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Documents 1 - 10 of 183 strictly in RUSSIAN FEDERATION


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JALW 19/12/01 - *AIR-TO-AIR MISSILES/RUSSIA/AA-5 `ASH' (R-4)


(Size 5643)
JALW 19/12/01 - *AIR-TO-AIR MISSILES/RUSSIA/AA-2 `ATOLL' (R-3, R-13)
(Size 9356)
JALW 09/11/01 - *AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES/RUSSIA/S-25LD
(Size 4741)
JALW 09/11/01 - *BOMBS/RUSSIA/ZB-500GD and ZB-500ShM FIRE BOMBS
(Size 7393)
JALW 09/11/01 - *BOMBS/RUSSIA/RBK-250 ZAB-2.5M and RBK-500 ZAB-2.5SM CLUSTER BOMBS
(Size 8811)
JALW 09/11/01 - *BOMBS/RUSSIA/FZAB-500 BOMB
(Size 6304)
JALW 09/11/01 - *GUNS, PODS AND MOUNTINGS/RUSSIA/GUV (VERSATILE HELICOPTER POD)
(Size 6905)
JALW 09/11/01 - *AIR-TO-AIR MISSILES/RUSSIA/SA-16 `GIMLET' (9M313 Igla 1) and SA-18 `GROUSE' (9M39 Igla)
(Size 8607)
JALW 09/11/01 - *AIR-TO-AIR MISSILES/RUSSIA/SA-14 `GREMLIN' (9M36 Strela-3)
(Size 5306)
JALW 09/11/01 - *AIR-TO-AIR MISSILES/RUSSIA/SA-7 `GRAIL' (9M32 Strela-2)
(Size 7855)
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Documents 11 - 20 of 183 strictly in RUSSIAN FEDERATION


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JALW 09/11/01 - *AIR-TO-AIR MISSILES/RUSSIA/R-37 (AA-X-13)


(Size 7287)
JALW 09/11/01 - *AIR-TO-AIR MISSILES/RUSSIA/AA-12 `ADDER' (R-77)
(Size 13231)
JALW 09/11/01 - *AIR-TO-AIR MISSILES/RUSSIA/AA-11 `ARCHER' (R-73, R-74)
(Size 15384)
JALW 09/11/01 - *AIR-TO-AIR MISSILES/RUSSIA/AA-10 `ALAMO' (R-27)
(Size 15432)
JALW 09/11/01 - *AIR-TO-AIR MISSILES/RUSSIA/AA-9 `AMOS' (R-33)
(Size 7185)
JALW 09/11/01 - *AIR-TO-AIR MISSILES/RUSSIA/AA-8 `APHID' (R-60)
(Size 8725)
JALW 09/11/01 - *AIR-TO-AIR MISSILES/RUSSIA/AA-7 `APEX' (R-23, R-24)
(Size 7001)
JALW 09/11/01 - *AIR-TO-AIR MISSILES/RUSSIA/AA-6 `ACRID' (R-40, R-46)
(Size 9259)
JALW 09/11/01 - *AIR-TO-AIR MISSILES/RUSSIA/AA-3 `ANAB' (R-8, R-30, R-98)
(Size 6635)
JALW 09/11/01 - *UNDERWATER WEAPONS/RUSSIA/S-3V ASW BOMB
(Size 6290)
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Browse: Systems & Equipment: Jane's Air-Launched Weapons: Country: RUSSIAN FEDERATION

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Documents 21 - 30 of 183 strictly in RUSSIAN FEDERATION


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JALW 09/11/01 - *UNDERWATER WEAPONS/RUSSIA/RUSSIAN TORPEDOES


(Size 17857)
JALW 09/11/01 - *UNDERWATER WEAPONS/RUSSIA/RUSSIAN MINES
(Size 17965)
JALW 09/11/01 - *UNDERWATER WEAPONS/RUSSIA/APR-1/-2/-3 LIGHTWEIGHT TORPEDOES
(Size 13011)
JALW 09/11/01 - *AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES/RUSSIA/AT-16 (9M120M/9M121 VIKHR-M)
(Size 8211)
JALW 09/11/01 - *AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES/RUSSIA/AT-12 `SWINGER' (9M120 VIKHR/ATAKA)
(Size 8504)
JALW 09/11/01 - *AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES/RUSSIA/AT-6/AT-9 `SPIRAL' (9M114 KOKON/SHTURM)
(Size 11002)
JALW 09/11/01 - *AIR-LAUNCHED ROCKETS/RUSSIA/S-13 (122 mm) AIRCRAFT ROCKETS
(Size 11633)
JALW 09/11/01 - *AIR-LAUNCHED ROCKETS/RUSSIA/S-8 (80 mm) AIRCRAFT ROCKETS
(Size 13679)
JALW 09/11/01 - *AIR-LAUNCHED ROCKETS/RUSSIA/S-5 (57 mm) AIRCRAFT ROCKETS
(Size 7349)
JALW 09/11/01 - *AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES/RUSSIA/AT-3 `SAGGER' (9M14 MALYUTKA)
(Size 8812)
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Browse: Systems & Equipment: Jane's Air-Launched Weapons: Country: RUSSIAN FEDERATION

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Documents 31 - 40 of 183 strictly in RUSSIAN FEDERATION


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JALW 09/11/01 - *AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES/RUSSIA/Kh-41 (3M80 MOSKIT/SS-N-22 `SUNBURN')


(Size 8800)
JALW 09/11/01 - *AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES/RUSSIA/AS-20 `KAYAK' (Kh-35/3M24/Kh-37)/SS-N-25 (3M60 URAN)/SSC-6 (3K60
BAL)
(Size 9394)
JALW 09/11/01 - AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES/RUSSIA/AS-X-19 `KOALA' (Kh-90/BL-10)
(Size 5300)
JALW 09/11/01 - *AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES/RUSSIA/AS-18 `KAZOO' (Kh-59M Ovod-M)
(Size 7568)
JALW 09/11/01 - *AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES/RUSSIA/AS-17 `KRYPTON' (Kh-31/KR-1)
(Size 11549)
JALW 09/11/01 - *AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES/RUSSIA/AS-16 `KICKBACK' (Kh-15/RKV-15)
(Size 6857)
JALW 09/11/01 - *AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES/RUSSIA/AS-15 `KENT' (Kh-55/RKV-500/Kh-555/Kh-65)
(Size 10093)
JALW 09/11/01 - *AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES/RUSSIA/AS-14 `KEDGE' (Kh-29)
(Size 9869)
JALW 09/11/01 - *AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES/RUSSIA/AS-13 `KINGBOLT' (Kh-59 OVOD)
(Size 7329)
JALW 09/11/01 - *AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES/RUSSIA/AS-12 `KEGLER' (Kh-25 MP/Kh-27)
(Size 7115)
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Browse: Systems & Equipment: Jane's Air-Launched Weapons: Country: RUSSIAN FEDERATION

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Documents 41 - 50 of 183 strictly in RUSSIAN FEDERATION


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JALW 09/11/01 - *AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES/RUSSIA/AS-11 `KILTER' (Kh-58)


(Size 6873)
JALW 09/11/01 - *AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES/RUSSIA/AS-10 `KAREN' (Kh-25)
(Size 8942)
JALW 09/11/01 - *AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES/RUSSIA/AS-9 `KYLE' (Kh-28)
(Size 5459)
JALW 09/11/01 - *AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES/RUSSIA/AS-6 `KINGFISH' (Kh-26 and KSR-5)
(Size 5897)
JALW 09/11/01 - *GUNS, PODS AND MOUNTINGS/RUSSIA/SPPU-22 and UPK-23 GUN PODS
(Size 7682)
JALW 09/11/01 - *GUNS, PODS AND MOUNTINGS/RUSSIA/SPPU-6 GUN POD
(Size 6131)
JALW 09/11/01 - *GUNS, PODS AND MOUNTINGS/RUSSIA/NPPU-280 GUN TURRET
(Size 5606)
JALW 09/11/01 - *GUNS, PODS AND MOUNTINGS/RUSSIA/9A-4273 GUN POD
(Size 6191)
JALW 09/11/01 - *GUNS, PODS AND MOUNTINGS/RUSSIA/2A42 30 mm CANNON
(Size 8319)
JALW 09/11/01 - *GUNS, PODS AND MOUNTINGS/RUSSIA/RUSSIAN AIRCRAFT GUNS and CANNON
(Size 14971)
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Browse: Systems & Equipment: Jane's Air-Launched Weapons: Country: RUSSIAN FEDERATION

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Documents 51 - 60 of 183 strictly in RUSSIAN FEDERATION


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JALW 09/11/01 - *BOMBS/RUSSIA/ZAB INCENDIARY BOMBS


(Size 10262)
JALW 09/11/01 - *BOMBS/RUSSIA/RBK-500U UNIFIED CLUSTER BOMB
(Size 14585)
JALW 09/11/01 - *BOMBS/RUSSIA/RBK-500 SPBE-D CLUSTER BOMB
(Size 7709)
JALW 09/11/01 - *BOMBS/RUSSIA/RBK-500 SPBE CLUSTER BOMB
(Size 7067)
JALW 09/11/01 - *BOMBS/RUSSIA/RBK-500 ShOAB-0.5 CLUSTER BOMB
(Size 6295)
JALW 09/11/01 - *BOMBS/RUSSIA/RBK-500 PTAB-1M CLUSTER BOMB
(Size 6826)
JALW 09/11/01 - *BOMBS/RUSSIA/RBK-500 BetAB CLUSTER BOMB
(Size 6849)
JALW 09/11/01 - *BOMBS/RUSSIA/RBK-500 AO-2.5 RTM CLUSTER BOMB
(Size 7340)
JALW 09/11/01 - *BOMBS/RUSSIA/RBK-250-275 and RBK-500 CLUSTER BOMBS
(Size 14276)
JALW 09/11/01 - *BOMBS/RUSSIA/OFZAB-500 INCENDIARY BOMB
(Size 5823)
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Browse: Systems & Equipment: Jane's Air-Launched Weapons: Country: RUSSIAN FEDERATION

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Documents 61 - 70 of 183 strictly in RUSSIAN FEDERATION


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JALW 09/11/01 - *BOMBS/RUSSIA/OFAB BOMBS


(Size 17222)
JALW 09/11/01 - *BOMBS/RUSSIA/ODAB-500 PM BOMB
(Size 6401)
JALW 09/11/01 - *BOMBS/RUSSIA/KMG-U DISPENSER and SUBMUNITIONS
(Size 11843)
JALW 09/11/01 - *BOMBS/RUSSIA/KhAB CHEMICAL BOMBS
(Size 16096)
JALW 09/11/01 - *BOMBS/RUSSIA/KAB-1500L-F/-Pr LASER-GUIDED BOMBS
(Size 8981)
JALW 09/11/01 - *BOMBS/RUSSIA/KAB-500Kr/-500Kr-OD/-1500Kr GUIDED BOMBS
(Size 12117)
JALW 09/11/01 - *BOMBS/RUSSIA/KAB-500L/-500KL LASER-GUIDED BOMBS
(Size 9275)
JALW 09/11/01 - *BOMBS/RUSSIA/FOZAB-500 BOMB
(Size 5143)
JALW 09/11/01 - *BOMBS/RUSSIA/FAB-100M-62/-250M-62/-500M-62/-1000M-62 BOMBS
(Size 9115)
JALW 09/11/01 - *BOMBS/RUSSIA/FAB-250M-54/-500M-54/-1500M-54 BOMBS
(Size 7906)
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Browse: Systems & Equipment: Jane's Air-Launched Weapons: Country: RUSSIAN FEDERATION

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Documents 71 - 80 of 183 strictly in RUSSIAN FEDERATION


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JALW 09/11/01 - *BOMBS/RUSSIA/FAB-250M-46/-500M-46/-1500M-46/-3000M-46 BOMBS


(Size 7430)
JALW 09/11/01 - *BOMBS/RUSSIA/FAB-100M-43 and FAB-250M-43 BOMBS
(Size 5709)
JALW 09/11/01 - *BOMBS/RUSSIA/FAB-250ShN and FAB-500ShN/L BOMBS
(Size 8243)
JALW 09/11/01 - *BOMBS/RUSSIA/FAB BOMBS
(Size 10219)
JALW 09/11/01 - *BOMBS/RUSSIA/BetAB-150/-250/-500 PENETRATION BOMBS
(Size 9277)
JALW 06/03/01 - *UNDERWATER WEAPONS - UNCLASSIFIED PROJECTS/CIS/Shkval Torpedo
(Size 4608)
JALW 06/03/01 - UNDERWATER WEAPONS - UNCLASSIFIED PROJECTS/CIS/RPK-8 Zapad
(Size 2731)
JALW 13/02/01 - CONTRACTORS/CIS/Smolensk Aircraft Manufacturing Plant
(Size 2138)
JALW 13/02/01 - CONTRACTORS/CIS/Precision Mechanical Engineering Design Bureau
(Size 2175)
JALW 13/02/01 - CONTRACTORS/CIS/LOMO Joint Stock Co
(Size 2083)
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Browse: Systems & Equipment: Jane's Air-Launched Weapons: Country: RUSSIAN FEDERATION

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Documents 81 - 90 of 183 strictly in RUSSIAN FEDERATION


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JALW 13/02/01 - CONTRACTORS/CIS/Bazalt State Research and Production Enterprise


(Size 2283)
JALW 13/02/01 - CONTRACTORS/CIS/Zvezda Strela
(Size 2096)
JALW 13/02/01 - CONTRACTORS/CIS/Vympel NPO
(Size 2208)
JALW 13/02/01 - CONTRACTORS/CIS/Scientific and Production Enterprise
(Size 2137)
JALW 13/02/01 - CONTRACTORS/CIS/Rosvoorouzhenie
(Size 2120)
JALW 13/02/01 - CONTRACTORS/CIS/Raduga NPO (Dubna Engineering Plant)
(Size 2218)
JALW 13/02/01 - CONTRACTORS/CIS/Moscow Scientific Research Institute (MNII) Agat
(Size 2281)
JALW 13/02/01 - CONTRACTORS/CIS/Moscow Aggregate Plant Dzerzhinets
(Size 2147)
JALW 13/02/01 - CONTRACTORS/CIS/MMPP
(Size 2017)
JALW 13/02/01 - CONTRACTORS/CIS/Novator NPO
(Size 2003)
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Documents 91 - 100 of 183 strictly in RUSSIAN FEDERATION


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JALW 13/02/01 - CONTRACTORS/CIS/Mashinostroenia NPO


(Size 2116)
JALW 13/02/01 - CONTRACTORS/CIS/KBM Engineering Design Bureau
(Size 2212)
JALW 13/02/01 - CONTRACTORS/CIS/KBP Instrument Design Bureau
(Size 2213)
JALW 13/02/01 - CONTRACTORS/CIS/Gridropribov
(Size 2033)
JALW 09/02/01 - ANALYSIS - IN-SERVICE COMBAT AIRCRAFT AND THEIR AIR-LAUNCHED WEAPONS CAPABILITIES/CIS
(Size 171919)
JALW 09/02/01 - ANALYSIS - TORPEDOES/CIS/Torpedoes
(Size 5163)
JALW 09/02/01 - ANALYSIS - ROCKETS/CIS/Rockets
(Size 8594)
JALW 09/02/01 - ANALYSIS - ROCKET LAUNCHERS/CIS/Rocket Launchers
(Size 4766)
JALW 09/02/01 - ANALYSIS - MINES AND DEPTH CHARGES/CIS/Mines and Depth Charges
(Size 5456)
JALW 09/02/01 - ANALYSIS - GUNS/CIS/37 mm
(Size 2589)
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Documents 101 - 110 of 183 strictly in RUSSIAN FEDERATION


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JALW 09/02/01 - ANALYSIS - GUNS/CIS/30 mm


(Size 3991)
JALW 09/02/01 - ANALYSIS - GUNS/CIS/23 mm
(Size 3509)
JALW 09/02/01 - ANALYSIS - GUNS/CIS/12.7 mm
(Size 2658)
JALW 09/02/01 - ANALYSIS - GUNS/CIS/7.62 mm
(Size 2636)
JALW 09/02/01 - ANALYSIS - GUN PODS AND MOUNTINGS/CIS/30 mm
(Size 3199)
JALW 09/02/01 - ANALYSIS - GUN PODS AND MOUNTINGS/CIS/23 mm
(Size 3575)
JALW 09/02/01 - ANALYSIS - GUN PODS AND MOUNTINGS/CIS/20 mm
(Size 2801)
JALW 09/02/01 - ANALYSIS - GUN PODS AND MOUNTINGS/CIS/12.7 mm
(Size 2704)
JALW 09/02/01 - ANALYSIS - GUN PODS AND MOUNTINGS/CIS/7.62 mm
(Size 2839)
JALW 09/02/01 - ANALYSIS - BOMBS/CIS/Cluster Bombs - Bomblets/Submunitions
(Size 9042)
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Documents 111 - 120 of 183 strictly in RUSSIAN FEDERATION


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JALW 09/02/01 - ANALYSIS - BOMBS/CIS/Chemical Weapons - Submunitions


(Size 4109)
JALW 09/02/01 - ANALYSIS - BOMBS/CIS/Retarded Bombs and Retarding Systems
(Size 3144)
JALW 09/02/01 - ANALYSIS - BOMBS/CIS/Penetrating and Area Denial Bombs
(Size 4282)
JALW 09/02/01 - ANALYSIS - BOMBS/CIS/Laser Guided Bombs
(Size 3522)
JALW 09/02/01 - ANALYSIS - BOMBS/CIS/Guided Bombs
(Size 3202)
JALW 09/02/01 - ANALYSIS - AIR-TO-AIR MISSILES/CIS/Medium range
(Size 9679)
JALW 09/02/01 - ANALYSIS - AIR-TO-AIR MISSILES/CIS/Short range
(Size 4430)
JALW 09/02/01 - ANALYSIS - AIR-TO-AIR MISSILES/CIS/Short range lightweight
(Size 4220)
JALW 09/02/01 - ANALYSIS - BOMBS/CIS/General Purpose Bombs
(Size 9438)
JALW 09/02/01 - ANALYSIS - BOMBS/CIS/Fuel/Air Explosive Bombs
(Size 3155)
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Browse: Systems & Equipment: Jane's Air-Launched Weapons: Country: RUSSIAN FEDERATION

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Documents 121 - 130 of 183 strictly in RUSSIAN FEDERATION


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JALW 09/02/01 - ANALYSIS - BOMBS/CIS/Fragmentation Bombs


(Size 7323)
JALW 09/02/01 - ANALYSIS - BOMBS/CIS/Fire Bombs
(Size 6421)
JALW 09/02/01 - ANALYSIS - BOMBS/CIS/Cluster Bombs
(Size 7438)
JALW 09/02/01 - ANALYSIS - BOMBS/CIS/Chemical Weapons - Chemical Spray Tanks
(Size 8510)
JALW 09/02/01 - ANALYSIS - BOMBS/CIS/Anti-tank bombs
(Size 3673)
JALW 09/02/01 - ANALYSIS - BOMBS/CIS/Aircraft dispensers
(Size 2888)
JALW 09/02/01 - ANALYSIS - AUTOMATIC GRENADE LAUNCHERS/CIS/30 mm
(Size 3227)
JALW 09/02/01 - ANALYSIS - AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES/CIS/Long range
(Size 12071)
JALW 09/02/01 - ANALYSIS - AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES/CIS/Medium range
(Size 7545)
JALW 09/02/01 - ANALYSIS - AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES/CIS/Medium range anti-radar
(Size 6057)
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Browse: Systems & Equipment: Jane's Air-Launched Weapons: Country: RUSSIAN FEDERATION

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Documents 131 - 140 of 183 strictly in RUSSIAN FEDERATION


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JALW 09/02/01 - ANALYSIS - AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES/CIS/Short range


(Size 11329)
JALW 09/02/01 - ANALYSIS - AIR-TO-AIR MISSILES/CIS/Long range
(Size 5011)
JALW 16/01/01 - BOMBS - UNCLASSIFIED PROJECTS/CIS/VSM-1 Helicopter Mine-laying System
(Size 3832)
JALW 16/01/01 - BOMBS - UNCLASSIFIED PROJECTS/CIS/VMR-2 Mine-laying System
(Size 3725)
JALW 16/01/01 - *BOMBS - UNCLASSIFIED PROJECTS/CIS/TM-89 Anti-tank Mine
(Size 3909)
JALW 16/01/01 - *BOMBS - UNCLASSIFIED PROJECTS/CIS/TM-62 Family of Anti-tank Mines
(Size 4703)
JALW 16/01/01 - *BOMBS - UNCLASSIFIED PROJECTS/CIS/PTM-3 Anti-tank Mine
(Size 4376)
JALW 16/01/01 - BOMBS - UNCLASSIFIED PROJECTS/CIS/POM-2S Anti-personnel Mine
(Size 4025)
JALW 16/01/01 - *BOMBS - UNCLASSIFIED PROJECTS/CIS/PTM-1S/PGMDM Anti-tank Mine
(Size 4695)
JALW 16/01/01 - AIR-TO-AIR MISSILES - UNCLASSIFIED PROJECTS/CIS/9M100 SRAAM
(Size 2324)
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Documents 141 - 150 of 183 strictly in RUSSIAN FEDERATION


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JALW 16/01/01 - AIR-TO-AIR MISSILES - UNCLASSIFIED PROJECTS/CIS/9M96 (Trieumf variant)


(Size 3352)
JALW 16/01/01 - AIR-TO-AIR MISSILES - UNCLASSIFIED PROJECTS/CIS/K-30
(Size 2705)
JALW 16/01/01 - AIR-TO-AIR MISSILES - UNCLASSIFIED PROJECTS/CIS/Kh-31 (AS-17)
(Size 2775)
JALW 16/01/01 - *AIR-TO-AIR MISSILES - UNCLASSIFIED PROJECTS/CIS/R-77M-PD
(Size 3904)
JALW 16/01/01 - *AIR-TO-AIR MISSILES - UNCLASSIFIED PROJECTS/CIS/AAM-L (KS-172)
(Size 3400)
JALW 04/12/00 - *AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES/CIS/AT-2 `SWATTER' (9M17 SKORPION)
(Size 5737)
JALW 08/11/00 - *AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES/CIS/AS-7 `KERRY' (Kh-23/Kh-66 GROM)
(Size 8090)
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JALW 16/08/00 - BOMBS - UNCLASSIFIED PROJECTS/CIS/Chemical Dispensers
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JALW 16/08/00 - *BOMBS - UNCLASSIFIED PROJECTS/CIS/P-50T Practice Bomb
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JALW 16/08/00 - ANALYSIS - COUNTRY INVENTORIES - IN DEVELOPMENT/CIS
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JALW 21/07/00 - *UNMANNED AIR VEHICLES - UNCLASSIFIED PROJECTS/CIS/E85/E95
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JALW 13/05/00 - AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES - UNCLASSIFIED PROJECTS/CIS/Guided Aerial Bomb KAB-500 Kr
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AIR-TO-AIR MISSILES, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 19 December 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 39

AA-5 `ASH' (R-4)


Type
Medium-range, IR and radar-guided, air-to-air missile.
Development
AA-5 `Ash' is the NATO code and designation for the R-4 AAM, a missile designed to defeat high-flying bombers. The AA-5
was developed between 1958 and 1964 specifically to arm the Tu-128 `Fiddler', a long-range all-weather interceptor, and R-4
missiles were first seen at the Tushino display in 1961. Two versions were developed, the semi-active radar homing R-4R and
the IR version R-4T (K-80T). Improved versions, designated R-4RM and R-4TM, were later fitted to developed versions of the
Tu-128. The main improvement was to provide the semi-active radar-guided version with a `look-down/shoot-down' capability
against low-flying aircraft targets. A further improved version of the R-4R, the R-4RR, had increased maximum range.
Description
R-4 has four swept delta-wings and four control fins aft. The round-nosed R-4RM missile is 5.45 m long and the pointed-nosed
R-4TM is 5.2 m. Both missiles have a body diameter of 315 mm and a wing span of 1.32 m. The `Ash' missile weighs
approximately 500 kg at launch, and has a 53.5 kg HE blast warheads. The semi-active pulse radar operates in I-band (8 to 10
GHz). The IR seeker has a tail aspect engagement capability only.
Operational status
It is believed that the AA-5 `Ash' (R-4) missiles entered service in 1965 in the Soviet Union, and that the improved R-4M
versions entered service in 1975. Exports have been reported to Algeria, Belarus, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Germany, Poland,
Romania, Slovakia and Ukraine. It is unlikely that any R-4s remain in operational use today.

Specifications
R-4RM
Length: 5.45 m
Body diameter: 315 mm
Wing span: 1.32 m
Launch weight: 512 kg
Warhead: 53.5 kg HE blast
Fuze: n/k
Guidance: Semi-active radar
Propulsion: Solid propellant
Range: 40 km
R-4TM
Length: 5.20 m
Body diameter: 315 mm
Wing span: 1.32 m
Launch weight: 502 kg
Warhead: 53.5 kg HE blast
Fuze: n/k
Guidance: IR
Propulsion: Solid propellant
Range: 20 km
Contractor
It is believed that the original design was by the Bisnovat OKB-4, Moscow, and is now supported by Vympel, NPO, Moscow.
UPDATED

A semi-active radar-guided AA-5 Ash (R-4R) missile under a Tu-28 Fiddler aircraft (Steven Zaloga)
(1994)

Diagram of AA-5 Ash


(1998)

Two AA-5 Ash missiles being carried by a Tu-28 `Fiddler' aircraft


(1997)

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AIR-TO-AIR MISSILES, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 19 December 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 39

AA-2 `ATOLL' (R-3, R-13)


Type
Short-range, IR and radar-guided, air-to-air missile.
Development
The AA-2 `Atoll' is the NATO codename for the Russian R-3 (K-13) missile. It entered development in 1958 when the
Experimental Design Bureau (OKB-134) at Tushino was assigned the task of copying the USA's AIM-9B Sidewinder design,
and this first variant was designated R-3S (K-13A). The 'Atoll-A' entered service in 1962. Since then there have been several
steps in the AA-2's evolution, roughly paralleling the development of the AIM-9. However, the R-3 (K-13) was also developed
in a Semi-Active Radar Homing (SARH) version that had no immediate Western equivalent (a SARH version of the AIM-9
was not proceeded with). The R-3S (K-13A) AA-2 'Atoll-A' entered production in 1960 and was first seen in service two years
later on the MiG-21F-13.
The radar-guided R-3R/K-13R (AA-2 'Atoll-B') was based on the same missile airframe, but was markedly different. This
version had an extended nose, with a sharply pointed nosecone, housing the radar antenna. Development of the R-3R began in
1961 and the first missiles entered service in 1966. The semi-active radar seeker operated with the J-band (10 to 20 GHz) pulse
radar of the MiG-21. An inert training version of the R-3 missile, without any fins, was designated R-3U.
In the late 1960s an improved version of the R-3S, designated R-13M/K-13M (NATO codename AA-2 'Atoll-C', sometimes
referred to as the Advanced Atoll) started to appear. A further improved version of the R-13M, with enhanced manoeuvrability,
was developed in the late 1970s as the R-131M1. This version of the 'Atoll' was longer than the basic R-13M and introduced
the cranked forward fins first seen on the AIM-9J. The R-13M was built under licence in Romania (A-91) and India, and
developed in Chinas the PL-2 and PL-3.

Description
The R-3S closely resembled the AIM-9B and had the same blunt, rounded nose as the US missile, with an identical control
surface layout - right down to the Sidewinder's innovative tail fin 'rollerons'. The R-3S had a fixed tail, but the four triangular
forward fins were articulated. Like the AIM-9B, the R-3S was a first generation IR-guided missile that was only effective when
fired from the rear hemisphere, against a non-manoeuvring target at relatively close range. The low altitude performance of the
R-3S IR seeker was poor and the effect of ground clutter reduced its effective range to as little as 300 m at low level.
Performance improved at higher altitudes, and at 18,500 m the missile had a potential range of 8,000 m. The SARH R-3R had a
similar level of performance, but at low-level its effective range could be even less than the R-3S, making it most useful as a
medium altitude look-up/shoot-up weapon. Under ideal circumstances the R-3R's maximum range was in excess of 8,000 m.
The R-13M most closely resembled the AIM-9E Sidewinder, with a tapered nose (slightly longer than the R-3S) housing an
improved IR seeker. This provided significantly better performance with the missile effective to 1,500 m at low level and up to
15 km at high altitudes (20,000 m). The R-13M was claimed to be effective down to 50 m.
Operational status
The R-3S equipped the MiG-21PF, MiG-21bis, MiG-23S, MiG23MS, MiG-23M, MiG-23MF, MiG-23B, MiG-27, Su-17,
Su-20 and Su-22. The R-3R was generally carried by the MiG-21S (SM, SMT, and MiG21bis) and the MiG-23S (MS). The
R-13M and R-13M1 was typically carried by late model MiG-21s, MiG-23s, MiG-27s, Su-17s, Su-20s and Su-22s. The earliest
AA-2 `Atoll' entered service with the Russian Air Force in 1962, the semi-active radar R-3R entered service in 1966 and the
R-13M entered service in the mid-1970s. The improved R-13M1 missile is believed to have entered service in 1980. The
`Atoll' was used extensively by North Vietnam, and in 1970 and 1973 by Egypt. All three variants have been exported to the
following countries: Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Belarus, Bulgaria, Cambodia, China, Congo,
Croatia, Cuba, Czech Republic, Egypt, Ethiopia, Finland, Georgia, Guinea, Hungary, India, Iraq, Kazakhstan, North Korea,
Laos, Libya, Madagascar, Mali, Moldova, Mongolia, Mozambique, Nigeria, Peru, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Somalia, Sudan,
Syria, Ukraine, Vietnam, Yemen, Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) and Zambia. Production probably ceased around 1983,
although refurbished missiles were exported until the late 1980s.
Specifications
R-3S
Length: 2,837 mm
Body diameter: 127 mm
Wing span: 528 mm
Launch weight: 75.3 kg
Warhead: 11.3 kg HE blast/fragmentation
Fuze: contact
Guidance: IR
Propulsion: Solid propellant
Range: 3 km
R-3R
Length: 3,417 mm
Body diameter: 127 mm
Wing span: 528 mm
Launch weight: 82 kg
Warhead: 11.3 kg HE blast/fragmentation
Fuze: contact and radar proximity
Guidance: semi-active radar homing
Propulsion: Solid propellant
Range: 8 km
R-13M
Length: 2,870 mm
Body diameter: 127 mm
Wing span: 632 mm
Launch weight: 88 kg
Warhead: 11.3 kg HE blast/fragmentation
Fuze: contact
Guidance: IR
Propulsion: Solid propellant
Range: 8 km
Contractor
Designed by the Turopov OKB-134 Bureau at Tushino, and supported now by Vympel NPO, Moscow.
UPDATED
An R-3S IR guided missile on the underwing pylon of a Russian Air Force MiG-21 `Fishbed', displayed at
Moscow in August 1989 (Nick Cook)
(1989)

A MiG-21 Fishbed carrying two radar-guided R-3R missiles on the outer wing pylons, and two IR-guided
AA-8 `Aphid' missiles inboard (John Taylor)
(1994)

AA-2 `Atoll'
(1989)

R-3S missiles carried on a Libyan MiG-23 `Flogger' aircraft (US Navy)


(1997)

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AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

S-25LD
Type
Short-range air-to-surface missile.
Development
This new missile was first seen in 1993, and it was developed from the unguided S-250 FM rocket. The missile has the Russian
designator S-25LD, but the NATO designator is unknown. It is believed that the development was completed in the late 1980s,
using the semi-active laser seeker from the AS-10 `Karen' missile. The missile has been cleared for carriage on Su-17 `Fitter',
Su-24 `Fencer' and Su-25 `Frogfoot' aircraft.

Description
The S-25LD missile has four small delta shaped moving control fins at the nose and four clipped-tip delta wings at the rear.
The unusual aspect of the design is that the nose section, containing the semi-active laser seeker and moving control fins, is
hinged under a support arm running forwards from the larger diameter main body. The missile is 4.1 m long, has a body
diameter of 340 mm, a wing span of 1.17 m and a launch weight of 400 kg. The warhead is a 155 kg HE penetration type, and
the missile has a solid-propellant motor. The guidance uses the 24NI semi-active laser seeker from the AS-10 missile, which
can be designated from the carrier aircraft, from a different aircraft, or from a ground laser marker. The missile has a minimum
range of 2 km and a maximum range of 10 km. An accuracy of 8 m CEP has been reported from Russia.
Operational Status
The missile was developed from the S-250 FM unguided rocket and is believed to have entered service in 1989. There are no
known exports.
Specifications
Length: 4.1 m
Body diameter: 340 mm
Wing span: 1.17 m
Launch weight: 400 kg
Warhead: 155 kg HE penetration
Fuze: n/k
Guidance: Semi-active laser
Propulsion: Solid propellant
Range: 10 km
Contractor
Precision Mechanical Engineering Design Bureau
Moscow.
VERIFIED

An S-25LD missile (left) and eight AT-12 missiles (right) on wing pylons under an Su-25 `Frogfoot'
aircraft (Christopher F Foss)
(1999)

S-25LD
(1999)

© 2001 Jane's Information Group Duncan Lennox

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BOMBS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

ZB-500GD and ZB-500ShM FIRE BOMBS


Type
Fire bombs.
Development
Before 1996, no information had been available on former Soviet Union napalm type fire bombs like those used extensively by
the US forces in Vietnam. However, in the mid-1990s two such weapons were advertised in a Russian Federation air-launched
weapons catalogue. The two weapons, designated ZB-500GD and ZB-500ShM, were identical in size and appearance, the only
difference appearing to be the quantity and possibly type of incendiary mixture used. The designation letters ZB stands for
`incendiary tank' and the numbers refer to the bomb's size category. It is unclear what the letters GD stand for but the Sh means
low-level ground attack. The bombs are designed to withstand the high g forces encountered by combat manoeuvres of
high-speed attack aircraft, and are fitted with standard Russian spaced suspension lugs. Both are believed to have been cleared
for carriage on MiG-21 `Fishbed', MiG-27 `Flogger', MiG-29 `Fulcrum', Su-17 `Fitter', Su-24 `Fencer', Su-25 `Frogfoot' and
Su-27 `Flanker' aircraft of the Russian Federation and allied air forces.

Description
The ZB-500's appearance is different to most napalm type fire bombs in that it has a smaller body diameter to length ratio and a
small distinctive vertical rear end stabilising fin. It has a symmetrical aerodynamically shaped body made from thin aluminium
sheet. Instead of the normally pointed ends, the bomb has an ogival section welded on both ends. Inside the top surface of the
centre section is a hard saddle back to which are attached the 250 mm spaced suspension lugs. The filling cap is situated in the
bottom of the centre section beneath the front suspension lug. The fuze system, which is activated on bomb release by a top
mounted lanyard device, is inserted in the centre port side of the bomb, along with a safe arming device and the igniting charge.
Both ZB-500 incendiary canisters are 2.5 m long and have a body diameter of 500 mm. The ZB-500GD is filled with 216 or
303 kg of an unspecified incendiary gel and weighs 256 or 343 kg depending on mixture used. The ZB-500ShM is filled with
260 kg of an unspecified incendiary gel and weighs 317.5 kg.
Details of the type of fuzing system are uncertain, but it is believed to be contact only. However, as the bombs are normally
released during low-level passes it is believed that some form of delay and safety device is incorporated in the final stages of
arming/fuzing. When the bomb impacts the target, the body is broken apart by inertial force and the incendiary agent is spread
over the surrounding area. At the same time the igniter charge is activated which immediately causes the incendiary agent to
ignite thus enveloping the target in flames. The incendiary agent is expected to have a thickening additive, which enables the
agent to cling to all suitable surfaces so as to ensure that maximum conflagration damage to exposed personnel, material and
equipment is caused.
The ZB-500 bombs can be released from an aircraft at altitudes above 30 m and at speeds up to 1,000 km/h.
Operational Status
Both the above fire bombs are in service with Russian Federation and allied air forces. In the mid-1990s they were advertised
in the Incendiary Air Bomb section of a Russian Federation air arms catalogue and were offered for export. There are no
known exports.
Specifications
ZB-500GD ZB-500ShM
Length 2.5 m 2.5 m
Body diameter 500 mm 500 mm
Tailspan n/a n/a
Lug spacing 250 mm 250 mm
Weight 256 or 343 kg 317.5 kg
Filling 216 or 303 kg incendiary mixture 260 kg incendiary mixture

Contractors
Bazalt State Research and Production Enterprise
Moscow.
UPDATED

Line drawing of a cutaway ZB-500GD bomb showing major internal components


(1999)

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BOMBS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

RBK-250 ZAB-2.5M and RBK-500 ZAB-2.5SM CLUSTER


BOMBS
Type
Incendiary cluster bombs.
Development
The former Soviet Union was a pioneer of cluster bomb dispensers, quite sophisticated designs being used as early as the
1930s. The RBK family of cluster bombs are of post World War II design, and in their earlier days were primarily used for
delivering large numbers of anti-personnel fragmentation submunitions. However, in more recent years they have been adapted
to carry various other types of submunitions, such as anti-material, airfield cratering and various types of anti-tank
submunitions. The designation letters RBK stands for razovaya bombovaya kasseta meaning `single use bomb cassette'. The
designation numbers refer to the bomb's size category and any further letters signify special applications or types of
submunitions/bomblets used. The RBK-250 ZAB-2.5M was designed to carry 48 ZAB-2.5 incendiary bomblets. The
designation ZAB stands for zazhigatelnaya aviatsionnaya bomba meaning `incendiary aircraft bomb'. Developed in parallel
was a larger version, designated RBK-500 ZAB-2.5 SM. This was designed to carry 117 of the same submunitions and be
released at a lower altitude.
Both cluster bombs are designed to withstand the high g forces encountered by combat manoeuvres of high-speed attack
aircraft, and are fitted with standard Russian 250 mm spaced suspension lugs. Both sizes of cluster bomb are believed to have
been cleared for carriage on MiG-21 `Fishbed', MiG-27 `Flogger', MiG-29 `Fulcrum', Su-17 `Fitter', Su-24 `Fencer', Su-25
`Frogfoot' and Su-27 `Flanker' aircraft of the Russian Federation and allied air forces.
Description
The RBK-250 ZAB-2.5M is similar in size and shape to the early Russian Federation FAB family of demolition bombs. It has a
canister shaped body, with a flat bell shaped nose and an eight-fin drum tail unit. The bomb, which is fitted with a single
suspension lug, is 1.49 m long, has a body diameter of 325 mm and a loaded weight of 194 kg. The cylindrical body is divided
into three compartments each holding 16 ZAB-2.5 bomblets. Connected to the nose mounted fuze system and running through
the centre of the payload compartments is a metal tube, which is full of holes. It is believed that this is part of the bomblet
ejection system.
The RBK-500 ZAB-2.5SM is similar to the -250 version except the nose is almost totally flat, and instead of a centrally
mounted fuze there is what appears to be a heavy duty lifting device. The bomb, which is fitted with standard Russian 250 mm
spaced suspension lugs is 1.95 m long, has a body diameter of 450 mm and a loaded weight of 435 kg. The internal
arrangement of the payload container is expected to be similar to the -250 version and has a 117 bomblet capacity.
Little information is available on the ZAB-2.5 incendiary bomblet other than it appears to be a simple canister that is 0.135
m long, has a body diameter of 91 mm and weighs 2.7 kg. Its 1.72 kg incendiary type warhead is reported to cover a
destructive area of 350 m2. It is unclear if the bomblet has any sort of stabilising device or just free-falls, and fuzing details of
the ZAB-2.5 are not known.
After release from the parent aircraft the cluster bomb follows a normal ballistic trajectory. At a predetermined altitude the
outer `skin' of the container is opened and the bomblets dispersed over the target area. The method used to dispense the
bomblets is not known, but is believed to be done by a compressed air or gas system. Details of fuzing are not known. The
RBK-250 ZAB-2.5M can be released from an aircraft at altitudes above 250 m and at speeds up to 1,400 km/h. The RBK-500
ZAB-2.5SM can be released from aircraft at altitudes above 70 m and at speeds up to 1,400 km/h.

