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Anecdote Text

Definition and Social Function of Anecdote:

Anecdote is a text that retells funny and unusual incidents in fact or imagination. Its
purpose is to entertain the readers.

Generic Structure of Anecdote:

1. Abstract
2. Orientation
3. Crisis
4. Incident

Language Feature of Anecdote:

1. Using exclamation words; it's awful!, it's wonderful!, etc
2. Using imperative; listen to this
3. Using rhetoric question; do you know what?
4. Using action verb; go, write, etc
5. Using conjunction of time; then, afterward
6. Using simple past tense

Example of Anecdote text:

Blessing behind Tragedy

There was a black family in Scotland years ago. They were Clark family with
nine children. They had a dream to go to America. The family worked and saved.
They were making plan to travel with their children to America. It had taken several
years but finally they had saved enough money. They had gotten passport. They had
booked seats for the whole family member in a new liner to America.
The entire family was full of anticipation and excitement with their new life in
America. However few days before their departure, the youngest son was bitten by a
dog. The doctor sewed up the boy. Because of the possibility of getting rabies, there
were being quarantined for long days. They were in quarantine when the departure

time came. The family dreams were dashed. They could not make the trip to America
as they had planned.
The father was full of disappointed and anger. He stomped the dock to watch
the ship leaved without him and his family. He shed tears of disappointment. He
cursed both his son and God for the misfortune.
Five days latter, the tragic news spread throughout Scotland. The ship, the
mighty Titanic, had shank. It took hundreds of passenger and crew with it. Titanic
which had been called the unsinkable ship had sunk. It was unbelievable but it was.
The Clak family should have been on that ship, but because of the bitten son
by a dog, they were left behind. When the father heard the news, he hugged the son
and thanked him for saving the family. He thanked God for saving their lives. It was a
blessing behind a tragedy. (Adapted from Look Ahead 2)

Generic Structure Analysis:

Abstract : Everybody has a dream. You have and so do I. When the dream will
come true, there is something wrong last minute before it. What will
we feel? What will we do?
Orientation : the Clak family lived in Scotland. They had dream to travel to
America. They prepared well for their plan
Crisis : few days before they went to America, his youngest son was bitten by
a dog. It made they were being quarantined. They had to forget their
Incident : the family was full of disappointment and anger. The father was angry
with his son and God. The family failed to travel to America and the
father could not accept it.
Coda : the father thank to his son when he hear the ship sank. He thank to God
because of saving the family from sinking. He thought leaving behind
the ship was not a tragedy but a blessing.

Analytical Exposition Text

Definition of Analytical Exposition:

Exposition is a text that elaborates the writer‘s idea about the phenomenon
surrounding. Its social function is to persuade the reader that the idea is important

Generic Structure of Analytical Exposition:

1. Thesis : Introducing the topic and indicating the writer’s position
2. Arguments : Explaining the arguments to support the writer’s
3. Reiteration : Restating the writer’s position

Dominant Language Features:

1. Using modals
2. Using action verbs
3. Using thinking verbs
4. Using adverbs
5. Using adjective
6. Using technical terms
7. Using general and abstract noun
8. Using connectives/transition

Example of Analytical Exposition:

How is a Kite Flying?

A kite is an object which is made from a light material stretched over a frame.
Due to its light material a kite will lift off the ground and fly when it is tilted into the
A kite is uses wind to make it fly because it is heavier than air. When wind
travels over the surface of the kite, it is split into two streams of air. One stream of the
air goes over the kite while the second stream goes under the kite.

The upper stream creates an area of low pressure above the kite. The lower
stream hits the kite at a shallow angle and creates an area of high pressure.
The high pressure area has a pushing effect while the low pressure area has a
pulling effect. The combination of push and pull can creates enough force to lift the
kite into the air.
Kites have been known for thousand of years. They are used for military or
scientific purposes. Todays kites are much used for leisure and competition.

From the above example of Explanation text, we can see that the text has the
following generic structure:
General Statement : the introduction of the topic on with a brief definition on
Sequenced Explanation : this is the main element of explanation text. It explain the
important points of the kite. The explanation of how kites
fly is given in order.

