Sie sind auf Seite 1von 11

Basic Chemistry, 2e (Timberlake)

Chapter 10: Molecular Structure: Liquids and Solids


Multiple Choice Questions
1) Double and triple bonds form because
A) the atoms involved have high electronegativities.
B) single covalent bonds do not give all of the atoms in the molecule eight valence electrons.
C) one of the atoms in the molecule has more than 8 valence electrons.
D) the ions involved have charges larger than one.
E) there is at least one hydrogen atom involved in the bond.

2) Which of the following is the correct electron dot structure for CS2?
A)

B)

C)

D)

E)

3) Which of the following is the correct electron dot structure for C2 F4?
A)

B)

C)

D)

E)

1
4) The ability of an atom to attract the shared electrons in a covalent bond is its __________.
A) electronegativity
B) bonding ability
C) polarity
D) ionic character
E) nonpolarity

5) Which of the following substances contains a nonpolar bond?


A) H2O
B) NaCl
C) NH3
D) MgF2
E) N2

6) Which of the following elements has the lowest electronegativity?


A) Li
B) C
C) N
D) O
E) F

7) Which of the following compounds contains a polar covalent bond?


A) NaF
B) HCl
C) Br2
D) MgO
E) O2

8) Which of the following compounds contains an ionic bond?


A) NH3
B) H2O
C) CaO
D) H2
E) CH4

9) If the electronegativity difference between elements X and Y is 2.1, the bond between the elements X-Y is __________.
A) ionic
B) nonpolar ionic
C) nonpolar covalent
D) polar covalent
E) impossible

2
10) Ionic bonding is expected in which of these compounds?
A) Cl2
B) KF
C) OF2
D) HF
E) H2

11) A polar covalent bond is found in which of these compounds?


A) H2O
B) F2
C) NaCl
D) H2
E) N2

12) The bond in Cl2 is a(n) __________ bond.


A) ionic
B) nonpolar covalent
C) metallic
D) polar ionic
E) polar covalent

13) The VSEPR theory allows us to determine the __________.


A) shape of a molecule
B) charge on an ion
C) color of a compound
D) bond type for a molecule
E) formula for a compound

14) The shape of the ammonia molecule is __________.


A) linear
B) square
C) trigonal pyramidal
D) hexagonal
E) octagonal

15) The water molecule has a dipole with the negative portion
A) localized between the hydrogen atoms.
B) pointing toward the oxygen atom.
C) localized on one of the hydrogens.
D) pointing from the oxygen through the hydrogen atoms.
E) surrounding the molecule.

3
16) The carbon tetrachloride molecule, CCl4, has the shape of a __________.
A) tetrahedron
B) square
C) cube
D) circle
E) sphere

17) Hydrogen sulfide, H2S, has a shape similar to __________.


A) carbon dioxide
B) carbon monoxide
C) hydrogen chloride
D) water
E) carbon tetrachloride

18) The number of electron lone pairs in the water molecule is __________.
A) 8
B) 4
C) 1
D) 3
E) 2

19) The lone pair of electrons in the ammonia molecule is located


A) between the nitrogen atom and a hydrogen atom.
B) on a hydrogen atom.
C) in a cloud surrounding the molecule.
D) on the nitrogen atom.
E) in the nucleus of the nitrogen atom.

20) How many covalent bonds will a nitrogen atom normally make?
A) 1
B) 2
C) 3
D) 4
E) 6

21) How many covalent bonds will an oxygen atom normally make?
A) 1
B) 2
C) 3
D) 4
E) 5
22) How many covalent bonds will a hydrogen atom normally make?
A) 1
B) 2
C) 3
D) 4
E) 5

23) When two or more equivalent dot structures can be written for a given molecule it is said to have __________
structures.
A) resonance
B) equal
C) identical
D) polar
E) electronegative
24) Ozone, O3, is an example of a molecule that has __________ structures.
A) isomer
B) identical
C) resonance
D) double
E) ionic
4
25) The NO3- ion is an example of a polyatomic ion with __________.
A) resonance structures
B) triple bonds
C) a linear shape
D) a nonpolar bond
E) no covalent bonds

26) The shape of the polyatomic ammonium ion, NH4+ is _________.