Operational Status
The RBK-250 ZAB-2.5M and the RBK-500 ZAB-2.5SM cluster bombs are in service with the Russian Federation and allied
air forces. In the mid-1990s both were advertised in the Incendiary Air Bomb section of a Russian arms catalogue. There are no
known exports.
Specifications
RBK-250 ZAB-2.5M RBK-500 ZAB-2.5SM ZAB-2.5 bomblet
Length 2.12 m 2.5 m 0.135 m
Body diameter 325 mm 450 mm 91 mm
Tailspan n/k n/k n/a
Lug spacing 250 mm 250 mm n/a
Weight 194 kg 435 kg 2.7 kg
Filling 48 ZAB-2.5 bomblets 117 ZAB-2.5 bomblets 1.72 kg incendiary mix

Contractor
Bazalt State Research and Production Enterprise
Moscow.
UPDATED

Line drawings of the RBK-250 ZAB-2.5M showing payload of ZAB-25M bomblets (top), and RBK-500
ZAB-2.5SM (bottom)
(1999)

Close-up of a ZAB-2.5 bomblet


(1999)

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BOMBS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

FZAB-500 BOMB
Type
Penetrating fire bomb.
Development
There are reported to have been several hundred types of air-carried, free-fall weapons to have been held by former Warsaw
Pact countries, with more than three-quarters of them being of former Soviet Union design. The most numerous of these were
naturally the FAB series of bombs. FAB stands for fugasnaya aviabomba meaning `aerial demolition bomb' which is known as
a general purpose bomb in the West. The designation letters are followed by numbers that refer to the bomb size category.
Little is known of the development of this family of conventional free-fall general purpose bombs other than it has been a
continuing process since the First World War. Before the 1940s, the known FAB bombs were the FAB-50, FAB-250 and
FAB-500 (these early bombs are covered in a separate entry). Some FAB bombs developed since the early 1940s had an
additional letter `M' followed by a further number in its designation, that signified the year that range of FAB bombs entered
operational service. Others have special indices explaining design or combat features. The FAB M-62 series of bombs were
developed in the early 1960s to provide the former Soviet Union with a range of streamlined low-drag general purpose bombs,
and to take advantage of newly developed more powerful explosives like `torpex.' These are covered in a separate entry.
In 1996, a 500 kg size bomb, designated FZAB-500, appeared in the FAB section of a Russian air armament catalogue listed
as a demolition incendiary bomb. From its appearance the bomb is believed to be a further development of the FAB-500M-62.
Developed in order to provide the Russian Federation with a penetrating incendiary bomb for use against concrete fortified
targets such as munition and fuel depots, aircraft shelters command bunkers and so on. The bomb's design allows it to be
carried under the wings or fuselage of high-speed aircraft with minimum performance degradation and is fitted with standard
Russian spaced suspension lugs.
The FZAB-500 can also be carried in bomb bays of larger bombers. It is believed that the FZAB-500 has been cleared for
carriage on MiG-21 `Fishbed' MiG-23B `Flogger', MiG-25 `Foxbat', Su-17 `Fitter', Su-24 `Fencer', Su-25 `Frogfoot', Tu-95
`Bear', and Tu-16 `Badger' aircraft.
Description
Except for having a special shaped hardened nose the FZAB-500 is similar in appearance to the FAB-500M-62 demolition
bomb. The main body, which is divided into two sections, has an aerodynamic shape similar to the US Mk 83 bomb and is
fitted with 250 mm spaced suspension lugs. However, the tail unit has retained the familiar Russian four fin and drum
configuration although somewhat streamlined. The FZAB-500 is 2.5 m long, has a body diameter of 450 mm and weighs 500
kg. The front section of the bomb, which has a tapering thickened skin and a hardened nose, is filled with 200 kg of torpex high
explosive. The rear section of the bomb itself is filled with 100 pieces of an unspecified incendiary material. Details of the
fuzing are not known. The FZAB-500 is credited with the ability to penetrate 200 mm of reinforced concrete and can be
released at altitudes from 200 m to 22 km at speeds between 500 and 2,100 km/h.
Operational Status
The FZAB-500 is in service with Russian Federation and allied air forces. In the mid-1990s it was offered for export, but as yet
there have been no reported orders.
Specifications
Length: 2.5 m
Body diameter: 450 mm
Tailspan: 0.22 m
Lug spacing: 250 mm
Weight: 500 kg
Filling: 200 kg HE and incendiary agent.
Contractors
Bazalt State Research and Production Enterprise
Moscow.
UPDATED

Line drawing of a FZAB-500 bomb showing internal components


(1999)

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GUNS, PODS AND MOUNTINGS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

GUV (VERSATILE HELICOPTER POD)


Type
Gun pod for 7.62 mm, 12.7 mm machine guns or 30 mm grenade launcher.
Development
The Gondala Universalnaya Vertolotnaya (GUV) or Versatile Helicopter Pod was developed by the Spetztekhnika Vympel
NPO for use by Russian and allied air forces. The programme requirement was to provide a removable, short-range,
ground-attack weapon system for attacking personnel and soft-skinned targets. Little is known of the pod's development,
except that it was designed to incorporate two four-barrel GSh G 7.62 mm machine guns with a total of 1,500 rounds of
ammunition, together with one four-barrel 12.7 mm YakB-12.7 gun with 750 rounds of ammunition or a 30 mm grenade
launcher with 300 grenades. A GUV was displayed in Moscow in 1994 fitted with only a single 30 mm grenade launcher that
was designated 9A-800. It is not known if this is another designation for the helicopter version of the 30 mm AIC-17 (NATO
designation AGS-17 `Plamya') grenade launcher or a different weapon. The GUV's hard back is fitted with 110 mm suspension
eye bolts that allow it to be suspended from a Russian standard helicopter rack. The GUV was displayed alongside a Russian
Mi-35M attack helicopter at the 1995 Paris Air Show. Russian literature in 1996 stated that the GUV had been developed for
use on Mi-8 `Hip', Mi-24 `Hind' and Ka-25 `Hormone' helicopters. Before this, the container was reportedly seen on the Mi-24
and Ka-27/Ka-29 Helix combat helicopters.
Description
The GUV is a cigar-shaped metal container with rounded front and rear ends and fitted with 110 mm suspension lugs. In the
centre of the nose cowl is a vertical slot into which a gun cradle is fitted that can carry either a single four-barrel 12.7 mm
YakB Gatling-type machine gun or a 30 mm grenade launcher. On each side of the central slot are two circular apertures,
behind each of which is a four-barrel GSh G 7.62 mm Gatling-type general purpose machine gun with its barrels protruding
through the apertures. When fitted with the three machine guns, the GUV carries 750 rounds of 12.7 mm ammunition and
1,500 rounds of 7.62 mm ammunition and weighs around 450 kg. With these three guns the GUV is credited with an extremely
high rate of fire, over 12,000 rds/min. Further details of both guns can be found in a separate entry on Russian Guns.
It is unclear if, when fitted with the grenade launcher, the two GSh G 7.62 mm guns are installed together with the grenade
launcher, because Russian literature quotes that with the grenade launcher fitted, the ammunition is replaced by 300 grenades
and the overall weight of the GUV is then reduced to 274 kg. The AIC-17A grenade launcher has a cyclic rate of fire of 420 to
500 rds/min, and a muzzle velocity of 180 m/s. Further details of the AIC-17A can be found in the Gun Unclassified Projects
section.
Operational status
The GUV helicopter pod is in production and in service with Russian and allied air forces. However, no details have been
released on any sales or orders.
Specifications
Length: 3.0 m (without armament)
Diameter: 400 mm
Number of guns: 2 × GSh G 7.62 mm machine guns
1 × 12.7 mm YakB or 30 mm grenade launcher
Ammunition capacity: 1,500 rounds (7.62 mm) and 750 rounds 12.7 mm or 300 × 30 mm grenades
Lug spacing: 110 mm
Weight: 452 kg including guns and ammunition, 274 kg including grenade launcher and ammunition
Contractor
Spetztekhnika Vympel NPO
Moscow.
UPDATED

A Russian GUV helicopter pod fitted with a single 12.7 mm YakB 12.7 and two GSh G 7.62 mm
machine guns, on display at the 1995 Paris Air Show. Beside the pod is the centre-mounted alternative
AIC-17 30 mm grenade launcher (Duncan Lennox)
(1998)

GUV helicopter pod fitted with only a single AIC-17 (AGS-17 `Plamya') 30 mm grenade launcher on
display in 1994 (Charles Bickers)
(1998)

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AIR-TO-AIR MISSILES, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

SA-16 `GIMLET' (9M313 Igla 1) and SA-18 `GROUSE' (9M39


Igla)
Type
Short-range, IR air-to-air missiles.
Development
SA-16 `Gimlet' was first confirmed in use in 1987, when photographs of the surface-to-air version were released by the South
Africans following their capture of some of these missiles in Angola. The missile is called Igla 1 by the Russians in the
surface-to-air variant, with the designator 9M313. The development programme for SA-16 is believed to have followed closely
behind that for SA-14 `Gremlin', probably starting in the mid-1970s. SA-18 `Grouse' has the Russian designation 9M39 Igla,
and is now believed to have entered service before SA-16 `Gimlet'. The missiles are similar, and it is easy to understand the
confusion. However, both have a nose spike to keep the glass radome cooler at high speed. There are reports that two further
versions of SA-16 are in development, Igla 1M and Igla 2, but no further details are available. It is believed that SA-16 and
SA-18 are carried by Mi-24 `Hind', and probably Mi-28 `Havoc' and Ka-50 `Hokum' helicopters. SA-16 were displayed on an
Mi-17MD helicopter in 1996, and SA-18 were displayed in 1997.
Description
The SA-16 `Gimlet' launcher tube has two major differences from those used for the SA-7 `Grail' and SA-14 `Gremlin': the
tube is longer and the protective IR dome cover is conical in shape (SA-7 and SA-14 tube end covers are flat plates). It is
believed that SA-16 is 1.69 m long, has a body diameter of 72 mm and weighs 10.8 kg. The missile has four small pop-out
rectangular control fins near the nose, and four rectangular fins at the tail. The improved IR cooled seeker head has most
probably a two-colour detection system to discriminate flares, and an improved all-aspect capability. The rear body shape is
similar to the US Stinger design and the seeker dome has a cone supported in front to reduce drag. Digital electronics can be
expected, together with a longer standby capability. Boost and sustainer motors give the SA-16 a velocity of 570 m/s and a
range of about 5 km. SA-16 has a minimum range of 500 m, and can intercept targets at between 10 m and 3,000 m altitude.
SA-18 `Grouse' (9M39 Igla) is similar to SA-16, except that a single spike was used in front of the seeker dome. The
performance, size and weight of SA-16 and SA-18 are believed to be the same. A four-missile launch canister and nitrogen
coolant bottle assembly weighs 60 kg. A missile and canister weighs 16.8 kg and each missile has four coolant bottles. SA-18
uses a 9E410 two colour cooled seeker with protection against flare decoys and modulated jammers. The seeker field of view is
±40º, and the maximum sightline spin rate is 12º/s. For training a simpler seeker can be used, designated OS UA-24, and this
seeker does not have the distinctive nose spike. SA-18 can engage targets at altitudes of up to 3,500 m.
Operational status
It is believed that SA-18 `Grouse' entered service in Russia in 1983, followed by SA-16 `Gimlet' in 1986. It is believed that
both missiles have been exported to Angola, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Iraq, North Korea, Poland
and Slovakia. Licensed production has been carried out in Bulgaria, and there are unconfirmed reports that North Korea is also
building SA-16/-18 missiles. Some SA-16 missiles are believed to have been used by Iraq during the 1991 Gulf War.

Specifications
Length: 1.69 m
Body diameter: 72 mm
Wing span: 0.25 m
Launch weight: 10.8 kg
Warhead: 2.0 kg HE fragmentation
Fuze: Impact
Guidance: IR
Propulsion: Solid propellant
Range: 5 km
Contractor
SA-16 and SA-18 missiles were designed by the KBM Engineering Design Bureau, Kolomna, and manufactured by the VA
Degtyarev Plant, Korov.
The seekers are manufactured by LOMO, St Petersburg and CDO Arsenal, Kiev, Ukraine.
UPDATED

A twin helicopter launch assembly with an SA-18 `Grouse' (Igla) missile in front, showing the
distinctive nose spike (Duncan Lennox)
(1998)

An SA-16 `Gimlet' (Igla 1) missile with its double cone-shaped nose spike (Christoper F Foss)
(1998)

An SA-18 `Grouse' twin launcher assembly with eight IR seeker coolant bottles mounted above (Peter
Humphris)
(1998)

SA-16 (upper) and SA-18 (lower)


(1996)

A rear view of a four-missile launcher assembly for SA-16 `Gimlet' on an Mi-17MD helicopter (Peter
Humphris)
(1997)

Two IR seekers used with the SA-18 `Grouse' (Igla) missile system. On the right is the operational seeker, and on
the left a seeker used for training (Duncan Lennox)
(1998)

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AIR-TO-AIR MISSILES, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

SA-14 `GREMLIN' (9M36 Strela-3)


Type
Short-range, IR air-to-air missile.
Development
SA-14 `Gremlin' is the NATO code and designation for this second-generation Russian man-portable surface-to-air missile
(9M36 Strela-3). Development is believed to have started around 1970 as a successor to SA-7 `Grail', and the missile first
entered service in 1974. It is believed that the SA-14 is carried by Mi-24 `Hind E' and Mi-2 `Hoplite' helicopters in preference
to the SA-7 `Grail'. The SA-14 `Gremlin' has been replaced by the SA-16 `Gimlet' (9M313 Igla 1) and SA-18 `Grouse' (9M39
Igla).
Description
There is probably little difference between SA-14 `Gremlin' and SA-7 `Grail' helicopter launcher tube assemblies. The missile
is believed to be similar to the SA-7b `Grail' version, with a length of 1.47 m, a body diameter of 72 mm, and a fin span of
0.3 m. The missile weight is 10.5 kg, and a 2 kg HE fragmentation warhead is fitted. The SA-14 has an improved IR seeker
with IRCM capability, and sufficient sensitivity to have an all-aspect engagement envelope. A more efficient motor results in
an increased range capability, to 5 km. It is also reported that SA-14 has a shorter reaction time than SA-7 `Grail', and an
improved thermal battery with a longer life.
Operational status
SA-14 `Gremlin' entered service in 1974, and production in Russia probably ceased in 1985. Exports of the SAM version have
been reported to Afghanistan, Angola, Belarus, Cuba, Czech Republic, Finland, Georgia, Germany, Hungary, India, Jordan,
Latvia, Nicaragua, Poland, Slovakia, Syria and Ukraine. There have been no confirmed reports of SA-14 on helicopters used by
these countries.
Specifications
Length: 1.47 m
Body diameter: 72 mm
Wing span: 0.3 m
Launch weight: 10.5 kg
Warhead: 2 kg HE fragmentation
Fuze: Impact
Guidance: IR
Propulsion: Solid propellant
Range: 5 km
Contractor
It is believed that the Turopov OKB-134 bureau at Tushino designed SA-14 `Gremlin', although other reports suggest the KBM
Engineering and Design Bureau, Kolomna.
UPDATED

A photograph showing the three small Russian surface-to-air missile launchers, from the top the SA-16
`Gimlet', SA-14 `Gremlin' in the middle, and SA-7 `Grail' at the bottom. These are export versions, and
the air-to-air missile launchers may have a different appearance (Jane's Defence Weekly)
(1992)

SA-14 'Gremlin'
(1996)

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AIR-TO-AIR MISSILES, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

SA-7 `GRAIL' (9M32 Strela-2)


Type
Short-range, IR air-to-air missile.
Development
SA-7 `Grail' is the NATO code and designation for this first-generation man-portable surface-to-air missile; the system is
named Strela-2 by the Russians and the missile has the designation 9M32. Development started in 1959, with the SA-7a first
entering service in 1966. The `Grail' has been progressively developed since then, with SA-7b `Grail' or Strela-2M introduced
in 1971 with improved seeker, warhead and motor, and a version introduced in the mid-1970s with a more sensitive IR seeker.
In 1997 a dual-band uncooled IR seeker, designated 9E46M, was proposed as an upgrade for older SA-7 missiles. (This was an
uncooled version of the seeker used in the SA-18 `Grouse' (Igla) missile). This seeker would provide protection against flares
and modulated jammers. Known principally as a surface-to-air missile, SA-7 has been reported as being used on Russian
helicopters in the air-to-air role since the late 1970s. The missile has been seen carried on Mi-2M `Hoplite', Mi-24 `Hind E' and
Yugoslav Gazelle helicopters. SA-14 `Gremlin' was the replacement system for `Grail', but both SA-7 and SA-14 missiles have
now been replaced by SA-16 `Gimlet' (Igla 1) and SA-18 `Grouse' (Igla) missiles in Russia.
Description
SA-7 `Grail' is a tube-launched missile, with two small rectangular moving control fins at the nose and four swept rectangular
wings trailing from the tail. The missile is 1.42 m long, has a body diameter of 72 mm and a wing span of 0.3 m. The missile
weighs 9.2 kg for the SA-7a. Guidance is by IR seeker, with the early SA-7a version having an uncooled seeker with very
limited capability. However, the sensitivity has been improved in the later missile versions (SA-7b/Strela-2M) by using an
upgraded 9E46 uncooled seeker. The missile is limited to tail aspect engagements, and has no protection against flare decoys or
modulated jammers. The boost motor burns for 0.5 seconds and the sustainer for just under 2 seconds, accelerating the missile
to about 385 m/s, and giving it a range of about 3 km. For the SA-7b `Grail' version the IR seeker is still uncooled, but it
contains a filter to remove extraneous IR returns. The SA-7b weighs 10 kg and is slightly longer than SA-7a at 1.44 m. A more
powerful motor gives an increased range to 5 km, and a larger 1.8 kg warhead is fitted.
Operational status
In service with many countries in various forms, since 1966 as a SAM, SA-7 `Grail' was first seen being carried for use in
air-to-air combat on helicopters in the late 1970s. SA-7 is not used in Russia, having been replaced by the SA-16 and SA-18
missiles. However, it was reported in 1997 that over 50,000 SA-7 missiles remain in service use around the world. Egypt,
Romania, Poland, Yugoslavia, Pakistan and China have built SA-7 `Grail' variants; the Egyptian variant is called Sakr Eye and
the Chinese HN-5. The Romanian version is designated A-94, with a later modification designated CA-94. Pakistan's missiles
are Anza Mk 1/Mk 2, Poland's are Strzala-2 and the former Yugoslavia are Strela-2M/A. The Russian SA-7 `Grail' has also
been licence built in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Poland and Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro). The following countries
probably use SA-7 in a helicopter-launched role: Afghanistan, Angola, Belarus, Bulgaria, China, Cuba, Georgia, India, North
Korea, Libya, Mongolia, Poland, Sudan, Syria, Ukraine, Vietnam and Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro).
Specifications
SA-7a
Length: 1.42 m
Body diameter: 72 mm
Wing span: 0.3 m
Launch weight: 9.2 kg
Warhead: 1.2 kg HE fragmentation
Fuze: Impact
Guidance: IR
Propulsion: Solid propellant
Range: 3 km
SA-7b
Length: 1.44 m
Body diameter: 72 mm
Wing span: 0.3 m
Launch weight: 10 kg
Warhead: 1.8 kg HE fragmentation
Fuze: Impact
Guidance: IR
Propulsion: Solid propellant
Range: 5 km
Contractor
SA-7 is believed to have been designed by the Turopov OKB-134, Tushino, but other reports suggest that the design was by the
KBM Engineering and Design Bureau, Kolomna.
The seeker is manufactured by LOMO
St Petersburg.
UPDATED

SA-7b `Grail' mounted between two AT-3 `Sagger' air-to-surface missiles, on a Yugoslav Gazelle
helicopter mounting using the older 9P53 grip-stock and tube assembly (Paul Beaver)
(1992)

Two SA-7b `Grail' launch tubes with the 9P54 glass fibre launcher assembly and rotating double nose cap
(1998)

SA-7 `Grail'
(1992)

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AIR-TO-AIR MISSILES, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

R-37 (AA-X-13)
Type
Long-range, radar-guided, air-to-air missile.
Development
First seen in 1992, the R-37 was being developed by Vympel NPO as a replacement for the AA-9 `Amos' (R-33) semi-active
radar-guided missile. It is believed that this missile has been given the NATO designator AA-X-13. The R-37 is similar in size
to the AA-9 `Amos', but has an active radar terminal seeker and a longer range. Designed in the early 1980s, the missile was
first flown in 1989. Flight trials continued until around 1998, and it was presumed that the missile would be carried by the
MiG-31M `Foxhound B' aircraft, which has carriage points under the fuselage for six missiles, and later by the Su-35.
Unconfirmed reports suggest that a further version was proposed, with the designator R-37M, with a jettisonable booster
assembly, increasing the range to between 300 and 400 km. This longer range version is expected to be fitted to modified
MiG-29SMT `Fulcrum' or MiG-31BM `Foxhound' aircraft.
Description
R-37 has four long-chord clipped-tip delta-wings at mid-body, and four rectangular moving control fins at the rear. The missile
is around 4.2 m long, has a body diameter of about 380 mm, and a wing span of about 0.7 m. The rear control fins are hinged to
facilitate clearance when the missiles are loaded on the aircraft. R-37 appears to use the same semi-recessed carriage with
trapeze launch rails below the fuselage as AA-9 `Amos' on the MiG-31 `Foxhound A' aircraft. It is believed that the missile
launch weight is 600 kg, and that a 60 kg HE fragmentation warhead is fitted. However, the design bureau suggested in 1995
that a redesign was being investigated to reduce the launch weight to 450 kg. Guidance is inertial in mid-course with command
updates from the aircraft, with small link antenna located at the rear of the missile just below the motor nozzle. A dual-mode
active/semi-active radar seeker, 9B-1388, is fitted to the missile for both mid-course and terminal guidance. Lock on range for
the semi-active radar is probably 75 km and, for the active radar seeker, is probably 25 km. The weight of the seeker assembly
is 45 kg, excluding the radome. The command datalink has a range of 100 km. A solid propellant motor is expected to give the
R-37 a range of about 150 km, although reports in 1995 indicated that following careful trajectory shaping a range in excess of
250 km had been achieved.
Operational status
The R-37 programme is a further development of the AA-9 `Amos' (R-33) missile. R-37 design was started in the early 1980s,
and the missile first flew in 1989. In 1994 a series of trials was made with launches from a MiG-31M aircraft, with one
intercept at 250 km range. By 1995 it was reported that delays to the MiG-31M `Foxhound B' aircraft's Zaslon-M radar could
delay entry of R-37 into service. It is believed that the original R-37 programme was terminated in 1998, but it is possible that
the dual-mode seekers could be retrofitted into upgraded AA-9 `Amos' missiles. R-37M missiles might be fitted to upgraded
MiG-31M `Foxhound B' aircraft at some time in the future.

Specifications
Length: 4.2 m
Body diameter: 380 mm
Wing span: 0.7 m
Launch weight: 600 kg
Warhead: 60 kg HE fragmentation
Fuze: n/k
Guidance: Inertial with command updates, semi-active radar and active radar
Propulsion: Solid propellant
Range: 150 km
Contractors
Vympel NPO
Moscow (prime contractor).
MRI Agat
Moscow (radar seeker).
UPDATED

The missile on the left of the picture is an R-37 under the fuselage of a MiG-31M `Foxhound B'; the
missile in the centre is a modified R-33S (AA-9 `Amos') but with its wings not fitted (Yefim Gordon)
(1993)

The two outer missiles are R-37s with their rear control fins folded, the central missile is a modified
R-33S (AA-9 `Amos') (Yefim Gordon)
(1993)

R-37
(1994)

The combined active/semi-active radar seeker assembly, 9B-1388, for the R-37 air-to-air missile (Duncan
Lennox)
(1997)

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AIR-TO-AIR MISSILES, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

AA-12 `ADDER' (R-77)


Type
Medium-range, radar-guided, air-to-air missile.
Development
AA-12 `Adder' is the NATO designator for this new Russian air-to-air missile which was first seen in Minsk in February 1992.
The aviation press quickly named the missile `AMRAAMSKI', because earlier reports indicated that the missile was not unlike
the US AIM-120 AMRAAM in appearance and likely performance, but the Russian development designator is AAM-AE (or
RVV-AE) with the service designator R-77. It is believed that the programme started in 1982. The rear fins are believed to be
based upon the design for terminal phase control fins of both the SS-21 `Scarab' and SS-23 `Spider' short-range ballistic
missiles, but with the fins for AA-12 designed to be much lighter as they do not have to withstand such high velocities. Such
fins could give several advantages: lighter weight; less flow separation at high angles of attack; produce a greater aerodynamic
moment force; and probably require less actuator power and movement. AA-12 has been designed to attack manoeuvring
aircraft, helicopters and cruise missiles. It is believed that the original AA-12 missile design was made by the Molniya OKB in
Ukraine, responsible for the earlier AA-8 and AA-11 missile designs. Flight tests started in 1984 and around 200 missiles were
built in the Ukraine up until 1994. Following the break-up of the former Soviet Union, the Russian Air Force decided that
manufacture of the missile would be transferred to Vympel NPO in Moscow, and it is thought that initial production and
further development started with Vympel from 1993. Further versions are reported to be in development by Vympel. A version
with an IR seeker, an increased range R-77M version with the weight increased to 185 kg, a longer-range rocket/ramjet motor
version with a range extended to 150 km specifically to attack AEW aircraft (R-77M-PD), and a ground-launched SAM variant
(R-77-3PK). Vertically launched firings were reported in 1993, from a trials canister simulating ship SAM installations, with a
larger diameter motor incorporating TVC, folding fins and wings. An upgraded active radar has been developed by MRI Agat,
with a range increased to 25 km, and this is designated 9B1103M. This radar has a weight reduced to 10 kg, less radome. NIIP
and Vympel were reported to be developing a new fire-control system, target acquisition radar and command datalink to fit
AA-12 to other aircraft, without a radar. The new system would weigh around 60 kg, and flight trials were expected to start in
2000. A smaller version of AA-12 has also been reported, for fitting into internal weapons bays on future stealth aircraft. With
the transfer of AA-12 production from the Ukraine to Russia, and the shortage of funding for the Russian Air Force, the AA-12
programme has been subject to long delays. There has been no production order for R-77 missiles for the Russian Air Force,
but there may have been a small number of RVV-AE or R-77E export version missiles built by Vympel. It is expected that any
Russian Air Force order will be for the improved R-77M version. If China builds the AA-12 missile under license, it is reported
that the version will be similar to R-77E but with an improved maximum range, and will have the designator R-129. The
missile has been seen fitted to MiG-29 `Fulcrum', MiG-31M `Foxhound' and Su-27 `Flanker' aircraft on underwing pylons,
with up to eight missiles on the MiG-29. The AA-12 missile can be fitted to MiG-29M, ME, N, S, SE, SM and SMT versions.
The upgraded MiG-21 `Fishbed' (MiG-21/93) will carry two AA-12 missiles. It is expected that AA-12 will be carried by the
Su-27SMK 'Flanker B', Su-30KN, MKK, and MKI versions, and on the Su-34 and Su-35 'Flanker C'. Studies have been made
for carriage on Tu-26 `Backfire' and Tu-160 `Blackjack' bombers.

Description
The AA-12 `Adder' has straight rectangular long-chord, narrow-span wings (not unlike the French MICA air-to-air missile) and
an unusual set of four rectangular control fins at the rear. The missile is 3.6 m long, with a body diameter of 200 mm, a wing
span of 0.4 m, an extended rear fin span of 0.7 m, and a launch weight of 175 kg. The guidance is inertial with mid-course
updates from the launch aircraft, followed by a terminal active radar phase from an acquisition range of about 15 km. The
9B-1348 active radar seeker is a multifunction Doppler monopulse system, believed to operate in J-band (10 to 20 GHz), with a
home-on-jam mode capability. The seeker weight is 16 kg, without a radome. Reports indicate that early MiG-29 and Su-27
aircraft radars could only launch AA-12 missiles at a single target, but later radar modifications allow two separate targets to be
engaged simultaneously. The aircraft datalink has a maximum range of 50 km, although a later modification is reported to
increase this range to 100 km. From photographs, there appear to be four update command link antennas on the forebody
assembly, similar to those seen on AA-7 `Apex' and AA-10 `Alamo', and an active laser fuze is located next to the warhead
section. The warhead is a HE blast fragmentation type weighing 22 kg, and reports suggest that a directional warhead may be
fitted as an improvement. The rear control fins have an extended span of 0.75 m but are folded for aircraft carriage. Each fin
consists of five thin aerofoil sections mounted in a rectangular cage assembly measuring about 240 × 105 mm, with aerofoils
set at 45º and 135º to the line of the relevant wing. A round collar at the base of each fin probably holds the outer fin cage
together and is mounted onto an electrical actuator stub shaft. The propulsion system is reported to be a two-stage solid
propellant motor giving the missile a range in the region of 75 km, and a snap-up/snap-down capability of 10 km (33,000 ft).
The AA-12 has a probable maximum velocity of about M3.0. Higher speeds have been reported but these are thought to be
unlikely because of the problems associated with radome heating rather than with motor performance. Unconfirmed reports
suggest that AA-12 has been designed for internal carriage on new aircraft, as the rear control fins fold down. It is believed that
the missiles will be ejected from the internal carriage bay using ejection release units, but the carriage on Su-27 and MiG-29
aircraft is on APU series rail launchers. The minimum launch range is 300 m and the maximum around 75 km, with intercepts
against targets at altitudes from 20 m up to 30 km (100,000 ft). AA-12 is reported to have the capability to intercept aircraft
manoeuvring up to 12 g, and to have a maximum flight time of 100 seconds.
Operational status
It is believed that AA-12 `Adder' started development in 1982, with the first flight test in 1984, and with development
completed in 1991. A small number of missiles, believed to be around 200, were built in the Ukraine between 1984 and 1994.
These missiles were used for the Russian Air Force initial operational evaluation, which used around 100 missiles and was
completed in 1996. Further missiles were probably used for export sales demonstrators up to around 1999. Manufacture and
further development was transferred to Vympel NPO in Russia in 1993, and the first new evaluation missiles started to be
delivered from 1998. The AA-12 is not yet in operational service with the Russian Air Force, although some pre-production
missiles are believed to be being used for evaluation and aircraft clearance trials in Russia. It is expected that a Russian Air
Force order would be for the improved R-77M version. The missile has been offered for export since 1992, as the R-77E, and
reports in 1995 indicated that China, India and Malaysia would probably receive AA-12 missiles. Malaysia received a small
number of Ukrainian-built missiles for evaluation in 1996, and these were fitted to MiG-29N aircraft. Confirmation of a
production order by Malaysia for the Russian-built version has not been made public. China is believed to have ordered 100
missiles for evaluation on Su-30MKK aircraft, and it is expected that if this is successful then China will start to build the
R-129 version under license. Indian aircrew have tested AA-12 missiles in Russia from MiG-29SE and modified MiG-21/93
aircraft in 1999 and 2000. An unconfirmed report in 2000 suggested that Peru ordered 30 missiles for evaluation.
Specifications
Length: 3.6 m
Body diameter: 200 mm
Wing span: 0.4 m
Launch weight: 175 kg
Warhead: 22 kg HE fragmentation
Fuze: Active laser
Guidance: Inertial, command and active radar
Propulsion: Solid propellant
Range: 75 km
Contractors
It is believed that the initial design of AA-12 was made by the Molniya OKB in Ukraine, and that later design and production
was transferred to Vympel NPO, Moscow.
MRI Agat
Moscow (radar seeker).
UPDATED

An AA-12 (R-77) medium-range air-to-air missile under an Su-27 `Flanker' aircraft at Farnborough Air
Show in 1994 (Duncan Lennox)
(1994)

A close-up view of the rear control fins of the AA-12 `Adder' (R-77) missile (Duncan Lennox)
(1998)

AA-12
(1994)

AA-12 `Adder' (R-77) missile displayed at Farnborough in 1996, mounted on an AKY-170E pylon
(Duncan Lennox)
(1997)

A trial launch of an AA-12 (R-77) missile from a MiG-29 `Fulcrum' (via Nick Cook)
(1996)

The active radar seeker assembly, 9B-1348, for the AA-12 `Adder' missile (Duncan Lennox)
(1997)

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AIR-TO-AIR MISSILES, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

AA-11 `ARCHER' (R-73, R-74)


Type
Medium-range, IR-guided air-to-air missile.
Development
AA-11 `Archer' is the NATO designator and codename given to this fourth-generation short-range IR-guided air-to-air missile.
This missile has the Russian designation R-73 and there are two versions known as R-73M1 and R-73M2. The development of
`Archer' probably started in the late 1970s, and it is believed that the missile entered service around 1987. The missile was
developed by the Molniya OKB in Ukraine, probably the same design bureau that developed the AA-8 `Aphid', for there are
some similar features between the two missiles. However, `Archer' was designed for use by fighter aircraft against agile
opponent fighters, for the design emphasises manoeuvrability. The missile has been cleared for carriage on the Su-27 `Flanker',
upgraded MiG-21 `Fishbed', MiG-23 `Flogger', MiG-29 `Fulcrum', MiG-31 `Foxhound' and MiG-31M. AA-11 was seen fitted
to a Su-24MK 'Fencer D' aircraft in 2000, together with a helmet-mounted sighting system. Also in 2000, a South African
Mirage F1 was exhibited with AA-11 missiles and a Kentron helmet-mounted sight, probably for export when the Mirage F1
aircraft are sold. It is expected that AA-11 missiles will be fitted to the Su-30, Su-32, Su-34 and Su-35 aircraft. In addition,
missiles have been seen fitted to an upgraded Romanian SA 330 Puma helicopter. AA-11 is carried on P-72 rail launchers,
which have a nitrogen IR seeker coolant bottle inside the launcher assembly. The `Flanker' has been seen with AA-11 `Archer'
missiles on the two wingtip pylons, and on the two outboard wing pylons. In addition, a mixed load of AA-8 `Aphid', AA-11
`Archer' and AA-10 `Alamo' has been seen on the `Flanker'; with the AA-8 on the outboard wing pylons, AA-11 on the centre
wing pylons and AA-10 (radar version) on the inner wing pylons. The Su-27 is capable of carrying up to six AA-11 missiles.
Both the Su-27 `Flanker' and MiG-29 `Fulcrum' have helmet-mounted sights for the pilot to designate the AA-11 `Archer'
missiles to targets at large off-boresight angles, outside the field of view of the head-up displays.
It is possible that an improved AA-11 missile will be produced as a gimbal-mounted motor nozzle assembly is reported to be
in development by Vympel NPO. This would improve both manoeuvrability and range for AA-11, with reports of a 40 km
range, or it could be used as a prototype for the next-generation short-range air-to-air missile. It is known that an improved
variant of AA-11 has the Russian designator R-74, but the differences between this and the earlier R-73 versions remain
unclear. It is believed that R-74 represents a compromise lower cost improvement in comparison to that proposed by Vympel,
using an improved seeker and improved TVC (but using vanes in the exhaust as on the R-73). However an unconfirmed report
suggests that R-74 is a longer and heavier missile, with a length of 3.2 m and launch weight of 115 kg, designed for attacking
targets in the rear hemisphere behind the launch aircraft. It is believed that the rearwards-launched missile has a range of
between 1 and 12 km against following aircraft targets. Reports in 1994 indicated that trials have been made of AA-11 from the
wingtip pylon of a modified Su-27 `Flanker', with the missile rotated to face aft just before launch. An Su-32 FN aircraft
displayed in 1997 showed what was believed to be a rotating wingtip pylon, and it is believed that a similar pylon is fitted to
the Su-30 MKI aircraft. The Su-34 prototype has a rearward-facing radar mounted between the engine nozzles. It is also
believed that a rear-firing AA-11 will be provided on production Su-34 aircraft. In 1996 some AA-11 missiles were displayed
without any front fins at all, and with larger-span rear wings. These might simply have been training acquisition rounds, or a
prototype tail control successor to AA-11 `Archer'. In 1997, unconfirmed reports suggested that an improved seeker was
available for the AA-11 missile, with two externally mounted detectors to increase the sensitivity. It is believed that this
modification to the seeker assembly uses similar detectors to those provided in the UA-96 modification to the AA-8 `Aphid'
seeker.
An unconfirmed report from Serbia stated that a ground-launched version of AA-11 was developed and used in 1999. Two
missiles were fitted on standard aircraft launch rails on a converted Praga M53/59 armoured vehicle chassis, in place of two 30
mm cannon.
Description
AA-11 `Archer' has at the nose four small swept rectangular moving control fins or sensors, followed by four fixed rectangular
fins, and then four clipped-tip triangular moving fins. These three sets of fins are all in line. The front row of `fins' has small
counterweights, and these are angle of incidence sensors for the control system, enabling the missile to manoeuvre at up to 40º
incidence. The missile has four rectangular wings at the rear, with moving control surfaces at their trailing edges. In addition,
there are four thrust vector control vanes in the motor efflux. All the moving control surfaces are powered by pressurised gas
through an accumulator. There is a cable loom strake running the length of the missile. This complex combination of control
systems was designed to give the missile good manoeuvrability both at launch, for use against off-boresight targets, and at the
end of flight to counter the agility of any target fighters. `Archer' is 2.9 m long, has a body diameter of 170 mm, front fin span
of 0.38 m, a wing span of 0.51 m and a weight of 105 kg (R-73M1) or 110 kg (R-73M2). The missile has inertial mid-course
guidance with a terminal two-colour IR seeker, and it is believed to have an all-aspect engagement capability as well as the
ability to discriminate against flare decoys. The 0S Mk-80 seeker assembly is manufactured by CDO Arsenal in the Ukraine,
and has a range of 15 km in the forward hemisphere with a field of view of ±75º. AA-11 has the capability to be designated and
to lock onto a target before launch, with designation from the aircraft radar, IRST or the pilot's helmet-mounted sight. The
warhead weighs 7.4 kg and has been described as a fragmenting rod type by the design bureau. The fuze appears to be an active
radar type, similar to that used on AA-8 `Aphid', which is surprising since the West has found that active laser fuzes give a
better performance for short- or medium-range all-aspect air-to-air missiles. It is therefore possible that two fuze types can be
fitted and a 1997 report indicated that an active laser fuze is fitted to the R-73EL version. The solid propellant motor has boost
and sustain burn phases, as the motor must be burning for as long as possible to use the thrust vector control system. The
R-73M1 version has a minimum range of 300 m and a maximum range of 20 km, with an off-boresight capability for target
designation before launch out to 45º, using the helmet-mounted sight. The R-73M2 version has an off-boresight capability
improved to 60º, and a maximum range against a typical fighter target of 30 km. Both R-73M1 and R-73M2 missiles can track
targets in flight with off-boresight angles greater than these designation limits, increasing to 60º and 80º respectively. It is
believed that the missiles can follow targets manoeuvring at up to 12 g, with sightline spin rates of up to 60º/s. AA-11 `Archer'
can engage targets at altitudes from 20 m up to 20 km. R-73M2 has digital control electronics and IRCCM, which presumably
can be reprogrammed as decoy flares change. The greater range means that this version has a longer burning rocket motor, with
suggestions that this missile can turn through 180º after launch. The R-73M2 version is believed to have a capability to attack
low-flying missiles.
Operational status
It is believed that AA-11 `Archer' (R-73M1 version) entered service in Russia during 1987 and that the later R-73M2 version
entered service in 1996. The improved R-74 version has been flight tested from 1994, but is not yet operational. There have
been reports that AA-11 missiles have been exported to Belarus, Bulgaria, China, Cuba, Czech Republic, Ethiopia, Germany,
Hungary, India, Iran, Iraq, Kazakhstan, North Korea, Malaysia, Moldavia, Peru, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Syria,
Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, Yemen and Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro). Some 100 AA-11 missiles
were purchased by the USA in 1997, for evaluation purposes.
Specifications
R-73M1 R-73M2
Length 2.9 m 2.9 m
Body diameter 170 mm 170 mm
Wing span 0.51 m 0.51 m
Launch weight 105 kg 110 kg
Warhead 7.4 kg HE fragmenting rod 7.4 kg HE fragmenting rod
Fuze Active radar Active radar
Guidance Inertial and IR Inertial and IR
Propulsion Solid propellant Solid propellant
Range 20 km 30 km

Contractors
Initial design was by the Molniya OKB, completed by Vympel NPO, Moscow (prime contractor).
The seeker assembly is manufactured by CDO Arsenal
Kiev, Ukraine.
UPDATED

Two AA-11 `Archer' (R-73) missiles fitted to an Su-27 `Flanker' aircraft (Paul Beaver)
(1998)

The nose section of an AA-11 `Archer' missile, showing the angle of incidence sensors, fixed fins and
moving fins. The radar fuze antenna is behind the umbilical cable connector, fitted to an extension
section (Duncan Lennox)
(1998)

A rear view of AA-11 `Archer', showing the control surfaces on the wing trailing edges and the thrust vector
control vanes (Duncan Lennox)
(1998)

AA-11 `Archer'
(1992)

The wingtip pylon assembly on an Su-32FN aircraft displayed at Paris in 1997. It is believed that this
pylon can rotate through 180º to launch an AA-11 missile at a following aircraft target (Duncan
Lennox)
(1998)

Two seekers displayed by CDO Arsenal in 1997, for the AA-11 `Archer' (left) and AA-8 `Aphid' (right). It is
believed that two externally mounted detectors have been added to the AA-11 missile seeker assembly, similar to
the four shown around the AA-8 missile seeker assembly in this picture (Duncan Lennox)
(1998)

The active laser fuze window on a modified AA-11 missile, displayed at Paris in 1999 (Duncan Lennox)
(2000)

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AIR-TO-AIR MISSILES, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

AA-10 `ALAMO' (R-27)


Type
Medium- and long-range, IR and radar-guided, air-to-air missiles.
Development
AA-10 `Alamo' is the NATO code and designation for the Russian fourth-generation IR and radar-guided air-to-air missiles.
The Russian designator is R-27 and the `Alamo' missiles were designed by the same bureau that designed the AA-7 `Apex'
missiles and which is now known as Vympel NPO, Moscow. `Alamo' development probably started in the mid-1970s and the
missiles indicated a new and interesting design approach. There are six versions of the AA-10: medium-range IR (R-27T);
medium-range semi-active radar (R-27R); extended-range IR (R-27ET); extended-range semi-active radar (R-27ER);
long-range semi-active radar modified for low-level engagements (R-27EM); and extended-range active radar (R-27AE). It
was reported in 1995 that development of the active radar version, R-27AE, had been halted, as the Russian Air Force preferred
the AA-12 `Adder' (R-77). There are unconfirmed reports that a seventh version (R-27P) has been developed, with a passive
radar seeker designed to intercept fighter aircraft, AEW aircraft or standoff jammers. A report in 1998 indicated that there are
two passive radar missiles, designated R-27P and R-27EP. A Ukraine company, Artem, was proposing to export this version
which has apparently been classified in the Russian Federation. The AA-10 missiles were first photographed in the West in
1986, and are carried by the Su-27 `Flanker' and MiG-29 `Fulcrum'. It is believed that AA-10 will also be fitted to the
Su-30MK and Su-35 multirole fighters, and could be retrofitted to modified MiG-21 `Fishbed', MiG-23 `Flogger' and MiG-25
`Foxbat' aircraft. A report in 1999 stated that NIIP are developing a separate 'Aide de Camp' fire-control system, illuminating
radar and command link to fit AA-10 missiles to a variety of aircraft without airborne radars, using two small 'Epaulet'
phased-array antenna located in the wing roots. The 'Epaulet' antenna weigh 5 kg, are electronically scanned through ± 45º in
azimuth and elevation, and provide a range of around 30 km.
Description
AA-10 `Alamo' has four fixed chamfered rectangular canards at the nose, four large trapezoidal `butterfly' moving control fins,
and four fixed clipped-tip delta-wings at the rear. The guidance system for mid-course is inertial with command updates for the
semi-active and active radar-guided versions. The IR-guided versions have no inertial guidance or command updates, and have
to be locked onto the target before launch. The four extended-range and long-range missile versions have longer and larger
diameter rocket motor assemblies. The earlier short-range versions, R-27T and R-27R, have 33 kg expanding rod warheads; all
the other versions have a 39 kg expanding rod warhead, and active radar fuzes, but the R-27EM has a modified fuze located
behind the trapezoidal fins for low-level intercepts. Upgraded versions of the short-range missiles have the Russian designators
R-27T1 and R-27R1, and these both have the larger 39 kg expanding rod warheads fitted. The six versions vary from the
smallest (R-27T), which is 3.80 m long, has a body diameter of 230 mm and a launch weight of 245 kg, to the largest (the
R-27AE and R-27EM), which are both 4.78 m long, have a body diameter of 260 mm and launch weights of 350 kg. The rear
wings have a span of 0.77 m on R-27T/R missiles, and 0.80 m on R-27ET/ER. The moving `butterfly' control fins have a span
of 0.97 m. There has been difficulty interpreting range/altitude performance data from Russia, but basically, AA-10 `Alamo'
has a capability from sea level to 70,000 ft with the extended-range versions possibly having some limited capability to
90,000 ft. The range against low-level targets is probably 20 km, and against medium- and high-level targets it varies from
30 km for R-27T out to 110 km for R- 27EM. Export brochures for upgraded R-27 missiles have indicated increased forward
hemisphere engagement ranges, with 72 km for R-27TI, 80 km for R-27RI, 120 km for R-27ETI and 130 km for R-27ERI.
Minimum firing range for all marks of AA-10 is reported to be 500 m, and it is believed that the missile can follow target
manoeuvres up to 8 g. The passive radar R-27P and R-27EP versions have a launch weight of 347 kg, and are similar to the
R-27AE and R-27EM missiles. R-27P is believed to have a maximum range of 80 km, and R-27EP a range of 110 km. AA-10
missiles are reported to have a snap-up or snap-down capability of 10 km (33,000 ft). The IR seeker for the R-27T missile is
the 36T, but an improved seeker was developed for the R-27ET version with better IRCM protection and an improved
capability against low-flying cruise missiles. The semi-active radar, 9B-1101K, terminal seekers have a lock on range of 30 km
against typical fighter aircraft targets, and a weight of 33.5 kg, and operate in J-band (10 to 20 GHz) with CW monopulse
systems. The active radar version, R-27AE, has a multifunction monopulse Doppler seeker, 9B-1103M, which has a lock on
range of 20 km against fighter aircraft targets, and a weight of 14.5 kg excluding the radome. The Su-27 `Flanker' can carry up
to six AA-10 missiles and, from what has been seen, these six stations (two on wing pylons, two on pylons under the engines,
and two on pylons in the tunnel between the engine nacelles) can carry any of the versions of the AA-10. The MiG-29
`Fulcrum' has also been seen with both IR and radar versions on its two inner underwing pylons. AA-10 can be launched from
APU series rail launchers or ejected from AKU series ejector pneumatic launchers.
Operational status
It is believed that the AA-10 `Alamo' R-27T, R-27R, R-27ET and R-27ER versions entered service in 1985, and are probably
still in production. The R-27EM probably entered service in 1990, and R-27AE in 1995. The R-27P and R-27EP probably
entered service in 1996. There are unconfirmed reports that the AA-10 has been exported to Belarus, Bulgaria, China, Cuba,
Czech Republic, Ethiopia, Germany, Hungary, India, Iran, Iraq, Kazakhstan, North Korea, Malaysia, Moldavia, Peru, Poland,
Romania, Slovakia, Syria, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Yemen and Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro).
Some AA-10 missiles were bought by the USA in 1997, for evaluation purposes. An unconfirmed report states that Ukraine
exported around 100 R-27 missiles to Vietnam in 1999, for fitting to Su-27 'Flanker' aircraft.

