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ABB’s ACS 600 DTC Drive

ABB’s DTC industrial drives are designed for industrial applications, and especially for applications in
process industries such as the pulp & paper, metals, mining, cement, power, chemical, and oil & gas
industries. These industrial drives are highly flexible AC drives that can be configured to meet the
precise needs of these applications. These drives cover a wide range of power and voltages,
including voltages up to 690 V. These industrial drives come with a wide range of inbuilt options. A
key feature of these drives is programmability, which makes adaptation to different applications easy.
Drive modules
The heart of the drive is DTC, Direct Torque Control, that provides high performance and significant
benefits: e.g. accurate static and dynamic speed and torque control, high starting torque and long
motor cables. Inbuilt drive options make the installation work fast and easy. One of the most
significant design criteria of these industrial drives has been the long lifetime. Wearing parts such as
fans and capacitors have been selected accordingly. Extensive protection features result in excellent
reliability in the demanding Industrial market.

_________________________ _________________________
Prepared by Approved by
Rajmohan Jha Mr. S. Bhowmik
Manager, EDR Group Head - EEI

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ABB’s ACS 600 DTC Drive

Contents:

Sl. No. Topic Page #

1. What is Drive, Application & Advantage 3-5

2. Comparison of different speed control techniques 5

3. What is DTC, Principle & Block Diagram 5-7

4. Power circuit & electronic PCB of ACS600 8-9

5. Description & operation of CDP 10-15

6. List of Tasks & relevant drive parameters 16

7. Motor ID run 17

8. Faults, Cause, Remedies, Maintenance 17-20

9. Questions for self evaluation, Book References 21

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ABB’s ACS 600 DTC Drive

1. What is the main function of a Drive?


A motor drive controls
a) The speed,
b) Torque,
c) Direction
d) Resulting horsepower of a motor.
.

2.Application of Drive in steel Industry


• Drives for all rolling mills, including
• Foil mills
• Skin-pass mills
• Two-stand mills
• Tandem mills (TCM)
• Rod and bar mills
• Wire rod mills
• Section mills
• Tube mills
• Conventional hot strip mills
• Compact mills based on thin slab
• All types of Blower & fan Applications including

1. Sinter Plant
2. Blast Furnace Blowers
3. ID Fan in Power plant
4. FD Fan in Power Plant
5. Boiler Feed Pump in Power Plant

3.Advantage of using Drive


• Optimized production quality
• Optimized production output
• Minimized Scrap
• Increased process reliability
• Minimized wear and tear of equipment
• Energy saving

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ABB’s ACS 600 DTC Drive

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ABB’s ACS 600 DTC Drive

4.Advantage of using AC Drive


• They use conventional low cost 3 phase AC SQIM motor for most application
• These motors require virtually no maintenance.
• AC motors are smaller, lighter, more commonly available.
• AC motors are better suited for high speed (Over 2500 RPM).
• AC motors can operate in adverse atmospheric & ambient conditions
• Modern AC drives have high degree of accuracy & dynamic response.

Direct Torque control =Control of stator flux +Control of Torque


• Zero voltage vector to maintain present value of stator flux
• Other voltage vectors to alter flux to desired direction

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ABB’s ACS 600 DTC Drive

Speed reference and the speed feedback from motor model are compared. Error is fed to speed controller
which generates torque reference. Flux reference is generated from flux reference controller.
Torque reference and flux reference are compared with their actual values which is calculated by adaptive
motor model. Based on the result of these torque comparator and flux comparator optimum pulse selector
decides the voltage vector required to be produced
Accordingly group of switches inside the inverter are made on & output of inverter is fed to the motor to get
the desired speed as demanded by the process.

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ABB’s ACS 600 DTC Drive

5. Power circuit of ACS600 DTC Drive

5.1 R2-R4 frame size

Power circuit comprises of:-


• Balanced three phase supply
• AC choke to deal with line transients
• Input Bridge either diode(in R4 frame size) or Thyristor /Diode(inR5…. frame size)
to rectify AC to DC
• Charging Contactor for capacitor precharging (in R4……frame size)
• Charging resistance to limit capacitor charging current
• Capacitor Bank for filtering ripples in dc
• Discharging Resistor for capacitor discharging
• Power Plates containing IGBT blocks
• Hall effect sensors to measure current
• Fan for cooling the ACS600 module
• EMC filters for Electromagnetic compatibility
Electronic Boards:-
• NAMC (Application and motor control) contains the memory, Digital signal
processor, circuits for motor status calculation and communication inside the unit.
• NIOC (Input/output control) contains circuit responsible for communication with
standard I/O terminals

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ABB’s ACS 600 DTC Drive

R5-R9 Frame size

Electronic boards………(contd)
• NINT (Main circuit interface) is responsible for IGBT control, protection and
making measurements for the motor status calculation.
• NGDR (Gate driver) is used to provide driving signal to gate-emitter of IGBT.
• NPOW (Power supply)board provides power for the control circuit.
• NINP (Input bridge control)board is used in frame R5….. For controlling the
Thyristor - diode rectifier bridge.