Hortatory Exposition Text

to persuade the readers that something should or should not be the case or be done

Generic Structure:
1. Thesis
2. Arguments
3. Recommendation

Dominant Language features:
1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Using modals
3. Using action verbs
4. Using thinking verbs
5. Using adverbs
6. Using adjective
7. Using technical terms
8. Using general and abstract noun
9. Using connectives/transition

Basic difference between analytical and hortatory exposition:

Analytical is the answer of "How is/will" while hortatory is the answer of "How
should". Analytical exposition will be best to describe "How will student do for his
examination? The point is the important thing to do. But for the question" How should
student do for his exam?" will be good to be answered with hortatory. It is to convince
that the thing should be done

Example of Hortatory Exposition:

Should not Bring Mobile Phone to School

Recently most people own mobile phone. Why does mobile phone user increase
dramatically in recent years? First, the feature and functions has increased. Mobile
phone is not used just for calling, but sending text, taking pictures, recording videos,
accessing internet, playing games and much more. Second, mobile phone has also
become a lot cheaper. Now this communication device does not only fill the pocket of
adult but also teenager and student. Even a lot phones are intentionally designed to
teenaged market. However should they be allowed to bring them to school?
Many schools do not allow students to bring cell phones to school. It is very
reasonable because bringing phone to school potentially disrupts the learning process.
Most students use cell phones irresponsibly. They use cell phones to talk to their
friend during class time. They also use the calculator and camera features in the class

as well. Those potentially lead less concentration in the time of learning and teaching
Students go to school to learn and behave fair way. Mobile phones provide a
large temptation to cheat in tests. They can communicate to anyone and almost
anywhere in the world. Because of the small size of the cell phone, students can send
a text quietly and discreetly. The text can go unnoticed anywhere to get help on
answering tests, homework, and other class assignment. Learning in school is to
behave fair not cheating.
Therefore, schools should ban students from bringing their cell phones.
However it should be done fairly. In case of an emergency some student need a call
for help, providing easy access to phone is better.

Explanation Text

General Characteristics of Explanation Text

1. The purpose of the text:
Explaining the processes that occur in the formation or the activities associated
with natural phenomena, the scientific world, socio-cultural, or other purpose
2. Structure of Text:
• Overview (A general statement);
• Explanation process (A sequenced explanation of why or how
something occurs);
• Closing.
3. Language Feature :
Use of:
• General and abstract nouns, such as word chopping,
• Action verbs;
• Simple present tense;
• Passive voice;

• Conjunctions of time and cause;
• Noun phrase, such as the large cloud;
• Abstract nouns, such as the temperature;
• Adverbial phrases;
• Complex sentences;
• Technical language;
• Passive.

Example of Explanation Text:


What is photosynthesis? Photosynthesis is a food-making process that occurs

in green plants. It is the chief function of leaves. The word photosynthesis means
putting together with light. Green plants use energy from light to combine carbon
dioxide and water to make sugar and other chemical compounds.
How is the light used in photosynthesis?
The light used in photosynthesis is absorbed by a green pigment called
chlorophyll. Each food-making cell in a plant leaf contains chlorophyll in small
bodies called chloroplasts. In chloroplast, light energy causes water drawn form the
soil to split into hydrogen and oxygen.
What are the steps of photosynthesis process? Let me tell you the process of
photosynthesis, in a series of complicated steps, the hydrogen combines with carbon
dioxide from the air, forming a simple sugar. Oxygen from the water molecules is
given off in the process. From sugar together with nitrogen, sulphur, and phosporus
from the soil-green plants can make starch, fat, protein, vitamins, and other complex
compounds essential for life. Photosynthesis provides the chemical energy that is
needed to produced these compounds.

Descriptive Text

Descriptive is to describe a particular person, place or thing. It means you describe

their colors, shapes, sizes, weight, height, width, density, contents, and so on. In
writing the text, you use the Simple Present Tense.

The structure of the text is:

• Identification : identifies phenomenon to be described.

• Description : describing the phenomenon in parts, qualities, or/and

The Definition and Purpose of Descriptive Text:

Descriptive text is a text which say what a person or a thing is like. Its purpose is to
describe and reveal a particular person, place, or thing.