Specifications
R-27T R-27R R-27ET R-27ER R-27AE R-27EM
Length 3.8 m 4.08 m 4.5 m 4.7 m 4.78 m 4.78 m
Body diameter 230 mm 230 mm 260 mm 260 mm 260 mm 260 mm
Wing span 0.77 m 0.77 m 0.8 m 0.8 m 0.8 m 0.8 m
Launch weight 245 kg 253 kg 343 kg 350 kg 350 kg 350 kg
Warhead 33 kg expanding 33 kg expanding 39 kg expanding 39 kg expanding 39 kg expanding 39 kg expanding
rod rod rod rod rod Rod
Fuze Active radar Active radar Active radar Active radar Active radar Active radar
Inertial, Inertial, Inertial, Inertial,
Guidance IR IR
command command command command
and SAR and SAR and active radar And SAR
Propulsion Solid propellant Solid propellant Solid propellant Solid propellant Solid propellant Solid propellant
Range 30 km 40 km 70 km 75 km 80 km 110 km

Contractors
Vympel NPO
Moscow (prime contractor).
MRI Agat
Moscow (radar seekers).
UPDATED
Su-27 `Flanker' carrying six AA-10 `Alamo' missiles; two medium-range IR (R-27T) on the wing pylons,
two extended-range semi-active radar (R-27ER) under the engines, and two medium-range semi-active
radar (R-27R) in the tunnel between the two engines (Soviet Military Power)
(1987)

An AA-10 `Alamo' missile on an ejection launcher beneath an Su-27 `Flanker' aircraft (Nick Cook)
(1998)

A medium-range IR-guided AA-10 `Alamo' (R-27T) showing behind an extended-range motor assembly
indicating the different length and diameter of the rocket motors (Christopher F Foss)
(1992)

The semi-active radar seeker assembly 9B-1101K used in AA-10 `Alamo' R-27R, R-27ER and R-27EM (Duncan
Lennox)
(1997)

AA-10 `Alamo' diagram


(1994)

The active radar seeker assembly 9B-1103M used in the AA-10 `Alamo' R-27AE (Duncan Lennox)
(1997)

A medium-range, semi-active, radar-guided AA-10 `Alamo' (R-27R) missile (Christopher F Foss)


(1998)

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AIR-TO-AIR MISSILES, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

AA-9 `AMOS' (R-33)


Type
Long-range, radar-guided, air-to-air missile.
Development
AA-9 `Amos' is the NATO designation for this Russian fourth-generation air-to-air missile, with the Russian designator R-33.
An earlier version of this missile may have had the Russian designator R-100. AA-9 development started in 1973 to improve
on the performance of AA-7 `Apex', and to mirror the capabilities of the US AIM-54 Phoenix missile, which AA-9 `Amos'
resembles. The missiles were first photographed off the coast of Norway in autumn 1985, being carried by a MiG-31
`Foxhound'. `Amos' has been cleared for carriage by the MiG-31 and may also have been cleared on the Su-27 `Flanker'. A
modified `Amos', with the Russian designator R-33S, was first seen in 1993. This version has four additional fixed canard fins
just behind the radome. A follow-on replacement for AA-9 `Amos' is in development by Vympel, with the Russian designator
R-37.
Description
AA-9 has four clipped delta-wings and four rectangular fins at the rear. The missile is 4.15 m long, has a body diameter of
380 mm, a wing span of 0.9 m and a finspan of 1.11 m. The missile weighs 490 kg and appears to be built in five sections: the
radome; guidance and fuzing; warhead; boost and sustainer motor; and the rear control section. The warhead is an HE
blast/fragmentation type, with a weight of 47 kg. It is possible that AA-9 design was influenced by AIM-54 Phoenix, which
was developed for the US Navy in the late 1960s to early 1970s, as the AA-9 is quite different in shape from other Russian
missiles. In consequence it can be assumed that the AA-9 missile has similar guidance and performance capabilities to the
Phoenix, and when combined with the MiG-31 `Foxhound' Zaslon phased-array pulse Doppler I-band radar, with its reported
tracking range of 90 km against fighter aircraft, 200 km against bombers, and ability to track up to 10 targets and to guide
missiles to four targets simultaneously, this makes a formidable weapon system. In addition, the MiG-31 has a semi-recessed
infra-red search and track (IRST) system in the nose, enabling tracking of targets without using the main radar. AA-9 `Amos'
has inertial mid-course guidance, probably with command updates and a semi-active radar terminal guidance seeker. The
missile is reported to have the ability to engage cruise missile targets at low level, down to 50 m and at ranges up to 35 km. A
range of 120 km is also quoted against large bomber aircraft with engagement altitudes of up to 28 km (about 95,000 ft). AA-9
has a minimum engagement range of 2.5 km. The MiG-31 `Foxhound' carries four AA-9 missiles on either extending trapeze
launch rails or ejection launchers (AKU-470) below the fuselage, but the missiles are not recessed and the wings/fins can be
folded during carriage. `Amos' can reach a flight speed of M3.5, but this would be dependent upon the aircraft speed at launch.
Two further mid-wing pylons on the MiG-31 are for self-defence AA-8 `Aphid' missiles, and reports indicate that four AA-8
`Aphid' missiles are often carried.
Operational status
It is believed that AA-9 entered service with the Russian Air Force in 1980, and that production has now ceased. AA-9 missiles
are believed to have been exported to Belarus, China and Ukraine.

Specifications
Length: 4.15 m
Body diameter: 380 mm
Wing span: 0.9 m
Launch weight: 490 kg
Warhead: 47 kg HE blast/fragmentation
Fuze: Active radar
Guidance: Inertial, command updates and semi-active radar
Propulsion: Solid propellant
Range: 120 km
Contractor
Vympel NPO
Moscow.
VERIFIED

AA-9 `Amos' long-range air-to-air missiles mounted under fuselage on a MiG-31 `Foxhound', pictured in
1985 over the Norwegian Sea (RNoAF)
(1985)

AA-9 `Amos' missile displayed in Paris in 1991 (Peter Humphris)


(1991)

An AA-9 missile displayed at Moscow in 1992, showing the radar fuze and command update antenna
between the nose radome and wing assemblies (Christopher F Foss)
(1997)

AA-9 `Amos'
(1993)

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AIR-TO-AIR MISSILES, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

AA-8 `APHID' (R-60)


Type
Short-range, IR air-to-air missile.
Development
AA-8 `Aphid' is the NATO code and designation for the Russian third-generation air-to-air missile, the R-60. `Aphid' was
developed in the late 1960s to early 1970s, as a replacement for the AA-2 `Atoll'. Although there are reports of a semi-active
radar version, none have been seen and it seems likely that the IR version, R-60T, is the only version to have entered
production. An improved version, R-60TM, was developed in the early 1980s. The missiles have been seen carried by MiG-21
`Fishbed', MiG-23 `Flogger', MiG-25 `Foxbat', MiG-29 `Fulcrum', MiG-31 `Foxhound', Su-17 `Fitter D', Su-22 `Fitter J', Su-24
`Fencer', Su-27 `Flanker', and reported on Su-21 `Flagon', Su-25 `Frogfoot' and Yak-38 `Forger'. The MiG-21 and MiG-31
have both been seen fitted with two missiles, mounted one above the other on underwing launcher pylons. In addition, four
`Aphid' missiles have been seen on Mi-24 `Hind D' and `Hind E' helicopters, carried on the inner stub-wing pylons, and in
1997 fitted to an upgraded Romanian SA330L Puma helicopter. Serbia is reported to have modified some AA-8 missiles in
1999 for ground launch as surface-to-air missiles. The launcher was a converted 20 mm anti-aircraft gun chassis, with two
missiles mounted on inverted wing pylon launchers. The system is believed to have had a maximum range of 4 km.
Description
AA-8 has four rectangular fixed canards and four triangular moving control fins at the nose, with four long-chord clipped-tip
delta-wings at the rear. The four fixed delta-wings have `Sidewinder' type rollerons at the trailing-edge for roll stabilisation.
`Aphid' is 2.08 m long, has a body diameter of 130 mm, a wing span of 0.43 m, and a weight of 63 kg. The missile has two
active radar fuze aerials located aft of the moving control fins, and a single strake running down the forward half of the body.
The 3 kg HE fragmentation warhead contains 1.6 kg of uranium. The earlier `Aphid' missiles were restricted to tail aspect
engagements only and had a maximum range of 3 km. It is believed that an improved AA-8 version (Russian designator
R-60TM) has an active laser fuze, to match an all-aspect engagement capability. This version has a length of 2.09 m, a body
diameter of 120 mm, and a launch weight of 43 kg. R-60TM has a minimum range of 0.2 km, and a maximum range of 10 km.
Intercepts can be made at altitudes between 30 m and 20 km. The missile (R-60TM) is reported to be able to engage a fighter
aircraft manoeuvring at up to 8 g, and to have a larger warhead with a weight of 3.5 kg. A further modification, designated
R-60TMK, is believed to have been introduced to enable the AA-8 missile to be designated by the pilot's helmet-mounted sight
in the MiG-29 `Fulcrum'. In 1997 CDO Arsenal, from Ukraine, displayed an upgraded IR seeker assembly with four additional
IR detectors mounted externally. The additional detectors are to improve the sensitivity of the seeker in the forward
hemisphere, enabling target detection out to beyond 10 km. The upgraded seeker assembly has a ±45º field of view, and can
track targets crossing at up to 30º/s. The upgraded IR seeker assembly is designated UA-96, and can be retrofitted to R-60,
R-60M and R-60MK standard missiles. Most AA-8 missiles are fitted to an APU-60 rail launcher.
Operational status
It is believed that AA-8 `Aphid' entered service with the Russian Air Force and Navy in 1973 (R-60T) and the improved
version R-60TM in 1982. There have been many export orders, including Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Azerbaijan, Belarus,
Bulgaria, China, Croatia, Cuba, Czech Republic, Georgia, Germany, Hungary, India, Iraq, Kazakhstan, North Korea, Libya,
Malaysia, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Sudan, Syria, Ukraine, Vietnam and Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro). AA-8
missiles have been built under licence in Romania, with the designator A-95, and more recently the A-960.

Specifications
R-60T
Length: 2.08 m
Body diameter: 130 mm
Wing span: 0.43 m
Launch weight: 63 kg
Warhead: 3 kg HE fragmentation
Fuze: Active radar
Guidance: IR
Propulsion: Solid propellant
Range: 3 km
R-60TM
Length: 2.09 m
Body diameter: 120 mm
Launch weight: 43 kg
Warhead: 3.5 kg HE rod
Fuze: Active laser
Guidance: IR
Propulsion: Solid propellant
Range: 10 km
Contractors
It is believed that the design may have been from the Molniya OKB, and it is now supported by Vympel NPO, Moscow.
The seeker assembly was manufactured by CDO Arsenal
Kiev, Ukraine.
UPDATED

An AA-8 `Aphid' (R-60TM) missile shown at Moscow in 1992 (Christopher F Foss)


(1992)

Two AA-8 `Aphid' air-to-air missiles on the inner wing pylon of a MiG-31 `Foxhound' aircraft (Duncan
Lennox)
(1998)

AA-8 `Aphid'
(1993)
The rear view of an AA-8 missile, showing the motor exhaust nozzle and rear wings (Nick Cook)
(1997)

An upgraded IR seeker for the AA-8 `Aphid' missile, displayed in 1997, showing the four additional detectors (Duncan
Lennox)
(1998)

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AIR-TO-AIR MISSILES, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

AA-7 `APEX' (R-23, R-24)


Type
Medium-range, IR and radar-guided, air-to-air missile.
Development
AA-7 `Apex' is the NATO code and designation for the Russian third-generation air-to-air missile believed to be K-23 or R-23.
`Apex' was developed in the late 1960s in both IR-guided (R-23T) and semi-active radar-guided (R-23R) versions, although
few IR missiles have been seen. An improved version was developed in the 1970s, and was given the designation R-24, again
with both IR (R-24T) and semi-active radar (R-24R) missiles. AA-7 `Apex' was designed to intercept agile and manoeuvring
aircraft and cruise missiles, particularly low-flying targets. The missiles have been seen fitted to the MiG-23 `Flogger B/F/G'
and reported on MiG-25 `Foxbat' and MiG-29 `Fulcrum'.
Description
AA-7 has four clipped triangular fixed stabilisers at the front, four clipped delta-wings and four moving clipped-tip raked
control fins at the rear. The IR `Apex' is 4.16 m long, has a body diameter of 200 mm, and a wing span of 1.04 m. The earlier
R-23 missiles had a launch weight of 222 kg and a maximum range of 25 km. This version had a 25 kg HE fragmentation
warhead. The missile has command mid-course guidance and a tail aspect IR seeker designated 23T3. An improved seeker,
23T4, was introduced later with greater sensitivity specifically for use against small low-level cruise missile targets and has an
all-aspect engagement capability. The later version is R-24T, and this has a launch weight of 235 kg and a maximum range of
50 km. This version has a 35 kg HE fragmentation warhead. The radar version of `Apex' has a length of 4.46 m, a body
diameter of 200 mm, and a wing span of 1.04 m. A semi-active pulse radar seeker operates in J-band (10 to 20 GHz). The R-23
earlier version had a launch weight of 222 kg, and a maximum range of 25 km. The later R-24R version has a launch weight of
235 kg and a range increased to 50 km. This version has a CW monopulse semi-active radar seeker to give improved low- level
performance in ground clutter, and it is reported to have an intercept capability against targets down to 40 m altitude, and up to
25 km. It is reported that both IR and radar versions (R-24) can intercept fighter aircraft manoeuvring at 8 g.
Operational status
It is believed that AA-7 entered service in 1973 with the Russian Air Force (R-23), the later R-24 entered service in 1981, and
that production ceased around 1985. Versions of this missile, believed to have been semi-active radar R-24R, have been used in
1982 in Lebanon, and in the mid-1980s by Iraq and Angola. Exports have been reported to Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola,
Belarus, Bulgaria, Cuba, Czech Republic, Ethiopia, Germany, India, Iraq, Kazakhstan, North Korea, Libya, Poland, Romania,
Slovakia, Sudan, Syria, Ukraine and Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro). AA-7 `Apex' missiles were built under licence in
Romania with the designator A-911, and may also have been built under licence in other countries.

Specifications
`Apex' (IR) R-24T
Length: 4.16 m
Body diameter: 200 mm
Wing span: 1.04 m
Launch weight: 235 kg
Warhead: 35 kg HE fragmentation
Fuze: Active radar
Guidance: Command and IR
Propulsion: Solid propellant
Range: 50 km
`Apex' (radar) R-24R
Length: 4.46 m
Body diameter: 200 mm
Wing span: 1.04 m
Launch weight: 235 kg
Warhead: 35 kg HE fragmentation
Fuze: Active radar
Guidance: Command and semi-active radar
Propulsion: Solid propellant
Range: 50 km
Contractor
Believed to be Vympel NPO
Moscow.
VERIFIED

AA-7 `Apex', the semi-active radar missile version, on the underwing pylon of a MiG-23 `Flogger' (Paul
Beaver)
(1992)

AA-7 `Apex', the IR missile version, on the underwing pylon of a MiG-23 `Flogger', with two AA-8 `Aphid'
missiles behind (Nick Cook)
(1992)

AA-7 `Apex'
(1998)

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AIR-TO-AIR MISSILES, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

AA-6 `ACRID' (R-40, R-46)


Type
Medium-range, IR and radar-guided, air-to-air missile.
Development
AA-6 `Acrid' is the NATO code and designation for this Russian R-40 air-to-air missile. It was developed in the late 1960s and
was probably the first of the third-generation Russian air-to-air missiles comprising AA-6 `Acrid', AA-7 `Apex' and AA-8
`Aphid'. Again, two versions have been reported, an IR (R-40T) and a semi-active radar-guided (R-40R). These have been
updated and improved since their original design, with the improved versions designated R-40D, R-40D1, R-46TD and
R-46RD. Few semi-active radar missiles have been seen, and only the IR seeker version was marketed in the 1990s. The
missiles have been seen on the Su-21 `Flagon', Su- 22 `Fitter', MiG-25 `Foxbat' and MiG-31 `Foxhound' aircraft. The MiG-25
`Foxbat' usually carries two IR and two radar missiles, with the radar missiles on the outboard pylons and the IR on the
inboard.
Description
AA-6 `Acrid' is similar in shape, but much larger than the AA-3 `Anab' air-to-air missile. The missile has four small clipped
delta control fins near the nose, four large clipped delta-wings with control surfaces aft, and a distinctively long tapered boat
tail. The radar and the IR missiles are about the same dimensions, having a length of 6.2 m, a body diameter of 355 mm and a
wing span of 1.8 m. The R-40 missiles had 35 kg HE fragmentation warheads, and a launch weight of 472 kg. The later R-40D
(or R-46) missiles are also in two versions: the IR seeker version R-46TD has a 35 kg HE fragmentation warhead and a launch
weight of 467 kg, while the semi-active radar seeker version has a larger 55 kg HE fragmentation warhead and a launch weight
of 472 kg. The R-40D (or R-46) versions were developed specifically for use from the MiG-31 `Foxhound ' aircraft. Level with
the trailing-edge of the wings are two large exhaust ports, suggesting that the aft end of the missile body is a booster motor to
accelerate the missile off the launcher and away from the aircraft, while the sustainer motor is mounted further forward in the
body and exhausts through the twin ports. AA-6 `Acrid' (R-40) missiles have a high maximum speed, reported to be M5.0, and
were the first Russian AAM to use titanium structures and a glass ceramic radome. Another unusual feature is that such a large
missile is rail-launched. The AA-6 `Acrid' missiles have clearly been designed for medium-range, high-altitude air-to-air
interception and it would seem most likely that there would be some form of command update and inertial mid-course
guidance, followed by either semi-active radar or IR terminal guidance. Early IR seekers used the T40A cooled 3 to 5 µm
detectors, with later versions (the R-46TD missile) using an improved IR seeker, 35T2, with improved IRCM protection. The
mid-course guidance could possibly be received by a rearward-facing antenna beneath the boat tail or by the two large strip
antennas on either side of the fuselage just forward of the wings. There are also pairs of what appear to be active radar fuze
antennas on either side of the larger strip ones, in addition to which there are four active laser fuze windows. The launch
aircraft is directed towards the intercept point by the ground-to-air datalink, which provides a cockpit display of the target
direction. At an appropriate range the aircraft will switch to its own radar, with the CW illuminator used in the terminal phase
of guidance for the semi-active radar missile version. The earlier R-40 missiles had a minimum range of 0.5 km and a
maximum of 35 km. The later R-46 standard missiles have a maximum range increased to 50 km (IR version) and 60 km (radar
version), with intercept altitudes from 0.5 to 30 km.
Operational status
It is believed that the AA-6 `Acrid' (R-40) missiles entered service with the Russian Air Force in 1974, the R-40D in 1980, and
that the improved R-46 versions entered service in 1982. These missiles were still being offered for export until 1996. It is
assumed that they are rebuilt missiles with an option to reopen the production line if orders are placed. Exports have been
reported to Afghanistan, Algeria, Belarus, Hungary, Iraq, Kazakhstan, Libya, Poland, Syria, Ukraine and Vietnam.

Specifications
`Acrid' (IR) (R-40T/R-46TD)
Length: 6.2 m
Body diameter: 355 mm
Wing span: 1.8 m
Launch weight: 467 kg
Warhead: 35 kg HE fragmentation
Fuze: Radar and active laser
Guidance: Command, inertial and IR
Propulsion: Solid propellant
Range: 35 km (R-40), 50 km (R-46)
`Acrid' (radar) (R-40R/R-46RD)
Length: 6.2 m
Body diameter: 355 mm
Wing span: 1.8 m
Launch weight: 472 kg
Warhead: 55 kg HE fragmentation
Fuze: Radar and active laser
Guidance: Command, inertial and semi-active radar
Propulsion: Solid propellant
Range: 35 km (R-40), 60 km (R-46)
Contractor
Not known, but probably designed by the Bisnovat OKB-4 ; it is now supported by Vympel NPO, Moscow.
VERIFIED

An IR version AA-6 `Acrid' missile on a MiG-31 `Foxhound' wing pylon (Christopher F Foss)
(1998)

Close-up of the rear end of AA-6 `Acrid', showing the sustainer motor nozzles between the wings and what
appears to be a command link receiver on the boat tail end (Duncan Lennox)
(1994)

AA-6 `Acrid' (IR version) on display in 1993, showing the fuze and command link aerials just forward of
the rear wings (Christopher F Foss)
(1997)
Diagrams of AA-6 'Acrid' missiles
(1994)

Two AA-6 Acrid (semi-active radar versions) being carried beneath a Libyan MiG-25 Foxbat aircraft (US
Navy)
(1997)

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AIR-TO-AIR MISSILES, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

AA-3 `ANAB' (R-8, R-30, R-98)


Type
Medium-range, IR and radar-guided, air-to-air missile.
Development
AA-3 `Anab' is the NATO code and designation for the Russian air-to-air missile, which was initially developed in the early
1960s and had a range of about 12 km. Two versions have been reported, an IR and a semi-active radar-guided, which were
updated in performance over a number of years. The original missiles had the Russian designator R-8M, and the IR version
was R-8MT with the semi-active radar version R-8MR. The R-8M1 missiles (again in two versions) had increased range, and
may also have had the designator R-30. The R-98 and R-98M followed, each with a longer range and still with IR and
semi-active seeker options. The missiles have been seen carried by the Su-9/Su-11 `Fishpot', Su-15/Su-21 `Flagon' and the
Yak-28P `Firebar'.
Description
The earlier R-8M missiles had a length of 3.3 m (IR) and 3.6 m (radar), a body diameter of 220 mm and a launch weight of
275 kg. These had a maximum range of 12 km. The R-8M1 versions (sometimes called R-30) had a launch weight of 293 kg
and a range increased to 14 km. The R-98 versions had a weight of 300 kg and a maximum range of 18 km. The original R-8M
missiles had a tail aspect only IR seeker, designated 8M-TGM. The radar version had a semi-active pulse radar operating in
I-band (8 to 10 GHz). The R-98M, the last version in service, has a length of 3.3 m (R-98MT - IR seeker); and 3.6 m (R-98MR
semi-active radar seeker); both have a body diameter of 220 mm, a wing span of 1.05 m, and a launch weight of 300 kg. The
missiles have 40 kg HE blast warheads. A solid propellant boost motor gives these missiles a minimum range of 2 km and a
maximum of 24 km. The R-98M version can intercept targets between 0.5 and 23 km altitude.
The missiles have four control fins near the nose and four large, clipped delta-wings behind, with a long boat tail behind the
wings that serves as the boost motor nozzle. Between the wings just forward of the trailing-edge are two sustainer motor efflux
nozzles, that might also be used for control purposes. The R-98MT version is reported to have an all-aspect IR seeker, and to
have been specifically designed to attack high-flying bomber targets.
Operational status
AA-3 `Anab' (R-8M) missiles first entered service with the Russian Air Force in 1963, the R-8M1 entered service in 1965 and
the R-98 in 1967. The R-98M entered service in 1976. Exports were made to Belarus, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Germany,
Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Ukraine. Production probably ceased around 1978, and the missiles are no longer in
service in the Russian Federation. It is possible that a small number of missiles may remain in storage for emergency use in
some other countries.
Specifications
`Anab' (IR) R-98MT
Length: 3.3 m
Body diameter: 220 mm
Wing span: 1.05 m
Launch weight: 300 kg
Warhead: 40 kg HE Blast
Fuze: n/k
Guidance: IR
Propulsion: Solid propellant
Range: 24 km
`Anab' (radar) R-98MR
Length: 3.6 m
Body diameter: 220 mm
Wing span: 1.05 m
Launch weight: 300 kg
Warhead: 40 kg Blast HE
Fuze: n/k
Guidance: Semi-active radar
Propulsion: Solid propellant
Range: 24 km
Contractor
It is believed that the original design was by Bisnovat OKB-4, Moscow, but support is now provided by Vympel NPO,
Moscow.
UPDATED

AA-3 `Anab' IR-guided missile mounted on an Su-15 `Flagon' aircraft (Swedish Coastguard)
(1990)

AA-3 `Anab'
(1990)

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UNDERWATER WEAPONS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

S-3V ASW BOMB


Type
Air-launched, anti-submarine warfare bomb.
Development
Little is known of this Russian air-launched underwater weapon, which was first exhibited by the Russian State Research and
Production Enterprise, Region, in 1994. Designated the S-3V, the weapon is an anti-submarine air-launched bomb or depth
charge, that has been designed to attack all types of submarines including those of modern design at depths from the surface
down to 600 m. The weapon is reported to have entered service in the late 1980s for use on the Ka-25 `Hormone', Ka-27/28
`Helix' and Mi-14 `Haze' ASW helicopters, which normally hunt in pairs carrying dipping sonars and at least two S-3V bombs.
However, because of its size and weight, and the use of a conventional single suspension lug, the bomb could also be carried by
a wide range of light, slow-flying fixed-wing aircraft. In 1994 Splav exhibited a smart rocket-assisted depth charge, designated
RPK-8 Zapad. From the size, weight and warhead type it is possible that the RPK-8 is a variant of the S-3V bomb. For further
details of the RPK-8, see Unclassified Projects.
Description
The S-3V ASW bomb, which looks more like a miniature torpedo than a bomb, has a cylindrical body with a flattened rounded
nose, which has a protective cover prior to launch. At the rear end there is a bolt-on tail unit that has eight long, narrow-span,
rectangular fins with a swept leading-edge and flat ring assembly common to many Russian free-fall bombs. Contained within
the tail section is a stabilising parachute, which is jettisoned as the bomb enters the water. The S-3V, which is fitted with a
single suspension lug, is 1.3 m long, has a body diameter of 211 mm and weighs 94 kg. It contains a 19 kg shaped charge
warhead and is reported to have an active hydro-acoustic guidance system. It is unclear as to the type of fuzing used, but this is
expected to be both contact and proximity.
Once a target has been located by the use of the dipping sonar, the S-3V bomb is released over the target and descends to the
water with the aid of the parachute. On entering the water the parachute and the protective nose fairing are discarded, the
guidance system is activated and the bomb descends towards the target. Once the bomb's active sonar detects the target the
weapon is steered towards it, and the warhead detonates either by the acoustic proximity mechanism or by impact fuze. The
S-3V has a submerging speed of 16 m/s, a maximum angle of descent of 60º and a maximum trajectory correction pattern of
±60º. Reports claim that the S-3V bomb has greatly improved kill probabilities over PLAB type bombs; 50 per cent higher for
shallow targets and 400 to 800 per cent higher against targets down to a maximum depth of 600 m.
Operational status
The S-3V ASW bomb was first displayed in 1994, and at that time it was reported that the weapon had entered service with the
Russian Navy for deployment with its helicopters in the late 1980s. Since 1996, it has been offered for export by the Russian
State Research and Production Enterprise Region. As yet no sales or orders have been reported.
Specifications
Length: 1.3 m
Body diameter: 211 mm
Launch weight: 94 kg
Warhead: 19 kg shaped charge
Guidance: Active sonar
Propulsion: None
Range: n/k
Speed: n/k
Contractors
Designed by the State Research and Production Enterprise `Region'
Moscow.
UPDATED

Line drawing of an S-3V ASW bomb


(1997)

A Russian S-3V anti-submarine warfare bomb


(1997)

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UNDERWATER WEAPONS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

RUSSIAN TORPEDOES
Type
Air-launched torpedoes.
Development
Information on air-launched torpedoes of the former Soviet Navy and its naval air arm is limited. It is generally believed that during
and after the Second World War the former Soviet Union was unique in developing a series of torpedoes specially adapted to be
dropped from high altitude and long range. One example (see picture) was rocket-propelled and had a special nose brake to reduce
the impact of hitting the water. Although the torpedo has a tail shroud, it has no propeller. The photograph is believed to have been
taken in the 1950s, and the aircraft is an Il-28 `Beagle', which is thought might still be in service for torpedo training. The early
Soviet designations, especially for thermal (steam) powered torpedoes, indicated the body diameter and the year of origin, for
example, 53-39 was 53 cm diameter and originated in 1939. It is generally believed that the majority of the early post-Second World
War air-launched torpedoes were in the 450 mm (45 cm) diameter class and were either propelled by solid-propellant rocket motors
or had thermal (steam) power plants. The forerunner of these 450 mm torpedoes was the pre-war 45-36 NU which was introduced in
1936 and became the standard Second World War motor torpedo boat/air-launched torpedo. The reinforced ANU version of this
torpedo could be dropped at up to 360 km/h, and in the Northern Fleet, torpedoes were typically dropped from 1.5 to 3 km (5,000 to
10,000 ft) altitude, gliding in from beyond the enemy's anti-aircraft range.
In the 1950s the former Soviet Union concentrated on developing air-launched torpedoes of 450 mm diameter with steam or solid
propellant motors. In the 1960s most torpedoes were launched from 400 mm diameter tubes, designed to fit in the first generation
nuclear submarines. The first of these was the SET 40, developed by Dvigatel OKB, and was the first true Russian lightweight
torpedo, appearing in the 1960s on board small combatants such as the `Petya' and `Mirka' class corvettes. Reports suggest that its
maximum acquisition range was about 580 m, and the operating depth about 300 m. Its seeker used an active 65 kHz acoustic
proximity fuze. The apparent successor still in service is the E40-75A, mounted in such craft as the `Poti' and `Pauk' class corvettes.
It is believed that these torpedoes could be fitted with parachute packs and delivered by such ASW helicopters as the Ka-25
`Hormone' and Ka-27 `Helix', and air-launched versions were offered for export in 1994 by the Russian Central Scientific Research
Institute `Gidropribor' as the APSET-95 torpedo system.
In parallel with the SET 40 development, efforts were underway to develop effective air-launched anti-submarine torpedoes. This
resulted in the 450 mm AT-1 torpedo that is reported to have entered service around 1962 and the 533 mm AT-2 with improved
charateristics, in 1965. It is believed that these two torpedoes were also known as the Type E45 and Type E53 respectively. Later,
only small air-launched torpedoes such as the VT-1 and others were developed. In the 1970s the development of torpedoes powered
by heat engines resulted in the creation of multipurpose torpedoes capable of attacking both surface and underwater targets. The first
multipurpose torpedo designed for self-defence of submarines was the 400 mm SET-72 which entered service in 1972. This was
later adapted for airborne use and designated UMGT-1 ME.
The limited diving depth of the above torpedoes allowed deeper diving submarines to escape, and by the late 1960s the Russians
were seeking a deeper diving torpedo. Unconfirmed reports suggest that former Soviet intelligence gained access to technical
information on the US Mk 46 torpedo propulsion system in the 1970s. Projects `Vodopod' and `Veder' were inspired by the news
that Western nuclear submarines could dive below exisiting Soviet ASW torpedoes. If reports are correct, the former Soviet Navy
developed an equivalent to the Mk 46, designated Type 40. This torpedo is said to be 4.5 m long, to have a diameter of 406 mm, and
to have an acoustic seeker operating at 12 kHz, which is capable of acquiring a target at 1,200 m. The Type 40 is reportedly used
with some light destroyers, and is also fired from special stern countermeasure tubes in `Echo II' class missile submarines. However,
its size would allow it to be carried by some large aircraft including the Mi-14 `Haze' ASW helicopter. In 1997 it was reported that
the Moscow Institute of Heat Technology was seeking export applications for the Medvedka shipborne anti-submarine missile
system. The rocket-powered missile, which had been undergoing sea trials aboard a Russian Navy hydrofoil since 1993, carries a
Type 40 torpedo. The Medvedka's (also known as Griltalpa) missile is 5.5 m long, has a body diameter of around 400 mm and
weighs 800 kg at launch. It is credited with a maximum engagement range (a combination of the airborne and underwater segments)
of 20 km, and the Type 40 torpedo can attack targets at depths of 15 to 500 m.
In the late 1990s, the Russians stated that their main air-launched torpedo was the 350 mm diameter APR-2. This is believed to be
an improved version of the APR-1, which entered service in 1964 and was used on the Tu-142 'Bear F' ASW aircraft. A third
member of the APR family is being developed, designated APR-3. This torpedo is powered by a water-jet motor, replacing the
solid-propellant rocket motor used in APR-2. Further details about the APR family of torpedoes can be found in a separate entry. In
2000, two further APR torpedoes were reported, the APR-23 and APR-33, and these were being carried by Tu-142 'Bear F' aircraft
and Ka-28 'Helix' naval helicopters.
Although it is believed that most Russian Federation air-launched weapons fall in the lightweight 350 to 450 mm diameter class,
knowing the previous Russian philosophy of long-range attack there are probably more substantial weapons, with a diameter of 650
to 660 mm, for use against larger surface ship targets. Some of these may be capable of carrying small nuclear warheads.
At the 1992 Moscow Air Show, officials from Russia's torpedo facility stated that several underwater weapons, including
torpedoes, had been produced for the former Soviet navy that were capable of homing on to ship signatures other than those detected
by conventional passive and active sonars. These signatures include low-level radioactive contamination in water (created by a
nuclear-powered ship), turbulence caused by the passage of a surface ship, and changes in the `conductivity' or the characteristics of
turbulent water. All three methods may be used in Russian wake homing torpedoes or as auxiliary techniques on conventional
torpedoes.
Description
Detailed information on Russian air-launched torpedoes is limited. Most of the current ones are expected to be of 350, 406 or 450
mm diameter, although there is a Type E53 with a body diameter of 533 mm. Some of the weapons are believed to possess a wire
guidance option, but the standard homing is sonar (active or passive), though there have been reports of wake homing on recently
developed weapons. The fuzing systems employ a magnetic proximity device backed up by an impact system, the primary objective
being to pierce the hull of a submarine or break the back of a surface vessel.
Apart from the APR-2 torpedo (covered in a separate entry) there are believed to be five other current in-service air-launched
torpedoes on which limited descriptive details are available: the Type E45 and Type E53 (the E is believed to stand for electric
drive), the APSET-95, the APR-23 and the APR-33. The E45-70A was primarily used as the payload for the SS-N-14 `Silex'
missiles, analogous in function to the Western ASROC, Ikara or Malafon sea-launched missiles. Its upgraded version is the
E45-75A, retrofitted to the SS-N-14 and installed as new to the SS-N-16 `Stallion'. Although these two torpedoes were designed
primarily as payloads for anti-submarine/ship missiles, some reports suggest they may also be delivered by ASW fixed-wing aircraft
such as the Be-12 `Mail', Il-38 `May' and Tu-142 `Bear'. There are conflicting reports that suggest the Type E53 torpedo was used as
the payload of the SS-N-14 as well as being launched from ASW fixed-wing aircraft.
The Type E45-75A is 3.9 m long and has a body diameter of 450 mm. It is fitted with an active/passive homing head and carries a
100 kg warhead. Speed is 30 kt and the range is 15 km (8.1 n miles).
The Type E53 is 4.7 m long, has a body diameter of 533 mm and a 150 kg warhead. Propulsion is believed to be electric and the
final stage of guidance is by active/passive homing. The torpedo is credited with a range of 15 km and a maximum speed of 40 kt.
The APSET-95 is reported to have an unusual pointed nose shape. It has a sea water scoop on the underside, four clipped-tip delta
fins, a shrouded propulsor and parachute pack at the rear. The torpedo is 3.84 m long, has a body diameter of 406 mm and weighs
720 kg. The active/passive sonar seeker with guidance electronics is in the nose section; a 60 kg HE warhead with proximity and
impact fuzes and battery in the centre section; and the electric motor propulsion unit and fin actuators are in the rear. The parachute
pack is discarded just before the torpedo enters the water.
The APR-23 is 3.7 m long, has a body diameter of 350 mm, weighs 575 kg and has a 100 kg HE warhead. Propulsion is believed
to be by solid-propellant motor, and the final stage of guidance by active/passive sonar. This torpedo has an underwater range of 0.6
km. The APR-33 is 3.6 m long, has a body diameter of 350 mm, weighs 550 kg, and has a 100 kg HE warhead. Propulsion is
believed to be by solid-propellant motor, and the final stage of guidance by active/passive sonar. The torpedo has an underwater
range of 0.6 km.
Operational status
The above weapons are believed to be in service with Russian Federation and allied navies. The APSET-95 torpedo was offered for
export in 1994, but there are no known sales.
Specifications

Type E45 APSET-95 APR-23


Type E53 (AT-2) APR-33
(AT-1)
Length 3.9 m 4.7 m 3.84 m 3.7 m 3.6 m
Body diameter 450 mm 533 mm 406 mm 350 mm 350 mm
Launch 720 kg 575 kg
n/k n/k 550 kg
weight
Warhead 100 kg HE 150 kg HE 60 kg HE 100 kg HE 100 kg HE
active/passive active/passive active/passive sonar active/passive sonar
Guidance active/passive sonar
sonar sonar
Propulsion n/k electric electric solid propellant solid propellant
Range 15 km 15 km n/k 0.6 km 0.6 km
Speed 30 kt 40 kt n/k n/k n/k

Contractor
Central Scientific Research Institute `Gidropribor'
St Petersburg (APSET-95).
UPDATED

An air-launched APSET-95 torpedo is in the foreground of this picture, with two ship-launched Russian
torpedoes behind
(1997)

A 1950s picture of a torpedo of unknown designation under preparation for loading on an Il-28 `Beagle'
aircraft of the former AV-MF (Soviet naval air force)
(1994)

A type 40 torpedo during maintenance tests (Moscow Institute of Heat Technology)


(1998)

Line diagram of APSET-95 showing the major assemblies. A, homing head; B, control system; C, warhead;
D, battery; E, electric motor; F, rudder drive; G, propeller; H, drag parachute (Peter Humphris)
(2001)
Line diagram of APR-23 lightweight torpedo
(2001)

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UNDERWATER WEAPONS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001
Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

RUSSIAN MINES
Type
Air-launched mines.
Development
The development of Russian Federation sea mines dates back to at least 1908, when Russia's first known medium-sized moored mine, the
M-08 series, was introduced for use in coastal defence barriers. There are reported to be over ten different contact mines in the Russian
inventory, most of which are believed to be fitted with an inertia-type firing mechanism, either galvano-contact, contact-mechanical or
contact-electrical. There are numerous types of Russian moored mines. The smaller mines, such as the MyaRM and MyaM were intended
for use in shallow waters, and both have been exported.
The M-08 was a robust, reliable spherical mine filled with 115 kg of explosive and had five Hertz chemical horns as a firing
mechanism. Despite its old design, it was used by Iran during the 1980s, possibly with North Korean supplied components. It was also
used by Iraq in 1991. Later developments, which were simple improvements of the M-08, were the M-12 and the M-16, both with a
contact-chemical horn firing mechanism and longer cables. These were followed by the M-26, which was the first Russian moored mine
with an inertial contact firing mechanism. Since those early mines the Russians have developed many different types of sea mines, small
and large, which can be laid by aircraft, surface vessel or submarine. The current ones fall into four major categories: defensive moored,
offensive moored, ground (seabed) and nuclear.
The defensive moored types cover a wide range of small to medium mines, some of which could be laid by light aircraft and
helicopters. Most of these are designed to use an inertial piston using mechanical, electrical or magnetic firing influences. The only
air-launched moored mine on which there is any detailed information is the AMG-1, which is fairly old and thought to be the largest of its
class. It is an air-launched version of the M-KB, which is a large mine with a 262 kg explosive charge and developed for use in deep
waters down to 300 m. The M-KB was designed to operate in the same way as the early M-08 series and even used some of the M-08's
components. Because of this the AMG-1 is a primitive weapon not suited for deployment from modern high-speed aircraft. There are also
smaller versions of the M-KB mine, such as the M-KB3, which has a smaller HE charge, and M-AG that has an antenna firing device.
The offensive moored mines are a large group, among which at least two particular types have been developed in recent years that are
suitable for air delivery. They are designated rising mines. One type (believed to have the codename `Cluster Bay') is designed for use on
the continental shelf and the other is an improved version (believed to be codenamed `Cluster Gulf') for use in deeper waters. They have
been designed mainly for the ASW barrier role, but have a secondary anti-ship capability.
The first Russian ground influence mine was the KMD series, which was developed in the late 1940s. The AMD series is an aircraft
delivered version of the KMD and was first identified in the late 1950s but may have entered service earlier in the decade. Some sources
have the designations the other way round, that KMD is air-launched. Two sizes of mine were developed, the AMD-500 and AMD-1000,
the number being the mass in kilograms. Both sizes were designed to be fitted with one of four different types of sensor: acoustic,
magnetic, pressure, or a combination of two or all three different influences.
The Russians are known to have developed additional ground influence mines in the past 30 years. The first of these was identified in
1985 after being used by the Libyans in the Red Sea. However, according to reports the mine was 533 mm in diameter, suggesting it was
designed for submarine deployment. The mine, which carried a charge of 680 kg, was of modular design with replacement circuit boards.
This enabled the sensitivity to be altered according to the type of target to be encountered.
In 1994 the Central Scientific Research Institute `Gidropribor' exhibited several ground mines for export. Among these were the
MDM-3, MDM-4 and MDM-5 which are capable of being dropped from aircraft. All three are designed for use against surface ships, with
the MDM-4 and MDM-5 having an anti-submarine capability down to depths of 125 m and 300 m respectively. It is believed that the
MDM designators are for export, and that the Russian designators for these mines are UDM-500 (MDM-3), UDM (MDM-4) and UDM-2
(MDM-5). There is also a self-propelled ground mine, which uses elements of the MDM but is designated SMDM, and is designed to
travel up to 15 km underwater after launch.
Nothing is known of the nuclear mines other than that they are believed to be in the 5 to 20 kT range and designed for use against
high-value surface units or base targets. Such mines, when air laid, would be carried by strategic naval aircraft including the Tu-16
`Badger A/G', Tu-22 `Blinder A' and Tu-26 `Backfire'.

