 × 5 = 10

A. Row Matrix

Ans. A matrix having only one row is called a row matrix for example:

[4 1 2 7] is a 1 × 4 matrix or row matrix having 4 elements.

B. Column Matrix

Ans. A matrix having only one column is called a column matrix for example:

2

1 is a 3× 1 matrix having 3 elements

4

Ans. A matrix (square or rectangular has all its elements equal to 0 is called a

NULL

0 0 0

The Matrix 0 = is a 2× 3 null matrix

0 0 0

D. Square Matrix

Ans. When due number or rows of a matrix is equal to its member of columns, it

is said to be as a square matrix. For example:

A = a21 a22 a23 is a square matrix

a31 a32 a33

E. Diagonal Matrix

I = j for example, the matrix

4 0 0

D = 0 10 0 is a 3× 3 diagonal matrix.

0 0 5

The elements of a i j of matrix A, for I = j are called the diagonal elements

& the line along which they lie is called the principal diagonal.

F. Scalar Matrix

Ans. A diagonal matrix in which its diagonal elements are equal is called a

scalar matrix. For example:

2 0 0

T = 0 2 0 is a 3× 3 scalar matrix

0 0 0

Ans. A scalar matrix is which all its diagonal elements are unity is called on

Identity matrix.

1 0 0

The Matrix 1 = 0 1 0 is a 3× 3 Identity Matrix

0 0 1

a11 0 0

The Matrix A 2 = a21 a22 0 is a Lower Triangular

a31 a32 a33

J. Comparable Matrix

Ans. In this both A & B elements are of the same order. Both the elements of A

& B should be equal to each other in no.

1 3 3 7

A = 0 2 B = 8 5

4 8 4 2

Q.5 B Solve the following equations using Matrix method:

−2x + y + 32 = 9

x+y+x=6

x+y+2=2

−2 1 3

D = 1 1 1

1 −1 1

= −2(1 + 1) + 1 (1 − 1) + 3 (1 + 1)

= −4 − 6 = − 10

9 1 + 3

D1 = 6 1 1

2 −1 1

= 9(2) − (4) + 3(8)

= 18 − 4 + 24

= 10

−2 9 3

D2 = 1 6 1

1 2 1

= −8 − 12 = −20

−2 1 9

D3 = 1 1 6

1 −1 2

= 16 + 4 − 18 = −30

D −10

x = 1 = =1

D −10

D −20

y = 2 = =2

D −10

D −30

z = 3 = =3

D −10

ASSIGNMENT – B

Ans.

Juices Manu (x) Sonu (y) D = x −y D2

A 2 1 1 1

B 1 3 −2 4

C 4 2 2 4

D 3 4 −1 1

E 5 5 0 0

F 7 6 1 1

G 6 7 −1 1

Σ D2 = 12

Rank Correlation

∑ D2

Coefficient = 1 − 6

n(n 2 − 1)

Where D = R1 − R2 Ranks of x & y

6(12)

r = 1−

7(49 − 1)

6(12)

= 1− = 0.785

7(48)

Q. 2 Fit a straight line trend by the method of least square to the following

data:

Taking u = x − 1993

v = y − 255

Ans.

u v uv u2

−2 −1.5 30 4

−1 0 0 1

0 −30 0 0

1 5 5 1

2 25 50 4

0 −15 85 10

v = na + bu

−15 = 5(a) + 0

a = −3

Multiplying (1) both sides by u

v⋅ u = 4⋅ a + bu2

= 8.5 = 0 + b(10)

b = 8.5

Hence equation

u = a + bu

v = −3 + 8.5u

Substituting back the value of u & v

(y − 255) = −3 + 8.5 (x − 1993)

y − 255 = −3 + 8.5 × − 16940.4

[y = 8.5 × − 16688.5]

y = 8.5 (2000) − 16688.5

= 311.5

2(225) = 8.5x − 16688.5

year 2016

distributed with mean Rs.750 PM & standard deviation = Rs.50. Show

that of this group 95% had income exceeding Rs.668 & only 5% had

income exceeding Rs.832.

x−x

2=

6

Here x = 668, x = 750, 6 = 50

750

2 = 668 −

50

= −1.64

Area to the right of the ordinate at −1.64 is

(0.4495 + 0.5000) = 0.9495 = 95%.