The Language Feature of Descriptive Text:

• The use of adjectives and compound adjectives.
e.g. :
- a five hundred seated football stadium.
- a beautiful ancient Roman opera house.
• The use of Linking Verbs/ relating verbs.
e.g. :
- The temple is so magnificent.
- The temple consists of five terraces.
• The use of Simple Present Tense
e.g. :
- The museum houses hundreds of Greek Statues.
- The hotel provides 450 rooms and a large swimming pool.
• The use of degree of comparison
e.g. :
- The weather in Jakarta is hotter than Bandung.
- Bogor has the same weather as Ungaran.

Example of Descriptive Text:
1. Describe Place

Jakarta City

Jakarta is the capital city of Indonesia. It is centrally located within the

country on the northwest coast of Java Island at the mouth of the Ciliwung river.
Jakarta dominates Indonesian’s administrative, economy, cultural activities, an is
a major commercial and transportation hub within Asia-with a population of about
9 million, Jakarta has more people than any other cities in Indonesia.
The climate is hot and humid year-round. Rainfall occurs throughout the
year, although it is the heaviest from November to May. To average annual
precipitation in Jakarta is 1, 790 mm. The city lies on a flat, low plain and is prone
to flooding during periods of heavy rainfall.
Kota is city’s oldest commercial area. It is located south of the old Sunda
Kelapa harbour. Glodok, the south of Kota is a banking, retail and residential
neighborhood with a large Chinese population. Merdeka Square with Monas (The
National Monument) dominates the city’s central district. Surrounding the square
are Istana Merdeka, the presidential palace, the National Museum, and the Istiqlal

2. Describe Person


Dian, a three-year old girl, has been reported missing. She has short curly
hair and dimples when she smiles. She was last seen wearing a white shirt and red
If youb see a child who looks like the little girl in the picture, please call the
nearest police Station or Mr. Jeckly at 9333-3333

3. Describe Thing

San Antonio—It’s Beyond Conventional!

The world is adorned with great cities; cities that entice, cities that inspire,
cities that tell the tales of its patrons. We invite you to a city unlike any other—
San Antonio—a land of epic battles, flowing rivers and a flourishing culture.
From the stones of the Alamo to the meandering paths of the River Walk,
San Antonio takes you on a journey through a land as grand as its reputation.
Walk the lines drawn for independence when you visit the Alamo—one of five
Spanish colonial missions. Stroll the cobblestone sidewalks of the River Walk to
uncover an outdoor theatre with flamenco dancers and mariachis, nationally
acclaimed museums, luxury riverside hotels and sidewalk cafes that offer
everything from authentic Tex-Mex to worldly cuisines.

Be sure to explore the rolling terrain of San Antonio’s Hill Country, a lush
oasis offering resorts complete with top-notch golf courses, spas and waterparks.
Just down the road you’ll find SeaWorld San Antonio, the world's largest marine
life adventure park and family entertainment showplace; and Six Flags Fiesta
Texas with thrilling rides and shows fun for every age.
Here, diversity is a way of life; from the colors of the culture to a broad
range of attractions. So come, find for yourself that San Antonio is more than a
convention destination.

Narrative Text

Purpose of Narrative Text:

The basic purpose of narrative is to entertain, to gain and hold a readers' interest.
However narratives can also be written to teach or inform, to change attitudes/ social
opinions e.g: soap operas and television dramas that are used to raise topical issues.
Narratives sequence people/ characters in time and place but differ from recounts in
that through the sequencing, the stories set up one or more problems, which must
eventually find a way to be resolved.

Types of Narrative:
There are many types of narrative. They can be imaginary, factual or a combination of
both. They may include fairy stories, mysteries, science fiction, romances, horror
stories, adventure stories, fables, myths and legends, historical narratives, ballads,
slice of life, personal experience.

• Characters with defined personalities/identities.
• Dialogue often included - tense may change to the present or
the future.
• Descriptive language to create images in the reader's mind and
enhance the story.

In a Traditional Narrative the focus of the text is on a series of actions:
Orientation : (introduction) in which the characters, setting and time of the story are
established. Usually answers who? when? where? eg. Mr Wolf went
out hunting in the forest one dark gloomy night.
Complication or problem : The complication usually involves the main character(s)
(often mirroring the complications in real life).
Resolution : There needs to be a resolution of the complication. The complication
may be resolved for better or worse/happily or unhappily. Sometimes
there are a number of complications that have to be resolved. These
add and sustain interest and suspense for the reader.