Description
The AMG-1 was a version of the M-KB moored mine adapted for air-delivery. It was a large mine with a 262 kg HE charge and was
intended for use against surface ships. The laying depth of the AMG-1 was between 13 and 100 m with the case depth at between 2 and 9
m. The firing mechanism was by five chemical contact horns of the Second World War vintage. Not being fitted with a retarding
parachute, this mine had to be laid at low altitude and slow speeds. However, because of its high impact velocity it can penetrate several
inches of ice. It is possible that it is this feature that keeps an otherwise obsolescent mine still operational.
The two known air-launched offensive ground mines, AMD-500 and AMD-1000, had 299 kg and 782 kg HE charges respectively.
Normal laying depth for both mines is 4 to 70 m but the AMD-1000 can be used in the ASW role down to 200 m. The two types are
produced in four variants according to their activation mode:
. Magnetic influence relying on intensity of horizontal or vertical component of the target's magnetic field
b. Acoustic influence using either or both low-frequency and high-frequency noise generated by the target
c. Pressure influence resulting from passage of nearby target
d. Combination influence in which two or three of above influences are combined in a single sensor unit.
The MDM-3, MDM-4 and MDM-5 are all of metal construction and cylindrical in shape. The MDM-4 and MDM-5 have fixed
cruciform stabilising tail units fitted with retarding parachutes and blunt flat noses, while the MDM-3 has the more conventional Russian
bell shaped nose. All three are fitted with standard Russian suspension lugs enabling them to be carried on standard aircraft pylons or in
bomb racks.
The MDM-3 (UDM-500) is 1.58 m long, has a body diameter of 450 mm and, with an explosive charge of 300 kg of TNT, weighs 525
kg. Its effective laying depth is between 15 and 35 m and is for use against surface vessels. The MDM-4 (UDM) is 2.78 m long, has a
body diameter of 630 mm, an overall weight of 1,370 kg and has an explosive charge of 950 kg of TNT. Its operating depths are from 15
to 125 m. The MDM-5 (UDM-2) is 3.05 m long, has a body diameter of 630 mm, a total weight of 1,500 kg and contains an explosive
charge of 1,350 kg of TNT. Its operating depths are from 15 to 300 m.
All three of these mines feature a three-channel influence detonator system, with acoustic, electromagnetic and hydrodynamic channels,
together with a delay device, a ship-counter and a self-destruct mechanism. The mines also self-destruct if they are accidentally
air-dropped onto land or in shallow water.
The NATO designated `Cluster Gulf' and `Cluster Bay' offensive mines are specialised and of a fairly recent design. They are intended
for deep water ASW roles and are torpedo-shaped, rocket-propelled, tethered rising devices. Both weapons have a 230 kg HE charge and
the `Cluster Bay' operates in water 80 to 200 m deep, whereas the `Cluster Gulf' can be laid at depths down to 2 km. Targets are initially
detected by a passive acoustic sensor and then tracked by transmissions from an active acoustic sensor. If the target signature is identified
as being unfriendly and is confirmed as being within the vertical attack zone, the tether is cut, the rocket motor ignited and the torpedo-like
device homes on to the target. The fast upward speed allows little time for the target to evade the weapon even if its launch has been
detected.
Operational status
In 1987 the US DoD estimated that the former Soviet Union possessed an inventory of some 300,000 naval mines. According to US
intelligence the inventory includes about 100,000 moored contact mines. In addition, mines have been provided to other former Warsaw
Pact navies and also exported to many other countries.
Among countries outside the Warsaw Pact that are believed to have received stocks of former Russian mines, many of which are
capable of being laid by aircraft, are China, Egypt, Finland, Iran, Iraq, Libya, North Korea and Syria. It is also likely that other navies
possess mines of Russian design, and some of these countries have set up production lines to manufacture mines based on these designs.
Since the mid-1980s Russian AMD bottom influence mines have been sold on the international market by China as the Type 500 (Type
1) and Type 1000 (Type 2).
Specifications
AMG-1 AMD-500 AMD-1000
Length n/k n/k n/k
Body diameter n/k n/k n/k
Weight 1,034 kg n/k 987 kg
Warhead 262 kg HE 299 kg HE 782 kg HE
Operating depth 13-100 m 4-70 m 4-200 m

`Cluster Gulf' `Cluster Bay'


Length n/k n/k
Body diameter n/k n/k
Weight n/k n/k
Warhead 230 kg HE 230 kg HE
Operating depth 80-2,000 m 80-200 m

MDM-3 (UDM-500) MDM-4 (UDM) MDM-5 (UDM-2)


Length 1.58 m 2.78 m 3.05 m
Body diameter 450 mm 630 mm 630 mm
Weight 525 kg 1,370 kg 1,500 kg
Warhead 300 kg TNT 950 kg TNT 1,350 kg TNT
Operating depth 15-35 m 15-125 m 15-300 m

Contractor
The MDM-3/-4/-5 (UDM) mines are produced by Dvigatel, St Petersburg and marketed by Central Scientific Research Institute
`Gidropribor', St Petersburg.
UPDATED

An Egyptian KMD mine on display in 1977. The air-launched version of this mine is designated AMD. Note the five
chemical contact horns are not fitted
(1994)

Three Russian mines; MDM-3 (UDM-500) (top), MDM-5 (UDM-2) (centre) and MDM-4 (UDM) (bottom)
(Rosvoorouzhenie)
(1998)

A sectioned MDM-3 (UDM-500) mine with retard parachute deployed (Dvigatel)


(1998)

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UNDERWATER WEAPONS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

APR-1/-2/-3 LIGHTWEIGHT TORPEDOES


Type
Air-launched, solid propellant-powered, homing torpedoes.
Development
Development is believed to have started in the early 1960s in the former Soviet Union of a family of lightweight, air-launched,
solid propellant, homing torpedoes. The family is designated APR, which stands for 'aviatsionnaya protivoldochnaya raketa'
(airborne anti-submarine rocket). Little is known about the APR-1, except that it entered service in 1964 and was carried by the
Tu-142M 'Bear F' aircraft. In the 1980s the Russian state research and production enterprise (GNPP), now called Region, began
development of a new torpedo intended for use against submarines and surface ships. It is believed that the torpedo, designated
APR-2, was an improved version of APR-1. The design concept of these weapons was based on the principle of rapid reaction
to the search and location of targets with the minimum of noise, thereby denying countermeasures.
At the 1992 Moscow Air Show the Russians revealed the existence of the air-launched lightweight torpedo designated
APR-2E. At the time this was reported to be an improved version of the APR-1, with the E designator devoting a special export
version. According to the Zvezda design bureau the APR-2E torpedo, was developed specifically for airborne anti-submarine
warfare. The weapon is reported to have entered service in 1992 for use on the Ka-25 `Hormone', Ka-27/28 `Helix' and Mi-14
`Haze' ASW helicopters. It is also cleared for carriage on aircraft such as the Tu-142 `Bear F', which can carry up to three
torpedoes.
In 2000, it was reported that an APR-3 version had been developed for use with the Ka-40 heavy ASW helicopter.
Description
Little is known about the earlier APR-1 torpedo, other than that it had a high-aspect ratio cylindrical body, with a slightly
tapered blunt nose. At its rear were four swept rectangular fins with control surfaces and a parachute container protected by a
circular shroud. The APR-1 was 5.3 m long, including the parachute pack, had a body diameter of 350 mm, and weighed 670
kg. The warhead contained 80 kg of HE. The torpedo was designed to attack submarines down to a depth of 400 m, and had a
maximum range of 0.9 km at that depth.
The APR-2 has the general appearance of a conventional shaped torpedo, having a long cylindrical body with a flattened
rounded nose, four fairly long stabilising fins on a tapered rear end and, although it has a tail shroud, it has no propeller. At the
rear end there is a jettisonable cylindrical brake parachute system with small rectangular in-line stabilising fins and at the front
end there is a protective fairing. The APR-2 is of modular construction and comprises the following six major components:
sonar guidance system; warhead, fuzing and arming circuits; control system; propulsion system; control surfaces actuation
system; brake parachute system. There is also a long external strake running from the front control system section to the rear
control actuation section.
The torpedo is 3.7 m long, including the 0.27 m parachute pack, has a body diameter of 350 mm and weighs approximately
575 kg. The warhead is reported to be 100 kg HE, and the torpedo is designed to strike the bow where the torpedo tubes and
bow sonar are located (outside the main pressure hull), the propellers, or the control room of the target submarine.
Guidance for the APR-2 is described as a `hydro-acoustic correlation-phase system'. This features a multichannel detection
and direction-finding system, capable of detecting underwater targets in an active mode at a distance of up to 1,500 m, and
surface targets at a distance of up to 1,000 m. The system, which has a 90º × 45º search pattern and a signal-to-noise ratio of
0.4, is quoted as having a bearing accuracy of up to 2º. The passive mode of operation has a 500 m radius of operation. The
search patterns used are descending spirals, depending on the target depth.
Once a target has been located by the use of dipping sonar or sonobuoys, the torpedo is released and descends to the water
with the aid of the brake parachute. On entering the water the parachute and the protective nose fairing are discarded and from
that point the APR-2 uses an unusual approach to the target. It searches for the target in a spiralling, downward motion at an
angle of 17º, with its motor turned off in order to minimise noise. At a depth of 20 m, safety devices operate, the fuzing system
is armed and target search commences. This part of the attack is called the passive mode. Once it has acquired the target its
solid propellent rocket motor is ignited and the APR-2's sonar guidance becomes active and locks on to the target. The torpedo
then homes on to the target at speeds of up to 115 km/h (30 to 32 m/s), and to depths of up to 600 m. Overall mission time from
entering the water is between 1 and 2 minutes. If the passive search system has not detected a target by the time the torpedo
reaches a depth of 150 m, the propulsion system switches on and the APR-2 continues to search in its active mode. If the
torpedo fails to detect the target within 15 to 20 minutes after the rocket motor has expired, the torpedo self-destructs.
A drill practice unit, PA2, has been developed to aid in the instruction and training of aircrew in combat applications of the
APR-2. The practice round has the same dimensions and weight as the operational APR-2, and its basic components are: nose
section with burst sound source, tracer section, body simulator, flame section and stabilising decelerator. There is also an
Integrated Training Simulator, A4, designed for instructing aircrew in the operational release of the APR-2. This unit is 1.6 m
long, has a body diameter of 350 mm and weighs not more than 50 kg. Its basic components include: body with suspension
elements, electronic unit, and recording system. The recording system has an operation time of 35 minutes.
The APR-3 torpedo is believed to be similar in appearance to APR-2. The main difference is that APR-3 has a flatter nose,
and is powered by a water-jet propulsion system. The torpedo is 3.7 m long, including the parachute pack, and has a body
diameter of 350 mm. It is believed to use the same 100 kg HE warhead, and the same guidance system as APR-2, and has an
operating depth down to 800 m. The propulsion system has a variable speed control, and a total running time of 113 seconds.
Operational status
The APR-1 torpedo entered service in 1964, and although it has been replaced in service by the APR-2, it is likely that some
are still held in reserve. The APR-2E was displayed for the first time at the 1992 Moscow Air Show, where it was reported that
the weapon had recently entered service with the Russian Navy for deployment with its helicopters. It is believed that the
APR-2 torpedo remains in limited production. The torpedo was also advertised for export at the 1996 Farnborough Air Show
and Russian reports have stated that the APR-2E is being exported to Poland, Romania, Syria and the Federal Republic of
Yugoslavia. There are unconfirmed reports that India may have been supplied with some APR-2E torpedoes to fit to the ASW
Tu-142 aircraft it purchased from Russia. Development of the APR-3 version is believed to have been completed in 1998, but it
is not confirmed that the torpedo has entered service. In 1999 this version was offered for export.
Specifications

APR-1 APR-2 APR-3

Length 5.3 m 3.7 m 3.7 m

Body diameter 350 mm 350 mm 350 mm

Launch weight 670 kg 575 kg n/k

Warhead 80 kg HE 100 kg HE 100 kg HE

Guidance n/k active and passive sonar active and passive sonar

Propulsion solid propellant solid propellant water-jet

Range 0.9 km 3.8 km n/k


Speed n/k 115 km/h n/k

Contractor
Designed by Zvezda OKB, Moscow, and marketed by Region, Moscow.
UPDATED

A sectioned diagram for the APR-2 torpedo (Zvezda)


(1998)

Russian APR-2 air-launched, rocket-propelled torpedo (also known as an anti-submarine missile)


(1994)

A line diagram of the APR-1 lightweight torpedo


(2001)

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AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

AT-16 (9M120M/9M121 VIKHR-M)


Type
Medium-range, anti-tank, laser-guided, air-to-surface missile.
Development
A missile, believed to be the NATO designated AT-16 air-to-surface anti-tank missile, was first seen at the 1992 Farnborough
Air Show. There is some confusion in the West over the Russian name given to this missile. At Farnborough 1992, it was
announced as `Vikhr-M' (Whirlwind), a new laser beam-riding anti-tank missile. This indicates that it could be a variant of a
smaller anti-tank missile displayed and offered for export at the 1991 Dubai Air Show, which was believed to have been the
AT-12 (9M120 Vikhr). Nothing is known of the missile's development, but this probably started in the mid-1980s. Vikhr-M is
believed to be an improved variant of the AT-12 with an extended range. The missile has been seen fitted to the Ka-50
`Hokum' (Black Shark) attack helicopter. The Ka-50 carries up to 12 Vikhr-M in two clusters of six under stub-wings. The
same configuration could also be fitted to the Mi-24 `Hind', Mi-28 `Havoc' and Ka-52 `Hokum B' (Alligator) helicopters, also
the Su-25 `Frogfoot' attack aircraft. There are unconfirmed reports that Vikhr-M has been tested in the air-to-air mode against
other helicopters and in the air-to-surface role against small missile patrol boats.
In 1999, it was reported that an improved Vikhr-S (ground-launched) missile had been developed, with an increased range.
The missiles have interchangeable seeker heads; semi-active laser, infra-red, and active radar. It is not known if this version
will be air-launched.
Description
The AT-16 (Vikhr-M) is a tube-launched missile and, from the length and diameter of the tube, the missile is believed to be an
AT-12 with a longer rocket motor. The launch tube is 2.87 m long with a body diameter of 150 mm with the missile and
canister weighing 59 kg. The missile itself is 2.8 m long, has a body diameter of 130 mm, an extended wing span of 0.4 m, and
is believed to weigh 72 kg at launch. The AT-16 missile has four swept-back rectangular moving control fins at the nose,
probably with air-dynamic control actuators. Four fixed and hinged long chord rectangular wings are located at the rear of the
missile. Guidance is by semi-active laser. To facilitate target designation by the pilot, the Ka-50 helicopter weapon system has
a helmet-mounted sight and head-up display of the kind fitted to the MiG-29 fighter. However, it is also understood that the
intention is to rely mainly on other aircraft or ground personnel to designate targets. The Ka-50 has two laser transmitters in the
nose, one to give target range and the other to illuminate the target for the Vikhr-M missile. The laser range-finder operates at
1.54 µm and is mounted within a GOES-3 electro-optical dome assembly, which includes a FLIR and TV with both wide and
narrow fields of view. The GOES-3 assembly weighs 30 kg and has a diameter of 460 mm. The warhead on the missile is
believed to weigh around 8 kg, and is the tandem forward firing type with a hollow charge followed by a shaped fragmentation
charge, reported capable of penetrating 1,000 mm of armour protected by ERA. The missile has both impact and proximity
fuzes. The configuration carried on the Ka-50 `Werewolf' is six canisters in two groups of three, on each outer stub-wing pylon.
The bottom part of the pylon is articulated to allow the missiles or other weapons it carries to be pointed downward by 10º. The
solid-propellant propulsion system is thought to be of the dual boost and sustainer type and is reported to give the Vikhr-M
supersonic speed (M1.8) and a range of about 10 km. At night, the maximum range is reduced to 5 km. The missile reaches 6
km in 14 seconds. The minimum firing range is 0.5 km and the missile can be launched at altitudes from 5 to 4,000 m. Two
missiles can be launched in salvo to engage a single target. A longer-range version was reported in 1999, with a maximum
range by day increased to 15 km and by night to 7 km.
Operational Status
The Vikhr-M is believed to be in full production and is reported to have entered service around 1990. It was displayed and
offered for export at the 1992 Farnborough Air Show, along with the Ka-50 helicopter. There are no known exports.
Specifications
Length: 2.8 m
Body diameter: 130 mm
Wing span: 0.4 m
Launch weight: 72 kg
Warhead: 8 kg HE shaped charge
Fuze: Impact and proximity
Guidance: Semi-active laser
Propulsion: Solid propellant
Range: 10 km
Contractor
KBM Engineering Design Bureau
Kolomna.
KBP Instrument Design Bureau
Tula.
UPDATED

A six-canister pylon load of AT-16 missiles on the outboard stub-wing of a Ka-50 `Hokum A' helicopter at
Farnborough in 1996 (Duncan Lennox)

A canister and AT-16 missile (KBP)


(1998)

A six missile launcher and AT-16 missile canisters on a Ka-50 `Hokum A' helicopter in Paris in 1997
(Peter Humphris)
(1998)

AT-16
(1998)

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AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

AT-12 `SWINGER' (9M120 VIKHR/ATAKA)


Type
Short-range, anti-tank, laser-guided, air-to-surface missile.
Development
A missile believed to be the NATO designated AT-12 `Swinger' air-to-surface anti-tank missile, was first seen at the 1991
Dubai Air Show with the Russian name Vikhr, and the designator 9M120. The Vikhr system can be used on ground vehicles,
fixed-wing aircraft or helicopters; for attacking tanks, vehicles, SAM launchers, concrete bunkers, slow transport aircraft or
helicopters. The improved 9M120 Ataka missile can also be used from the AT-6/-9 Shturm-S/-V installations. The Russians
were displaying the missile for export and described it as an Anti-tank Laser Beam Rider. Little is known of the missile's
development, but this probably took place in the early 1980s at the same time as the AT-10 `Stabber'/AT-11 `Sniper' anti-tank
missiles. The missile was displayed on the centre-wing pylon of an Su-25 `Frogfoot' attack aircraft, with eight missiles
mounted on a single launcher assembly. Twelve missiles can be carried on the 9P149 combat vehicle, also known as the
Shturm-S system. It is reported that AT-12 has been cleared for carriage on the Mi-24 `Hind', Mi-35M, Ka-50 `Hokum', Mi-28
`Havoc' and Ka-29 `Helix B' helicopters. A considerably longer missile was exhibited in 1992, believed to be Vikhr M, beside
a Ka-50 `Hokum' helicopter and this is believed to be the NATO designated AT-16.
In 1997, a ship-based variant of the AT-12 system was proposed as the Vikhr-K, with a six-missile launch assembly (based
on the helicopter version) mounted on a Project 14310 patrol craft.
Description
The external appearance of the AT-12 container is similar to the AT-6 `Spiral' except that, instead of a flat end cap, there is a
dome head. The missile is tube-mounted and has flip-out control fins towards the nose and four wrap-around wings at the rear.
The front moving control fins are powered by ram air, taken into the nose section by two inlet scoops, with air-dynamic control
actuators. The HE, hollow charge, armour piercing warhead has a long cylindrical nose probe for the precursor tandem
warhead, whereas the continuous rod (air-to-air) missile has a conical nose section. The missile is 2.696 m long, with a body
diameter of 128 mm, a wing span of 0.325 m and weighs 47 kg. AT-12 has the option of three different 8 kg warhead
assemblies; blast fragmentation HE, a continuous rod HE, and a tandem HEAT. The missile is reported to have both impact
and proximity fuzes. The tandem HEAT warhead assembly was designed by the Russian Nuclear Physics Institute, VNIIEF,
and there are two tandem warheads, the first to penetrate reactive armour and the second main charge to penetrate the armoured
vehicle skin. It is reported that the HEAT warhead can penetrate up to 800 mm of armour, even when protected with ERA.
The continuous rod HE warhead has been developed for use against aircraft and helicopter targets in the air-to-air role.
Guidance is by radio command with the operator keeping the target within the cross-wires of his sight. The operator selects and
designates the target on a multifunction display, using a joystick to move the cross-wires. A laser range finder indicates when
the target is within range, and the operator launches the missile. The launch aircraft or helicopter can manoeuvre during missile
flight with azimuth changes of ±110º, but the operator tracks the target on his display until impact. The configuration carried
on the Su-25 `Frogfoot' is eight canisters (two groups of four) on a single pylon adaptor. The solid-propellant motor gives the
missile a maximum range of 6 km when launched from a helicopter and a minimum range of 500 m. AT-12 can be launched
from 0 to 4 km altitude. The missile has a maximum velocity of 350 to 400 m/s, and takes 14 seconds to fly out to 6 km. The
usual helicopter launcher is the APU-8/4U, which can carry four or eight missiles in their canisters.
Operational status
The AT-12 was displayed and offered for export at the 1991 Dubai Air Show, along with a variety of other air-to-surface
missiles, all of which are in service and still in production. It is believed that AT-12 probably entered service in 1985. AT-9
and AT-12 missiles were demonstrated in Sweden in 1995, with live firing trials on the Vidsel range from a Mi-28 `Havoc'.
Specifications
Length: 2.696 m
Body diameter: 128 mm
Wing span: 0.325 m
Launch weight: 47 kg
Warhead: 8 kg (tandem HEAT, continuous rod or blast fragmentation)
Fuze: Impact and proximity
Guidance: Radio command
Propulsion: Solid propellant
Range: 500 to 8,000 m
Contractor
The missile was designed by the KBM Engineering Design Bureau, Kolomna, and manufactured by the Kovrov Mechanical
Plant, Kovrov.
UPDATED

A rear view of the AT-12 missile canisters showing the rear end caps (Nick Cook)

The tandem HEAT warhead version of AT-12


(1998)

Eight AT-12 anti-tank missile canisters mounted on the centre pylon of an Su-25 `Frogfoot' aircraft (Nick
Cook)

An AT-12 missile, the continuous rod warhead version, shown next to its canister at an exhibition in 1997 (Duncan
Lennox)
(1998)

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AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001
Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

AT-6/AT-9 `SPIRAL' (9M114 KOKON/SHTURM)


Type
Short-range, radio command-guided, air-to-surface missile.
Development
This third-generation anti-tank missile, with the NATO code and designation AT-6 `Spiral', was at one time referred to as AS-8. The missile was
developed in the 1970s and was first seen in the air-to-surface role in the early 1980s. It is believed to have the Russian name Kokon and the designation
9M114. The Russians also use the AT-6 `Spiral' missile in the ground-launched mode against tanks and other mobile armoured targets, small ground
targets, and helicopters and in ground use, the system is called Shturm. However, it appears that Shturm is also used for air-launched helicopter systems,
against stationary or moving armoured vehicles, slow transport aircraft and other helicopters (in the air-to-air role). An improved version, known in
Russia as 9M114 M1/2 or Shturm 2/3, is believed to have been given the NATO designator AT-9 `Spiral 2', although these missiles are sometimes
referred to as AT-6B and -6C. The AT-6/AT-9 `Spiral' is carried by Mi-24 `Hind E/F' and PZL Swidnik W-3 Sokól helicopters and has been seen fitted
to Mi-8 AMTS, Mi-28 `Havoc', Mi-35M and Ka-29 `Helix B' multirole helicopters. The `Hinds' and Mi-35 carry up to eight missiles, the Sokól four
missiles, the `Havoc' up to 16 and the `Helix B' four on each of its outboard pylons.
Description
The AT-6 `Spiral' is tube-mounted and has two small flip-out rectangular control fins towards the nose, and four wraparound folding rectangular
stabilising fins at the rear. The AT-6 (9M114) missile is 1.63 m long, has a body diameter of 130 mm, a wing span of 0.3 m, and weighs 35 kg at launch.
Total weight with the launch/storage canister and missile is 49.5 kg. The sealed canister is made of carbon composite, is 1.98 m long and has a diameter
of 370 mm. The canister serves as the launch tube. When first reported on, it was believed that guidance was by radio-command in mid-course, with the
operator using an IR tracker, and semi-active laser terminal homing. However, at the 1989 Paris Air Show, briefings stated that `Spiral' was simply
command-guided, probably using a 35 GHz command link, called Raduga in Russia. Later reports suggest a VHF (30 to 250 MHz) radio link with five
frequency bands and two codes, enabling up to 10 targets to be attacked at the same time. The launch helicopter tracks the missile by radar (probably 35
GHz) and this radar has a 9º field of view for acquisition, followed by a 2º FOV to track the missile to the target. Close examination of the Mi-28 `Havoc'
revealed that the gunner's sight in the undernose turret was a plain direct vision optical device with a built-in laser for range-finding only. It was also
confirmed that the missile was fitted with a flare to aid optical tracking. This seems to have been further substantiated by the release of Russian
information on the Shturm-C ground-launched AT-6 system.
The AT-6 missile leaves the launcher at a velocity of 55 m/s, accelerating to its cruise speed of 420 m/s, with a time to maximum range of around 15
seconds. The missile rolls in flight for stability and has a 5.4 kg HEAT warhead which can penetrate 650 mm armour plate. In addition to the HEAT
warhead version, it is understood that a variant is available with an HE fragmentation warhead for engaging other battlefield targets. It has also been
reported that AT-6 `Spiral' missiles have been tested in the air-to-air mode against helicopter targets. The missile has a minimum range of 400 m and a
maximum range of 5 km.
The AT-9 `Shturm 2' missile has an improved radio-command link, greater armour-penetration and an increased range. This missile has a length of
1.75 m, a launch weight of 38.5 kg, a warhead of 7.4 kg HE and an increased maximum range to 6 km. This version is reported to be capable of use in
the air-to-air mode.
The AT-9 `Shturm 3' missile has a length of 2.04 m, a launch weight of 40 kg and a range increased to 7 km. The container for this version has a
length of 2.25 m and, when loaded with a missile, weighs 57 kg.
Operational Status
AT-6 `Spiral' entered service in 1978, and the AT-9 (Shturm 2) in 1981, with the AT-9 (Shturm 3) in service in 1988. AT-9 is probably still in
production. The Shturm-C combat vehicle (9P149) was offered for export with AT-6 `Spiral' missiles in 1990. It is believed that AT-6 missiles have been
exported to Algeria, Belarus, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cuba, Czech Republic, Hungary, India, Libya, Poland, Slovakia and Ukraine.
Specifications

AT-6 AT-9 (M114M1) (Shturm 2) AT-9 (9M114M2) (Shturm 3)

Length: 1.63 m 1.75 m 2.04 m

Body diameter: 130 mm 130 mm 130 mm

Wing span: 0.3 m 0.3 m 0.3 m

Launch weight: 35.0 kg 38.5 kg 40.0 kg

Warhead: 5.4 kg HE 7.4 kg HE 7.4 kg HE

Fuze: Impact Impact Impact

Guidance: Radio command Radio command Radio command

Propulsion: Solid propellant Solid propellant Solid propellant


Range: 5 km 6 km 7 km

Contractor
The missile was designed by the KBM Engineering design Bureau, Kolomna, and built at the Schit Machinery Plant, Izhevsk.
UPDATED

A four-canister AT-6 `Spiral' launcher on a Mi-8 AMTS helicopter at Farnborough in 1996 (Duncan Lennox)

A close-up view of the twin AT-6 `Spiral' launch tubes on the Mi-24 `Hind' helicopter (Paul Beaver)

Four AT-9 `Shturm 3' missile canisters displayed at Paris in 1997 (Peter Humphris)
(1998)

AT-6 Spiral

An eight-missile launch rack with AT-9 `Shturm 3' mounted on a Mi-28 `Havoc'. Inboard is a B-8V-20 rocket pod and above is a
UV-26 chaff and flare dispenser (Peter Humphris)
(1998)

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AIR-LAUNCHED ROCKETS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

S-13 (122 mm) AIRCRAFT ROCKETS


Type
122 mm unguided aircraft rockets.
Development
This family of 122 mm rockets, designated S-13, was developed to provide the Russian armed forces with air-to-ground
rockets; for launching from either fixed- or rotary-wing aircraft. Information released in 1996 indicated that development took
place in the late 1970s and was aimed at meeting a requirement for a penetration weapon to attack runways, fortified buildings
and concrete shelters. The first rocket was designated S-13B (penetration), and this was followed by three further developments
designated S-13T (tandem warhead), S-13OF (HE fragmentation) and S-13D (fuel air explosive).
Two five-tube launchers were developed with the rockets, the B-13L for aircraft and the B-13L-1 for helicopters. Both
launchers are fitted with standard Russian suspension points. The B-13L launcher and rockets are cleared for carriage on
MiG-23 `Flogger', MiG-27 `Flogger', MiG-29 `Fulcrum', Su-17M `Fitter', Su-24 `Fencer', Su-25 `Frogfoot', Su-27 `Flanker'
and Su-33 aircraft. The B-13L-1 launcher and rockets are cleared for carriage by Ka-27 'Helix', Ka-29, Ka-41 'Hokum', Ka-50
'Werewolf', Mi-8/17 `Hip ', Mi-24 `Hind', and Mi-28 `Havoc' helicopters.

Description
The S-13 is a conventional 122 mm calibre unguided rocket with a solid-propellant motor and fitted with folding fins for
ballistic stability. From information released in 1993 it would appear that the S-13 series of three rockets each use the same
basic rocket motor and exhaust nozzle.
The S-13B penetration rocket is 2.63 m long and weighs 60 kg. The 23 kg warhead contains 1.92 kg of explosive charge and
is credited with the ability to penetrate a combined thickness of at least 3 m of earth and 1 m of concrete. The range for this
rocket is 1.1 to 4 km.
The S-13T is a tandem warhead anti-runway or anti-shelter rocket, and is 2.99 m long and weighs 75 kg. The warhead
consists of two tandem charges, weighing 21 kg and 16.3 kg, which contain1.8 kg and 2.7 kg of HE respectively. When used
against shelters, its effectiveness is given as a combined penetration of 6 m earth and 1 m concrete, and when used against
runways a demolition area of 20 m2. The range for this rocket is 1.1 to 3 km.
The S-13OF is an Anti-Personnel/Anti-Material (APAM) rocket that is 2.97 m long and weighs 69 kg. The 33 kg warhead
contains a 7 kg HE charge surrounded by a prefragmented case made up of 450 preset fragments each weighing between 23
and 35 g. The range of this rocket is 1.6 to 3 km.
The S-13D is a fuel air explosive rocket for use against buildings and troops in the open. It has a length of 3.12 m and
weighs 68 kg. The 32 kg warhead contains 14.6 kg of fuel, which is mixed with air before ignition. The S-13D has a maximum
velocity of 620 m/s, and a range of 1.6 to 3 km.
The S-13 series of rockets are fired from B-13L or B-13L-1 launchers, which have been specifically designed for use by
fixed-wing aircraft or helicopters. The B-13L aircraft launcher is a metal cylinder that contains five 122 mm calibre launch
tubes arranged in a single circle. The nose of the B-13L is conical in shape, with the tube exits flush to the skin and the rear end
is slightly tapered. The launcher, which has 250 mm spaced suspension lugs, is 3.56 m long, has a body diameter of 410 mm
and when empty weighs 160 kg. The B-13L-1 helicopter launcher is similar to the B-13L, but with the nose and tail cone
fairings removed. The length of this launcher is 3.06 m, the body diameter is 410 mm, and the unloaded weight is 140 kg.
Both rockets and launchers have an operating temperature range of -60 to +60ºC.
Operational Status
The S-13 series of rockets and associated B-13L launchers are believed to have entered service with Russian and allied air
forces in the mid-1980s. The rockets and the launchers were offered for export in 1993, but to date no sales have been reported.
Specifications
Rockets S-13B S-13T S-13OF S-13D

Length 2.63 m 2.99 m 2.97 m 3.12 m


Body diameter 122 mm 122 mm 122 mm 122 mm
Tailspan n/k n/k n/k n/k
Launch weight 60 kg 75 kg 69 kg 68 kg
Warhead 23 kg 37.3 kg 33 kg 32 kg

Launcher B-13L B-13L-1


Length 3.56 m 3.06 m
Diameter 410 mm 410 mm
Number of tubes 5 × 122 mm 5 × 122 mm
Lug spacing 250 mm 250 mm
Weight
(unloaded) 160 kg 140 kg

Contractor
It is believed that the rockets and launchers were originally manufactured by Vympel NPO, Moscow, but they are now offered
for export by the JSC Institute of Applied Physics, Moscow.
UPDATED

S-13 rocket and warheads, from left to right: S-13OF, S-13B and S-13T

Five-tube B-13L launcher for S-13 rockets fitted beneath the wings of a Su-25 `Frogfoot' ground attack
aircraft. Note AA-11 `Archer' on its left and AS-10 `Karen' (ML) on its right (Christopher F Foss)
(1998)

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AIR-LAUNCHED ROCKETS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

S-8 (80 mm) AIRCRAFT ROCKETS


Type
80 mm unguided aircraft rockets.
Development
This family of 80 mm rockets, designated S-8, was developed to provide the Russian armed forces and their former allies with a
series of at least four different rockets to cover a wide range of ground attack applications. They were designed to be fired from at
least two known launchers that can be carried by either fixed- or rotary-winged aircraft. Information released in 1993 indicates that
development took place in the late 1970s and concentrated on four specific rockets. These are designated: S-8KO (HEAT), S-8B
(penetration), S-8D (fuel air explosive) and S-8 O (Illuminating).
The two launchers that were developed in parallel with the rockets, were a 20-tube version for use on helicopters and a 20-tube
version for use on fighter/ground attack type aircraft. These were designated B-8V20A and B-8M1 respectively. The launchers are
fitted with standard Russian suspension points and the B-8M1 is currently carried by MiG-23 `Flogger', MiG-27 `Flogger D',
MiG-29 `Fulcrum', Su-17 `Fitter', Su-24 `Fencer', Su-25 `Frogfoot', Su-27 `Flanker', YAK-38, YAK-141 aircraft and the B-8V20A
by Ka-27 `Helix', Ka-41 `Hokum', Ka-50 `Werewolf', Mi-8 `Hip E', Mi-24 `Hind', Mi-28 `Havoc' and Mi-35M helicopters.
In 1997 the JSC Institute of Applied Physics offered for export several new warhead/motor combinations of the Russian S-8 and
S-13 rocket systems. The S-8 versions included improved S-8KO, S-8B, S-8D and S-8O rockets, with the addition of two new
versions the S-8T (tandem warhead anti-tank) and S-8P (chaff and radar countermeasures).
Description
The S-8 is a conventional 80 mm calibre unguided rocket with a solid-propellant motor and fitted with six rectangular fins that open
behind the motor nozzle. From information released in 1993 it is unclear whether or not the S-8 series of four rockets each use the
same rocket motor.
The S-8 KO (HEAT) is an anti-tank/armour rocket which is 1.57 m long and weighs 11.3 kg. The 3.6 kg shaped charge
fragmentation warhead contains 0.9 kg of explosive charge and is credited with the ability to penetrate at least 400 mm of armour
plate. The maximum speed of this rocket is reportedly 600 to 700 m/s and has an effective range of 1.3 to 4 km.
The S-8B is classed as an anti-shelter demolition (penetration) rocket. It is 1.5 m long and weighs 15.2 kg, of which 7.41 kg is the
HE warhead that contains 0.6 kg of high explosive. Launching range for this rocket is given as 1.2 to 2.2 km, and it is credited with
being able to penetrate 800 mm of reinforced concrete.
The S-8D is a Fuel-Air-Explosive (FAE) rocket and is 1.66 m long and weighs 11.6 kg. The 3.8 kg warhead has a composition
explosive charge of 2.15 kg. Launch range for this rocket is 1.3 to 3 km.
The S-8 O is termed an illuminating rocket, and is 1.63 m long and weighs 12.1 kg. The 4.3 kg warhead contains 1 kg of
compound that gives out a light output of 2 million candle power. The launch range of this rocket is 4 to 4.5 km.
The S-8T rocket is fitted with a tandem anti-tank warhead and the front of the rocket has a small inserted section with a smaller
diameter. The S-8T has a length of 1.7 m, and weighs 13 kg. The warhead is 0.64 m long, weighs 6.6 kg, contains 1.6 kg of HE and
has the ability to penetrate 400 mm of armour. This rocket has a maximum velocity of 600 m/s, and a range of 1.3 to 4 km.
The S-8P rocket has a radar countermeasures warhead filled with chaff and weighing 4.5 kg . The rocket is 1.63 m long and
weighs 12.3 kg. S-8P has a maximum velocity of 565 m/s and a range of 2 to 3 km.
The S-8 series of rockets can be fired from two different types of launcher, which have been specifically designed for use by
either helicopter or jet aircraft. The helicopter version, designated B-8V20A, is simply a metal cylinder that contains a honeycomb
of 20-launch tubes arranged in two sets of rings, 13 and 7, one inside the other. The tubes are flush with the flat rear end of the
canister but are extended beyond the flat front end by around 250 mm. The launcher, which has 250 mm spaced suspension lugs, is
1.95 m long, has a body diameter of 520 mm and when empty weighs 100 kg.
The aircraft launcher designated B-8M1 appears to use the same centre section as the B-8V20A launcher with the 20-launch tubes
configured in the same manner, but a long conical streamlined nose and slightly tapered rear cowling have been added in order to
produce an aerodynamically shaped container capable of supersonic flight. In this case the tubes are flush with the skin of the
tapered nose and the flat rear end. The B-8M1 launcher is 2.76 m long, has a body diameter of 520 mm and weighs 150 kg when
empty.
Both rockets and launchers have an operating temperature range of -60 to +60ºC.
Operational Status
The S-8 series of rockets and associated launchers are believed to have been in service with Russian and allied air forces since 1984.
The rockets and launchers were offered for export since 1993, but there have been no reported sales.
Specifications
Rockets S-8 KO S-8B S-8D S-8 O S-8T S-8P
Length 1.57 m 1.5 m 1.66 m 1.63 m 1.7 m 1.63 m
Body diameter 80 mm 80 mm 80 mm 80 mm 80 mm 80 mm
Tailspan n/k n/k n/k n/k n/k n/k
Launch weight 11.3 kg 15.2 kg 11.6 kg 12.1 kg 13 kg 12.3 kg
Warhead 3.6 kg (HEAT) 7.41 kg HE blast 3.8 kg (FAE) 4.3 kg (flare) 6.6 kg HEAT 4.5 kg Chaff