The member of persons getting above Rs.832

750

= 832 −

50

= 1.64

Area to the right of ordinate at 1.64 is (0.5000) − 0.4495 = 0.0505

= 5.70 Approx.

Q.3 b) In a locality, out of 5000 people residing 1200 are above 30 years of

age & 3000 are females out of the 1200 who are above 30,200 are

females . Suppose after a person is chosen you are told that the person

is a female. What’s the possibility that she is above 30 years of age.

Ans. 5000 people → 3000 females above 30 years, 1200 people : 200 females

choose one : female

Probability that she’s above 30 eyars

(s) = 3000

(f) = 200

200

So, the required probability is

300

1

=

15

ASSIGNMENT – 2

CASE STUDY

01 112 127 133 141

04 116 128 134 141

05 117 129 138 145

10 125 130 139 146

11 125 131 140 150

Class Intervals Frequency

100 – 110 3

110 – 120 5

120 – 130 5

130 – 140 6

140 – 150 6

Σ f = 25

12

20

20

24

24

Class Interval Cum. Freq. Cum rel. freq.

More than 0 25 100

More than 110 22 88

More than 120 17 68

More than 130 12 48

More than 140 06 24

Q. 4 (a)

Class Interval Frequency

100 – 110 3

110 – 120 5

120 – 130 5

130 – 140 6

140 – 150 6

A) HISTOGRAM

6-

5-

4-

3-

2-

1-

0

100 110 120 130 140 150

Frequency Polygon

6-

5-

4-

3-

2-

1-

0 100 110 120 130 140 150

Assignment – 3

True / False

2. If the data is written down as collected it is called

a. Ordered Data

b. Raw Data

c. An Array

variable True / False

a. Only whole number values b. An infinite number of values

a. Continuous variable b. Discrete variable

a. Continuous variable b. Discrete variable

Variable X, then A is called

a. Independent Variable b. Dependent Variable

O if X = 0

[X] = X if X > 0

−X if X < 0 True / False

Then Marginal Function MR = 50 − Q True / False

10. If the Total cost function TC = 500+300 Q−5Q2 Then Marginal Cost Function

MC = 500 − 10Q True / False

First order Function dy/dx=0 Second Order Function d2y/dx2>0 True / False

First order Function dy/dx=0 Second Order Function d2y/dx2<0 True / False

d/dx (u v) = u d/dx (v) + v d/dx True / False

14. Derivative of loge u

d/dx(loge u) = 1/u loge du/dx True / False

True / False

True /False

17. [4 1 2 7] is a

a. 4 × 1 matrix b. 1 × 4matrix

18. if A = [2 3 4] A2 = [21 6]

[1 4 5] [3 4 7]

[6 7 8] [4 5 8]

2

Then A is called the TRANSPOSE OF A True / False

19. The INVERSE of the INVERSE MATRIX is the original matrix. True / False

20. Measure of Central Tendency is a data set refers to the extent to which the

observations are scattered. True / False

21. The value of all observations in the data set is taken into account when we

calculate its mean. True / False

22. If the curve of a certain distribution tails off towards the right end of the

measuring scale on the horizontal axis the distribution is said to be

positively skewed. True / False

23. Extreme values in a data having a strong effect upon the Mode

True / False

24. If the value of mean = 35.4 and value of media = 35 the shape of the curve

skewed is “right”. True / False

a. Exponential Smoothing

b. Moving Average

c. Weighted Average

a. Median b. Mode c. Mean

27. The difference between the largest and the smallest observation is called

a. Geometric Mean b. The Range c. The Mode

28. The middle most value in a series of observations arranged in an array is

called

a. Mode of the series b. Median of the series

29. When the value of two variables move in the same direction, the correlation

is said to be positive. True / False

a. 0 to 1 b. −1 to 1

Cov(X,Y)

“r” = σxσy

a. True b. False

a. True b. False

a. Specified Intervals b. Not necessary at equal intervals

35. Quartiles are those which divide the total data into

a. Four Equal Parts b. Ten Equal Parts c. Hundred equal parts

True / False

38. For index numbers, base year should be a year of normalcy True / False

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