Plan for writing of narratives, model, focusing on:

• Plot : What is going to happen?
• Setting : Where will the story take place? When will the story take
• Characterization : Who are the main characters? What do they look like?
• Structure : How will the story begin? What will be the problem? How is
the problem going to be resolved?

• Theme : What is the theme / message the writer is attempting to

• Action verbs: Action verbs provide interest to the writing. For
example, instead of The old woman was in his way try The old woman barred his
path. Instead of She laughed try She cackled.
• Written in the first person (I, we) or the third person (he, she,
• Usually past tense.
• Connectives, linking words to do with time.
• Specific nouns: Strong nouns have more specific meanings, eg.
oak as opposed to tree.
• Active nouns: Make nouns actually do something, eg. It was
raining could become Rain splashed down or There was a large cabinet in the
lounge could become A large cabinet seemed to fill the lounge.
• Careful use of adjectives and adverbs: Writing needs judicious
use of adjectives and adverbs to bring it alive, qualify the action and provide
description and information for the reader.
• Use of the senses: Where appropriate, the senses can be used to
describe and develop the experiences, setting and character:
 What does it smell like?
 What can be heard?
 What can be seen - details?
 What does it taste like?
 What does it feel like?
• Imagery
 Simile: A direct comparison, using like or as or as though, eg.
The sea looked as rumpled as a blue quilted dressing gown. Or The wind
wrapped me up like a cloak.
 Metaphor: An indirect or hidden comparison, eg. She has a
heart of stone or He is a stubborn mule or The man barked out the instructions.

 Onomatopoeia: A suggestion of sound through words, eg.
crackle, splat, ooze, squish, boom, eg. The tyres whir on the road. The pitter-
patter of soft rain. The mud oozed and squished through my toes.
 Personification: Giving nonliving things (inanimate) living
characteristics, eg. The steel beam clenched its muscles. Clouds limped across
the sky. The pebbles on the path were grey with grief.
• Rhetorical Questions: Often the author asks the audience
questions, knowing of course there will be no direct answer. This is a way of
involving the reader in the story at the outset, eg. Have you ever built a tree hut?
• Variety in sentence beginnings. There are a several ways to do this
eg by using:
 Participles: "Jumping with joy I ran home to tell mum my good
 Adverbs: "Silently the cat crept toward the bird"
 Adjectives: "Brilliant sunlight shone through the window"
 Nouns: "Thunder claps filled the air"
 Adverbial Phrases: "Along the street walked the girl as if she
had not a care in the world."
 Conversations/Dialogue: these may be used as an opener. This
may be done through a series of short or one-word sentences or as one long
complex sentence.
• Show, Don't Tell: Students have heard the rule "show, don't tell" but this
principle is often difficult for some writers to master.
• Personal Voice: It may be described as writing which is honest and
convincing. The author is able to 'put the reader there'. The writer invests
something of him/her self in the writing. The writing makes an impact on the
reader. It reaches out and touches the reader. A connection is made.

Example of Narrative Text:

The Ducks and the Turtle

Two ducks who lived in a big lake had a friend who was a turtle. One year
there was a very little rain and the lake began to dry up. One of the ducks said to the
other, “Soon, there’ll be no water in this lake. Let’s go and look for lake.”
“Yes, answered the second duck, “But first let’s say good bye to our friend,
the turtle.”
When they told the turtle they were going to leave, he said, “I’ll die here
without any water and without any friends. Take me with you.”
“The ducks answered, “We can’t. We are going to fly, and you have no
“The turtle thought for a minute and then said, “please wait here.”
Then he went away and found a strong, straight stick. He brought it back to his
friends, put the middle of it in his mouth and said, “Now if each of you takes me one
end of the stick in his mouth, you can lift me up and carry me with you.”
“ Their is one danger,” said the ducks, “if you try to talk while we’re carrying
you through the air, you won’t be able to hold the stick, so you’ll fall down along way
and break your shell.”
“all right,” answered the turtle, “I promise not to talk while we’re in the air. So
the ducks took the stick and flew away, with the turtle between them. All went well
until they were flying over a town. Then some people saw them and shouted, “Look,
those ducks are carrying a cat!”The turtle got very angry, “A cat? I’m not …” he said,
but he did not get any further, because when he opened his mouth, the stick came out
of his mouth and the poor turtle fell to the ground.