Launchers B-8M1 B-8V20A


Length 2.76 m 1.95 m
Diameter 520 mm 520 mm
Number of tubes 20 × 80 mm 20 × 80 mm
Lug spacing 250 mm 250 mm
Weight
(unloaded) 150 kg 100 kg
loaded 382 kg 332 kg

Contractor
Originally manufactured by Vympel NPO, Moscow, and offered for export by Rosvoorouzhenie, Moscow, but from 1997 offered
for export by the JSC Institute of Applied Physics, Moscow.
UPDATED

Rear view of a Russian helicopter 20-tube launcher for S-8 rockets fitted to a Kamov Ka-27 `Helix' helicopter
displayed at the 1993 Moscow Air Show. The rear fairings have been removed
Close-up view of a B-8V20A launcher fitted to a Mi-35M attack helicopter, displayed at Paris in 1995
(Duncan Lennox)

Four sectioned S-8 rockets, from left to right: S-8 KO (anti-tank), S-8 D (FAE), S-8 O (illuminating) and S-8 B
(penetration)
(1998)

A B-8M1 rocket launcher (Vympel)


(1998)

Four S-8 80 mm rockets displayed at Farnborough in 1996 (Duncan Lennox)


(1998)

S-8T anti-tank warhead rocket


(2000)

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AIR-LAUNCHED ROCKETS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

S-5 (57 mm) AIRCRAFT ROCKETS


Type
57 mm unguided aircraft rockets.
Development
This family of air-launched rockets, designated S-5, was developed to provide the former Soviet Union and Warsaw Pact
armed forces with a nominal 57 mm Folding Fin Aircraft Rocket (FFAR) for air-to-air and air-to-surface applications.
Although quoted as having a calibre of 57 mm, the S-5's calibre is actually 55 mm, but the rockets are fired from 57 mm calibre
tubes. Little is known of their development, but from their outward appearance they are similar in design to the early American
Mickey Mouse air-to-air rockets, and are thought to have been developed around the same time, during the late 1940s and early
1950s. Over the years the motor has been improved and at least nine types of warhead have been developed for use on the S-5
rocket. These include: conventional HE, fragmentation, hollow charge anti-tank, chaff, illumination and practice. In parallel
with rocket development, four known rear-loading multiple launchers have been developed. They are the UB-8-57, UB-16-57,
UB-19-57 and UB-32-57, the first number indicating the number of launch tubes and the second, the calibre. These launchers
are fitted with standard Russian-type suspension points and have been cleared for carriage on MiG AT, MiG-21 `Fishbed',
MiG-23 `Flogger', Su-22 `Fitter', Su-25 `Frogfoot' aircraft and Ka-50 `Hokum-A', Ka-52 `Hokum-B', Mi-8/-17 `Hip' and
Mi-24/-25 `Hind' helicopters.
Description
As they are seldom seen outside their launch tubes, very little is known of the S-5's appearance, apart from it being a
conventional 55 mm calibre unguided rocket comprising a solid-propellant motor with flip out rectangular tailfins and an
appropriate warhead. Its total length and weight will depend on which of the nine warheads is fitted. But on average these are
around 1.0 m and 3.9 kg respectively. No details have been released of the nine warheads, except that they include HE,
fragmentation, hollow charge anti-tank, chaff, illumination and practice. The S-5 rocket is credited with a burnout velocity of
640 m/sec and a maximum effective range of 4 km when fitted with an HE warhead.
There are four known launchers associated with the S-5 rockets. These are all aerodynamically shaped for supersonic flight,
and have cylindrical bodies with suspension lugs on the upper surfaces. They have conical noses and a slightly tapered conical
rear fairing that is removed when rear loading of rockets takes place. The eight-tube UB-8-57 launcher is normally carried by
small fixed-wing aircraft. It has seven tubes symmetrically spaced around the outer circumference of the nosecone flush with
the skin, and the eighth tube exits through the centre of the nose. The 16-tube UB-16-57 launcher has an unusual tube layout in
that it has two rings of tubes, one in front of the other. The rear ring is made up of 11 tubes flush with the nosecone's skin,
whereas the front ring of five extend through the nosecone skin and beyond the nose. The 19-tube UB-19-57 has a similar
layout to the UB-16-57. The 32-tube UB-32-57 is similar to the previous two launchers, but is made up of three rings of tubes,
the 17 (rear) and 11 (middle) which are flush with the nosecone skin and the front ring of five that extends beyond the nose. Of
the four, the UB-32-57 is the one most often seen, six of which (three either side) are often seen fitted to the Mi-24 `Hind'
ground attack helicopter.
Operational Status
The S-5 series of rockets and associated launchers are in service with Russian and allied armed forces. It has been estimated
that production of this rocket and its variants, could be greater than that of all other aircraft rockets in the world combined. The
rockets and their associated warheads and launchers are still in production within Russia and several other allied countries.

Specifications
Length: 1.0 m
Body Diameter: 55 mm
Tailspan: n/k
Launch weight: 4 kg
Warhead: nine types (see text)
Contractor
Vympel NPO
Moscow.
UPDATED

A Russian S-5 UB-32-57 rocket launcher on a mid-wing pylon of a Romanian MiG-21 on display at the
1996 Farnborough Air Show (Peter Humphris)
(1998)

UB-16-57 rocket launcher on a Romanian IAR Puma 330L helicopter on display at the 1997 Paris Air
Show (Peter Humphris)
(1998)

A Russian Mi-8 `Hip' with three UB-32-57 rocket launchers on each weapon rack
(1998)

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AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

AT-3 `SAGGER' (9M14 MALYUTKA)


Type
Short-range, wire-guided, air-to-surface missile.
Development
An anti-tank missile given the NATO designation AT-3 `Sagger', but smaller than AT-2, had been seen mounted on
helicopters. Developed in the late 1950s, the first missiles entered service in 1961. The missile has the Russian designation
9M14 or PUR-64 and is called Malyutka. Improvements are reported to have been made to the guidance system over the years.
AT-3A, designated 9M14, had manual command to line of sight guidance. AT-3B (9M14M) had minor improvements. AT-3C
(9M14P) had SACLOS guidance and an improved warhead. Later versions of AT-3C had a tandem warhead, with the
initiator-warhead located in a nose probe. AT-3D (9M14-2) is also known as Malyutka 2 and this version has a larger warhead.
Two further improvements to Malyutka 2 have been developed, one is known as Malyutka 2F and is optimised for use against
soft targets. The other is known as Malyutka 2M, and this has a tandem shaped charge warhead to penetrate ERA and main
tank armour. In 1999, Euromissile (now part of EADS) and the Romanian company Arsenalul Armatei joined to develop an
improved AT-3 missile, known as Malyutka 2T, using the tandem HET warhead from the Milan missile with upgraded boost
and sustainer motors.The AT-4 `Spigot' and AT-5 `Spandrel' anti-tank missiles were tube-mounted missiles, similar in size and
performance to AT-3, but not reported as fitted to helicopters. AT-3 has been seen on Mi-2 `Hoplite', Mi-8 `Hip', Mi-17, Mi-24
`Hind', Mi-35 and former Yugoslav-built SA 342 Gazelle helicopters.
Description
The AT-3A/B/C missile versions have four rear-mounted rectangular wings, swept at the root and straight at the folding outer
section. The missile is 0.86 m long, has a body diameter of 125 mm, and a wing span of 0.39 m. There were several build
standards, and the launch weights varied from 10.9 to 11.4 kg. Guidance was by commands sent by wire, with the operator
maintaining sight over the selected target. The HE hollow charge warhead had a weight of 2.6 kg. Originally, the operator had
to track the missile onto the target, but this was replaced later with the automatic tracking of the missile by the sight assembly
(AT-3C `Sagger C' version), using Semi-Automatic Command to Line Of Sight (SACLOS). The missile has a maximum range
of 3 km.
The AT-3D `Sagger' Malyutka 2 missile has been improved to fly faster and to carry a larger 3.5 kg warhead. This version
has a length of 0.86 m, but is 0.98 m long when the nose probe is extended. The missile has four small rectangular fins at the
base of the nose probe. Malyutka 2 has a body diameter of 125 mm and a launch weight of 12.5 kg. A single-shaped charge HE
warhead weighs 3.5 kg and can penetrate 800 mm of armour. The warhead was designed by the Russian Nuclear Physics
Research Institute, VNIIEF. The nose probe is extended when the missile is fitted to its launcher, and contains a contact fuze.
The AT-3D version has a minimum range of 500 m, and a maximum range of 3.0 km. The missile can reach 3 km in 23
seconds. The Malyutka 2F has a weight of 11.9 kg, and a 3.0 kg HE warhead that produces both heat and overpressure to
destroy soft targets. The 2M version has a weight of 13.5 kg, and a 4.2 kg HE tandem shaped charge warhead that can defeat
ERA and 720 mm of armour. The extendable nose probe contains a contact fuze and the precursor charge to penetrate ERA.
Malyutka 2 missiles have two flares at the rear to assist in tracking, and the missiles roll so that the tracker can more easily
determine the missile's position in the presence of IR flares or clutter.
Operational Status
The AT-3 `Sagger' missile entered service in 1961 and has been updated. AT-3B entered service in 1963, AT-3C in 1969 and
AT-3D (Malyutka 2) in 1992. It is reported that the nose probe (tandem warhead) modification to AT-3C entered service in
1981. The AT-3 has been licence-built and copied in several countries and it is estimated that production continued at around
20,000 missiles annually until the early 1980s. The Chinese Red Arrow 73, Hongjian 8, anti-tank missile is remarkably similar,
and it is believed that Bulgaria, Iran, North Korea, Romania, Taiwan and Yugoslavia produced similar copies. The Iranian
versions are known as Raad, with I-Raad similar to AT-3D (Malyutka 2). It is believed that exports have been made to the
following countries: Afghanistan, Algeria, Belarus, Bulgaria, Cambodia, China, Croatia, Cuba, Czech Republic, Ethiopia,
Finland, Georgia, Hungary, India, Iran, North Korea, Libya, Mongolia, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Poland, Romania, Slovakia,
Sri Lanka, Sudan, Syria, Taiwan, Ukraine, Vietnam, Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) and Zambia.
Specifications
AT-3A/B/C
Length: 0.86 m
Body diameter: 125 mm
Wing span: 0.39 m
Launch weight: 10.9 to 11.4 kg
Warhead: HE hollow charge 2.6 kg
Fuze: Impact
Guidance: Wire-guided
Propulsion: Solid propellant
Range: 3 km
AT-3D (Malyutka 2)
Length: 0.86 m (or 0.98 m with nose probe extended)
Body diameter: 125 mm
Wing span: 0.39 m
Launch weight: 12.5 kg (2), 11.9 kg (2F), 13.5 kg (2M)
Warhead: HE 3.5 kg (2), 3.0 kg (2F), 4.2 kg (2M)
Fuze: Impact
Guidance: Wire-guided
Propulsion: Solid propellant
Range: 3 km
Contractor
KBM Engineering Design Bureau
Kolomna.
UPDATED

Two AT-3 `Sagger' anti-tank missiles mounted on a former Yugoslav-built SA 342 Gazelle helicopter, with
an SA-7 `Grail' under the centre of the rail assembly (Paul Beaver)

AT-3 `Sagger' with AT-3C (upper) and AT-3D [Malyutka 2] (lower)


Three AT-3 `Sagger' (Malyutka 2) missiles mounted on the outboard pylon of a Mi-17 MD helicopter at
Farnborough in 1996 (Peter Humphris)

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AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

Kh-41 (3M80 MOSKIT/SS-N-22 `SUNBURN')


Type
Long-range, inertial- and radar-guided, air-to-surface missile.
Development
Kh-41 is the Russian designator given to this large air-to-surface anti-ship missile first seen at the 1992 Moscow Air Show. The
missile is also known by the Russians as Moskit (Mosquito) and has been given the designator ASM-MSS. It is believed that
the ship-launched version has the designation 3M80 or P-270 and that this missile might be fitted to later built Project 956A
`Sovremenny 2' class destroyers. So far, it is not known which designation has been allocated by NATO to the Kh-41. It is
believed that the original 3M80 missile was given the NATO designator SS-N-22 `Sunburn' and this ship-launched
surface-to-surface missile entered service in 1980. As Moskit has been exhibited in both air- and ship-launched versions there
has been confusion, but the ship-launched version has a larger diameter and a range of 90 km. The air-launched Kh-41 missile
is designed for use against individual ships or convoys and could well be intended as a replacement for AS-4 `Kitchen' and
AS-6 `Kingfish' air-to-surface missiles. From its appearance, the Kh-41 looks to be a larger version of the Kh-31S, with the
integral rocket/ramjet propulsion system developed by the same OKB for both missiles. The Russians researched integral
rocket/ramjet propulsion systems in the 1960s, with the Toropov OKB-134 design team developing the SA-6 `Gainful'
surface-to-air missile system (Russian designation ZRK-SD Kub) which entered service in 1970. It is reported that the ramjet
engines for both the Kh-31 and Kh-41 were designed by the Soyuz Turaevo Machine Design Bureau at Lytkarino in Russia.
It is believed the Kh-41 might be cleared for use on some Russian naval bomber aircraft, and has been seen fitted to the
naval Su-27K variant `Flanker' aircraft. In 1999, there were reported to be plans to fit the missile to Su-30/-32/-33 aircraft for
exports.
Description
The Kh-41 is similar in appearance to the Kh-31 air-to-surface missile, but considerably larger. The missile has four long air
intakes running from just forward of the missile centre to the boat tail. There are four folding clipped triangular-wings situated
on and near the forward end of the intakes and four in-line folding fins at the rear. The missile is 9.74 m long, with a body
diameter of 760 mm, an extended wing span of 2.1 m, and weighs 4,500 kg at launch. Guidance is inertial with a dual-mode
active/passive radar terminal seeker, which has an ECCM capability. The 320 kg HE warhead will probably be of the
blast/fragmentation type and be fitted with a delayed SAP fuze. When carried on the Su-27K `Flanker', the missile is launched
from a large, integrated and shaped centre-line pylon, probably with the aid of an integral solid-propellant boost motor. The
ramjet motor uses the solid motor casing as a combustion chamber (similar to Kh-31). The missile is reported to have a
high-altitude (10 km) cruise speed of around M3.0, while the cruise speed at low altitude is M2.1. Range during a low-altitude,
sea-skimming mission is up to 150 km. This range is reported to increase to 250 km when the missile follows a high-altitude
profile before diving to low altitude for the terminal attack phase. Although not mentioned in any released documentation, the
Kh-41 is certainly capable of carrying a nuclear warhead.
Operational Status
A trials model of the Kh-41 was displayed at the 1992 Moscow Air Show. The missile was thought to be in the final stages of
development and could have been intended as the replacement for AS-4 `Kitchen' and AS-6 `Kingfish' air-to-surface missiles.
However, reports in 1994 suggested that any air-launched Kh-41 missile would be too heavy for aircraft carrier operations and
that the programme was not funded from 1993. However, aircraft were still being displayed in 1996 with Kh-41 attached. In
1998, there were again proposals to fit this missile to the future Su-30/-32/-33 aircraft, for export to China and India.
Integration tests were completed in 1997, and two flight tests reported in 1998. It is believed that the ship-launched version,
P-270, will continue to be developed for possible fitment to later built Project 956A `Sovremenny 2' class destroyers as a
replacement for the SS-N-22 `Sunburn'.

Specifications
Length: 9.74 m
Body diameter: 760 mm
Wing span: 2.1 m
Launch weight: 4,500 kg
Warhead: 320 kg HE blast/fragmentation
Fuze: Impact
Guidance: Inertial with active/passive radar
Propulsion: Solid propellant and ramjet
Range: 250 km
Contractors
The Kh-41 overall design was by the Raduga Machine-Building Design Bureau, Moscow.
The propulsion system was designed by the Soyuz Turaevo Machine Design Bureau, Lytkarino.
Missiles have been built at the Progress Plant, Arsenyev.
VERIFIED

Close-up of the Kh-41 missile under a Su-27K `Flanker' aircraft on display at the 1992 Moscow Air Show.
The other two missiles are AA-10 `Alamo' air-to-air missiles

Rear end view of Kh-41 air-to-surface missile showing the integration of the solid-propellant rocket
nozzle in the aft end of the missile (note the folded wings and rear fins along the body)

Kh-41

A side view of a Kh-41 Moskit missile, displayed in Moscow in 1997 (Paul Jackson)
(1998)

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AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

AS-20 `KAYAK' (Kh-35/3M24/Kh-37)/SS-N-25 (3M60


URAN)/SSC-6 (3K60 BAL)
Type
Long-range, radar-guided, air-to-surface missile.
Development
This air-, ship- and ground-launched missile was first seen at the 1992 Moscow Air Show. The missile has the Russian
designator Kh-35, or X-35 in the export version. The air-launched missile has the NATO designator AS-20 `Kayak' and
Russian designator 3M24. The ship-launched missile has the NATO designator SS-N-25 `Switchblade' and the Russian
designator 3M60 Uran, and the ground-launched system has the NATO designator SSC-6 `Stooge' with the Russian designator
3K60 Bal. The Kh-35 missile is often referred to as `Harpoonski' as it is similar to the US-designed AGM/RGM-84 Harpoon.
The Kh-35 was designed by Zvezda-Strela, who also designed the SS-N-9 `Siren' ship-launched missile. Kh-35 was originally
intended as a naval surface-to-surface missile for ship and coastal launch. However, like many other Russian missile
programmes, it was decided also to develop the Kh-35 as an anti-ship air-launched missile. Development of the ship-launched
version began in 1983 and work on the air-launched version started in 1987. There are unconfirmed reports that studies are
under way to look at firing Kh-35 missiles enclosed in capsules from submerged submarines.
In 1997, reports indicated that an upgraded version was in development, designated 3M24M1 and named Uranium, with a
range increased to 250 km and incorporating Glonass (GPS) updates to provide a land-attack capability. In 1998, a new variant,
designated Kh-37, was reported. This has an imaging IR seeker and it is believed to be in development for use as an
air-launched, ship- and ground-launched missile to supplement the present Kh-35 missile versions.
The air-launched version has been cleared for use on the Su-17 'Fitter', Su-24 `Fencer', Su-25 'Frogfoot', Su-27 `Flanker',
Tu-142M `Bear F' and MiG-29 `Fulcrum' aircraft, and will also be carried by the Ka-27, Ka-28, Ka-29 'Helix' and Ka-50
'Hokum' naval helicopters.
A modified variant of the Kh-35 missile is also to be used as a Russian anti-ship missile target, to exercise ship defence
systems against threats such as Harpoon and Exocet.
Description
AS-20 `Kayak' is similar in appearance to the US AGM-84 Harpoon. The missile has four clipped-tip folding triangular-wings
at mid-body and four smaller in-line clipped folding triangular moving control fins at the rear. There is an engine air inlet under
the body just forward of the wings, and the large air duct runs between the wings all the way to the rear of the missile. The
missile is 3.75 m long, has a body diameter of 420 mm, a wing span of 1.3 m and weighs 480 kg at launch. Guidance is inertial
in mid-course with an active radar terminal seeker, which is reported to have ECCM capability. The active radar is the
ARGS-35, which operates in I/J-band (8 to 20 GHz) with a range of 20 km. The radar searches for the ship target in both
azimuth (±45º) and elevation (+10º, -20º). The radar seeker assembly (less radome) weighs 40 kg and has a length of 0.7 m.
At launch, the missile descends to a low-cruise altitude, believed to be 10 to 15 m, determined by its radio altimeter, and
flies towards the target by inertial guidance under the power of its turbofan engine at about M0.9. The active radar seeker is
selected into its search and acquire mode at between 15 and 20 km from the target. When the seeker locks onto the target, the
missile descends to an altitude of between 2 to 5 m for the terminal phase. The 145 kg HE warhead is a semi-armour-piercing
fragmentation type and is fitted with a delayed fuze. The Kh-35 is powered by a turbofan sustainer motor which is reported to
give the missile a maximum range of about 130 km when launched from between 200 to 5,000 m altitude. The minimum range
is 5 km. When launched from a helicopter a tandem boost motor, smaller than that used on the ship-launched version, is added
to the missile. The AS-20 missile is carried on an AKU-58 rail launcher.
The improved 3M24M1 version has a launch weight of 575 kg, with increased fuel to extend the range to 250 km. This
version has an integrated INS/GPS navigation system, and is reported to have a land-attack capability.
There are no details available on the Kh-37 imaging IR missile variant.
Operational Status
The AS-20 `Kayak' (Kh-35) was displayed and offered for export at the 1992 Moscow Air Show. The air-launched variant is
reported to have entered service in 1983, and the ship-launched variant in 1987. The SS-N-25 ship-launched version has been
fitted to modified `Krivak 1' and `Gepard' class frigates. The coastal defence SGC-6 version may have entered service, but this
has not been confirmed. The upgraded 3M24M1 missile is in development and may enter service in Russia in 2002. The Kh-37
variant, with an imaging IR seeker, is in development and is expected to enter service in 2002/2003.
SS-N-25 `Switchblade' missiles have been exported to India and Vietnam. It is expected that India will purchase AS-20
missiles for use on their Su-30MKI aircraft, but there are no confirmed exports to date.
Specifications
AS-20 `Kayak'
Length: 3.75 m
Body diameter: 420 mm
Wing span: 1.3 m
Launch weight: 480 kg
Warhead: 145 kg HE SAP
Fuze: Impact
Guidance: Inertial with active radar
Propulsion: Turbofan
Range: 130 km
Contractor
Zvezda-Strela
Korolev.
UPDATED

The boost-assisted ship/coastal-launched Kh-35 with its wings and fins extended on display at the 1992
Moscow Air Show. The rear boost motor assembly, with tied-in stabilising fins, would not be fitted to
air-launched missiles unless they were to be carried by helicopters (Christopher F Foss)

AS-20 'Kayak' (Kh-35)


An active radar seeker assembly ARGS-35, displayed in 1997 (Paul Jackson)
(1998)

An AS-20 `Kayak' air-to-surface missile with wings folded for aircraft carriage (Paul Jackson)
(1998)

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AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES, RUSSIAN FEDERATION


Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

AS-X-19 `KOALA' (Kh-90/BL-10)


Type
Long-range, inertial-guided, nuclear cruise missile.
Development
The existence of the AS-X-19 `Koala' programme had been reported by the US DoD in 1986, but was confirmed by the
Russians in 1988 when the US Secretary of Defense was shown around a Tu-160 `Blackjack' bomber at an airbase near
Moscow. AS-X-19 was believed to have the Russian designator BL-10. AS-X-19 was reported as being a high-altitude
supersonic cruise missile, developed since the mid-1980s and believed to have started flight trials in 1989. It is believed that
AS-X-19 was a dual service programme, developing both air-, submarine- and ship-launched missiles in parallel, with
SS-NX-24 `Scorpion' as the naval version. AS-X-19 was expected to be cleared for carriage by Tu-95 `Bear-H' and Tu-160
`Blackjack' aircraft and it is reported that the Tu-95 could carry two missiles only. Raduga NPO had designed a
ramjet-powered test vehicle, known as GELA and this was flown from 1994. It is believed that the test vehicle was based on
AS-X-19 assemblies, and that further variants of the original design may be developed.
Description
US DoD drawings indicated a large missile with an outline similar to AS-3 `Kangaroo', and the SS-N-24 `Scorpion', but such a
missile would not fit the internal rotary launchers on the `Blackjack'. From reports in 1996, it appears that AS-X-19 had two
delta-wings at the mid-body and four clipped-tip folding delta fins at the rear. The missile was ramjet powered and had a long
slender nose section with a circular engine air inlet behind an inlet control cone under the body and just forward of the
wingroot. AS-X-19 is believed to have been about 10.5 m long, with a body diameter of 1.2 m and an extended wing span of
4.5 m. The launch weight was probably 2,800 kg and the maximum range about 3,000 km. The missile is believed to cruise at
20 km (70,000 ft), at around M2.5 to 3.0 and to have a steep terminal dive onto the target. Unconfirmed reports suggest that
AS-X-19 had two independently programmed warheads that were to be ejected to hit targets separated by up to 100 km.
Operational Status
AS-X-19 `Koala' was in development and some trial flights were reported between 1990 and 1992, with an expected in-service
date around 1995; however in 1992, Russia indicated that it would terminate the programme. The present status of AS-19 is
unclear. There are, however, indications that the AS-X-19 design has been retained and that smaller missiles with turbojet or
ramjet engines are being developed as possible lower-cost alternatives. A GELA hypersonic test vehicle, believed to be based
on AS-X-19, has been used since 1994 with launchers from a Tu-95 `Bear' test aircraft.
Specifications
Length: 10.5 m
Body diameter: 1.2 m
Wing span: 4.5 m
Launch weight: 2,800 kg
Warhead: Two independently targeted nuclear 90 kT each
Fuze: n/k
Guidance: Inertial with terrain comparison
Propulsion: Turbofan
Range: 3,000 km
Contractor
It is believed that AS-X-19 was designed by Raduga NPO, Moscow.
VERIFIED

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AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

AS-18 `KAZOO' (Kh-59M Ovod-M)


Type
Long-range, TV command-guided, air-to-surface missile.
Development
The Russian Kh-59M missile, or X-59M for the export version, is believed to have the NATO designator AS-18 `Kazoo'. Some
details were first released in 1992, when it was apparent that the Kh-59M was a turbojet-powered version of AS-13 `Kingbolt'
with the Russian designator Kh-59. A complete Kh-59M missile was shown at an exhibition in 1993. A Russian review of
tactical nuclear weapons suggests that a version of AS-18, possibly with the designator Kh-20, has a nuclear warhead. It is
believed that Kh-59M has been cleared for carriage on the MiG-27 `Flogger', Su-24 `Fencer' and Su-25 `Frogfoot' aircraft.
Earlier Russian documents indicated that a separate ship-launched version, with a tandem-mounted boost motor, had also been
developed with a total weight of 1,000 kg, but it is not known if this version ever entered service. In 1995, a report suggested
that a 200 km range version had been designed and was being offered for export, but no further reports have been seen. In
1999, there was an unconfirmed report that an imaging IR seeker had been developed for AS-18.
Description
Kh-59M is similar to the AS-13 `Kingbolt' (Kh-59) missile, but Kh-59M has four narrow swept and clipped delta flip out fins
at the nose, and a turbojet engine fitted under the rear body in a separate pod assembly. The missile has a length of 5.69 m, a
body diameter of 380 mm, a wing span of 1.3 m and a launch weight of 920 kg. Guidance in mid-course is inertial with
command updates and there is a TV-command guidance system used for the terminal phase. The operator receives a data
linked picture from the TV camera in the missile's nose, and places a marker on their display over the selected target, with the
resultant control signals relayed to the missile back over the datalink. Russian reports state that the accuracy is 3 to 5 m CEP.
The launch aircraft carries a datalink pod, the same APK-9 pod used in the AS-13 `Kingbolt' system, which is 4.0 m long, has a
diameter of 450 mm and a weight of 260 kg. The Kh-59M warhead weighs 320 kg and is believed to be an HE blast
penetration type. There is also an alternative 280 kg cluster submunition warhead. It is possible that there is also a nuclear
warhead option, probably with a selectable yield between 10 and 100 kT. The missile flies at low level with a radio altimeter,
which can be set at 7 m over water or at 100, 200, 600 or 1,000 m altitude over land. The cruise speed is M0.8. The maximum
range with lock on before launch is 60 km and with aircrew updates is 115 km. The minimum range is about 20 km. The AS-18
missile is carried on an AKU-58 pylon rail launcher.
Operational Status
It is believed that AS-18 `Kazoo' entered service in 1991 and it was first offered for export in 1992. However, unconfirmed
reports in 1994 indicated that only early production missiles were in service and that a full production contract had still to be
placed. The present position is unclear and there are no confirmed exports. A report in 1995 suggested that an improved
version had been designed for export, with a range of 200 km.
Specifications
Length: 5.69 m
Body diameter: 380 mm
Wing span: 1.30 m
Launch weight: 920 kg
Warhead: 320 kg HE, 280 kg HE submunitions, or 10 to 100 kT nuclear
Fuze: n/k
Guidance: Inertial and TV-command
Propulsion: Turbojet
Range: 115 km
Contractor
The missile was developed by Raduga NPO, Moscow, and built by the Smolensk Aircraft Manufacturing Plant.
UPDATED

An AS-18 `Kazoo' (Kh-59M) missile displayed at Farnborough in 1996, showing the front fins extended
and the turbojet engine inlet cap fitted for carried flight (Duncan Lennox)

The nose section of the AS-18 missile, showing the TV camera assembly and the nose fins in the stowed
position (Peter Humphris)

The turbojet and rear section of an AS-18 `Kazoo' missile, with the engine inlet cap in the carried flight
position. The cap is jettisoned at missile launch (Peter Humphris)

A view of the rear of an AS-18 `Kazoo' missile, showing what is believed to be the TV datalink radome on
the end of the missile body (Duncan Lennox)

AS-18 `Kazoo' (Kh-59M)

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AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

AS-17 `KRYPTON' (Kh-31/KR-1)


Type
Medium-range, radar-guided, air-to-surface missile.
Development
Kh-31 is the Russian designator and X-31 is the export designation given to this anti-ship and anti-radar missile first seen at the
1991 Dubai Air Show and given the NATO designator AS-17 `Krypton'. The two versions have the Russian designators
Kh-31P for the anti-radar missile and Kh-31A for the anti-ship missile. The development programme began in the late 1970s,
as a follow-on to the AS-12 `Kegler' but with improved performance aimed specifically at the US MIM-104 Patriot and
AN/SPY-1 Aegis phased-array radar systems. From its appearance, Kh-31 is a totally new concept and unlike anything the
Russians have designed before. Russia researched integral rocket-ramjet designs in the 1960s, with the Toropov OKB-134
design bureau developing the SA-6 `Gainful' surface-to-air missile, which entered service in 1970. Soyuz Turaevo NPO
developed the propulsion system for Kh-31.
An upgraded version was reported to be in development for use as an air-to-air missile against AEW aircraft in 1996, but it is
not known if the development was ever completed. Another variant, known as MA-31 is used as a supersonic target for ship
defence training. The MA-31 supersonic target was selected by the US Navy for evaluation in 1994 and a joint programme
with McDonnell Douglas (now Boeing) was set up with 13 test vehicles in the US for flight trials. In 1998, it was reported that
Zvezda-Strela had developed an improved anti-radar missile, designated KR-1, with a range increased to 400 km. The KR-1
has been exported to China, where it is believed they will be built under licence. An active radar, dual-mode X- and Ku-band,
is being developed for the Kh-31A missiles as an upgrade, with a 60 km range and the ability to select an aim point on the
target ship. It is believed that AS-17 has been cleared for carriage on Su-17 `Fitter', MiG-21 `Fishbed', MiG-27 `Flogger',
MiG-31 'Foxhound', Su-24 'Fencer', Su-25 `Frogfoot', Su-27 `Flanker', MiG-29 `Fulcrum' aircraft, and will be cleared for
carriage on the Su-30/-32/-33/-35 aircraft.
Description
The AS-17 `Krypton' (Kh-31) is similar in appearance to an early US design and the internationally (French/German)
developed ANS air-to-surface missile. The missile has four long air intakes running from the centre of the missile to just
forward of the boat tail. On each of these ducts, there is a clipped delta-wing towards the rear with a high-aspect ratio control
fin very close to the trailing-edge. Each of the control fins has a small pitot type tube near its tip. From Russian documentation,
there would appear to be two different build standards (Mod 1 and Mod 2) of missile for both Kh-31P and Kh-31A versions.
The Kh-31P Mod 1 is 4.7 m long, has a body diameter of 360 mm, a wing span of 0.8 m, a control fin span of 1.15 m and
weighs 599 kg at launch. The minimum range is 15 km and the maximum range for the Mod 1 missile is 110 km. The Mod 2
missile has a length of 5.23 m, a body diameter of 360 mm, a fin span of 1.15 m and a launch weight of 625 kg. The Mod 2
missile has a maximum range increased to 200 km. Guidance for the Kh-31P is by passive radar homing, most probably with
an inertial supplement to enable homing to continue even if the target radar is switched off. Unconfirmed reports suggest that
three interchangeable homing heads are required for different target radar frequency bands. Kh-31P has a 87 kg HE
blast/fragmentation warhead. The MiG-27 `Flogger' usually carries an APK-8 radar emitter locator pod when using Kh-31P
anti-radar missiles.
The Kh-31A Mod 1 missile is 4.7 m long, has a body diameter of 360 mm, a wing span of 0.8 m, a fin span of 1.15 m and a
launch weight of 610 kg. The missile has a 95 kg HE penetration warhead. This version has a minimum range of 10 km and a
maximum range of 70 km when launched from an altitude of 15 km (50,000 ft). The Mod 2 missile has a length of 5.23 m, a
body diameter of 360 mm, a fin span of 1.15 m and a launch weight of 700 kg. This version has a 110 kg HE penetration
warhead. The missile has a minimum range of 5 km and a maximum range increased to 100 km. Kh-31A guidance is inertial,
with an active radar terminal seeker. In 1997, an ARGSN-31 active radar seeker was exhibited for use with Kh-31A missiles.
The seeker assembly weighs 39 kg and has a length of 1.01 m (including radome). The seeker has a range of 20 km, and
provides an azimuth coverage of ±20º and an elevation coverage from +10º to -20º.
Both Kh-31P and 31A missiles are launched from AKU-58 rail launchers. Kh-31 has an integral solid-propellant boost
motor, followed by a ramjet sustainer motor using the solid propellant motor casing as a combustion chamber. When launched,
the solid-propellant boost motor accelerates the missile to M1.8, at which point the ramjet ignites and continues to accelerate
the missile to its cruise speed. The missiles can fly high- or low-level cruise profiles. The high-level cruise can be made at up to
15 km (50,000 ft), with a speed of M3.0. It is reported that the Kh-31 missiles can fly at low level, down to 200 m altitude,
cruising at M 2.5 and can manoeuvre at 10 g. The missiles can be programmed to climb at 2 km from the target, to dive down
onto the target. An accuracy of 8 m CEP has been reported for both Kh-31A and Kh-31P missiles. A similar performance has
been reported from the MA-31 target during tests in the USA. A further improved anti-radar missile, with the designator KR-1,
has been developed for sale to China. The only data available is a maximum range reported to be 400 km.

Operational Status
The AS-17 `Krypton' (Kh-31) missile was displayed and offered for export at the 1991 Dubai Air Show, along with a variety of
other air-to-surface missiles, all of which are in service and still in production. Reports from Russia indicate that the Kh-31A
version entered service in 1988, and the Kh-31P entered service in 1989. The missiles in service in Russia are all believed to be
of Mod 1 standard. In 1997, only the shorter range, Mod 1 standard, were being offered for export but, by 1998, the longer
range Mod 2 missiles were also offered for export. The US Navy is evaluating the MA-31 air target version of this missile, and
flight tests started in August 1996 using 13 missiles. In 1999, a further 34 missiles were ordered for conversion to air targets,
with options for a total of 100 missiles over a five year period.
In 1998, a small number of improved Kh-31P missiles, designated KR-1, were exported to China, where it is believed they
will be built under licence.
Specifications
Kh-31A
Length: 4.7 m (Mod 1), 5.23 m (Mod 2)
Body diameter: 360 mm
Wing span: 1.15 m
Launch weight: 610 kg (Mod 1), 700 kg (Mod 2)
Warhead: 95 kg HE penetration (Mod 1), 110 kg HE penetration (Mod 2)
Fuze: n/k
Guidance: Inertial with active radar
Propulsion: Solid propellant and ramjet
Range: 70 km (Mod 1), 100 km (Mod 2)
Kh-31P
Length: 4.7 m (Mod 1), 5.23 m (Mod 2)
Body diameter: 360 mm
Wing span: 1.15 m
Launch weight: 599 kg (Mod 1), 625 kg (Mod 2)
Warhead: 87 kg HE blast/fragmentation
Fuze: n/k
Guidance: Inertial with passive radar
Propulsion: Solid propellant and ramjet
Range: 110 km (Mod 1), 200 km (Mod 2)
Contractors
Zvezda-Strela
Korolev (prime contractor).
Soyuz Turaevo NPO
Lytkarino (ramjet motors).
UPDATED

An active radar seeker assembly ARGSN-31, exhibited in 1997 (Duncan Lennox)


(1998)

A rear view of the Kh-31 showing the rear control surfaces and the large exhaust nozzle (Nick Cook)

An AS-17 `Krypton' (Kh-31) missile on display at Farnborough in 1996 (Peter Humphris)

A close-up view of the ramjet air inlets, with the carriage inlet caps fitted, on the AS-17 missile (Duncan
Lennox)

AS-17'Krypton' (Kh-31)

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AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

AS-16 `KICKBACK' (Kh-15/RKV-15)


Type
Long-range, inertial- and radar-guided, air-to-surface missile.
Development
Little was known about the existence of this land-attack, anti-ship or anti-radar missile, with the Russian designator Kh-15 (or
RKV-15), until the visit in 1988 by the US Secretary of Defense to Kubinka air-base to see a Tu-160 `Blackjack' bomber. The
missile has been given the NATO designator AS-16 `Kickback' and it has been developed in alternative versions (as AS-4
`Kitchen') with both nuclear and conventional warheads as well as with active radar anti-ship (Kh-15S) and passive anti-radar
seekers (Kh-15P). The Russians described their missile as equivalent to the US AGM-69 SRAM and hence its development
timescale would most probably have been from the early 1970s. The AS-16 missile is similar in shape to AGM-69, but is
slightly larger and heavier. It is believed that the Russian designator RKV-15 refers to the nuclear land-attack version. AS-16
can be carried by Tu-95 `Bear-H', Tu-26 (22M3) `Backfire C', and Tu-160 `Blackjack' aircraft. The Tu-22M3 `Backfire C'
carries six AS-16 missiles in an internal MKU-6-1 rotary launcher, and can carry an additional four missiles on underwing
pylons. The Tu-160 `Blackjack' can carry 24 AS-16 missiles internally, in four MKU-6-1 rotary launchers. Reference in 1991
to an adaptation of AS-16 `Kickback' might be to an improved version, which Russian sources stated in 1991 would be
cancelled. However, in 1993, a conventional warhead active radar seeker version, known as Kh-15S was offered for export for
use against ship targets. An unconfirmed report in 1995 stated that China is developing a nuclear air-to-surface missile using
Russian technology, and that this might be a version of AS-16.
Description
AS-16 `Kickback' is 4.78 m long, with a body diameter of 455 mm and a tailspan of 0.92 m. The missile looks similar to
AGM-69 SRAM, with a vertical fin and two tailplanes at the rear. The fin and tailplanes move for in-flight control. Guidance is
inertial for the Kh-15 (RKV-15) nuclear armed version. The Kh-15S anti-ship version has inertial guidance in mid-course with
an active radar seeker for the terminal phase. The active radar has a maximum range against a large ship target of 40 km. The
Kh-15P anti-radar version has inertial guidance in mid-course, with a passive radar seeker for the terminal phase. The passive
radar seeker can acquire the target from up to 100 km range. The missile has a launch weight of 1,200 kg, with a 350 kT
nuclear warhead (Kh-15) or a 150 kg HE warhead (Kh-15S and -15P). The solid propellant motor gives the missile a cruise
speed around M5.0 at high level, and M2.0 at low level. The missile can be launched from altitudes between 300 m and 22 km.
The maximum cruise altitude is reported to be 40 km (130,000 ft). The AS-16 has a minimum range of 40 km, and a maximum
range of 150 km when launched from medium altitude (10 km). When launched from low level the maximum range is between
60 and 100 km. It is reported that the solid-propellant motor can be pre-programmed to stop and then be restarted, to allow
alternative trajectories and ranges to be achieved.
Operational Status
Developed during the 1970s, the nuclear warhead AS-16 `Kickback' (Kh-15) entered service in 1980. The HE warhead
anti-ship (Kh-15S) and anti-radar (Kh-15P) versions entered service in 1988. It is believed that Ukraine may have some HE
warhead missiles. There are no other known exports, except for an unconfirmed report suggesting that China is developing a
similar missile.
Specifications
Length: 4.78 m
Body diameter: 455 mm
Wing span: 0.92 m
Launch weight: 1,200 kg
Warhead: 350 kT nuclear (Kh-15) or 150 kg HE (Kh-15S, -15P)
Fuze: n/k
Guidance: Inertial (Kh-15), inertial with active radar (Kh-15S), or inertial with passive radar (Kh-15P)
Propulsion: Solid propellant
Range: 150 km
Contractor
Raduga NPO
Moscow.
UPDATED

Six AS-16 `Kickback' missiles in the rotary launcher of a Tu-26 (22M3) `Backfire' aircraft (ITAR-TASS)

AS-16 `Kickback' (Kh-15)

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AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

AS-15 `KENT' (Kh-55/RKV-500/Kh-555/Kh-65)


Type
Long-range, inertial-guided, nuclear and HE warhead, cruise missiles.
Development
AS-15 `Kent' is the NATO designation given to the Russian air-launched cruise missiles that have the designators Kh-55 and
RKV-500, which were developed from 1971. The first test flight was made in 1976. The original nuclear armed missile was
similar to the US BGM-109 Tomahawk, and little was known about the AS-15 missile until December 1987 when information
was released on the similar Russian GLCM with the INF Treaty declarations. It is believed that AS-15, SSC-X-4 and SS-N-21
'Sampson' (RK-55) are similar missiles, simply adapted for different launch modes. The SSC-X-4 variant, a Ground-Launched
Cruise Missile (GLCM) was terminated after the ratification of the 1987 INF Treaty. The AS-15A `Kent' (Kh-55/RKV-500A)
nuclear warhead missile is carried by Tu-95MS `Bear-H' and Tu-142M 'Bear F' aircraft. The longer range AS-15B
(Kh-55SM/RKV-500B) nuclear warhead missile is carried by Tu-160 `Blackjack'. Test flights were also made with Tu-26
`Backfire' aircraft. In 1992, the Russians exhibited a conventional warhead variant of AS-15 `Kent', given the designator Kh-65
SE, with an external turbojet engine mounted under the rear body of the missile. The Tu-95 MS6 `Bear H6' carries six AS-15A
missiles on an internal MKU-6-5U rotary launcher, and the Tu-95 MS16 `Bear H16' carries 16 AS-15A, with six missiles on an
internal rotary launcher and 10 externally in pairs on five pylons. The `Blackjack' is reported to carry up to 12 AS-15B missiles
internally, in two rotary MKU-6-5U launchers. A third version, AS-15C (Kh-555 or Kh-55SM), has been developed with a
unitary HE or submunitions warhead, and it is believed that some Kh-55 (AS-15A) missiles may be converted to Kh-555
standard. This version is based on the longer range Kh-55SM (AS-15B) design.