A) linear
B) trigonal pyramidal
C) planar
D) tetrahedral
E) bent

27) The element in the following list with the lowest electronegativity is __________.
A) fluorine
B) hydrogen
C) iodine
D) cesium
E) iron
28) The dipole in the nitrogen-hydrogen bond points
A) from the nitrogen to the hydrogen.
B) at right angles to the bond.
C) from the hydrogen to the nitrogen.
D) in a circle surrounding the bond.
E) at the observer.

29) The difference in electronegativity between hydrogen and sulfur is 0.4. What type of bond is found in the molecule
H2S?
A) polyatomic
B) ionic
C) nonpolar covalent
D) polar covalent
E) double covalent

30) The difference in electronegativity between potassium and oxygen is 2.7. What type of bond is expected in the
compound K2O?
A) ionic
B) nonpolar covalent
C) polyatomic
D) polar covalent
E) nonionic

31) In the following list, which is the polar compound?


A) H2O
B) CCl4
C) CO2
D) BF3
E) N2

32) The HF molecule can be classified as __________.


A) polar covalent
B) nonpolar
C) ionic
D) bent
E) planar

33) Which is the most polar bond in the following list?


A) O-H
5
B) S-O
C) C-S
D) I-I
E) P-H
34) A molecule has a central atom and three identical bonds to other atoms, with no lone pairs. The shape of this molecule is
__________.
A) linear
B) bent
C) trigonal planar
D) trigonal pyramidal
E) tetrahedral

35) A molecule contains a central atom with two identical bonds to other atoms and two lone pairs. The shape of this
molecule is __________.
A) linear
B) bent
C) trigonal planar
D) trigonal pyramidal
E) tetrahedral

36) In water, the melting point is unusually high because of


A) covalent bonds in the individual molecules.
B) ionic bonds in the individual molecules.
C) hydrogen bonding between the molecules.
D) dispersion forces between the molecules.
E) the heat content of the hydrogen-oxygen bonds.

37) The main interactions between molecules of hydrogen chloride are examples of __________.
A) ionic bonds
B) covalent bonds
C) hydrogen bonds
D) dipole-dipole interactions
E) dispersion forces

38) Hydrogen bonds are a major factor in the structure of __________.


A) DNA
B) hydrogen chloride
C) dry ice
D) air
E) table salt

39) Water has a boiling point of 100°C, and alcohol has a boiling point of 78°C, even though water is a smaller molecule.
This large difference in boiling point is due to
A) weak dispersion forces in the alcohol molecules.
B) ionic bonds between the water molecules.
C) covalent bonds in the alcohol molecules.
D) more hydrogen bonds between the water molecules.
E) more hydrogen bonds between the alcohol molecules.
40) The strongest forces between HF molecules are __________.
A) dispersion forces
B) hydrogen bonds
C) ionic bonds
D) dipole-dipole interactions
E) nonpolar covalent bonds

41) When a solid is converted directly to a gas, the change of state is called __________.
A) freezing
B) melting
C) boiling
D) condensation
E) sublimation
6
42) If the heat of fusion for water is 334 J/g, how many joules are needed to melt 45.0 g of ice at 0.0°C?
A) 0 J
B) 1.50 × 104 J
C) 7.42 J
D) 334 J
E) 450 J

43) If the heat of fusion for water is 334 J/g, how many kilojoules are lost when 45.0 g of water at 0.0°C is converted to ice
at 0.0°C?
A) 15 000 kJ
B) 15.0 kJ
C) 7.40 kJ
D) 7 400 kJ
E) 3 340 kJ