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ABB’s ACS 600 DTC Drive

Operation & Parameterization through control panel

Description of CDP:-
The LCD type display has 4 lines of 20 characters.
The language is selected at start-up (parameter 99.01).
The control panel has four operation modes:
- Actual Signal Display Mode (ACT key)
- Parameter Mode (PAR key)
- Function Mode (FUNC key)
- Drive Selection Mode (DRIVE key)
The use of single arrow keys, double arrow keys and
ENTER depend on the operation mode of the panel.
The drive control keys are:

1 Start
2 Stop
3 Activate reference setting
4 Forward direction of rotation
5 Reverse direction of rotation
6 Fault reset
7 Change between Local / Remote (external)
control

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How to Display faults:-

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ABB’s ACS 600 DTC Drive
Motor Identification Run:-
• The performance of Direct Torque Control is based on an accurate motor model.

• This is determined during the motor start-up.

• A motor Identification Magnetization is automatically done the first time the start
command is given.

• During this first start-up, the motor is magnetized at zero speed for several
seconds to allow the motor model to be created.

• This identification method is suitable for most applications.

• In demanding applications a separate Identification Run can be performed.

• Parameter for ID Run 99.10


Types of ID Run:-
• Standard :- Performed when no load is connected-Results in most accurate motor
model.

• Reduced:-Can be performed with load also.

Table- The ACS 600 Fault messages

F AULT CAUSE REME DY


ACS 600 TEMP The ACS 600 internal Check ambient conditions
temperature is excessive. Check air flow and fan
The trip level of inverter operation.
module temperature is Check heatsink fins for dust
125 0 C pick-up
Check motor power against
unit power.
OVERCURRENT Output current is Check motor load.
excessive. Check acceleration time.
Check the the motor and
motor cable.
Check there are no power
factor correction capacitors or
surge absorbers in the motor
cable.

SHORT CIRCUIT Output current is Check the motor and motor


excessive. cable.
Check there the no power
factor correction capacitors of
surge absorbers in the motor
cable.
LINK OR HW C The fibre optic link to the Check the fibre optic cable
power plate is faulty or connected to the power
the change rate of the plates.
output current has Check thee are no power
exceeded the hardware factor correction capacitors or
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ABB’s ACS 600 DTC Drive
overcurrent limit. surge absorbers in the motor
cable.
DC OVERVOLT Intermediate circuit DC Check mains for static or
voltage is excessive. transient overvoltages.
Check braking chopper and
Resistor (if used).
Check deceleration time.
Use Coasting To Stop
function (if applicable).
Retrofit the frequency
converter with a Braking
Chopper and Braking
Resistor.
SUPPLY PHASE Intermediate circuit DC Check mains supply and
voltage is oscillating. This fuses
can be caused by a
missing mains phase, a
blown fuse or a rectifier
bridge internal fault.
OVERFREQ Motor is turning faster Check the minimum/maximum
than the highest allowed speed settings.
speed. This can be Check the adequacy of motor
caused by an incorrectly braking torque.
set minimum/maximum Check the applicability of
speed, insufficient torque control.
braking torque or Check the need for a Braking
changes in the load when Chopper and Braking
using torque reference. Resistor.
EARTH FAULT The load on the incoming Check motor.
(Programmable mains system is out of Check motor cable.
Fault Function balance. This can be Check there are no power
30.17) caused by a fault in factor correction capacitors or
motor, motor cable or an surge absorbers in the motor
internal malfunction. cable.
Al<MIN FUNC An analogue control Check for proper analogue
(programmable signal is below minimum control signal levels.
Fault Function allowed value. This can Check the control wiring.
30.1) be caused by incurred Check A1 < (MIN FUNC Fault
signal level or a failure in Function parameters .
the control wiring.
PANEL LOSS A control Panel selected Check Control Panel
(Programmable as active control location connector.
Fault Function for the ACS 600 has Replace Control Panel in the
30.2) ceased communicating. mounting platform.
Check PANEL LOSS Fault
Function parameters.
EXTERNAL FLT There is fault in one of Check external devices for
(Programmable the external devices. faults.
Fault Function (This information is Check EXT FAULT Fault
30.3) configured through one of Function parameters.
the programmable digital
inputs).
MOTOR TEMP Motor temperature is too Check motor ratings and load
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ABB’s ACS 600 DTC Drive
(programmable high (or appears to be too Check start-up data.
Fault Function high). This can be caused Check MOTOR TEMP Fault
30.4..30.9) by excessive load, Function parameters.
insufficient motor power,
inadequate cooling or
incorrect start-up data.
THERMISTOR Motor thermal protection Check motor ratings and load.
(programmable mode selected as Check start-up data.
Fault Function THERMISTOR and the Check thermistor connects for
30.4 … 30.5) temperature is excessive. digital input D16.
Check thermistor cabling.
I/O COMM There is an internal fault Check for loose connectors
on the I/O Control board between NIOC board and the
(NIOC) in the ACS 600 Application and Motor Control
board (NAMC).
AMBIENT TEMP I/O Control board Check air flow and fan
temperature is lower than operation.
5…0 *C or exceeds
+73….83 *C
USER MACRO There is no User Create the User Macro again.
Macrosaved or the file is
detective
MOTOR STALL Motor is operating in the Check motor load and the
(Programmable stall region. This can be ACS 600 ratings.
Fault Function caused by excessive load Check MOTOR STALL Fault
30.10…. 30.12 or insufficient motor Function parameters
power.
UNDERLOAD Motor load is too low. Check for a problem in the
(programmable This can be caused by a driven equipment.
Fault Function release mechanism in the Check UNDERLOAD Fault
30.13 … 30.15) driven equipment. Function parameters
MOTOR PHASE One of the motor phases Check motor and motor cable.
LOSS is lost. This can be Check thermal relay (if used).
(programmable caused by a fault in the Check MOTOR PHASE Fault
Fault Function motor, the motor cable, a Function parameters.
30.15) thermal relay (if used) or Passivate this protection.
an internal fault.
NO There is no Bus Check from the Drive
COMMUNCATION Administrator connected Selection Mode if there is a
to the link Bus Administrator connected
if not,
Check the cabling.