Description
The AS-15 missile has two straight rectangular wings, with rounded tips, that fold out from the body after launch. The
extended wing span is 3.1 m. There are two tailplanes and a fin, that move for control, and are also folded during aircraft
carriage. The bypass turbojet engine is stowed in the rear body during carriage, and is lowered into the air stream just after
launch. It is believed that the engine is an Omsk MKB, designated TRDD-50, which gives the missile a cruise speed of M0.8.
AS-15A (Kh-55 or RKV-500A) is 6.04 m long, has a body diameter of 514 mm and a launch weight of 1,210 kg. A single
nuclear warhead is carried, with a weight of 410 kg, and reported to have a yield of between 200 and 250 kT. Guidance is
inertial, with a TV/imaging IR terrain comparison system to update the inertial system and provide terminal guidance. The
AS-15 has a radar altimeter and flies at between 40 to 110 m. AS-15A has a maximum range of 2,500 km. It is reported that the
AS-15 has a CEP of 150 m, although a figure of 45 m has also been quoted in the USA.
AS-15B (Kh-55SM or RKV-500B) is 6.04 m long or 7.1 m with a tandem boost motor fitted, has a body diameter of 770
mm and two additional conformal fuel tanks either side of the centre body of the missile. Without the tandem boost motor the
missile has a launch weight of 1,500 kg, and with the boost motor the weight is 1,700 kg. The tandem boost motor is to assist
with low level launches, to maintain the increased range of this version, which is 3,000 km. This missile has an improved
nuclear warhead, with a yield of 200 kT.
AS-15C (Kh-555 or Kh-55SE) is similar to AS-15B, but carries a unitary HE warhead or submunitions. In addition there are
two nose-mounted canard control surfaces, and a new terminal seeker, to improve the accuracy of this version.
Operational Status
It has been reported that flight trials of AS-15A `Kent' started in 1976 and that the missile entered service in 1984. AS-15B
entered service in 1987, and it is possible that a small number of AS-15C missiles became available in 1997. In 1994, it was
reported that Ukraine had 565 nuclear warheads for cruise missiles, and these may have been a mixture of AS-4, AS-6 and
AS-15 missile warheads. In 1999, it was reported that Ukraine had 1,612 AS-15 missiles in 1991, and that it had been agreed
that 575 would be returned to Russia together with three Tu-95 and eight Tu-160 bombers. The remaining 1,037 missiles in
Ukraine would either be scrapped or converted to AS-15C standard. In 1995, there were AS-15 missiles at Mozdok, Ukrainka,
Engels, and Zhukovskiy (flight test centre), for a total of 1,168 AS-15A and -15B missiles. In 1998, it was reported that the
base at Mozdok will be closed and that there were 28 `Bear H6', 35 `Bear H16' and 7 Tu-160 `Blackjack' aircraft in service in
the Russian Federation. In 1996, two trial launches of AS-15B were reported, two AS-15A were launched in June 1999 and, in
April 2000, two AS-15C missiles were launched.
Specifications
AS-15B (Kh-55SM/RKV-500B) and
AS-15A (Kh-55/RKV-500A)
AS-15C (Kh-555 or Kh-55SE)
Length 6.04 m 6.04 m (or 7.10 m with boost)
Body diameter 514 mm 770 mm
Wing span 3.1 m 3.1 m
1,500 kg (no booster),1,700 kg (with boost
Launch weight 1,210 kg
motor)
200 kT nuclear (AS-15B) or 410 kg HE or
Warhead 200 to 250 kT nuclear
submunitions (AS-15C)
Fuze n/k n/k
Guidance Inertial and terrain comparison Inertial and terrain comparison
Propulsion Turbojet Turbojet
Range 2,500 km 3,000 km

Contractor
Raduga NPO
Moscow.
UPDATED

AS-15 `Kent', Kh-55 (upper) and Kh-55SM (lower)


(2001)

This picture, released in 1987, shows the GLCM variant; but it is believed that AS-15 `Kent' is similar but
without the boost motor assembly mounted behind the tail and fins in this picture (Soviet Military Power,
1988)

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AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

AS-14 `KEDGE' (Kh-29)


Type
Medium-range, laser- or TV-guided, air-to-surface missile.
Development
The AS-14 `Kedge' is the NATO designation for this third-generation tactical air-to-surface missile, with the Russian
designator Kh-29 and the export designator X-29. Developed in the 1970s, it entered service in 1980. The `Kedge' missile
probably used the Semi-Active Laser (SAL) guidance of AS-10 `Karen' and the TV-guidance of AS-13 `Kingbolt', but with a
larger warhead. The Russians state that AS-14 can be used against ships, hardened aircraft shelters, concrete runways, bridges
and industrial buildings. There are two major versions of the Kh-29 missile, a TV-guided version designated Kh-29T, and a
semi-active laser guided version designated Kh-29 L. An improved version of the laser guided version has the designator
Kh-29ML. AS-14 has been offered for export with TV-guided X-29T and semi-active laser X-29L versions. There is an
unconfirmed report that there was a third version, known as Kh-29 MP, with a passive anti-radar seeker, which had been fitted
to the Su-17 `Fitter'. It is also possible that a later modification might have updated the TV-guidance to imaging IR for
day/night use. In 1997, an upgraded TV-guided version, designated Kh-29TE was displayed for export (as the X-29TE). This
version has an increased weight and increased range. AS-14 has been cleared for carriage on MiG-23 'Flogger', MiG-27
`Flogger', MiG-29 `Fulcrum', Mirage F1, Su-17/22 `Fitter', Su-24 `Fencer', Su-25 `Frogfoot', Su-27 'Flanker', Su-30 and Su-35
aircraft.
Description
AS-14 `Kedge' is 3.87 m long, with a body diameter of 380 mm, a wing span of 1.1 m and a weight of 650 kg for the SAL
version and 680 kg for the TV. The SAL-guided missile has a distinctive nose shape, where the 24NI laser guidance assembly
appears to have been fitted onto a larger diameter missile body. AS-14 has a 317 kg HE penetration bomb as the warhead.
There are four fixed stabilisers on the narrow forebody, with four moving clipped-tip delta control fins just behind and then
four clipped-tip delta-wings at the rear of the missile with moving control surfaces. The missile has a solid-propellant motor,
which provides a cruise speed of around M0.8. The carrying aircraft would have a laser designator pod to designate the targets
for the missile and the Kayra system simply requires the pilot to mark the target on a TV display with the automatic tracking
system keeping the laser designator on the target. It is reported that earlier Russian laser designator pods were limited in range
to 10 km for accurate designation and it was interesting to note that the Iraqis adopted the Thomson-CSF Atlis pod for use with
their AS-14 missiles, thus achieving a range of 12 km. The SAL-guided missile can have maximum ranges of 8, 10 or 12 km
depending on the laser designator, and a minimum range of 2 to 3 km. This missile can be launched at altitudes of up to 5,000
m (16,000 ft). The TV-guided version has a different nose assembly, with four rectangular strakes in front of four clipped-tip
moving delta control fins. The TV-guided missile has a maximum range of 12 km and a minimum range of 3 km and can be
launched at altitudes of up to 5,000 m (16,000 ft). The upgraded TV version, Kh-29TE, has a weight increased to 700 kg and a
maximum range increased to 30 km. This version is the same size and shape as the earlier Kh-29T missile. The Kh-29TE
missile can be launched from 200 m altitude up to 10,000 m (33,000 ft). When carrying TV missiles, the launch aircraft would
carry a TV receiver and designator pod, probably similar to that used with the AS-13 `Kingbolt' missile. The AS-14 missile is
carried on an AKU-58 pylon launcher and stored in a container with a length of 4.35 m, a width of 0.9 m and a height of 0.86
m. The container, with a missile, has a weight of 1,030 kg.
Operational Status
AS-14 `Kedge' entered service in 1980 and is still in operational use. It is believed that AS-14 `Kedge' was exported to
Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Georgia, Germany, Hungary, Iraq, Kazakhstan, Poland, Romania,
Slovakia and Ukraine. Both TV- and SAL-guided versions were exhibited and offered for export in Dubai in 1991 and the
improved TV version was offered for export in 1997.
Specifications
Kh-29T Kh-29TE Kh-29L
Length 3.87 m 3.87 m 3.87 m
Body diameter 380 mm 380 mm 380 mm
Wing span 1.1 m 1.1 m 1.1 m
Launch weight 680 kg 700 kg 650 kg
Warhead 317 kg HE 317 kg HE 317 kg HE
Fuze n/k n/k n/k
Guidance TV command TV command SAL
Propulsion solid propellant solid propellant solid propellant
Range 12 km 30 km 12 km

Contractor
Vympel NPO
Moscow.
UPDATED

AS-14 `Kedge', semi-active laser version, on the wing pylon of an Iraqi Air Force Mirage F1 (Christopher
F Foss)

A close-up of the nose assembly of a TV-guided AS-14 (Kh-29T) missile, displayed at Paris in 1997
(Peter Humphris)
(1998)

A rear view showing the solid-propellant motor nozzle of AS-14 `Kedge' (Peter Humphris)

AS-14 `Kedge' (Kh-29)


An AS-14 (Kh-29T) TV-guided missile exhibited at Farnborough in 1996, with an AA-11 `Archer' missile
behind (Peter Humphris)

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AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

AS-13 `KINGBOLT' (Kh-59 OVOD)


Type
Medium-range, TV command-guided, air-to-surface missile.
Development
AS-13 `Kingbolt' is the NATO designation for this missile, which has the Russian name Ovod and the designator Kh-59 with
an export designation of X-59. It was first seen at the 1991 Dubai Air Show and can be assumed to have been developed in the
1970s as a longer range version of AS-10 `Karen'. An upgraded variant, with the designator Kh-59M, was shown in 1993; this
design has an external turbojet engine mounted below the missile body and has the NATO designator AS-18. It is believed that
the AS-13 `Kingbolt' can be carried by the Su-17/22 `Fitter', MiG-27 `Flogger', Su-24 `Fencer' and Su-25 `Frogfoot' aircraft,
and that the APK-9 datalink pod is carried by the launch aircraft.
Description
In appearance the AS-13 `Kingbolt' is unlike other Russian missiles of this period. It has four rather large fixed slightly
rounded triangular stabiliser nose fins just behind the large rounded glass nose. These forward fins are reminiscent of the front
end of the USA GBU-15 and the now obsolete AIM-4D Falcon air-to-air missile. The missile is 5.1 m long, with a body
diameter of 380 mm, has a wing span of 1.26 m and weighs 790 kg. The TV head is very similar in appearance to the one fitted
to the TV version of AS-14 `Kedge', and a protective cover is fitted over the TV dome and removed at launch. There is also a
rearward-facing datalink antenna at the rear end, with a large strake to the nose section. The missile is accelerated off the
launcher rails by a solid-propellant booster motor, which is attached to the rear of the missile and has a large funnel type
exhaust nozzle. It is believed that this booster motor assembly is jettisoned after burning. The solid-propellant sustainer motor
exhausts from two nozzles, situated well forward between the leading-edges of the rear wings on either side of the missile,
similar to those on the AS-7, AS-10 and AS-12 missiles. The missile has a maximum cruise speed of M0.9. AS-13 `Kingbolt'
has a 148 kg HE warhead. The missile is estimated to have a range of 20 km when launched from low altitude, and around 40
km when launched from medium altitude (30,000 ft). An APK-9 datalink pod would be carried by the launch aircraft, to
receive TV pictures from the missile and send guidance commands from the operator back to the missile. The APK-9 pod is 4.0
m long, has a body diameter of 450 mm and weighs 260 kg. In the West, this task was always carried out by a weapons
operator in a two-seater aircraft, but the Russian designers appear to have reduced the workload so that AS-13 can be fired
from single-seat aircraft as well.
Operational Status
The AS-13 missile entered service with the Russian Air Force in 1980, and is believed to have been removed from service in
Russia. AS-13 `Kingbolt' was being offered for export along with other air-to-surface missiles in 1991, which would indicate
that the missile was still in production at that time, or that production could have been restarted at short notice if further export
orders were received. There have been no upgrades reported, and it is believed that the export version is no longer available. It
is believed that AS-13 is in service in Azerbaijan, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Ukraine.
Specifications
Length: 5.1 m
Body diameter: 380 mm
Wing span: 1.26 m
Launch weight: 790 kg
Warhead: HE 148 kg
Fuze: n/k
Guidance: TV-command
Propulsion: Solid propellant
Range: 40 km
Contractor
The missile was designed by Raduga NPO, Moscow, and built by the Smolensk Aircraft Manufacturing Plant.
UPDATED
An AS-13 `Kingbolt' TV-guided missile with its APK-9 datalink pod, behind a KMGU-2 dispenser,
displayed at Moscow in 1997 (Paul Jackson)
(1998)

The AS-13 `Kingbolt' air-to-surface missile, displayed at the 1991 Dubai Air Show as the X-59 (Nick
Cook)

A rear view of the AS-13 `Kingbolt' showing the booster and sustainer motor exhausts. It is believed that
the rear boost motor assembly is jettisoned, to reveal the datalink antenna at the base of the missile (Nick
Cook)

AS-13 `Kingbolt' (Kh-59)

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AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

AS-12 `KEGLER' (Kh-25 MP/Kh-27)


Type
Medium-range, anti-radar, air-to-surface missile.
Development
The AS-12 `Kegler' is the NATO designation given to this second-generation anti-radar tactical air-to-surface missile, probably
developed as a successor to AS-9 `Kyle'. It is thought that this lighter missile was designed for launch from low level to give
better launch aircraft survivability. AS-12 is almost identical to AS-10 `Karen', probably with an interchangeable nose
assembly and shared warhead and motor sections. The Russian designators are Kh-25P, Kh-25 MP, and Kh-25MPU. Reports
suggest that an earlier version of AS-12 had the Russian designator Kh-27, but this has not been confirmed. Developed in the
early 1970s, it is believed to have entered service around 1978. AS-12 has been reported on MiG-21 `Fishbed', MiG-23,
MiG-27 `Flogger', Su-17, Su-20, Su-22 `Fitter', Su-24 `Fencer', Su-25 `Frogfoot' and Tu-22M `Backfire' aircraft.
Description
AS-12 `Kegler' is either 4.19 or 4.36 m long (depending on the seeker head fitted), with a body diameter of 275 mm and a wing
span of 0.82 m. The missile weighs 310 kg and has a 86 kg HE blast/fragmentation warhead. Guidance is by passive radar
homing, most probably with an inertial supplement to enable homing to continue even if the target radar is switched off. The
radome shape on `Kegler' is unusual, but appears to be similar to that seen on the radar-guided version of the air-to-air missile
AA-5 `Ash'. The radome and passive seeker assembly are interchangeable for attacking radars in different frequency bands,
believed to have been designed to attack US-built MIM-23 HAWK and MIM-14 Nike Hercules SAM sites. The seeker
designations are PRGS-1VP and -2VP, with tracking rates of 6 to 8º/s, azimuth cover of ±30º, and elevation cover from +20 to
-40º. Most aircraft are reported to carry an APK-8 radar emitter locator pod with the AS-12 missiles. AS-12 missiles are
normally carried on a APU-68 pylon launcher rail adaptor. It is believed that this missile is capable of launch from low level,
with a programmed climb after launch into the target radar's main beam. The solid-propellant sustainer motor exhausts through
two side body nozzles that probably contain moving control vanes. The missile has a peak velocity of 850 m/s (around M 2.5).
AS-12 has a maximum range of 60 km when launched from medium altitude (30,000 ft), and a range of 25 km when launched
from low altitude. The minimum range is 3 km. An accuracy of 5 m CEP is reported from Russian sources.
The improved Kh-25MP version has similar performance to the Kh-25, but the Kh-25MPU version is optimised for use against
X-band surface-to-air missile engagement radars, and has a weight increased to 320 kg. The minimum range is 3 km, and the
maximum range is reduced to 40 km.
Operational Status
AS-12 `Kegler' probably entered service as the Kh-27 in 1978, and a later version designated Kh-25 P entered service in 1981.
Two further upgrades have been made, designated Kh-25MP and Kh-25MPU. The later versions are still in operational use. It
is believed that AS-12 has been exported to Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Georgia, Germany,
Hungary, Kazakhstan, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Syria, Ukraine and Vietnam.
Specifications
Length: 4.19 to 4.36 m
Body diameter: 275 mm
Wing span: 0.82 m
Launch weight: 310 kg (Kh-25P, -25MP), 320 kg (Kh-25MPU)
Warhead: 86 kg HE blast/fragmentation
Fuze: n/k
Guidance: Inertial and passive radar
Propulsion: Solid propellant
Range: 60 km (Kh-25P, -25MP), 40 km (Kh-25MPU)

Contractor
Zvezda-Strela
Korolev.
UPDATED

An AS-12 `Kegler' anti-radar missile shown on display at Moscow in 1992 (Christopher F Foss)

AS-12 `Kegler' (Kh-25MP)

The rear wings and motor exhaust nozzles of an AS-12 (Kh-25 MP) missile (Peter Humphris)
(1998)

Two AS-12 missiles fitted to an Su-22 `Fitter' aircraft


(1999)

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AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

AS-11 `KILTER' (Kh-58)


Type
Long-range, anti-radar, air-to-surface missile.
Development
The AS-11 `Kilter' is the NATO designation for this third-generation anti-radar missile, developed in the early 1970s to
complement the larger AS-9 `Kyle', with the Russian designator Kh-58. AS-11 missiles have been seen between 1991 and 2000
with the designators Kh-58, Kh-58U, Kh-58E and Kh-58EM. The last two versions, Kh-58E and -58EM are export models,
with alternate designators X-58E and X-58EM. The `Kilter' missile is considerably smaller than AS-4 `Kitchen' or AS-6
`Kingfish' and was most probably specifically designed for use against the US designed MIM-23 HAWK surface-to-air missile
system. The Kh-58U version was standardised so that it could be fitted to several aircraft without the need to modify the
aircraft. From the shape of the missile, AS-11 is believed to have been designed and developed by the same design bureau
responsible for the AS-4, AS-6 and AS-9 programmes, now known as Raduga NPO. It is believed that AS-11 `Kilter' is carried
by the MiG-25 `Foxbat', MiG-27 `Flogger', MiG-31 'Foxhound', Su-17, Su-22 `Fitter', Su-24 `Fencer' and Su-25 `Frogfoot'
aircraft, and is planned for carriage on the Su-35. Two missiles can be carried on the Su-24, and two missiles on the modified
Su-25TK.
Description
AS-11 `Kilter' (Kh-58) has four clipped-tip delta-wings at mid-body and four clipped-tip delta control fins at the rear. The
missile is 4.85 m long, has a body diameter of 360 mm, a wing span of 1.17 m and weighs 650 kg. The missile has a 152 kg HE
warhead of the blast/fragmentation type, although an unconfirmed report suggests that a nuclear warhead option is also
available. It is assumed that the missile has an active radar fuze, as these have been seen on Russian air-to-air missiles of a
similar age. Guidance is inertial with passive radar and has five interchangeable seeker heads covering L, S, C and X band
radar targets. Each seeker has a 5º field of view, with ±30º in azimuth and +10 to -45º in elevation coverage. The seekers can
be re-targeted in flight and pre-programmed with target priorities. A solid-propellant motor with boost and sustainer thrust
levels gives a maximum range of 160 km with a reported maximum flight speed of M3.6. The minimum launch range is 10 km.
The improved Kh-58U has standardised interfaces so that it can be fitted to different aircraft without requiring aircraft
modifications.
The export versions, Kh-58E and -58EM, have a length reduced to 4.8 m, an increased body diameter of 380 mm, but retain
the launch weight at 650 kg. These missiles have a modified HE blast/fragmentation warhead with a weight of 149 kg. The
maximum flight speed is M3.0, the minimum range is 30 km, and the maximum range 120 km. An upgraded version has also
been offered for export, with a range increased to 180 km
The missiles are stored in a container, with a length of 5.64 m, width 0.99 m and height 0.87 m. The container has a weight
of 350 kg.
Operational Status
AS-11 `Kilter' is believed to have entered service with the Russian Air Force around 1981 and still to be in operational use. The
missiles are believed to have been exported to Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Georgia, Kazakhstan, North
Korea, Slovakia and Ukraine. An improved version of AS-11 has been offered for export from 1997, but there have been no
reported further sales
Specifications
Length: 4.85 m (Kh-58, -58U), 4.8 m (Kh-58E, -58EM)
Body diameter: 360 mm (Kh-58, -58U), 380 mm (Kh-58E, -58EM)
Wing span: 1.17 m
Launch weight: 650 kg
Warhead: 152 kg HE blast/fragmentation or nuclear (Kh-58, -58U), 149 kg HE blast/fragmentation (Kh-58E, -58EM)
Fuze: Active radar
Guidance: Inertial and passive radar
Propulsion: Solid propellant
Range: 160 km (Kh-58, -58U), 120 km (Kh-58E, -58EM)
Contractor
Raduga NPO
Moscow.
UPDATED

An AS-11 `Kilter' anti-radar air-to-surface missile displayed in Dubai in 1991, shown here as the X-58, an
export version (Nick Cook)

AS-11 `Kilter' (Kh-58)

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AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

AS-10 `KAREN' (Kh-25)


Type
Short-range, radio command- or laser-guided, air-to-surface missile.
Development
The AS-10 `Karen' is the NATO designation for this short-range air-to-surface missile, the Russian designators are Kh-25 or
X-25 for the export version. Developed in the late 1960s and early 1970s, the missile entered service in 1974. This missile
represents the second-generation of tactical air-to-surface missiles developed in Russia and is very similar in shape to AS-7
`Kerry', probably simply being an improved variant of the earlier missile. There are seven versions of AS-10 `Karen' in service.
A radio command-guided version Kh-25R and -25MR, two semi-active laser-guided versions Kh-25L and -25ML, a TV guided
version Kh-25MT, and an IR guided version Kh-25MTP. In 1999, a seventh version was offered for export, designated
Kh-25MA, this is an active radar guided version. An anti-radar version, Kh-25P, was given the NATO designator AS-12
`Kegler'. `Karen' has been cleared for carriage on MiG-21 'Fishbed', MiG-23 'Flogger', MiG-27 `Flogger', MiG-29 `Fulcrum',
Su-17, Su-20, Su-22 `Fitter', Su-24 `Fencer', Su-25 `Frogfoot' and Su-27 'Flanker' aircraft. When the Kh-25L and -25ML
laser-guided versions are carried, a laser designator pod is fitted, except on the Su-25 `Frogfoot' which has a nose-mounted
laser illuminator and range-finder system, Klen-P5. For the TV guided Kh-25MT and IR guided Kh-25MTP versions a data
link pod will be carried.
Description
AS-10 `Karen' has four nose-mounted moving clipped-tip delta fins and four rounded delta-wings at the rear with control
elevators on the trailing-edges. The Kh-25R missile has a length of 3.8 m, a body diameter of 275 mm and a wing span of 0.82
m. The missile weighs 310 kg and has a 120 kg HE warhead. Guidance is by radio-command from the launch aircraft. The
solid propellant sustainer motor exhausts through two nozzles in the side of the missile body, with control vanes to change the
direction of flight inside the missile body. The missile has a maximum speed of M1.3, a minimum range of 2 km and a
maximum range of 8 km. The improved Kh-25MR version has a length increased to 3.83 m, a warhead weight of 140 kg, and a
maximum range of 10 km.
The Kh-25L semi-active laser guided version is similar to the Kh-25R but has a shorter length of 3.75 m, a reduced weight of
300 kg, and a smaller HE warhead with a weight of 86 kg. The aircraft-mounted laser designation system was known as
Prozhektor, later upgraded to the Kayra system, but it is reported that ground laser designators were also used. The Kayra
system uses the 24NI semi-active laser seeker in the missile, which has a 2º field of view and ±30º motion in azimuth and
elevation. The pilot marks the required target on a TV display leaving the Kayra automatic tracking system to keep the laser
designator on the target. The missile has a maximum speed of M1.3 and a reported accuracy of 5 m CEP. Kh-25L has a
minimum range of 2 km, and a maximum range of 10 km. The improved Kh-25ML version has a maximum range increased to
20 km.
The Kh-25MT television guided version has a length of 4.04 m, but otherwise is similar to the Kh-25ML version. The Kh-25
MTP infrared guided version has a length of 4.15 m. Both Kh-25MT and -25MTP missiles have a minimum range of 2 km, and
a maximum range of 20 km.
The Kh-25MA active radar guided version has a length of 4.3 m, and a weight increased to 320 kg. This missile has a 86 kg HE
blast/fragmentation warhead, a minimum range of 5 km and a maximum range of 40 km when released from medium altitude
(10 km). The type of radar seeker fitted is not known.
The missiles are stored in a container that has a length of 4.2 m, a width of 0.86 m and a height of 0.81 m. The missile and
container weigh a total of 540 kg.
Operational Status
AS-10 `Karen' entered service in 1974 and is probably still in operational use. It is believed that it was widely exported to
Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Georgia, Germany, Hungary, Kazakhstan,
Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Syria, Ukraine, Vietnam and Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro). In 1999, the Russians added
the active radar seeker version, X-25MA, to the missiles still being offered for export, and it is assumed that the production line
remains open.
Specifications
Length: 3.8 m (Kh-25R), 3.83 m (-25MR), 3.75 m (-25L and ML), 4.04 m (-25MT), 4.15 m (-25MTP), 4.3 m (-25MA)
Body diameter: 275 mm
Wing span: 0.82 m
Launch weight: 310 kg (Kh-25R, -25MR), 300 kg (-25L, -25ML, -25MT, -25MTP), 320 kg (-25MA)
Warhead: 120 kg HE (Kh-25R), 140 kg HE (-25MR), 86 kg HE (-25L, -25ML, -25MT, -25MTP, -25MA)
Fuze: RF
Guidance: Radio-command (Kh-25R and -25MR), semi-active laser (-25L and -25ML), TV (-25MT), IR (-25MTP), inertial
and active radar (-25MA)
Propulsion: Solid propellant
Range: 8 km (Kh-25R),10 km (-25MR, -25L), 20 km (-25ML, -25MT, -25MTP), 40 km (-25MA)
Contractor
Zvezda-Strela
Korolev.
UPDATED

A radio command-guided AS-10 `Karen' (Kh-25 MR) missile on display at Moscow in 1992 (Christopher
F Foss)

A nose view of AS-10 `Karen' (Kh-25ML), with a semi-active laser seeker fitted, on display in Dubai in 1991
(Nick Cook)

A rear view of AS-10 `Karen', showing the distinctive side location of the motor exhaust nozzles and the rear
body shape of the Kh-25ML version (Nick Cook)

AS-10 `Karen', from top to bottom, Kh-25MR, Kh-25ML, Kh-25MT, Kh-25MTP, and Kh-25MA
(2001)
A radio-command guided Kh-25 MR (AS-10) missile, showing the rear guidance antenna (Christopher
F Foss)
(1999)

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AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

AS-9 `KYLE' (Kh-28)


Type
Medium-range, anti-radar, air-to-surface missile.
Development
The AS-9 `Kyle' is the NATO designation for this anti-radar missile. Developed from 1963 to 1973, it has the Russian
designator Kh-28. Designed to attack ground and shipborne radars, this smaller missile would have complemented the larger
AS-4 `Kitchen' and AS-6 `Kingfish' anti-radar versions and would probably have been targeted at the fire-control radars
associated with surface-to-air missiles. AS-9 has been reported on Su-17, Su-20, Su-22 `Fitter', Su-24 `Fencer', Tu-16 `Badger',
MiG-25 `Foxbat E', MiG-27 `Flogger' and Tu-22M `Backfire' aircraft.
Description
The AS-9 `Kyle' is 6.04 m long, has a body diameter of 450 mm and a wing span of 1.39 m. AS-9 closely resembles AS-4
`Kitchen', and appears to be a scaled-down version. There are two delta-wings at mid-body, with clipped-tip delta vertical fins
and horizontal tailplanes. The lower fin is folded during ground handling and aircraft carriage. The missile weighs 700 kg and
is reported to have an HE blast fragmentation warhead of 200 kg. AS-9 employs the same high-altitude flight profile as AS-4
and AS-6 and makes a steep dive down onto the target radar. Guidance is by several interchangeable passive radar seeker
assemblies, each tuned to a single waveband and probably covering 1 to 10 GHz with four separate seekers. AS-9 has a
liquid-propellant motor and has a maximum range of 90 km when released from medium altitude (30,000 ft). The missile is
believed to have a minimum range of 10 km.
Operational Status
AS-9 `Kyle' entered service in 1973, and has probably been withdrawn from service in Russia. However, a small number may
remain in operational use in other countries. It is believed that it was exported to Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bulgaria,
Georgia, Hungary, Iraq, Kazakhstan, Libya, Poland, Syria, Ukraine and Vietnam. It is believed that Iraq made the AS-9 missile
under licence from 1985, and call their version of AS-9 the `Nisan 28'.
Specifications
Length: 6.04 m
Body diameter: 450 mm
Wing span: 1.39 m
Launch weight: 700 kg
Warhead: 200 kg HE blast fragmentation
Fuze: n/k
Guidance: Passive radar
Propulsion: Liquid propellant
Range: 90 km
Contractor
Raduga NPO
Moscow.
UPDATED

The Iraq Air Force version of AS-9 `Kyle', called `Nisan 28' in Iraq, seen in the foreground on a ground
handling trolley (Tony Banks)

A rear view of AS-9 `Kyle', showing the liquid-propellant motor nozzles and folded lower fin (Tony Banks)

AS-9 `Kyle' (Kh-28)

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AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

AS-6 `KINGFISH' (Kh-26 and KSR-5)


Type
Long-range, radar-guided, air-to-surface missile.
Development
AS-6 `Kingfish' is the NATO designation given to a missile that is extremely similar to the AS-4 `Kitchen', and it seems
possible that AS-6 was initially designed as an improved variant of AS-4; designed to be smaller, lighter and with a smaller
radar signature. However, subsequently it appears that the Russians have found the performance of AS-4 to be superior, and it
has been retained in service longer than AS-6. AS-6 was developed in the late 1960s and first entered service in 1969. The
missile has the Russian designators Kh-26 and KSR-5. The Kh-26 MP version has passive radar guidance and the Kh-26 N has
an active radar seeker. In 1993, the Russians offered for export a modified AS-6 missile for use as an air-launched target, with
the designators KSR-5NM or KSR-5MV. The missile has been cleared for carriage on the Tu-16 `Badger', Tu-22M `Backfire'
and Tu-95H 'Bear' aircraft.
Description
The AS-6 `Kingfish' missile has two delta-wings at mid-body, with delta shaped tails and fin at the rear. The missile is 10.56 m
long, has a body diameter of 920 mm and a wing span of 2.6 m. The missile weighs 4,500 kg. Guidance in mid-course is
inertial and it is reported that there are two versions of terminal phase guidance. Kh-26 MP has a passive radar seeker, and
Kh-26 N an active radar seeker. The active radar seeker has a range of between 25 and 30 km. It is believed that both versions
have alternative warheads, either nuclear with a yield of 350 kT, or HE with a weight of 930 kg. AS-6 has a solid-propellant
motor and cruises at high altitude at M3.0. The high altitude cruise can be up to 11 km altitude, but a low level profile can also
be flown at around 50 m altitude. The high level cruise is followed by a steep dive onto the target in the terminal phase. The
missile has a maximum range from high altitude of 400 km, and 250 km from low level.
Operational Status
AS-6 `Kingfish' (Kh-26) entered service in 1969 and may still be in operational use in Belarus, Russia and Ukraine. It is
believed that about 100 missiles remained in service in Russia in 1991, but most of these have now been converted to
supersonic targets. In 1994, an unconfirmed report indicated that 12 Tu-22M `Backfire' aircraft were sold to Iran, together with
some AS-4 and AS-6 missiles.
Specifications
Length: 10.56 m
Body diameter: 920 mm
Wing span: 2.6 m
Launch weight: 4,500 kg
Warhead: 350 kT nuclear or 930 kg HE
Fuze: n/k
Guidance: Inertial with active or passive radar
Propulsion: Solid propellant
Range: 400 km
Contractor
It is believed that the design was co-ordinated between the Tupolev and Mikoyan (OKB-155) design bureau, but the
modification to an air target and current support comes from Raduga NPO, Moscow.
UPDATED

AS-6 `Kingfish' air-to-surface missile being carried by a Tu-16 `Badger' aircraft

AS-6 'Kingfish' (Kh-26)

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GUNS, PODS AND MOUNTINGS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

SPPU-22 and UPK-23 GUN PODS


Type
Gun pods for 23 mm aircraft cannon.
Development
The SPPU-22 and UPK-23 gun pods have been developed by the MMPP organisation of Moscow for use by Russian and allied
air forces, in order to provide a removable, short-range, ground-attack weapon system for fitting to fixed- and rotary-wing
aircraft. However, the UPK-23 pod can also be used in the self-defence role. Little is known of its development except that it is
believed to have taken place in the 1970s, as both pods have been designed to incorporate the GSh-23L twin-barrel 23 mm
calibre cannon, which entered sevice around 1969. Further details of the GSh-23L cannon are contained in a separate entry.
The pods are fitted with standard Russian 250 mm suspension lugs. The SPPU-22 pod has been seen fitted to Su-17/-20/-22
`Fitter', Su-25 `Frogfoot', MiG-23 and MiG-27 `Flogger' aircraft. The UPK-23 pod has been seen on fixed-wing aircraft, but
more usually on Mi-24 `Hind', Mi-28 `Havoc', Mi-35M and Ka-50 `Hokum' helicopters.
Description
The SPPU-22 and UPK-23 gun pods have the same basic cylindrical-shaped body, pointed fore and aft ends and are fitted with
a hardback structure to which are attached 250 mm-spaced suspension lugs. The pods are designed around the GSh-23 cannon,
details of which may be found in a separate entry.
The overall length of the SPPU-22 is 3.8 m; it has a body diameter of 400 mm and, when fully loaded, weighs around 320
kg. The ammunition capacity of the pod is 260 rounds and the cannon has a firing rate of 3,000 rds/min. The GSh-23 cannon is
mounted in a movable cradle in the bottom of the pod with the two muzzles exiting just below the nose section in a scooped out
fairing. In its normal stowed position in the pod, the cannon is flush with the underside of the pod body and can readily be fired
in this position as a normal fixed cannon installation, either for self-defence or ground attack in a diving mode. However, the
cannon mounting, which is remotely controlled from the aircraft cockpit, can be depressed through an angle of 30º from its
stowed position. The computer control unit of the system is located in the rear end of the pod itself. When operated, the cannon
is initially aimed by the pilot, but it is then computer controlled to keep it on target as the aircraft overflies the target. It appears
that the flight altitude and aircraft speed for a particular attack have to be fed into the system's computer before flight, thus
limiting the aircraft's flexibility.
For operation, the pod requires an electrical power supply of either 27 V DC or 115 V 400 Hz AC, and the system can be
operated throughout the temperature range of -60 to +60º C.
Apart from recently released pictures, very little is known about the UPK-23. The pod is estimated to be around 3.0 m long
(without the protruding barrels) and to have a body diameter of 395 mm. It is assumed that the weapon load will be the same as
for the SPPU-22 and, therefore, the overall weight will be similar.
In the case of the UPK-23 pod the GSh-23 cannon is fixed higher up the pod with its twin barrels just above centre point.
Apart from the barrel depression capability, it is assumed that the UPK-23 will operate in a similar way to the SPPU-22, and
have the same requirements and capabilities.
Operational status
Both pods are believed to be in service with Russian and allied air forces. The UPK-23 pod has been offered for export with a
variety of fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters since 1993, but there have been no reported sales.
Specifications
SPPU-22
Length: 3.8 m
Diameter: 400 mm
Number of guns: 1 × 2-barrelled 23 mm
Ammunition capacity: 260 rds
Lug spacing: 250 mm
Weight: 320 kg loaded
UPK-23
Length: 3.0 m
Diameter: 395 mm
Number of guns: 1 × 2-barrelled 23 mm
Ammunition capacity: 260 rds
Lug spacing: 250 mm
Weight: n/k
Contractor
MMPP
Moscow.
UPDATED

Two SPPU-22 gun pods fitted to an Su-22 `Fitter' along with an AA-8 `Aphid' air-to-air missile and 57
mm rocket pod. Note the gun pods are both forward and rear firing

Close-up of an SPPU-22 mounted on the inboard wing pylon of an Su-17 `Fitter'. Note the GSh-23
twin-barrelled cannon in the depressed position

A UPK-23 gun pod displayed at Paris in 1995, with the capacity for 250 rounds of ammunition
(Duncan Lennox)

Side view of a UPK-23 gun pod displayed at Farnborough in 1996 (Peter Humphris)

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GUNS, PODS AND MOUNTINGS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

SPPU-6 GUN POD


Type
Gun pod for 23 mm cannon.
Development
The SPPU-6 (S'yomnaya podvizhnaya pushechynaya - detachable movable gun system) is believed to have been developed by
the MMPP design bureau of Moscow for use by Russian and allied air forces. The programme requirement was to provide the
Su-24 'Fencer' with a removable, short-range, ground-attack weapon system. Little is known of the pod's development, except
that it was designed to incorporate a six-barrelled 23 mm calibre cannon and 500 rounds of ammunition. The current pod being
offered for export is fitted with a GSh-6-23 cannon. It appears that two variants were designed in order to allow the pod to be
fitted to either side of the aircraft, to allow the cannon to traverse out to the side as well as in elevation. The SPPU-6 is fitted
with standard Russian suspension lugs and, although designed primarily for use from the Su-24 with the use of specially
developed adaptors, it can also be carried on other fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft.
Description
SPPU-6 is a cylindrical-shaped,bomb-like pod, with an ogival nose section and a tapered four-fin tail unit. The fins help to
provide aerodynamic stability to the pod when flown at high speed. The pod is made of a lightweight alloy and has a hard back
structure to which are attached standard Russian 250 mm-spaced suspension lugs. Depending whether the pod is for port or
starboard mounting, the forward section has a groove in the lower outside surface. The cannon itself is mounted off-centre in
the bottom of the pod, set back just over 1 m from the nose. In its normal stowed position in the pod, the six-barrels of the
cannon are flush with the offset groove in the pod body
The overall length of the SPPU-6 is 5.0 m, it has a body diameter of 500 mm and, when fully loaded, weighs 525 kg. The
current in-service SPPU-6 is fitted with the GSh-6-23 cannon and has an ammunition capacity of 500 rounds. The GSh-6-23 is
credited with a fire rate of between 9,000 and 10,000 rds/min, has a muzzle velocity of 715 m/s and uses Russian standard
AM-23 HEFI ammunition.
The cannon can be fired in the stowed position as a fixed cannon installation either in a self-defence role or for ground attack
in a diving mode. The cannon mounting, which is remotely controlled from the aircraft cockpit, can be depressed through an
angle of 45º and traversed by ± 45º from its stowed position. This allows target tracking by the cannon during an attacking pass
by the parent aircraft, thus allowing the aircraft to fly at low level and manoeuvre to avoid defences.
The SPPU-6 gun pod requires one of the following electrical power supplies for its operation: 27 V DC, 115 V 400 Hz AC
or 200 V 400 Hz AC.
Operational status
The SPPU-6 pod is in service with Russian and allied air forces. It was offered for export in 1996, but as yet there have been no
reported orders
Specifications
Length: 5.0 m
Diameter: 500 mm
Number of guns: 1 × 6 barrelled 23 mm
Ammunition capacity: 500 rds
Lug spacing: 250 mm
Weight: 525 kg incl cannon and ammunition
Contractor
MMPP
Moscow.
UPDATED