44) How many joules are required to convert 16.5 g of ice at 0.0°C to liquid water at 32.0°C? The heat of fusion of water is
334 J/g.
A) 5 510 J
B) 2 210 J
C) 7 720 J
D) 1 320 J
E) 334 j

45) If the heat of vaporization for water is 2260 J/g, how many kilojoules are required to convert 5.00 g of liquid water at
100.°C to steam at 100.°C?
A) 0 kJ
B) 2.26 kJ
C) 11.3 kJ
D) 1130 kJ
E) 5.4 kJ
46) A burn from steam at 100°C is expected to be more severe than a burn from boiling water at 100°C because
A) the steam is hotter than the boiling water.
B) there is more steam than water.
C) the steam will give off a large amount of heat as it condenses.
D) you are more likely to come into contact with the steam than with the boiling water.
E) All of these answers are correct.

47) The heat of fusion for water is 334 J/g, and the specific heat of water is 4.148 Jcal/g °C. How many joules of heat are
released when 20.0 g of water at 30.°C is cooled to 0.0°C and frozen to ice at 0.0°C?
A) -600. J
B) -2500 J
C) -6700 J
D) -9200 J
E) -15000 J

48) How many kilojoules are required to warm 15.0 g of water from 75.0°C to 100.0°C and convert it to steam at 100.0°C?
The heat of vaporization of water is 2260 J/g, and the specific heat of water is 4.184 J/g °C.
A) 380 kJ
B) 35.5 kJ
C) 1 130 kJ
D) 975 kJ
E) 848 kJ

49) In order to calculate the total number of calories needed to melt 1 g of a solid and then convert it to a gas, you must
know
A) the specific heat of the substance.
B) the heat of fusion of the substance.
C) the heat of fusion and the specific heat of the substance.
D) the specific heat and the heat of vaporization of the substance.
E) the heat of fusion, the specific heat, and the heat of vaporization of the substance.

7
50) The heat of fusion for water is 334 J/g, and the heat of vaporization of water is 2260 J/g. How many joules are required
to convert 10.0 g of ice at 0.00°C to steam at 100.°C? The specific heat of water is 4.184 J/g °C.
A) 22 600 J
B) 3 340 J
C) 4 180 J
D) 30 100 J
E) 309 J

51) A heating curve illustrates


A) what a substance looks like as it is heated.
B) what happens to the particles of a substance as it is heated.
C) what happens to the heat applied as the temperature is increased.
D) the changes in the temperature and physical state of a substance as it is heated.
E) the chemical changes that occur as the substance is heated.

52) Which of the following does NOT represent a step on the heating curve of water?
A) The temperature of steam cannot exceed 100°C.
B) The temperature of ice remains at 0°C as it melts.
C) The temperature of liquid water increases linearly as it is heated.
D) The temperature of liquid water remains at 100°C as it boils.
E) Both liquid water and ice are present at 0°C.

Bimodal Questions
1) The diatomic molecule N2 is held together by a __________ covalent bond.
A) double
B) single
C) ionized
D) triple
E) polar

2) The diatomic molecule Cl2 is held together by a __________ covalent bond.


A) single
B) double
C) ionized
D) polar
E) triple

3) The main interactions between molecules of methane, CH4 , are __________.


A) ionic bonds
B) dispersion forces
C) hydrogen bonds
D) dipole-dipole interactions
E) none of the above
Answer: B

4) The main interactions between molecules of ammonia, NH3 , are __________.