News Item Text

To inform readers about events of the day which are considered newsworthy or

Dominant Generic Structure:

1. Newsworthy event(s)
2. Background event(s)
3. Sources

Dominant Language Features:

1. Short, telegraphic information about story captured in headline
2. Using action verbs
3. Using saying verbs
4. Using adverbs: time, place and manner

Example of News Item Text:

SBY, Boediono complete medical check-up

Erwida Maulia , The Jakarta Post , Jakarta | Mon, 05/18/2009 4:24 PM | National
Presidential candidate Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono and his running mate
Boediono completed their seven-hour medical check-up on Monday afternoon as part
of requirement to contest the July 8 presidential election.
The pair is thus the last candidate couple having their health screened at
RSPAD Gatot Subroto army hospital after Jusuf Kalla-Wiranto and Megawati
Soekarnoputri-Prabowo Subianto had theirs earlier on Sunday.
"I consider this as a quite heavy test. We undergo almost seven hours of
detailed and in-depth check-up, including on our mental health. We are now waiting
for the result and hope we can pass the test," Yudhoyono told reporters after
completing his medical check-up.
Indonesian Medical Doctors Association (IDI) chairman Fahmi Idris said the
medical check-up consisted of 10 tests -- one mental and nine physical health tests,
including neurology, eyes, heart and circulation system, digestive system, and
urinology tests.
He said the doctors team conducting the tests consisted of 43 doctors; 29 from
the IDI and 14 from the army hospital.

General Elections Commission (KPU) commissioner Syamsul Bahri said that
the KPU was expecting to receive the results of the test on Tuesday.
In the meantime on Monday evening the commision plans to hold a plenary
session to review the completion of requirements of all the presidential and vice
presidential candidates.

Recount Text

Social Function:
To retell events for the purpose of informing or entertaining.

Generic Structure:
• Orientation : provides the setting and introduces participants.
• Events : tell what happened, in what sequence.
• Re-orientation : optional-closure of events.

Significant Lexicogrammatical Features:

• Focus on specific participants.
• Use of material processes.
• Circumstances of time and place.
• Focus on temporal sequence.

Example of Recount Text:

The Day When Everything Went

I am so glad that today is over. So many things have gone wrong!

For some reason I did not sleep a wink last night. I was very tired when Mum
called me this morning. I fell asleep again until Mum called me again. That snooze
made me late.

I did not have time for breakfast. I was starving as I ran to catch the school bus. I
just missed it. Mum had to drive me to school. She was late for an important meeting
and she was furious with me. She scolded me for being late.
I got to school on time. The teacher asked us to hand in our essays. My essays
was not in my bag. I had forgotten to put it in my bag the night before. I usually check
my bag in the morning. I did not do this because I was late. I had to write an extra
essay as a punishment.
After the PE lesson I did not tie my shoelace properly. I tripped over it and fell
down the stairs. I hurt my knee and had to have a bandage on it.What a terrible day! I
hope that I have a much better one tomorrow.

Report Text

Definition of Report Text:

Report is a text which presents information about something, as it is. It is as a result of
systematic observation and analysis

Generic Structure of Report Text:

1. General classification: Stating classification of general aspect of thing; animal,
public place, plant, etc which will be discussed in general
2. Description: Describing the thing which will be discussed in detail; part per part ,
customs or deed for living creature and usage for materials

Language Feature of Report Text:

• Introducing group or general aspect
• Using conditional logical connection; when, so, etc
• Using simple present tense

The Differences between Report Text and Descriptive Text

Some text types are quite difficult to differ. Such report and descriptive text have the
similarity in the social function and generic structure. However if they are analyzed
carefully, the slight difference between the two text types will reveal.

The purpose of the two texts are to give the live-description of the object/participant.
Both the report and descriptive text try to show rather than tell the reader about the
factual condition of the object. Readers by themselves will catch the impressive point
of the object through that showing writing style. What make different, between report
and descriptive text, is the scope of the written object. If we talk about, eg: bicycle, it
belongs to report text. It will talk about bicycle in general; its parts, physical strengh,
function for certain people or other general characters of bike. In the other hand,
descriptive text will convey more focus, for example "my bicycle" with its specific
characters; colour, lengh, wheel style, etc.
In short, report text describes the way of certain things and frequently refer to
phenomenon of nature, animal and scientific object. Mostly, report is written after
getting careful observation. This scientific and technical sense make clearer difference
from descriptive text. The way of descriptive text in showing thing is based on the
objective fact of the thing. It describe the specific thing simply as the thing is.