An SPPU-6 gun pod with six-barrelled 23 mm cannon in the depressed firing position

Line diagram of an SPPU-6 gun pod for port side mounting, with the GSh-6-23 cannon in the stowed
position (Peter Humphris)
(2000)

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GUNS, PODS AND MOUNTINGS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

NPPU-280 GUN TURRET


Type
Gun turret for 30 mm aircraft cannon.
Development
The NPPU-280 gun turret has been developed by the Moscow Aggregate Plant design bureau for use by Russian and allied air
forces. The turret was developed to provide a self-contained, single-barrelled, 30 mm weapon system for use on attack
helicopters to engage both ground and air targets. Its design allows the system to be fitted to helicopters as a chin turret under
the nose of the aircraft. The 30 mm calibre cannon currently being used in the turret is believed to be the 2A42 adapted from
the weapon fitted to the BMP-2 combat vehicle. The 2A42 cannon is described in a separate entry.
The turret was seen fitted to an Mi-28 `Havoc' attack helicopter at the 1989 Paris Air Show and is also known to be fitted to
the Mi-40 combat support helicopter. It is reported that some Mi-40 turrets use a 23 mm GSh-6-23 Gatling-type cannon as an
alternative to the 30 mm 2A42.
Description
The NPPU-280 gun turret is of lightweight construction and is a self-contained unit designed with ease of maintenance in
mind. It consists of a circular ring mounting with the 30 mm cannon cradle and its two ammunition containers (one on either
side of the cannon cradle) mounted underneath. The two ammunition boxes each hold 150 rounds, and allow for the selection
of either high explosive or armour-piercing ammunition depending on the target. The turret itself is 1.73 m long, 1,100 mm
wide and 750 mm high. With the cannon and ammunition the total weight of the system, including 45 kg of control equipment,
is 665 kg. The 30 mm 2A42 single-barrelled cannon is electrically fired and is credited with two rates of fire, 200 to 300
rds/min and 600 to 800 rds/min, with a muzzle velocity of approximately 1,000 m/s depending on the ammunition used. The
GSh-6-23 cannon is also fired electrically, and has a 6,000 rds/min rate of fire with a muzzle velocity of 700 m/s. The turret is
operated by an electric servo-drive and remotely controlled from the cockpit. It can be traversed +10 to -40º in elevation and
115º on either side of the aircraft axis in azimuth.
Operational status
The NPPU-280 gun turret is believed to be in service with the Russian Air Force, fitted to Mi-28 and Mi-40 helicopters. It is
available for export, but there are no details of any sales.
Specifications
Length: 1.73 m
Diameter:
(width) 1,100 mm
(height) 750 mm
Number of guns: 1 × single-barrel 30 mm
Ammunition capacity: 300 rds
Lug spacing: n/a
Weight: 665 kg (total weight of system with ammunition)
Contractor
Moscow Aggregate Plant
Dzerzhinets.
UPDATED

Close-up of an NPPU-280 30 mm gun turret

An Mi-28 `Havoc' helicopter with an NPPU-280 gun turret on display at Paris in 1997 (Peter
Humphris)
(2000)

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GUNS, PODS AND MOUNTINGS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

9A-4273 GUN POD


Type
Gun pod for 30 mm aircraft cannon.
Development
The 9A-4273 gun pod has been developed by the Dzerzhinets design bureau of Moscow, for use by Russian and allied air
forces. The pod was developed in the 1980s to provide an up-to-date, low-level, removable ground attack weapon for use on
fighters, fighter-bombers and combat helicopters. Nothing is known of its development and the West only became aware of its
existence in the early 1990s when it was offered for export. The number 9A-4273 is thought to be the designation of the
single-barrelled 30 mm cannon that is fitted in the pod, but it is unclear whether this is an NR-30 variant or the GSh-301
revolver cannon which is fitted to the MiG-29 `Fulcrum' and Su-27 `Flanker' aircraft.
The pod is designed with standard Russian suspension points and can be fitted to any fuselage or underwing hard-point
capable of carrying a 500 kg load. The pod has not been observed fitted, but is likely to have been cleared on most of the
current Russian ground attack fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft.
Description
The 9A-4273 gun pod is made of light metal alloy and has a square section, a flat-sided rounded rear end and a shark-like nose.
This gun pod is different from other known Russian pods in that the cannon is mounted at the rear of the pod flush with the
bottom surface. On the top surface are two suspension points, which are believed to be 250 mm apart.
The length of the pod is 3.03 m, it has a body width of 540 mm, a height of 550 mm and when fully loaded weighs around
480 kg. The ammunition capacity is 150 rounds and the cannon has a firing rate of 1,500 rds/min with a muzzle velocity of 860
m/s. The cannon is mounted in a pivoting cradle, and in its stowed position, its breech and barrel are on the outside and flush
with the bottom of the pod. If the pod design follows that of other Russian pivoting gun pods, the cannon can be fired in the
stowed position as a conventional fixed gun installation. The cannon mounting, which is electrically driven, is remotely
controlled from the aircraft cockpit, and can be moved through an arc of 0 to 30º in elevation and 15º either side of the pod's
centre axis. The cannon is aimed and electrically fired from the aircraft cockpit. Although not advertised, as the 9A-4273 pod is
of later design than the SPPU-22 gun pod, which can be computer controlled, it is thought that the 9A-4273 may also have a
computer-controlled tracking mode.
The two low-level attack modes are either with the cannon fixed at a depressed angle for firing at targets in-line, or with a
variable angle of depression that changes with the aircraft flight path in order to keep the cannon trained on a single target.
Operational status
Development is complete and the pod is believed to be in service with the Russian Air Force. It has been advertised for export
since 1992, but there is no information on any sales.
Specifications
Length: 3.03 m
Diameter:
(width) 540 mm
(height) 550 mm
Number of guns: 1 × single-barrel 30 mm
Ammunition capacity: 150 rds
Lug spacing: 250 mm
Weight: 480 kg (with cannon and ammunition)
Contractor
Moscow Aggregate Plant
Dzerzhinets.
UPDATED

A 30 mm 9A-4273 aircraft gun pod

A front view of a 9A-4273 aircraft gun pod, displayed in Moscow in 1993 (Christopher Foss)

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GUNS, PODS AND MOUNTINGS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

2A42 30 mm CANNON
Type
30 mm cannon.
Development
In the early 1970s Russian gun and cannon designers were commissioned to design a 30 mm cannon in order to increase the
combat effectiveness of the combat vehicle codenamed BMP-1. Development proceeded in two directions. First of all, a
smoothbore gun was updated, the prototype of which was nicknamed `Zarnitsa'. Secondly, a small calibre rifled automatic gun
was also updated. The eventual cannon chosen was designed by the Instrument Design Bureau at Tula, headed by V Gryazev.
It was chambered for the 30 mm cartridge AO-18. The long barrel and short automatic receiver facilitated its arrangement
inside armour, and allowed delivery of fire at high elevations. Testing in the mid-1970s proved that the firepower of the BMP-1
vehicle, armed with the new cannon, was greatly increased.
In 1980 a new vehicle, named BMP-2, came into service and the 30 mm cannon fitted to it was designated 2A42. The
BMP-2 was used extensively in Afghanistan, and proved so effective that the 2A42 cannon attracted the attention of the
helicopter designers. As a result, the 2A42 was adapted for helicopter use, and incorporated into the NPPU-280 gun turret
which is fitted beneath the chin of the Mi-28 `Havoc' attack helicopter and the Mi-40 infantry combat helicopter. The
NPPU-280 turret was first seen in the West at the 1989 Paris Air Show. Full details of the NPPU-280 turret can be found under
a separate entry. The 2A42 was also seen at the 1992 Farnborough Air Show fitted externally to the starboard side of a Kamov
Ka-50 `Hokum' attack helicopter just aft of the cockpit.
Description
The 2A42 is a single-barrelled, gas-operated automatic cannon that uses 30mm-type ammunition. It consists of three main
assemblies: the basic gun, the gun cradle/mounting system, and an electrical fire-control system. The long barrel has 16
grooves and the total weight of the cannon itself is reported to be 115 kg. The electrical fire-control panel is connected to the
cannon and enables the selection of single shot, or continuous low- or high-rate fire until the ammunition is exhausted. The
2A42 cannon is belt fed by two metallic cartridge belts that consist of separate `Crab'-type 9H-623 links. The links are locked
together by the cartridges themselves. The belts are fed to the cannon's breech in succession by a switch located in the
backplate of the cannon. The cartridge is rammed by the bolt from the belt into the chamber and, after firing, the spent
cartridges are ejected forwards, away from the cannon. The cannon's low rate of fire is given as between 200 and 300 rds/min,
and the high rate 600 and 800 rds/min. The muzzle velocity is between 940 and 990 m/s depending on ammunition used. There
are at least three types of 30 mm ammunition developed for use with the 2A42 cannon. A high-explosive incendiary (HE-I) for
use against light armoured ground targets, has a length of 291mm, weighs 0.85 kg, and has an explosive weight of 0.13 kg. The
HE-I round has an effective range of 1,500 m. A one-piece armour-piercing-tracer round (AP-T) for use against ground and air
targets, is 291 mm long, has a weight of 0.84 kg, and a maximum range of 2,000 m. A proximity-fuzed round for air-to-air
engagements has a maximum range of 2,000 m.
The 2A42 is designed to have a blocking mechanism, which stops the cannon firing, when the last cartridge of one of the
two cartridge belts comes to the chamber. The bolt is stopped in the rear position and, as a consequence, when the gunner
presses the firing button after the switch over to another belt, the firing continues without any reloading. The cannon's design
also permits manual fire in the event of power failure, but this can only be achieved at the higher rate of fire.
The mounting system used on the Ka-50 `Hokum' helicopter is similar to the French 22A gun mounting, with the cannon
cradle mounting fixed in azimuth and trainable in depression to 30º.
Because the Ka-50 uses two contra-rotating coaxial rotors, the aircraft can position its nose independently of the flight vector
and thus can bring the cannon to bear in the azimuth plane. The 2A42 is fed from two separate ammunition containers that can
carry both armour-piercing rounds for ground targets and proximity-fuzed rounds for air-to-air engagements. It has been
cleared for operational use throughout the temperature range -50 to +50ºC, and has a service life of 6,000 rounds.
Operational status
The 2A42 automatic cannon is in service with the Russian Air Force, carried by the Ka-50 `Hokum', Mi-28 `Havoc' and Mi-40
helicopters.
Specifications
Calibre: 30 mm
Number of barrels: 1
Length: 3.03 m
Weight: 115 kg
Rate of fire: Single, 200-300 rds/min low rate; 600-800 rds/min high rate
Muzzle velocity: 940-990 m/s depending on ammunition
Contractors
The 2A42 was designed by the Instrument Design Bureau, Tula, and is believed to be manufactured by the Moscow Aggregate
Plant, Dzerzhinets, Moscow.
UPDATED

The 30 mm 2A42 automatic cannon

A 2A42 30 mm cannon fitted on a Kamov Ka-50 `Hokum' helicopter at Paris in 1997 (Peter Humphris)
(2000)

Close-up of the muzzle brake of the 2A42 30 mm cannon

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GUNS, PODS AND MOUNTINGS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

RUSSIAN AIRCRAFT GUNS and CANNON


Type
Various Russian aircraft guns and cannons.
Development
The development and installation of Russian aircraft guns and cannons appears to have been different from that of the West.
While revolver-type cannon were developed and tested in the late 1940s and early 1950s, they were not put into service. Until
the early 1970s, all former Soviet Union guns/cannons employed the classic principles of recoil/gas pressure loading and
conventional breech mechanisms. Russian aircraft machine guns fall into two categories, medium 7.62 mm (0.3 in) calibre and
heavy 12.7 mm (0.5 in) calibre. The medium-calibre weapons are limited to two types, namely the PK 7.62 mm that is pintle
mounted in some of the older helicopters, and the Gryazev and Shipunov's GSh G 7.62 mm, a four-barrel `Gatling'-type
weapon. Among the 12.7 mm heavy machine guns the oldest weapon still in service is the Universal Beresin (UB), which was
developed in the early 1940s as a standard weapon for use in aircraft. In the early 1970s Russia introduced a four-barrel 12.7
mm Gatling-type gun, known as the Yak-B 12.7, which was designed primarily for use in helicopter chin turrets such as the
USPU-24 fitted to the Mi-24 `Hind' attack helicopter.
The Russian philosophy regarding aircraft cannon has generally been to produce weapons of slightly greater calibre than
their Western counterparts, with emphasis on strength so that a large projectile could be fired at a high velocity but, as a
consequence, with a lower rate of fire. This means that the shells could be delivered with a flatter trajectory, hence reducing
aiming problems. The early cannons included the Nudelman-Richter 23 mm (NR-23), 30 mm (NR-30) or the Nudelman 37 mm
(N-37). In the mid-1970s a six-barrelled 23 mm calibre Gatling-type cannon entered service on the MiG-27 `Flogger' which is
believed to have been based on the US Gatling guns. Another weapon of purely Russian design is the 23 mm, twin-barrelled
GSh-23L, which has no known Western equivalent. Installed on the MiG-21 `Fishbed', it features a combined recoil loading for
both barrels. Further details of the GSh-23L can be found in a separate entry. The first known production revolver cannon was
the 30 mm weapon used in the Russian Navy AK-230 gun turret, and the first Russian aircraft used the single-barrel Gryazev
and Shipunov 30 mm GSh-301 which now arms the MiG-29 `Fulcrum' and Su-27 `Flanker' aircraft.
Since the break-up of the former Soviet Union there has been a wealth of information forthcoming on many of the aircraft in
current use with the Russian armed forces and the weapons they carry. Unfortunately, development and specification details are
limited on most of the aircraft guns used.
Description
7.62 m
Little is known of Russian 7.62 mm guns, other than the four-barrel GShG 7.62 mm Gatling type mounted behind a
downwards-opening door on the starboard side of the nose of the Ka-29 `Helix B', and the twin installation in the GUV
helicopter pod seen fitted to the Mi-24 `Hind' and Ka-27/-29 `Helix' helicopters. The GShG gun has a rate of fire of 3,000 to
5,500 rds/min, and a muzzle velocity of 820 m/s. There is also a single-barrel 7.62 mm PK pintle-mounted on the Mi-2
`Hoplite' helicopter. The GUV helicopter pod is described in a separate entry.
12.7 mm
Many variants of the Universal Beresin (UB) have been produced since the 1940s, and the UBK (unsynchronised fixed)
version has been used in the MiG-15 UTI trainer aircraft, the Mi-6 `Hook' and more recently in the Mi-8 `Hip', Mi-17 `Hip H'
and Mi-24 `Hind' helicopters. The original UBK 12.7 mm gun in the Mi-24 was replaced by a multibarrelled Gatling-type gun
with four 12.7 mm barrels mounted in a remotely controlled turret in the Mi-24D version. In 1992 the MMPP design bureau of
Moscow presented the system designated USPU-24, which is a four-barrel Gatling-type gun. The gun used is the Yak B 12.7
mm, and is capable of firing 4,600 rds/min. The turret is 630 mm in diameter and 550 mm deep. It has a coverage of 60º left
and right of the helicopter datum line in azimuth, with elevation movement from -60 to +20º. The system has a capacity of
1,400 rounds and an estimated range of about 1,500 m. The Yak B gun can be mounted in the centre position in the GUV
helicopter pod. A twin barrel 12.7 mm gun, designated A-12.7, has a firing rate of 1,000 to 1,500 rds/min and a muzzle velocity
of 820 m/s. A single barrel 12.7 mm gun, with the name Kord, has been built by the Degtyarev Plant and was offered for export
in 1999. This gun has a firing rate of 700 to 800 rds/min, a muzzle velocity of 850 m/s and a weight of 25 kg.
23 mm
Two families of 23 mm single-barrelled cannon have been identified. These have apparently been produced in large numbers
and they replaced an earlier B-20 cannon. The NS-23 family, designed jointly by Nudelman and Susanov, was of early design
and had a low rate of fire, around 550 rds/min. It is believed to have been replaced by the NR-23 family designed jointly by
Nudelman and Richter, although it is understood that in many installations the two are probably interchangeable. A typical
NR-23 weighs 39 kg and has a firing rate of about 875 rds/min, and a muzzle velocity of 690 m/s. This cannon is made in
China as the Type 23-1. Both families of cannon are, or have been, widely used in fighter, bomber and in some transport
aircraft.
In another system designated PV-23, similar cannon are used in tail turrets for bomber, tanker and transport aircraft,
although often the later AM-23 is used in turrets. The AM-23 weighs 43 kg, has a firing rate of 1,200 rds/min, and a muzzle
velocity of 715 m/s. In China the AM-23 is produced as the Type 23-2.
23 mm six-barrelled
There is a six-barrelled Gatling-type 23 mm cannon designated GSh-6-23, that is installed in the SPPU-6 gun pod (for details
see separate entry), which was developed primarily for the Su-24 'Fencer' but has been seen carried by other aircraft. The
GSh-6-23, is believed to be in use on the MiG-31 `Foxhound' where the cannon is mounted in the starboard side of the lower
fuselage. The GSh-6-23 has a 9,000 to 10,000 rds/min rate of fire and a muzzle velocity of 715 m/s. The cannon on the MiG-31
is drum fed with 260 rounds carried per aircraft. It is reported that the GSh-6-23 was also fitted in the NPPU-280 gun turret
fitted to some Mi-4 helicopters as an alternative to the 2A42 cannon.
30 mm NR-30 and GSh-301
The NR-30 was designed by Nudelman-Richter and entered service around 1958. The cannon was used on the MiG-19, Su-7
`Fitter A', Su-20 `Fitter C' and Yak-28 `Brewer' aircraft. The weapon is virtually a scaled-up NR-23. Although lighter, at only
66 kg, than rival 30 mm weapons, the NR-30 is said to be more powerful and fires 410 g projectiles at up to 1,000 rds/min with
a muzzle velocity of 780 m/s. Two NR-30 cannon were fitted to the wingroot leading-edge of Su-17, Su-20 and Su-22 `Fitter'
aircraft, with 160 rounds per aircraft.
In 1993, Russia confirmed that a new 30 mm cannon, GSh-301, was in development, and would be fitted to the starboard
wingroot of the Su-27, Su-30MK, Su-32 and Su-35 `Flanker' aircraft. All these aircraft carry 150 rounds. The GSh-301 has a
firing rate of 1,600 rds/min and a muzzle velocity of 860 m/s. The aircraft fire-control system receives data from the radar, IR
search and tracker, and a laser range-finder. Some Western reports suggest that the same GSh-301 cannon is fitted to the port
wingroot of the MiG-29 `Fulcrum', but other reports indicate this is a GSh-6-30 cannon.

30 mm GSh-2-30 and AO-17A


At the 1989 Paris Air Show it was observed that the Su-25 `Frogfoot' on display was fitted with a twin-barrel 30 mm cannon in
the bottom of the front fuselage on the port side. It is now known to be the AO-17A twin cannon, but is also known as the
GSh-2-30. The standard Su-25 installation holds 200 to 250 rounds of special ammunition, more powerful than normal Russian
30 mm ammunition. The GSh-2-30 has a rate of fire of 3,000 rds/min, and a muzzle velocity of 860 rds/min. The Su-25
`Frogfoot' can be fitted with a TV and IIR gun aiming system with a laser range-finder and the whole weapon system is called
Shkval. The TV system has a range of 15 km, and the IIR night sight a range of 8 km. In 1982, a twin-barrel cannon was
observed fitted externally on the starboard side of an Mi-24P `Hind' helicopter (Mi-35 export version), and it is now known to
have been a GSh-2-30 cannon, also known as a GSh-30K. The helicopter carries 750 rounds of internally stored ammunition.
30 mm six-barrelled (GSh-6-30)
A six-barrelled 30 mm Gatling-type cannon, designated GSh-6-30, has been seen fitted in a belly pack under a MiG-27
`Flogger D' aircraft, and inside a fairing on the starboard underside of an Su-24 `Fencer' aircraft.
In 1993, information was received on various former Russian weapons now being sold worldwide. One of these, designated
30 mm 9A-621, was a six-barrel 30 mm Gatling-type cannon advertised for use on fighter-bombers and is believed to be the
GSh-6-30.
The GSh-6-30 cannon, which has a left-hand belt feed is 2.04 m long, 252 mm wide, 293 mm high and weighs 160 kg. It is
electrically fired at a rate of 4,600 to 5,100 rds/min, has a muzzle velocity of 845 m/s and a recoil force of 50 kN. The cannon
would normally have an ammunition supply of 300 rounds and the type of ammunition advertised was
high-explosive-incendiary and armour-piercing-incendiary-tracer with a weight of 0.83 kg. For operation, the cannon requires
27 V DC, compressed air for pneumatic starting of 70 kg/cm2 and operating conditions between ±60ºC.
37 mm
The N-37 Nudelman-Suranov-Richter-Gribbov cannon was developed in the mid-1940s and was used on the early Russian jet
fighters. The cannon weighed 103 kg, fired at 400 rds/min and had a muzzle velocity of 690 m/s. Some variants may still be in
service. It was used on such aircraft as the MiG-15 `Fagot', MiG-17 `Fresco', MiG-19 `Farmer', Yak-25 and Yak-27R.

Operational status
All the above weapons are believed to be in service with Russian and allied air forces.
Specifications
Not known.
Contractor
Not known.
UPDATED

Su-25 `Frogfoot' displayed at Paris in 1989 with a twin-barrel GSh-2-30 30 mm cannon fitted in the
lower nose fuselage (Duncan Lennox)

The twin-barrel GSh-2-30 cannon fitted to an Mi-24P `Hind' helicopter. The weapon sighting assembly
is below the barrels

UBK 12.7 mm gun fitted in the nose of an Mi-6 `Hook' helicopter

A YakB 12.7 mm four-barrel Gatling-type gun in a USPU-24 turret of Mi-24/-35 helicopter at Paris in
1999 (Peter Humphris)
(2000)

GSh-301 cannon fitted in the starboard wingroot of an Su-30 MK displayed at the Farnborough Air Show
in 1994 (Peter Humphris)
The tail gun installation on a Tu-16 `Badger' aircraft, with two remotely controlled 23 mm NR-23 cannon

Current Russian aircraft cannon designed by the Instrument Design Bureau at Tula. 1. Six-barrel 30 mm GSh-6-30, 2.
Twin-barrel 30 mm GSh-30, 3. Single-barrel 30 mm GSh-301, 4. Twin barrel 30 mm GSh-30K, 5. Six-barrel 23 mm
GSh-6-23
(2000)

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BOMBS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

ZAB INCENDIARY BOMBS


Type
Fire bombs.
Development
The ZAB family of incendiary bombs was developed for use by Russian and former allied air forces. Little is known of the design of
such weapons, but it is believed that some Russian incendiary bombs still in service date back to the Second World War. The
designation letters ZAB stand for zazhigatelnaya aviatsionnaya bomba meaning `incendiary aircraft bomb'. The designation number
refers to the bomb size category, and any further letters signify special applications or types. There are at least two small incendiary
bomblets that have been developed mainly for use from dispensing type weapons like the RBK family of cluster bombs. These are
designated ZAB-1E and the ZAB-2.5. The earlier bombs were the ZAB-100, ZAB-250, ZAB-500T and ZAB-1000. At this time
there are no details available on these bombs, except for the ZAB-250, which is thought to have been exported to China in the late
1950s and possibly underwent further development in China (see separate Chinese entry for further details). In 1996, two further
bombs designated ZAB-100-105 and ZAB-250-200 appeared in the Incendiary Bomb section of a Russian Federation air armament
catalogue. These weapons were similar in appearance to the FAB family of demolition bombs and may well be two of that family
filled with incendiary agent rather than high explosive. The second three figures in the bomb designation is the weapon's actual
weight in kilogrammes.
All the ZAB bombs will have been updated over the years as more up-to-date incendiary and explosive agents became available.
The design of the six larger bombs would allow them to be carried under the wings or fuselage of small aircraft, or in bomb bays of
larger bombers and the bombs are fitted with single, double or both types of suspension lugs. It is believed that the
ZAB-100/250/500 versions would have been cleared for carriage on MiG-21 `Fishbed', MiG-23B `Flogger', Su-17 and Su-22
`Fitter', Su-24 `Fencer', Tu-95 `Bear', Tu-16 `Badger', aircraft of the Russian and allied air forces, but the ZAB-1000 would only be
cleared for the larger bombers. The ZAB-2.5 bomblet is currently used in the RBK-250 and RBK-500 cluster bombs.

Description
The ZAB-250 bomb has a thin walled canister type body with a slightly rounded nose and an old-fashioned fin/ring stabilising fin
combination. The bomb is fitted with both single and Russian standard 250 mm twin-point suspension lugs which allows it to be
carried on several different types of bomb racks or pylons. It is 1.51 m long, has a body diameter of 325 mm, a tailspan of 0.41 m
and weighs around 250 kg. The incendiary filling is believed to be a nominal 135 kg of jellied petrol (type of napalm). No details are
available on the type of fuzing used but it is likely to be of the tail-mounted variety.
The ZAB-100-105 has a welded heavy metal, cylindrical body with a bell shaped nose and a four-fin/ring tail unit. It is fitted with
a nose-mounted fuze and a single suspension lug. The ZAB-100-105 is 1.06 m long, has a body diameter of 273 mm, contains 47 kg
of an unspecified incendiary agent and weighs 106.3 kg. Details of the weapon's fuzing are not known but it can be released from
altitudes above 20 m and at speeds up to 1,000 km/h.
The ZAB-250-200 has a welded heavy metal, cylindrical body with a flattened bell shaped nose and an eight-fin/ring tail unit. It is
fitted with both single and Russian standard 250 mm twin-point suspension lugs. The ZAB-250-200 is 1.5 m long, has a body
diameter of 325 mm, contains 68 kg of an unspecified incendiary agent and weighs 202 kg. The unspecified nose mounted fuze is
attached to an ignition tube that passes through the full length of the incendiary warhead. The bomb can be released from altitudes
above 20 m and at speeds up to 1,000 km/h.
The ZAB-1E is a small incendiary bomblet designed for being distributed in large numbers over a wide area. It has a cylindrical
body with a nose fuze and a three rectangular stabilising fin assembly. The bomblet is 0.36 m long, has a body diameter of 65 mm
and weighs around 1.5 kg. No details are available on the incendiary agent filling or the type of fuzing. As the ZAB-2.5 incendiary
bomblet has not been displayed outside its storage and transportation container, descriptive details are not available at this time.
However, the bomblet is reported to be 0.135 m long, have a body diameter of 91 mm and weigh 2.7 kg. Its 1.72 kg incendiary type
warhead is reported to have a destructive area of 350 m2. Fuzing details of the ZAB-2.5 are not known.
Operational Status
All the above mentioned ZAB fire bombs are believed to be in service with Russian and former allied air forces. In 1996, the
ZAB-100-105 and ZAB-250-200 incendiary bombs were offered for export. There are no known exports.
Specifications
ZAB-1E ZAB-2.5 bomblet
ZAB-100-105 ZAB-250 ZAB-250-200
bomblet
Length 1.06 m 1.51 m 1.5 m 0.36 m 0.135 m
Body diameter 273 mm 325 mm 325 mm 65 mm 91 mm
Tailspan n/k 0.41 m n/k n/k n/k
Single and 250
Lug spacing Single Single and 250 mm n/a n/a
mm
Weight 106 kg 250 kg 202 kg 1.5 kg 2.7 kg
47 kg incendiary mix 68 kg incendiary
Filling incendiary mix incendiary mix 1.72 kg incendiary mix
mix

Contractor
Bazalt State Research and Production Enterprise
Moscow.
UPDATED

Line diagram of the ZAB-1E bomblet

Line diagrams of ZAB-100-105 (top), ZAB-250-200 (centre) and ZAB-250 incendiary bombs
(1999)

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BOMBS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

RBK-500U UNIFIED CLUSTER BOMB


Type
Multipurpose cluster bomb.
Development
The RBK-500U unified cluster bomb is a further development of the earlier family of RBK-500 cluster bombs, details of which
can be found in separate entries within this section of the binder. Development of the RBK-500U began in the late 1980s and
was undertaken by the NPO Bazalt in the Moscow Region (now known as Russian State Research and Production Enterprise
(SRPE) `Bazalt'). The RBK-500U was first seen in the West at the 1995 Paris Air Show, but details of the bomb and the
various submunitions it could carry were not released until 1996. The designation letters RBK stand for razovaya bombovaya
kasseta meaning `single-use bomb cassette'. The designation numbers refer to the bomb size category, and the `U' stands for
unified. The RBK-500U has been designed as a multipurpose cluster bomb that can be loaded with various submunitions in
order to fulfil specific operational requirements. There are five known submunitions: the OFAB-50, a nominal 50 kg
fragmentation weapon, designed for use against lightly armoured and soft material targets; OFAB-2.5, a 2.5 kg fragmentation
weapon designed for use against soft vehicles and personnel; the BetAB, a concrete-piercing submunition, designed for use
against airfield runways and taxiways; the 15 kg SPBE-D, anti-tank sensor-fuzed Explosively Formed Penetrator (EFP)
weapon, designed to attack travelling or stationary groups of tanks; and the PTAB, an anti-tank weapon, designed to attack the
top protection of tanks, IFVs and APCs. The complete cluster bomb is designed to withstand the high g forces encountered by
combat manoeuvres of high-speed attack aircraft, and is fitted with standard Russian spaced suspension lugs. The RBK-500U
cluster bomb is believed to be cleared for carriage on MiG-21 `Fishbed', MiG-27 `Flogger', MiG-29 `Fulcrum', Su-17 and
Su-22 `Fitter', Su-24 `Fencer', Su-25 `Frogfoot' and Su-27 `Flanker' aircraft of the Russian and allied air forces.
Description
The RBK-500U cluster bomb is basically the same shape and size as the earlier RBK-500 cluster bombs except that it has a
modern four-fin tail unit, as opposed to the eight-fin drum tail unit fitted to the older models. The lightweight cylindrical body
has a conical nose and is fitted with standard Russian nose fuze well and 250 mm spaced suspension lugs. The bomb is 2.5 m
long, has a body diameter of 450 mm, a tailspan of 0.63 m and when loaded weighs a nominal 500 kg. The nose section houses
the fuzing system for triggering the bomb's submunition ejection system, and the container compartment is designed to hold
various loads of the different submunitions.
After release from the parent aircraft the cluster bomb follows a ballistic trajectory towards the target area. At the
appropriate time, determined by the cluster bomb's time fuze, the body container is opened up and submunitions are
released/ejected over the target area.
The OFAB-50 is a dual-purpose fragmentation submunition developed primarily for use in the RBK-500U. It has been
designed to be used as either a concrete-penetration bomblet or an air-burst anti-light armour/material weapon. The letters
OFAB stand for oskolochno-fugasnaya aviatsionnaya bomba meaning `fragmentation/high-explosive aircraft bomb'. The
OFAB-50 has a constant diameter cylindrical body with a conical nose that has a small standoff probe. This is believed to
contain a contact fuze that can be preset for instant or delayed operation depending on mission requirement. The rear third of
the bomblet consists of a stabilising unit comprising of eight small flip-out fins followed by what is believed to be a solid
propellant motor. It is unclear whether there are two distinct types of OFAB-50 for the two modes of operation, each fitted with
different warheads, or a single type that can be set for either mode of operation. The method used to dispense the RBK-500U's
load of 10 OFAB-50s is not known, but is believed to be done simply by centrifugal forces. When used in the above-ground
mode of operation fragments from the OFAB-50 are said to have the ability to penetrate lightly armoured vehicles within a 65
m radius and soft material within a 200 m radius. When used in the penetration mode it is credited with the ability to penetrate
a 200 mm reinforced concrete floor. The RBK-500U loaded with 10 OFAB-50s can be released from an aircraft at altitudes
between 200 and 15,000 m throughout the speed range of 500 to 1,200 km/h.
The OFAB-2.5 submunition is a further development of the earlier AO-2.5 RTM (see separate RBK-500 AO-2.5 RTM
entry) and is an Anti-Personnel/Anti-Material (APAM) weapon. The designation letters OAB stand for oskolochnaya
aviatsionnaya bomba meaning `fragmentation aircraft bomb'.
The 2.5 kg APAM submunition is unusual in appearance in that it has a small canister body that is rounded at both ends and
has an arrangement of three air scoops around the centre of the body on what appears to be a strap type arrangement. These are
believed to induce a stabilising spin during free-fall. The method used to dispense the OFAB-2.5s is not known, but is believed
to be done simply by centrifugal forces. The individual bomblets on reaching the ground are activated by their own mechanical
fuze system. It is unclear as to whether the bomblets are detonated on impact or are a type of contact mine. For surface
detonation each device is credited with the ability to defeat soft material targets within a radius of 40 m; exposed personnel at
20 m and entrenched personnel at 10 m. The RBK-500U loaded with 126 OAB-2.5 can be released from an aircraft at altitudes
between 100 and 15,000 m throughout the speed range of 500 to 1,200 km/h.
The BetAB submunition is believed to be an upgraded version of the one used in the earlier RBK-500 BetAB cluster bomb
(for further details see separate entry). The designation letters BetAB stand for betonoboynaya aviatsionnaya bomba meaning
`concrete-piercing aircraft bomb'. The front half of the BetAB submunition has the appearance of a slender artillery shell, while
the rear section has a constant larger diameter and contains a solid propellant motor. The original BetABs were 0.66 m long,
had a body diameter of 76 mm and weighed 25 kg. The method used to dispense the bomblets is not known, however, it is clear
from Russian documentation that the bomblet is released from the cluster bomb within another container tube that has a
diameter of about 140 mm. Once clear of the cluster bomb this container tube is stabilised by a retarding parachute, and at a
suitable altitude the penetrating device is fired at the runway to give it sufficient kinetic energy to penetrate the concrete to a
suitable depth for cratering. The bomblet is detonated below the runway by a delayed contact fuze, resulting in a large hole
with its attendant `heave'. It is reported that each bomblet is capable of penetrating 400 mm concrete and causes a crater with a
radius of 1.5 m. The RBK-500U loaded with 10 BetAB can be released from an aircraft at altitudes between 300 and 5,000 m
throughout the speed range of 500 to 1,200 km/h.
The SPBE-D is a further development of the SPBE anti-tank submunition (see RBK-500 SPBE entry), and is also used in the
Russian Smerch 240 mm multiple-launch rocket system. SPBE-D stands for `standard smart anti-armour submunitions'. The
project requirement was for a less expensive weapon than the new Russian `Smart bombs' such as the KAB-500Kr, which
although ideal for attacking high-value targets like bridges and command bunkers, were considered too expensive for attacking
more numerous low-value targets such as armoured vehicles.
Although the SPBE-D submunition performs the same role as the US Air Force's BLU-108/B SFW, the new Russian
submunition more closely resembles those used with the US Army SADARM than those in the BLU-108/B. According to its
manufacturer, Bazalt, the SPBE-D has a two-colour infra-red (3 to 5 Ám and 8 to 14 Ám) sensor and is autonomously guided,
and as a result does not require the command module used in the RBK-500 SPBE design. Each SPBE-D is fitted with three
small individual parachutes to control its descent. They measure 280 × 255 × 186 mm and weigh 14.9 kg. Once released and
clear of the RBK-500U's payload container, the parachutes are deployed, the sensors flip out and the canted rectangular wings
that cause the device to spin, flip out. The SPBE-D dual-band IR sensor has a look angle of 30~ and scans the target area at a
rotational rate of 6 to 9 rpm, its 15 to 17 m/s descent rate being governed by the three parachutes. Once the sensor acquires the
target, and determines the warhead detonation point (around 150 m altitude) with an onboard microprocessor, the sensor-fuzed
weapon (SFW) arms itself and detonates. The 173 mm-diameter copper plate forms a 1 kg penetrator with a velocity of 2,000
m/s, able to penetrate 70 mm of armour up to an angle of 30~. The RBK-500U when fitted with the 15 SPBE-D is credited
with the ability to kill six tanks when delivered at altitudes between 400 and 5,000 m throughout the speed range of 500 to
1,200 km/h.
The PTAB submunition is believed to be an upgraded smaller version of the one used in the earlier RBK-500 PTAB-1M
cluster bomb (for further details see separate entry). The designation letters PTAB stand for protivo-tankovaya aviatsionnaya
bomba which means `anti-tank aircraft bomb'. The new PTAB is a HEAT submunition which has a small cylindrical body
which contains a shaped charge. It has a nose-mounted sensitive percussion cap type contact fuze, and small folding stabilising
fins at the rear. The method used to dispense the bomblets is not known, but is believed to be simply by centrifugal force. Once
clear of the cluster bomb the PTAB submunition deploys the rear-mounted folding stabilising fins and descends vertically onto
the target. Each PTAB submunition is credited with the capability of penetrating up to 210 mm of armour and is reported to
have a built-in self-destruct of 20 to 40 seconds. The RBK-500U containing 352 PTAB can be released from an aircraft at
altitudes between 100 and 15,000 m throughout the speed range of 500 to 1,200 km/h.
Operational Status
The RBK-500U cluster bomb and all the above submunitions are in service with the Russian and allied air forces. It was first
publicly offered for export in 1992, and has been exhibited at several displays since then. There are no known exports.
Specifications
RBK-500U cluster bomb
Length: 2.5 m
Body diameter: 460 mm
Tailspan: 0.63 m
Lug spacing: 250 mm
Weight: 500 kg
Filling: various submunitions
SPBE-D SFW
Length: 0.28 m
Body diameter: 255 × 185 mm
Tailspan: n/a
Lug spacing: n/a
Weight: 14.9 kg
Filling: HE shaped charge
Contractors
Bazalt State Research and Production Enterprise
Moscow.
UPDATED

An RBK-500U cluster bomb (Bazalt)


(1999)

Close-up of an SPBE-D anti-tank sensor-fuzed submunition sitting on a representative piece of armour plate.
Note deployed sensors and canted rectangular wings (Peter Humphris)

Top to bottom; OFAB-2.5 fragmentation submunition, OFAB-50 dual-purpose fragmentation submunition, BETAB
concrete penetration submunition, and PTAB anti-tank submunition. These pictures are not to scale (SRPE Bazalt)

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BOMBS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

RBK-500 SPBE-D CLUSTER BOMB


Type
Anti-tank cluster bomb.
Development
The RBK family of cluster bombs is of post-Second World War design and in its earlier days was primarily used for delivering
large numbers of anti-personnel fragmentation submunitions. However, in more recent years they have been adapted to carry
various other types of submunitions, such as anti-material, airfield cratering and various types of anti-tank submunitions. The
designation letters RBK stand for razovaya bombovaya kasseta meaning `single-use bomb cassette'. The designation numbers
refer to the bomb size category, and any further letters signify special applications or types of submunitions/bomblets used. The
RBK-500 SPBE-D is a further development of the RBK-500 SPBE anti-tank cluster bomb (see separate entry). The project
requirement was for a less expensive weapon than the new Russian `Smart bombs' such as the KAB-500Kr which, although
ideal for attacking high-value targets like bridges and command bunkers, were considered too expensive for attacking more
numerous low-value targets like armoured vehicles. The design work entailed modernising and adapting the RBK-500 SPBE
container to carry up to 15 of a newly developed anti-armour submunition referred to as a sensor-fuzed weapon (SFW). The
SFW is designated SPBE-D, which stands for `standard smart anti-armour submunitions'. Development of the SPBE-D began
in the late 1980s and was undertaken by NPO Bazalt in the Moscow Region for use by the Russian Army in the Smerch 240
mm multiple-launch rocket system. Although the RBK SPBE-D cluster bomb performs the same role as the US Air Force's
BLU-108/B SFW, the new Russian submunitions more closely resemble those used with the US Army SADARM than those in
the BLU-108/B. The SFW has a dual-band IR sensor and is autonomously guided, and as a result does not require the
command module used in the RBK-500 SPBE design. The complete cluster bomb is designed to withstand the high g forces
encountered by combat manoeuvres of high-speed attack aircraft, and is fitted with standard Russian spaced suspension lugs.
The RBK-5000 SPBE-D bomb is believed to be cleared for carriage on MiG-21 `Fishbed', MiG-27 `Flogger', MiG-29
`Fulcrum', Su-17 and Su-22 `Fitter', Su-24 `Fencer', Su-25 `Frogfoot', and Su-27 `Flanker' aircraft of the Russian and allied air
forces.
Description
The RBK-500 SPBE-D cluster bomb is basically the same shape and size as the other RBK-500 cluster bombs except that it
has a modern four-fin tail unit, as opposed to the eight-fin drum tail unit fitted to the other models. The lightweight cylindrical
body has a conical nose and is fitted with standard Russian 250 mm spaced suspension lugs. The bomb is 2.48 m long, has a
body diameter of 450 mm, a tailspan of 0.63 m and when loaded weighs 500 kg.
The nose section houses the fuzing system for triggering the bomb's submunition ejection system, and the container
compartment holds 15 SPBE-D SFW. The SFWs are fitted with individual parachutes to control their descent. They measure
280 × 255 × 186 mm and weigh 14.9 kg. After release from the parent aircraft the cluster bomb follows a ballistic trajectory
towards the target area. At the appropriate time, determined by the cluster bomb's time fuze, the tail unit is discarded and the
SPBE-D submunitions are ejected from the rear of the bomb over the target area. The SPBE-D dual-band IR sensor has a look
angle of 30º and scans the target area at a rotational rate of 6 to 9 rpm, its 15 to 17 m/s descent rate being governed by its
four-canopy parachute. Once the sensor acquires the target, and determines the warhead detonation point with an onboard
microprocessor, the SFW arms itself and detonates the explosively formed penetrator which is a 173 mm diameter copper
plate. Once formed, the penetrator weighs 1 kg and has a velocity of 2,000 m/s. It is reported to be able to penetrate 70 mm of
armour up to an angle of 30º. The RBK-500 SPBE-D cluster bomb can be released from an aircraft at altitudes between 400 to
5,000 m throughout the speed range of 500 to 1,400 km/h.
Operational Status
The RBK-500 SPBE-D cluster bomb is in service with the Russian Air Force and was offered for export in 1992. In 1997,
Kuwait ordered a Smerch 240 mm MLRS, together with the SPBE-D SFW submunition.