A) ionic bonds
B) dispersion forces
C) hydrogen bonds
D) dipole-dipole interactions
E) none of the above

5) How many kilojoules are required to convert 115.0 g of ice at 0.0°C to liquid water at 32.0°C? The heat of fusion of
water is 334 J/g, and the heat capacity of water is 4.184 J/g°C.
A) 38.4 kJ
B) 481 J
C) 53.8 kJ
D) 15.4 kJ
E) 3.68 kJ

8
6) If the heat of vaporization for water is 2260 joules/g, how many kilojoules are released when 5.00 g of steam is
converted to liquid at 100°C?
A) 540 kJ
B) 5.0 kJ
C) 113 kJ
D) 11.3 kJ
E) 2 260 kJ

7) If the heat of fusion for water is 334 joules/g, how many kilojoules are needed to melt 45.0 g of ice at 0°C?
A) 0.0 kJ because no temperature change takes place.
B) 15.0 kJ
C) 15 000 kJ
D) 150 kJ
E) Undetermined you need to know the final temperature.

8) How many kilojoules are required to warm 25.0 g of water from 75.0°C to 100.0°C and convert it to steam at 100.0°C?
The heat of vaporization of water is 2260 joules/g, and the specific heat of water is 4.184 joules/g °C.
A) 2.62 kJ
B) 59.1 kJ
C) 59 100 kJ
D) 56 500 kJ
E) 2 620 kJ

Matching Questions
Indicate the type of bonding you would expect between the following elements.
True/False Questions
1) Ammonia is a nonpolar molecule.
Answer: True False

2) The carbon-chlorine covalent bond is polar.


Answer: True False

3) The ammonia molecule has a lone pair of electrons located on the nitrogen atom.
Answer: True False

4) N2 is held together by a multiple covalent bond.


Answer: True False

5) The total number of valence electrons in the fluorine molecule, F2, is 14.
Answer: True False

6) The carbon dioxide molecule contains a triple covalent bond.


Answer: True False

7) Carbon dioxide is a linear, polar molecule.


Answer: True False

8) The molecule CCl4 is a tetrahedral molecule.


Answer: True False

9) The water molecule is bent in shape.


Answer: True False

10) The most electronegative element is fluorine.


Answer: True False

11) The oxygen-hydrogen bond is a polar covalent bond.


Answer: True False

12) Oxygen, O2, is held together by a triple ionic bond.

9
Answer: True False

13) The transition from a solid directly to a gas is termed sublimation.


Answer: True False

14) Water molecules are attracted to each other by hydrogen bonds.


Answer: True False

15) As a solid melts, its temperature does not change.


Answer: True False

16) Steam at 100°C holds the same amount of heat as water at 100°C.
Answer: True False

17) When a liquid is boiling, its temperature does not change.


Answer: True False

Short Answer Questions


Identify each of the following molecules as polar or nonpolar.
1) carbon tetrachloride
Answer:

2) water
Answer:

3) carbon dioxide
Answer:

4) hydrogen sulfide
Answer: nonpolar

5) hydrogen fluoride
Answer:

Fill in the blanks with the appropriate word or phrase.


6) A bond in which the electrons are shared between atoms is a __________ bond.
Answer:

7) A molecule in which there are only two atoms held together by covalent bonds is a __________ molecule.
Answer:

8) A covalent bond in which one pair of electrons is shared is called a __________ bond.
Answer:

9) A covalent bond in which two pairs of electrons are shared is called a __________ bond.
Answer:

10) A covalent bond in which three pairs of electrons are shared is called a __________ bond.
Answer:

Bromine (Br2) has a freezing point of -7°C and a boiling point of 60°C. Indicate the state or change of state occurring at each
temperature.
11) 30°C
Answer:

12) 60°C
Answer:

13) -7°C
Answer:

10
14) -15°C
Answer:

15) 70°C
Answer:

16) The heat of fusion is the amount of heat necessary to change one gram of a substance from the solid to the __________
state.
Answer:

17) The weakest type of force between particles of a substance is termed __________.
Answer:

18) Are hydrogen bonds stronger or weaker than covalent bonds?


Answer:

19) Are dipole-dipole interactions weak or strong compared to ionic bonds?


Answer:

20) The amount of heat necessary for one gram of a substance to change from the solid state to the liquid state is the
__________.
Answer:

11