Example of Report Text:


Many people call platypus duckbill because this animal has a bill like duckbill.
Platypus is a native Tasmania and southern and eastern Australia.
Platypus has a flat tail and webbed feet. Its body length is 30 to 45 cm and covered
with a thick, and woolly layer of fur. Its bill is detecting prey and stirring up mud.
Platypus' eyes and head are small. It has no ears but has ability to sense sound and
Platypus lives in streams, rivers, and lakes. Female platypus usually dig burrows in
the streams or river banks. The burrows are blocked with soil to protect it from
intruders and flooding. In the other hand, male platypus does not need any burrow to

Analyzing on the Text

• Generic Structure analysis
• General classification; stating general classification, the animal
of platypus.

• Description; describing in detail characterization of platypus'
body and habitual life
• Language Feature Analysis
• Focusing in group; the animal of platypus
• conditional, logical connective; but, in the other hand
• Simple present tense pattern; Platypus lives in streams, male
platypus does not need any burrow, etc

Review Text

Definition of Review Text:

A review is an evaluation of a publication, such as a movie, video game, musical
composition, book, or a piece of hardware like a car, home appliance, or computer. In
addition to a critical statement, the review's author may assign the work a rating to
indicate its relative merit. More loosely, an author may review current events or items
in the news.

To critique or evaluate an art work or event for a public audience dominant

Generic Structure:
1. Orientation
2. Evaluation
3. Interpretative Recount
4. Evaluation
5. Evaluative Summation

Dominant Language features:

1. Focus on specific participants
2. Using adjectives
3. Using long and complex clauses
4. Using metaphor

Example of Review Text:

Browniest, a Bite of Sweet Cake, a Bit of Love Story

Another Indonesian romantic drama feature film by a young and talented

director, Hanung Bramantyo, will soon be released director, Hanung Bramantyo, will
soon be released this year. Fans of Marcella Zalianty, Bucek Deep, and Arie Untung
Kuncoro will be able to see their idol acting in the movie titled BROWNIES. The film
is produced by SinemArt, which also produced:Mengejar Matahari".
The theme is simple; it's about love. Love-with its bittersweet story-becomes
the highlight that enriches the movie plot. The reason is quite obvious, love theme
always attracts more audience to com to the cinema.
Mel (Marcella Zalianty), a copywriter in an advertising agency, has a life that's
focused on her job. Although Mel is engaged to Joe (Philip Yusuf), Didi (Renia)-her
close friend-questions if Joe is really Mel's kind of guy. Later in the story, Mel finds
out that Joe has been going out with another girl all this time. Then, Mel, meets Are
(Bucek Deep), ayoung artist who writes, owns a bokstore, and makes browniest! Are
even has a smal browniest shop that Mel loves to visit. Are's artistic attitude and Joe's
betrayal have clearly affected Mel's life.
BROWNIES is the first Indonesian movie that is shot using Panasonic High
Definition cameras, which results in a film that looks as if it's recorded on standard
celluloid film, while squeezing production cost.

(taken from; C'nS magazine vol. 4 no. 27)

Spoof Text

Definition and Social Function of Spoof:

Spoof is a text which tells factual story, happened in the past time with unpredictable
and funny ending. Its social function is to entertain and share the story.

Generic Structure of Spoof:
1. Orientation
2. Events
3. Twist

Language Feature of Spoof:

1. Focusing on people, animals or certain things
2. Using action verb; ate, ran, etc
3. Using adverb of time and place
4. Told in chronological order

Example of Spoof Text:

Private Conversation
Last week I went to the theatre. I had a very good seat. The play was very interesting.I
did not enjoy it. A young man and a young woman were sitting behind me. They were
talking very loudly.I got very angry. I could not hear the actors. I turned around. I
looked at the man and the young woman angrily. They did not pay any attention.In
the end, I could not bear it. I turned around again. “I could not hear a word” I said
angrily.“It’s none of your business” the young man said rudely. “This is a private
(From: English New Concept)

Generic Structure Analysis

• Orientation: introducing a writes as point of view “I” which is in a theatre last
• Event 1: the other theatregoers, young man and young woman, were talking
• Event 2: the writer used physical language by turning around to the young man
and young woman talk to not to make noisy.
• Event 3: the write used verbal language by saying “I could not hear a word”.