The selected drive is not


present on the link. The
link does not work
because of hardware
malfunction or problem in
cabling.

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ABB’s ACS 600 DTC Drive
Maintenance

The ACS 600 requires minimum maintenance. It is recommended that the unit
be kept under more close monitoring after the start-up. There is only need for
the routine check-up once operations have stabilized.

The following safety instruction should be followed in the maintenance work.

WARNING! The maintenance work should only be undertaken by a qualified


electrician. No measurements, parts replacements or other service
procedures not described in this manual should be attempted.

Disconnect mains power if fault tracing involves work inside the frame, the
motor or the motor cable. Wait 5 minutes for the intermediate circuit
capacitors to discharge. The ACS 600 can contain dangerous voltage from
external control circuits. Exercise appropriate care when working on the unit.
Neglecting these instructions can cause physical injury and death.

WARNING! The printed circuit boards contain integrated circuit that are
extremely sensitive to electrostatic discharge. Exercise appropriate care
when, working on the unit to avoid permanent damage to the circuits.

Heatsink

The heatsink fins pick up dust from the cooling air. The rate of pick-up
depends on the frequency converter usage and the amount and type of
contamination in the ambient air. The heatsink needs regular cleaning to
ensure heat dissipation. The ACS 600 can run into over temperature
Warnings and Fault if the heatsink is not cleaned regularly.

In normal environment, the heatsink should be checked and cleaned


annually, Frequency converters operating in extreme conditions will need to
be cleaned more often. The best cleaning frequency must be tried out
experimentally.

The dust should be removed gently with a soft brush if the cleaning is carried
out in the same room where the unit is normally operated Compressed air
should not be used for cleaning unless the installation can be taken apart and
the cleaning is carried out in another room (or outdoors), Fan rotation should

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ABB’s ACS 600 DTC Drive
be prevented (in order to prevent bearing wear) when using compressed air
for heatsink cleaning.

Fan

The cooling fan minimum lifespan is calculated at about 60 000 hours, but in
an average installation the fan is likely to operate considerably longer. The
actual lifespan depends on the frequency converter usage and ambient
temperature.

The fan is completely sealed and its lifespan cannot be prolonged with
cleaning or lubrication. Fan rotation must be prevented when compressed air
is used for cleaning heatsink fins.

Fan failure can be predicted by the increasing noise from fan bearings and
the gradual rise in the heatsink temperature in spite of heatsink cleaning. If
the frequency converter is operated in a critical part of a process, fan
replacement is recommended once these symptoms start appearing.

Fan failure will be self-evident due to the overtemperature Warnings and


Fault. After the heatsink has cooled it is possible to reset the Warning/Fault
and briefly operate the motor in a critical application.

A replacement fan is available from ABB. Do not attempt operation with other
than ABB specified spare spare parts. The fan can be withdrawn by removing
the bottom of the frame.

Capacitors

The ACS 600 intermediate circuit employs several electrolytic capacitors. The
minimum lifespan of these capacitors in calculated at about 100 000 hours,
but in an average installation the capacitors are likely to operate
considerably longer. The actual lifespan depends on the frequency converter
loading and the ambient temperature.

Capacitor failure is usually followed by a mains fuse failure or a Fault trip,


Contact ABB if capacitor failure is suspected. Replacements are available
from ABB. Do not attempt operation with other than ABB specified spare
parts.

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ABB’s ACS 600 DTC Drive
Questions for self evaluation

1. What is drive? W hat does it do?

2. What is the advantage of using AC Drive?

3. What are the different power circuit components of ACS 600 DTC
Drive?

4. What are the functions of different electronic PCB in ACS 600 Drive?

5. How to start, reference, change direction of the drive from CDP?

6. How to see the stored faults in CDP?

7. How to change actual signal display through CDP?

8. How to select a parameter and change the value?

9. What is the purpose of ID run?

10. How to do ID run?

11. What is the significance of different fault messages?

12. How and what to maintain in ACS 600 DTC Drive?

Book References

1. Firmware Manual ABB’s ACS 600 DTC Drive

2. Sensorless Vector and Direct Torque Control: P. VAS (Oxford Science


Publications, 1998

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