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m Transformers are static devices without any rotating
part and are totally enclosed.
m Chances of faults occurring on transformers are much
rare as compared to generators
m If fault occurs, they have to be cleared quickly
m If not they develop into major faults which may be very
serious for the transformer
For protection
m Small rating transformers use fuses
m But large rating transformers always need some type
of automatic protective relaying equipment
The various possible transformer faults are,
m 1. Overheating
m 2. Winding faults
m 3. Open circuits
m 4. External faults
m 5. Over fluxing
They are due to
m Sustained overloads and short circuits
m Failure of cooling system

m The thermal overload relays and temperature relays,
sounding the alarm are used
m The thermocouples or resistance temperature
indicators are also provided near the winding.
m These are connected in a bridge circuits.
m When the bridge balance gets disturbed for more than
the permissible duration circuit breaker trips.
The winding faults are called internal faults. The overheating
or mechanical shocks deteriorates the winding insulation. If
the winding insulation-is weak, there is a possibility of
m Phase to phase faults
m Earth faults
m Inter turn faults
Persistent fault would have a possibility of oil-fire.
m Differential protection
m Overcurrent protection is also used as a backup protection
m For earth fault protection, the restricted earth fault
protection system, neutral current relays or leakage to
frame protection system is used.
m The open circuit in one of the three phases is
causes the undesirable heating of the transformer.
m Open circuits are much harmless compared to
other faults.
m Transformers can be manually disconnected from
the system during such faults.
m Through faults are the external faults which occur outside
the protected zone.
m These are not detected by the differential protection.
m If faults persists the transformer gets subjected to thermal
and mechanical stresses which can damage the
m The overcurrent relays with undervoltage blocking, zero
sequence protection and negative sequence protection are
used to give protection
m The setting of the overcurrent protection not only protects
transformer but also covers the station busbar and portion
of a transmission line.
m The flux density in the transformer core is proportional
to the ratio of the voltage to frequency i.e. V/f
m Transformers are designed to work with certain value
of flux density in the core. In the generator transformer
unit, if full excitation is applied before generator
reaches its synchronous speed then due to high V/f
the overfluxing of core may occur.
m V/f relay called volts/hertz relay is provided to give the
protection against overfluxing operation.
Other faults
m Tap changer faults
m High voltage surges due to lightning
m Switching surges
m Incipient faults
m Also called as
percentage differential
m It is based on circulating
current principle
m It protects against phase
to phase and phase to
ground faults
m The primary of the power transformer is star
connected while the secondary is delta connected.
m To compensate for the phase difference, the C.T.
secondaries on primary side must be connected in
delta while the C.T. secondaries on delta side
must be connected in star
m The restraining coils are connected across the
C.T. secondary windings while the operating coils
are connected between the tapping points on the
restraining coils and the star point of C.T.
m It compares the currents at entering and leaving
m The vector difference(I1 ±I2)/2 passes through the
operating coil
m The average current (I1+I2)/2passes through the
restraining coil
m The two currents at the two ends are equal so
balance is maintained
m No current flows through the operating coil and the
relay is inoperative
m During normal operating conditions the C.T.
secondaries carry equal currents which are
m With an internal fault in power transformer
windings, the balance in the C.T.s get disturbed.
m The operating coils of differential relay carry
currents proportional to the difference of current
between the two sides of a power transformer.
m This causes the relay operation which trips the
main circuit breakers on both the sides of the
power transformer
m This method is to provide earth fault protection
m The frame of the switch gear is grounded
m When there is a fault the fault leaks from the frame
and passes through the earth connection provided
m The primary of the C.T senses due to which
current passes through the sensitivity earth fault
m This operates the relay
m It is a gas operated relay
used for the protection of
oil immersed transformers
m When faults occur
decomposition of oil
m Gas accumulates at the
top hence decreasing the
oil level
m Oil reduction makes the hollow floats to tilt
m And close the contacts of the mercury switch
attached to it
m Hence completing the alarm circuit to sound an
m The transformer could hence be disconnected to
test the gas sample

m Buchholz relay gives the fault indication at a very

early stage
m It is the simplest transformer protection


m Only used for oil immersed transformers

m Only faults below oil level are detected
m The relay is slow having minimum operating time
of 0.1sec and average time of 0.2 sec.
m Local overheating
m Bad and loose electrical contacts
m Winding earth faults
m Short circuited laminations
m Winding short circuited
m Loss of oil and reduction of oil level
m Even though faults in the transformers are very
rare different types of possible faults were seen
m Different protection relays and devices were
m Advantages and limitations were seen
m H.C.Branes and R.H.Mcpherson ³field experience-
transformer protection´, AIEE Trans,72 part 3
m M.H.Haque,2004´use of local information for protection",
international power engineering conference
m G.Verbic and F.Gubina ,´a new concept on protection
based on distance relaying schemes´ ,IEEE transaction on
power delivery19.