• Twister: the young man misunderstood the writer’s word and said; “It’s none
of your business. It’s a private conversation”.

Procedure Text

To help readers how to do or make something completely

Generic Structure:
1. Goal/Aim
2. Materials/Equipments
3. Steps/Methods

Dominant Language Features:

1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Using Imperatives sentence
3. Using adverb
4. Using technical terms

Example of Procedure Text:

Making Kite

Having a kite flying is interesting and make it by self is easy. Prepare the following
materials to make a kite:
• Butcher cord
• Scotch tape or glue
• 1 Sheet of strong paper
• 2 Strong, straight wooden sticks of bamboo

• Markers, paint or crayons
After the materials have been prepared, the directions bellow is easy instruction on
how to make a kite:
1. Make a cross with the two sticks, with the shorter stick placed horizontally
across the longer stick.
2. Tie the two sticks together with the string in such a way as to make sure that
they are at right angles to each other.
3. Cut a notch at each end of the sticks. Make it deep enough for the type of
string you are using to fit in to. Cut a piece of string long enough to stretch all
around the kite frame.
4. Lay the sail material flat and place the stick frame face down on top. Cut
around it, leaving about 2-3cm for a margin. Fold these edges over and glue it
down so that the material is tight.
5. Make a tail by tying a small ribbon roughly every 10cm along the length of
6. Decorate your kite with the markers!

Discussion Text

Purpose: to present information and opinions about issues in more one side of an
issue (‘For/Pros’ and ‘Against/Cons’)

Generic Structure:
1. Issue
2. Arguments for and against
3. Conclusion

Dominant Language Features:

1. Using Simple Present Tense
2. Use of relating verb/to be

3. Using thinking verb
4. Using general and abstract noun
5. Using conjunction/transition
6. Using modality
7. Using adverb of manner

Example of Discussion Text:

The Advantage and Disadvantage of Nuclear Power

Nuclear power is generated by using uranium which is a metal mined in

various part of the world. The first large scale of nuclear power station was opened at
Calder Hall in Cumbria, England in 1956.
Some military ships and submarines have nuclear power plant for engine.
Nuclear power produces around 11% of the world's energy needed, and produces
huge amounts of energy. It cause no pollution as we would get when burning fossil
fuels. The advantages of nuclear plant are as follow:
• It costs about the same coal, so it is not expansive to make.
• It does not produce smoke or carbon dioxide, so it does not
contribute to the greenhouse effect.
• It produces huge amounts of energy from small amount of
• It produces small amount of waste.
• It is reliable.
On the other hand, nuclear power is very, very dangerous. It must be sealed up
and buried for many years to allow the radioactivity to die away. Furthermore,
although it is reliable, a lot of money has to be spent on safety because if it does go
wrong, a nuclear accident ca be a major accident.
People are increasingly concerned about this matter. In the 1990's nuclear
power was the fastest growing source of power in many parts of the world.

Note on the Generic Structure of Discussion Text:
Discussion is a process to find the meet point between two different ideas. It is
important to to get the understanding between the two differences. In many social
activities, discussion is the effective way to calm down any friction and difference in
thought, perception and recommendation.
This example of discussion text present the two poles, between the advantage and
disadvantage of using nuclear plant to fulfill the energy needed. It is a case which
need to be talked and discussed from two points. They are represented in the generic
structure which is used:
Stating the Issue : In the first paragraph, it is stated that using nuclear power can
be the choice in fulfilling the needed energy.
Supporting Point : In the second paragraph, it is presented the advantages of
nuclear power plant to be used as the source of the world's
energy needed
Contrastive Point : The third paragraph shows the balance. It gives the
contradictory idea in using nuclear power plant as the resource
of energy.
Recommendation : This text is ended with a similar recommendation on how
people should concern in the matter of nuclear energy.