Specifications
SPBE-D cluster bomb
Length: 2.48 m
Body diameter: 450 mm
Tailspan: 0.63 m
Lug spacing: 250 mm
Weight: 500 kg
Filling: 15 bomblets
SPBE-D SFW bomblet
Length: 0.28 m
Body diameter: 255 × 186 mm
Tailspan: n/a
Lug spacing: n/a
Weight: 14.9 kg
Filling: HE shaped charge
Contractor
Bazalt State Research and Production Enterprise
Moscow.
UPDATED

Cutaway line drawing of a RBK-500 SPBE-D cluster bomb showing distribution of anti-tank bomblets

RBK-500 SPBE-D cluster bomb on display in Paris in 1995 (Duncan Lennox)

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BOMBS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

RBK-500 SPBE CLUSTER BOMB


Type
Anti-tank cluster bomb.
Development
The RBK family of cluster bombs is of post-Second World War design and in its earlier days was primarily used for delivering
large numbers of anti-personnel fragmentation submunitions. However, in more recent years they have been adapted to carry
various other types of submunitions, such as anti-material, airfield cratering and various types of anti-tank submunitions. The
designation letters RBK stand for razovaya bombovaya kasseta meaning `single-use bomb cassette'. The designation numbers
refer to the bomb size category, and any further letters signify special applications or types of submunitions/bomblets used. The
RBK-500 SPBE is a further development of the RBK-500 PTAB-1M anti-tank cluster bomb (see separate entry). It was
specifically developed in order to give the Russian Air Force a capability to attack and destroy main battle tanks such as the
Leopard 2. It was designed to carry only 14 bomblets as opposed to the 268 carried by RBK-500 PTAB-1M. However, the new
bomblet to be carried in the RBK-500 SPBE was designed around a new shaped charge warhead and an IR sensor. The sensor
system was developed in conjunction with a command module that is released from the cluster bomb along with the bomblets
and individually arms the bomblets while in descent towards the targets. The designation letters SPBE stand for `smart
anti-tank submunition'. The complete cluster bomb is designed to withstand the high g forces encountered by combat
manoeuvres of high-speed attack aircraft, and is fitted with standard Russian 250 mm spaced suspension lugs. The RBK-500
SPBE is believed to be cleared for carriage on MiG-21 `Fishbed', MiG-27 `Flogger', MiG-29 `Fulcrum', Su-17 and Su-22
`Fitter', Su-24 `Fencer', Su-25 `Frogfoot' and Su-27 `Flanker' aircraft of the Russian and allied air forces.
Further development has produced an uprated version designated RBK-500 SPBE-D. For details see separate entry.

Description
The RBK-500 SPBE cluster bomb has a canister shaped body, with a conical nose and an eight-fin drum tail unit similar to that
used on many Russian conventional bombs. The bomb, which is fitted with standard Russian 250 mm spaced suspension lugs,
is 2.50 m long, has a body diameter of 450 mm, a tailspan of about 0.55 m and when loaded weighs 467 kg. The cluster bomb's
nose section houses the proximity fuzing system for triggering the bomblet ejection system and the container compartment
holds 14 SPBE bomblets and one command unit. The bomblets themselves are somewhat cylindrical in shape and contain a 4.5
kg HE shaped charge. They are 0.29 m long, have a body diameter of 186 mm and weigh 15.6 kg. The command unit has the
same dimensions, weight and descent velocity as the actual bomblets.
After the cluster bomb is released from the parent aircraft it follows a spinning ballistic trajectory towards the target area. At
the appropriate moment the bomb's proximity fuze triggers the weapon's extraction system. This is different from that
employed by the rest of the RBK-500 family of cluster bombs. In this case the bomblets are extracted from the rear of the
bomb container by parachure after the tail unit has been discarded. As both the bomblets and the command unit descend
towards the targets by their individual parachutes, it is thought that the command unit acquires the targets and causes the
bomblets to be armed. In turn, the bomblets then use their own IR sensors to select the target and subsequently activate their
shaped charge warheads. The RBK-500 SPBE cluster bomb can be released from an aircraft at altitudes between 400 to 5,000
m throughout the speed range of 500 to 1,400 km/h.
Operational Status
The RBK-500 SPBE cluster bomb is believed to be in service with Russian and allied air forces. There are no known exports.

Specifications
SPBE cluster bomb
Length: 2.50 m
Body diameter: 450 mm
Tailspan: 0.55 m
Lug spacing: 250 mm
Weight: 467 kg
Filling: 14 bomblets, 1 command unit
SPBE bomblet
Length: 0.29 m
Body diameter: 186 mm
Tailspan: n/a
Lug spacing: n/a
Weight: 15.6 kg
Filling: 4.5 kg HE shaped charge
Contractor
Bazalt State Research and Production Enterprise
Moscow.
UPDATED

A sectioned RBK-500 SPBE cluster bomb showing the main assemblies, and in the foreground an SPBE
anti-tank bomblet (Bazalt)
(1999)

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BOMBS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

RBK-500 ShOAB-0.5 CLUSTER BOMB


Type
Anti-personnel cluster bomb.
Development
The RBK family of cluster bombs is of post-Second World War design and in its earlier days was primarily used for delivering
large numbers of anti-personnel fragmentation submunitions. However, in more recent years they have been adapted to carry
various other types of submunitions, such as anti-material, airfield cratering and various types of anti-tank submunitions. The
designation letters RBK stand for razovaya bombovaya kasseta meaning `single-use bomb cassette'. The designation numbers
refer to the bomb size category, and any further letters signify special applications or types of submunitions/bomblets used. The
RBK-500 ShOAB-0.5 was a further development of the basic RBK-500 cluster bomb (see separate entry) and was designed to
carry 565 newly developed anti-personnel bomblets designated ShOAB-0.5, hence the overall cluster bomb's designation. It is
not known what the bomblets designation letters stand for, but the device is believed to be a special type of fragmentation
bomblet that weighs 0.5 kg. The complete cluster bomb is designed to withstand the high g forces encountered by combat
manoeuvres of high-speed attack aircraft, and is fitted with standard Russian 250 mm spaced suspension lugs. The bomb is
believed to be cleared for carriage on MiG-21 `Fishbed', MiG-27 `Flogger', MiG-29 `Fulcrum', Su-17 and Su-22 `Fitter', Su-24
`Fencer', Su-25 `Frogfoot' and Su-27 `Flanker' aircraft of the Russian and former allied air forces.

Description
The RBK-500 ShOAB-0.5 is the same size and shape as the FOZAB-500 incendiary bomb. It has a canister shaped body, with
a blunt high-drag nose and a four-fin drum tail unit that accounts for almost one third of the bomb's total length. The bomb,
which is fitted with standard Russian 250 mm spaced suspension lugs, is 1.5 m long, has a body diameter of 450 mm, a tailspan
of about 0.56 m and weighs 334 kg. The nose section houses an electromechanical fuze for triggering the bomblet ejection
system and the container compartment holds 565 ShOAB-0.5 bomblets. The only information currently available on these
bomblets is they are fragmentation devices weighing 0.5 kg. After release from the parent aircraft the cluster bomb follows a
normal spinning ballistic trajectory. At an altitude determined by the nose-mounted fuze the outer `skin' of the container is
opened and the bomblets dispersed over the target area. The method used to dispense the bomblets is not known but is believed
to be done simply by centrifugal forces. The individual bomblets on reaching the ground are activated by their own mechanical
fuze system. It is reported that a single cluster bomb with its load of 565 bomblets has a destructive area of 300 × 400 m.
Operational Status
The RBK-500 ShOAB-0.5 is in service with the Russian Air Force and is offered for export. There are no known exports.
Specifications
RBK-500
Length: 1.5 m
Body diameter: 450 mm
Tailspan: 0.56 m
Lug spacing: 250 mm
Weight: 334 kg
Filling: 565 bomblets
ShOAB-0.5 bomblet
Length: n/k
Body diameter: n/k
Tailspan: n/k
Lug spacing: n/a
Weight: 0.5 kg
Filling: HE
Contractor
Bazalt State Research and Production Enterprise
Moscow.
UPDATED

The second bomb from the front is the RBK-500 ShOAB-0.5 cluster bomb containing 565 bomblets. In the
foreground is an RBK-500 AO-2.5 cluster bomb containing 108 bomblets

A line diagram of the RBK-500 ShOAB-0.5 cluster bomb

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BOMBS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

RBK-500 PTAB-1M CLUSTER BOMB


Type
Anti-tank cluster bomb.
Development
The RBK family of cluster bombs is of post-Second World War design and in its earlier days was primarily used for delivering
large numbers of anti-personnel fragmentation submunitions. However, in more recent years they have been adapted to carry
various other types of submunitions, such as anti-material, airfield cratering and various types of anti-tank submunitions. The
designation letters RBK stand for razovaya bombovaya kasseta meaning `single-use bomb cassette'. The designation numbers
refer to the bomb size category, and any further letters signify special applications or types of submunitions/bomblets used. The
RBK-500 PTAB-1M was a further development of the RBK-500 multipurpose cluster bomb (see separate entry), and was
designed to carry 268 anti-tank bomblets designated PTAB-1M, hence the overall designation. It was developed in order to
give the Russian Air Force a capability to attack and destroy formations of tanks and armoured personnel carriers while on the
move, in formation or dispersed over a wide area. The designation letters PTAB stand for protivo-tankovaya aviatsionnaya
bomba which means `anti-tank bomb aircraft'. The RBK-500 PTAB-1M is designed to withstand the high g forces encountered
by combat manoeuvres of high-speed attack aircraft, and is fitted with standard Russian spaced suspension lugs. The bomb is
believed to be cleared for carriage on MiG-21 `Fishbed', MiG-27 `Flogger', MiG-29 `Fulcrum', Su-17 and Su-22 `Fitter', Su-24
`Fencer', Su-25 `Frogfoot' and Su-27 `Flanker' aircraft of the Russian and allied air forces.
Further development produced an uprated version designated RKB-500 SPBE, details of which can be found in a separate
entry.
Description
The RBK-500 PTAB-1M cluster bomb is basically the same shape as the other RBK-500 cluster bombs except that it is shorter
and has an ogival nose instead of a conical one. The canister shaped body is fitted with an eight-fin drum tail unit and standard
Russian 250 mm spaced suspension lugs. The bomb is 1.95 m long, has a body diameter of 450 mm, a tailspan of 0.56 m and
when loaded weighs 427 kg. The nose section houses an electromechanical fuze for triggering the bomb's ejection system, and
the container compartment holds 268 PTAB-1M anti-tank bomblets. These have a shaped charge warhead and are 0.26 m long,
have a body diameter of 42 mm and weigh 0.94 kg. After release from the parent aircraft the cluster bomb follows a normal
spinning ballistic trajectory. At an altitude determined by the nose-mounted fuze the outer `skin' of the container is opened and
the 268 bomblets are dispersed over the target area. These produce an elliptical footprint over the target.
The method used to dispense the bomblets is not known, but is believed to be simply by centrifugal forces. It is reported that
the bomblets have unusual folding stabilising fins that are extended once they have been released from the container. Each
PTAB-1M bomblet is said to be capable of penetrating up to 210 mm of armour and has a built-in self-destruct of 20 to 40
seconds. The RBK-500 PTAB-1M cluster bomb can be released from an aircraft at altitudes between 300 m and 20 km
throughout the speed range of 500 to 1,200 km/h.
Operational Status
The RBK-500 PTAB-1M is in service with Russian and allied air forces. There are no known exports.

Specifications
Cluster bomb
Length: 1.95 m
Body diameter: 450 mm
Tailspan: 0.56 m
Lug spacing: 250 mm
Weight: 427 kg
Filling: 268 bomblets
PTAB-1M bomblet
Length: 0.26 m
Body diameter: 42 mm
Tailspan: 0.04 m (stowed); 0.08 m (unfolded)
Lug spacing: n/a
Weight: 0.94 kg
Filling: HE shaped charge
Contractor
Bazalt State Research and Production Enterprise
Moscow.
UPDATED

Cutaway line drawing of an RBK-500 PTAB-1M cluster bomb showing distribution of anti-tank bomblets

A sectioned PTAB-1M anti-tank bomblet (Bazalt)


(1999)

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BOMBS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

RBK-500 BetAB CLUSTER BOMB


Type
Airfield cratering cluster bomb.
Development
The RBK family of cluster bombs is of post-Second World War design and in its earlier days was primarily used for delivering
large numbers of anti-personnel fragmentation submunitions. However, in more recent years they have been adapted to carry
various other types of submunitions, such as anti-material, airfield cratering and various types of anti-tank submunition. The
designation letters RBK stand for razovaya bombovaya kasseta meaning `single-use bomb cassette'. The designation numbers
refer to the bomb size category, and any further letters signify special applications or types of submunitions/bomblets used. The
RBK-500 BetAB was a further development of the basic RBK-500 cluster bomb (see separate entry) and was designed to carry
12 newly developed concrete penetrating bomblets in order to give the Russian Air Force an up-to-date airfield cratering
capability. The designation letters BetAB stand for betonoboynaya aviatsionnaya bomba meaning `concrete-piercing aircraft
bomb'. The complete cluster bomb is designed to withstand the high g forces encountered by combat manoeuvres of high-speed
attack aircraft, and is fitted with standard Russian 250 mm spaced suspension lugs. The bomb is believed to be cleared for
carriage on MiG-21 `Fishbed', MiG-27 `Flogger', MiG-29 `Fulcrum', Su-17 and Su-22 `Fitter', Su-24 `Fencer', Su-25 `Frogfoot'
and Su-27 `Flanker' aircraft of the Russian and allied air forces.

Description
The RBK-500 BetAB cluster bomb has a canister shaped body, with a conical nose and an eight-fin drum tail unit similar to
that used on many Russian conventional bombs. The bomb, which is fitted with standard Russian 250 mm spaced suspension
lugs, is 2.50 m long, has a body diameter of 450 mm, a tailspan of about 0.55 m and when loaded weighs 525 kg. The cluster
bomb's nose section houses an electromechanical fuze for triggering the bomb's submunition ejection system and the container
compartment holds 12 concrete-piercing bomblets. These bomblets are aerodynamically shaped with long slender bodies and a
pointed nose. They are 0.66 m long, have a body diameter of 76 mm and weigh 25 kg. After release from the parent aircraft the
cluster bomb follows a normal spinning ballistic trajectory. At an altitude determined by the nose-mounted fuze the outer `skin'
of the container is opened and the 12 bomblets are dispersed over the target area. The method used to dispense the bomblets is
not known and it is unclear if the bomblets are rocket-assisted. However, it is clear from Russian documentation that the
bomblet is released from the cluster bomb within another tapered container tube that has a diameter of about 140 mm.
This container tube is stabilised by a retarding parachute and the bomblet is fired at the runway to give it sufficient kinetic
energy to penetrate the concrete to a sufficient depth for cratering. It is probable that the bomblet is detonated below the
runway by a delayed contact fuze, resulting in a large hole with its attendant `heave'. It is reported that each bomblet is capable
of penetrating 400 mm concrete and causes a damage area of 4 m2. The RBK-500 BetAB cluster bomb can be released from an
aircraft at altitudes between 300 m to 10 km throughout the speed range of 500 to 1,000 km/h.
Operational Status
The RBK-500 BetAB cluster bomb is in service with Russian and allied air forces.

Specifications
Cluster bomb
Length: 2.50 m
Body diameter: 450 mm
Tailspan: 0.55 m
Lug spacing: 250 mm
Weight: 525 kg
Filling: 12 bomblets
Bomblet
Length: 0.66 m
Body diameter: 76 mm
Tailspan: n/k
Lug spacing: n/a
Weight: 25 kg
Filling: HE
Contractor
Bazalt State Research and Production Enterprise
Moscow.
UPDATED

Cutaway line drawing of an RBK-500 BetAB cluster bomb showing a concrete penetrating submunition
within its own container tube

Line diagram of BetAB bomblet and firing container, showing major components
(1999)

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BOMBS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

RBK-500 AO-2.5 RTM CLUSTER BOMB


Type
Anti-personnel/anti-material cluster bomb.
Development
The RBK family of cluster bombs is of post-Second World War design and in its earlier days was primarily used for delivering
large numbers of anti-personnel fragmentation submunitions. However, in more recent years they have been adapted to carry
various other types of submunitions, such as anti-material, airfield cratering and various types of anti-tank submunitions. The
designation letters RBK stand for razovaya bombovaya kasseta meaning `single-use bomb cassette'. The designation numbers
refer to the bomb size category, and any further letters signify special applications or types of submunitions/bomblets used. The
RBK-500 AO-2.5 RTM was a further development of the basic RBK-500 cluster bomb (see separate entry) and was designed
to carry 108 newly developed anti-personnel/anti-material (APAM) bomblets designated AO-2.5 RTM, hence the overall
cluster bomb's designation. The designation letters AO stand for aviatsionnaya oskolochnaya meaning `aircraft fragmentation'.
The complete cluster bomb is designed to withstand the high g forces encountered by combat manoeuvres of high-speed attack
aircraft, and is fitted with standard Russian spaced suspension lugs. The bomb is believed to be cleared for carriage on MiG-21
`Fishbed', MiG-27 `Flogger', MiG-29 `Fulcrum', Su-17 and Su-22 `Fitter', Su-24 `Fencer', Su-25 `Frogfoot' and Su-27 `Flanker'
aircraft of the Russian and allied air forces.
Description
The RBK-500 AO-2.5 RTM cluster bomb has a canister shaped body, with a conical nose and an eight-fin drum tail unit
similar to that used on many Russian conventional bombs. The bomb, which is fitted with standard Russian 250 mm spaced
suspension lugs, is 2.50 m long, has a body diameter of 450 mm and when loaded weighs around 504 kg. The cluster bomb's
nose section houses an electromechanical fuze for triggering the bomb's submunition ejection system and the container
compartment holds 108 AO-2.5 RTM bomblets. These bomblets are unusual in appearance in that they are rounded at both
ends and have an arrangement of six semicircular discs flattened around the centre of the body on what appears to be a strap
type arrangement. These are believed to flip out after the bomblet is dropped to induce a stabilising spin during free-fall. The
AO-2.5 RTM bomblets are 0.15 m long, have a body diameter of 90 mm and weigh 2.5 kg. Each bomblet has a kill radius of
30 m against material, 20 m against unsheltered personnel, and 10 m against entrenched personnel. After release from the
parent aircraft the cluster bomb follows a normal spinning ballistic trajectory. At an altitude determined by the nose-mounted
fuze the outer `skin' of the container is opened and the bomblets dispersed over the target area.
The method used to dispense the bomblets is not known but is believed to be done simply by centrifugal forces. On reaching
the ground the individual bomblets are activated by their own mechanical fuze system. It is unclear whether the bomblets are
detonated on impact or are contact mines. It is reported that a single cluster bomb with its load of 108 bomblets has a
destructive footprint of 6,400 m2. The RBK-500 AO-2.5 RTM can be released from an aircraft at altitudes between 300 to
15,000 m throughout the speed range of 500 to 1,200 km/h.
Operational Status
The RBK-500 AO-2.5 RTM is in service with Russian and allied air forces.
Specifications
RBK 500 Cluster bomb
Length: 2.50 m
Body diameter: 450 mm
Tailspan: 0.56 m
Lug spacing: 250 mm
Weight: 504 kg
Filling: 108 bomblets
AO-2.5 RTM bomblet
Length: 0.15 m
Body diameter: 90 mm
Tailspan: n/a
Lug spacing: n/a
Weight: 2.5 kg
Filling: HE
Contractors
The RBK family of cluster bombs is marketed by the VO GED, General Export for Defence, Moscow, and Bazalt State
Research and Production Enterprise, Moscow.
UPDATED

In the foreground is an RBK-500 AO-2.5 RTM cluster bomb containing 108 AO-2.5 RTM bomblets.
Behind it is an RBK-500 ShOAB-0.5 containing 565 0.5 kg bomblets

Cutaway line drawing of an RBK-500 AO-2.5 RTM cluster bomb showing the distribution of the AO-2.5
RTM bomblets

An AO-2.5 RTM fragmentation bomblet

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BOMBS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

RBK-250-275 and RBK-500 CLUSTER BOMBS


Type
Multipurpose cluster bombs.
Development
The former Soviet Union was a pioneer of cluster bomb dispensers, quite sophisticated designs being used as early as the
1930s. The RBK family of cluster bombs is of post-Second World War design, and in its earlier days was primarily used for
delivering large numbers of anti-personnel fragmentation submunitions. However, in more recent years they have been adapted
to carry various other types of submunitions, such as anti-material, airfield cratering and various types of anti-tank
submunitions. The designation letters RBK stand for razovaya bombovaya kasseta meaning `single-use bomb cassette'. The
designation numbers refer to the bomb size category. Additional numbers indicate the actual weight in kilogrammes, and any
further letters signify special applications or types of submunitions/bomblets used. It is believed that the RBK-250-275 was
originally designed to carry fragmentation bomblets designated AO-2.5. However, later versions carried 150 AO-1 SCh
fragmentation bomblets, or 30 PTAB-2.5 anti-armour bomblets. The designation letters AO stand for aviatsionnaya
oskolochnaya meaning `aircraft fragmentation', PTAB stands for protivo-tankovaya aviatsionnaya bomba meaning `anti-tank
aircraft bomb'. Further development produced a larger version, the RBK-500 designed to carry more of the same submunitions.
Details were released in the early 1990s of further improved versions of the RBK-500 cluster bomb, developed along with new
submunitions for them. These were: RBK-500 AO-2.5 RTM an anti-personnel/anti-material cluster bomb, RBK-500 BETAB
airfield cratering cluster bomb, RBK-500 PTAB-1M anti-tank cluster bomb, RBK-500 SPBE anti-tank cluster bomb, and the
RBK-500 SPBE-D anti-tank cluster bomb. Although these were basically the same bombs, they are specialised in their
applications and are covered by other entries within this Russian Federation section. The complete cluster bombs are designed
to withstand the high g forces encountered by combat manoeuvres of high-speed attack aircraft, and are fitted with standard
Russian spaced suspension lugs. The RBK-250-275 and RBK-500 cluster bombs are believed to have been cleared for carriage
on MiG-21 `Fishbed', MiG-27 `Flogger', MiG-29 `Fulcrum', Su-17 and Su-22 `Fitter', Su-24 `Fencer', Su-25 `Frogfoot' and
Su-27 `Flanker' aircraft of the Russian and allied air forces.

Description
The RBK-250-275 and the RBK-500 have similar canister shaped bodies, with a conical nose and are fitted with standard
Russian 250 mm spaced suspension lugs. The RBK-250-275 has a four-fin drum tail unit similar to that used on many Russian
conventional bombs. It is 2.12 m long, has a body diameter of 325 mm and a loaded weight of between 250 and 275 kg
depending on the submunitions carried. The RBK-500 has an eight-fin tail unit, is 2.5 m long, has a body diameter of 450 mm
and weighs around 500 kg. There are four known submunitions/bomblets that have been credited to these particular cluster
bombs: AO-2.5 fragmentation bomblet, AO-1SCh fragmentation bomblet, PTAB-2.5 anti-armour bomblet and the ZAB-2.5
incendiary bomblet.
There are two types of AO-2.5 bomblets the AO-2.5 and the AO-2.5-2. The AO-2.5 has a cylindrical body with a four-fin
tail unit and a nose fuze. It is 0.378 m long, has a body diameter of 69 mm and weighs 2.88 kg. The AO-2.5-2 is believed to be
the same basic bomb with a different tailfin assembly in that it has four flat and rather longer steel tail fins. The arming wind
vane aperture in the nose fuze is covered by a thin piece of metal foil which is removed as the bomblet falls to earth, allowing
the wind vane to rotate and arm the fuze before impact. Performance details for the AO-2.5 bomblets are not known.
The AO-1 SCh is a miniature bomb in the true sense of the word. It has a cylindrical steel body that has been serrated for
enhancement of the fragmentation, a four-fin drum tail unit and is fitted with an AMA nose fuze. The bomblet is 0.156 m long,
has a body diameter of 49 mm and weighs 1.2 kg. It is filled with a 70/30 mixture of Amatol/TNT. The destructive area
covered by a single bomblet is said to be 156 m2. The RBK-250-275 carries 150 AO-1 SCh bomblets, and is reported to have a
destructive footprint of 4,800 m2. There are no reports of this bomblet being carried by the RBK-500.
The PTAB-2.5 anti-armour bomblet is produced in two versions, the PTAB-2.5 and the PTAB-2.5M, which in turn is
available with two different tail units, short and long. The PTAB-2.5 has a cylindrical body with a four-fin drum tail unit and
has a domed shaped ballistic cap over its nose. It is 0.356 m long, has a body diameter of 60 mm, a tailspan of 0.087 m and
weighs 2.5 kg. Behind the nose cap and contained in the body is a shaped charge warhead which contains 660 g of an
RDX/TNT 40/60 mixture. The ADTS-583 impact fuze is armed by an air-rotated arming vane concealed in the drum fin
assembly. The RBK-250-275 carries 30 of these bomblets, and the RBK-500 carries 75. It is reported that the PTAB-2.5 can
penetrate up to 120 mm of armour.
The PTAB-2.5M is similar in shape to the PTAB-2.5 with its cylindrical body and four-fin drum tail unit. However, it has a
distinctive protective tube-like shield surrounding the nose fuze. The bomb is fitted with either short or long tail assemblies
which give it an overall length of 0.374 and 0.395 m respectively. The body diameter of 90 mm and approximate weight of 2.5
kg is the same for both variants. The body holds a shaped charge containing 454 g of an RDX/TNT 52/48 mixture and the
impact fuze fitted is an AVM-524M.
After release from the parent aircraft the cluster bomb follows a normal spinning ballistic trajectory. At a predetermined
altitude the outer `skin' of the container is opened and the bomblets dispersed over the target area. The method used to dispense
the bomblets is not known but is believed to be done simply by centrifugal forces. Details of fuzing are not known.
Operational Status
The RBK-250-275 and the RBK-500 cluster bombs and their various submunitions are in service with Russian and allied air
forces.
Specifications

RBK-250 PTAB-2.5 PTAB-2.5


AO -2.5 AO-1S Ch PTAB-2.5
RBK-500 M (short M (long
-275 bomblet bomblet bomblet
tail) tail)
Length 2.12 m 2.5 m 0.378 m 0.156 m 0.356 m 0.374 m 0.395 m
Body
325 mm 450 mm 69 mm 49 mm 60 mm 90 mm 90 mm
diameter
Tailspan n/k n/k n/k 50 mm 87 mm n/k n/k
Lug
250 mm 250 mm n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a
spacing
Weight 275 kg 500 kg 2.88 kg 1.2 kg 2.5 kg 2.5 kg 2.5 kg
various various
Filling HE Amatol/TNT 0.66 kg 0.45 kg 0.45 kg
types types
of of
70/30 RDX/TNT RDX/TNT RDX/TNT
bomblets bomblets
40/60 52/48 52/48

Contractor
The RBK family of cluster bombs are marketed by VO GED, General Export for Defence, Moscow and Bazalt State Research
and Production Enterprise, Moscow.
UPDATED
A line diagram of an RBK-250/275 cluster bomb

RBK-250/275 bomblets: fragmentation AO-1SCh (left) and anti-tank PTAB-2.5 (right)

Close-up of an AO-1SCh fragmentation bomblet

Close-up of a PTAB-2.5M anti-armour bomblet (note protective cover round nose fuze)

In the foreground an RBK-500U cluster bomb, with a KAB-500 behind, on display at Paris in 1995
(Duncan Lennox)

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BOMBS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

OFZAB-500 INCENDIARY BOMB


Type
Fire bomb.
Development
The OFZAB-500 bomb was developed in order to provide the Russian Air Force with a low-drag high-speed low-level attack
incendiary bomb with additional HE fragmentation effect for use against troops and vulnerable material in the field, stores and
fuel depots. When development took place is unclear, but from Russian documentation released in the early 1990s it is thought
that the bomb was developed to replace the high-drag FOZAB-500 incendiary bomb (see separate entry). The designation
letters OFZAB stand for oskolochno-fugasnaya zazhigatelnaya aviatsionnaya bomba meaning `fragmentation/high-explosive
incendiary aircraft bomb'. The designation numbers refer to the bomb size category. The bomb has been designed to withstand
the high g forces encountered by combat manoeuvres of high-speed attack aircraft, and is fitted with standard Russian spaced
suspension lugs. The OFZAB-500 bomb is believed to have been cleared for carriage on MiG-21 `Fishbed', MiG-27 `Flogger',
MiG-29 `Fulcrum', Su-17 and Su-22 `Fitter', Su-24 `Fencer', Su-25 `Frogfoot' and Su-27 `Flanker' aircraft of the Russian and
former allied air forces. It can also be carried in the bomb bays of larger bomber aircraft like the Tu-95 `Bear', and Tu-16
`Badger'.
Description
The OFZAB-500 incendiary bomb has more the appearance of a conventional HE bomb than an incendiary one. It has a
hemispherical nose and a long tapered aerodynamically shaped four-fin drum tail unit which accounts for almost half of the
bomb's total length. The OFZAB-500, which is fitted with standard Russian 250 mm spaced suspension lugs, is 2.5 m long, has
a body diameter of 450 mm, a tailspan of about 0.5 m and weighs 500 kg. The nose section is fitted with an aerodynamically
operated arming vane for fuze functioning similar to that used on the FOZAB-500. The body and about half of the tail unit is
filled with 250 kg of an unknown incendiary mixture and 37.5 kg high explosive. Details of the type of fuzing are uncertain,
but it is reported that it can be proximity or contact. On detonation the incendiary mixture/material is ignited and spread over a
wide area by the explosive charge and the bomb casing provides the additional fragmentation effect. As the bomb can be
released during low-level passes it is believed that some form of delay and safety device is incorporated in the final stages of
arming/fuzing. It is reported that the OFZAB-500 can be released from altitudes between 300 and 20,000 m throughout a speed
range of 100 to 1,200 km/h. Details of the bomb's destructive capabililty are not known.
Operational Status
The OFZAB is in service with Russian Air Force and offered for export. There are no known exports.
Specifications
Length: 2.5 m
Body diameter: 450 mm
Tailspan: 0.50 m
Lug spacing: 250 mm
Weight: 500 kg
Filling: 250 kg incendiary mixture and 37.5 kg HE
Contractor
Bazalt State Research and Production Enterprise, Moscow.
UPDATED

Cutaway line drawing of an OFZAB-500 incendiary bomb

An OFZAB-500 bomb shell, without a nose fuze assembly (SRPE Bazalt)

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BOMBS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

OFAB BOMBS
Type
General purpose bombs.
Development
This range of conventional free-fall bombs was developed to provide the Russian Federation with heavier fragmentation
weapons than the AO range of bombs (see separate entry). Although classified as fragmentation/blast bombs under the Russian
`type' system they are designated general purpose bombs. Their design is similar to the FAB series of demolition bombs, but in
general they have thicker skins in order to produce a greater fragmentation effect. Little is known of their development other
than it has been a continuing programme and they are designed for use against lightly armoured vehicles, vulnerable material
and personnel in the field. Originally there were seven known bombs in this range: OFAB-100M; OFAB-100MH;
OFAB-100NV; OFAB-100-120; OFAB-250M; OFAB-250-270 and OFAB-500U. The letters OFAB stand for
oskolochno-fugasnaya aviatsionnaya bomba meaning `fragmentation/high-explosive aircraft bomb'. The number in the
designation refers to the bomb size category, and any additional letters signify special applications. In the case of these bombs
it is unclear what these additional letters stand for. The design of the bombs dates back to the Second World War, and allows
them to be carried under the wings or fuselage of small aircraft, or in bomb bays of larger bombers. One unique feature was the
development of a long detonator probe that allows the OFAB-250M to be detonated about 1.5 m above the ground for
maximum effect. A parachute retard system was also developed for fitting to the full range of bombs when required. In 1996,
five more OFAB bombs were displayed. These were designated OFAB-500U (but with a more streamlined shape than the
original), OFAB-250T (similar to the FAB-250M-62), OFAB-250 ShN, OFAB-250 ShL and OFAB-500ShR (three retarded
low-level delivery bombs). It is believed that all versions have been cleared for carriage on some or all of the following aircraft
of the Russian and former allied air forces; MiG-21 `Fishbed', MiG-23B `Flogger', MiG-27 `Flogger D', Su-17 and Su-22
`Fitter', Tu-95 `Bear', Tu-95M `Bear', Tu-16 `Badger', Tu-22 `Blinder' and Tu-22M `Backfire'.
In 1996, a dual-purpose OFAB-50 bomb and submunition was reported, the submunition for use with the RBK-500U cluster
bomb (see separate entry). A Russian bomb, believed to be an OFAB-120, was exhibited in 1996 in South Africa with a South
African Jupiter fuze fitted.
It is reported that a variant of the OFAB-100MH with a standoff nose probe is manufactured in Poland but no details are
available.
Description
All of the early OFAB fragmentation bombs have the same unsophisticated high-drag shape of many of the early Russian
bombs. They are cylindrical with flattened rounded or bell shaped noses, and have an old-fashioned fin and drum stabilising fin
combination. The 100 kg bombs have single suspension lugs, and the 250 and 500 kg bombs the Russian standard 250 mm
spaced suspension lugs. When fitted with the standoff nose probe the OFAB-250M has an ogival nose to which is attached the
1.5 m probe. The detailed specifications of the original seven individual bombs are listed below. Fuzing details are not known,
however all these bombs can be fitted with a parachute retard system for low-level release. The parachute is contained in a
cylindrical drum assembly attached to the rear edge of the outer ring of the tail. The OFAB-100-120 is credited with the ability
to penetrate lightly armoured material within a range of 32 m and easily vulnerable targets up to 135 m. It is released at
altitudes between 500 m and 15 km at speeds up to 1,150 km/h. The OFAB-250-270 is credited with the ability to penetrate
lightly armoured material within a range of 40 m and easily vulnerable targets up to 155 m. It is released at altitudes between
500 m and 12 km, at speeds between 500 and 1,200 km/h.
Details of the OFAB-500U bomb were released in 1996. This bomb has a more modern low-drag shape than the other OFAB
bombs, and is made in two almost equal length assemblies. The front assembly is a constant diameter bomb shell with a double
tapered nose fitted with a Russian fuze well; the rear assembly contains a parachute system, and has a four-fin and ring tail
unit. The OFAB-500U is 2.3 m long, has a body diameter of 400 mm, a tailspan of 0.45 m, 250 mm spaced suspension lugs,
and a weight of 515 kg. The filling contains 155 kg of high explosive. The bomb can be released from altitudes between 30 and
10,000 m with a speed range of 500 to 1,200 km/h. The fragments are reported to have the ability to penetrate lightly armoured
vehicles to a radius of 90 m, and soft materials to a radius of 210 m.
The OFAB-250T is different from the above bombs in that it has a prefragmented skin, and is more aerodynamic. It has a
modernised four-fin/ring, welded tail unit and a pointed shaped nose with a conventional fuze well. The OFAB-250T is 2.05 m
long, has a body diameter of 300 mm, contains 95.7 kg of an unspecified HE and weighs 256 kg. Details of the weapon's
fuzing are not known but it can be released from altitudes between 50 and 1,200 m at a release speed of around 2,500 km/h.
The OFAB-250ShN is a parachute-retarded bomb designed for low-level release. It has a constant diameter prefragmented
body and a pointed nose with a fuze well. The tail unit is similar to one used on the FAB-250ShN and could be the same. The
OFAB-250ShN is 1.99 m long, has a body diameter of 325 mm, a weight of 275 kg and has 95.7 kg of high explosive. It can be
released at altitudes between 25 and 500 m at speeds between 530 and 1,200 km/h.
The OFAB-250ShL is similar in size and shape to the OFAB-250ShN but has a mechanical retarding system instead of the
parachute. It is 1.99 m long, has a body diameter of 325 mm, a weight of 268 kg and has 94 kg of high explosive. It can be
released at altitudes between 25 and 1,000 m at speeds between 550 and 1,200 km/h.
Externally the OFAB-500ShR looks like a larger version of the above two retard bombs. However, internally it is quite
different. It is made up of several sections, including two separates stages of retard each using a parachute and what appears to
be up to three separate warheads. The OFAB-500ShR is 2.49 m long, has a body diameter of 450 mm, a weight of 497 kg and a
total of 126 kg of high explosive. It can be released at altitudes between 50 and 750 m at speeds between 750 and 1,100 km/h.
On release from the aircraft the first parachute is deployed and stabilises the bomb. The tail section is then jettisoned and the
bomb continues in an arch towards the target. At a predetermined height the second parachute deploys further retarding the
bomb, which then ejects the warheads. From the information available it is unclear if there are one, two or three warheads.
Operational Status
All of these fragmentation bombs are believed to be in service with Russian and former allied air forces. The OFAB-100-120
and the OFAB-250-270 bombs were offered for export in 1993. In 1995, a similar family of OFAB bombs was exhibited in
Romania by a Bulgarian manufacturer. In 1996, the OFAB-250T, OFAB-250ShN, OFAB-250ShL and OFAB-500ShR were
also offered for export.
Specifications

OFAB-100 M OFAB-100 MH OFAB-100 NV OFAB-100 -120 OFAB-250 M

3.0 m (with
Length 1.07 m 1.19 m 1.07 m 1.065 m
probe)

Body diameter 279 mm 279 mm 279 mm 273 mm 325 mm


Tailspan n/k n/k n/k 0.34 m 0.5 m

Lug spacing single point single point single point single point 250 mm

Weight 136 kg 145 kg 113 kg 123 kg 268 kg

Filling 45.4 kg HE 45.4 kg HE HE 42 kg HE 88 kg HE

OFAB-250 OFAB-250T OFAB-250ShN OFAB-250ShL OFAB-500 OFAB-500ShR


-270 U

Length 1.456 m 2.05 m 1.99 m 1.99 m 2.3 m 2.94 m

Body
325 mm 300 mm 325 mm 325 mm 400 mm 450 mm
diameter

Tailspan 0.5 m n/k n/k n/k 0.45 m n/k

Lug
250 mm 250 mm 250 mm 250 mm 250 mm 250 mm
spacing
Weight 275 kg 256 kg 275 kg 268 kg 515 kg 497 kg

Filling 94 kg HE 95.7 kg HE 95.7 kg HE 94 kg HE 155 kg HE 126 kg HE

Contractors
OFAB fragmentation bombs are now offered for export by VO GED, General Export for Defence, Moscow, and by the Bazalt
State Research and Production Enterprise, Moscow.
UPDATED

Line diagrams of four OFAB bombs. OFAB-100-120 (top), OFAB-250-270, OFAB-250T, and OFAB-250M
with a nose probe and retard parachute assembly (bottom)
(1999)

A model of an OFAB-500U bomb exhibited at Farnborough in 1996 (Peter Humphris)

A Bulgarian-built OFAB-100NV fragmentation bomb

An OFAB-120 bomb on display in South Africa in 1996, with a South African Jupiter fuze fitted (Michael J
Gething)

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BOMBS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

ODAB-500 PM BOMB
Type
Fuel-air explosive bomb.
Development
The ODAB-500 PM bomb has been developed by Russia to provide the Russian Air Force with a high-speed low-level attack
fuel-air explosive weapon for use against troops and material in the field, minefield clearance, parked aircraft and other
exposed soft targets. When development took place is unclear, but from Russian documentation released in the early 1990s it is
evident that the bomb follows the same basic design of the RBK family of cluster bombs developed by Russia in recent years.
The designation letters ODAB stand for obyomno-detoniruyushchaya aviatsionnaya bomba meaning `volume-detonation
aircraft bomb'. The designation numbers refer to the bomb size category, and any further letters usually signify special
applications or modification state. The bomb has been designed to withstand the high g forces encountered by combat
manoeuvres of high-speed attack aircraft, and are fitted with standard Russian spaced suspension lugs. The ODAB-500 PM
bomb is believed to have been cleared for carriage on MiG-21 `Fishbed', MiG-27 `Flogger', MiG-29 `Fulcrum', Su-17 and
Su-22 `Fitter', Su-24 `Fencer', Su-25 `Frogfoot' and Su-27 `Flanker' aircraft of the Russian and allied air forces.

Description
The ODAB-500 PM fuel-air explosive bomb has a canister shaped body, with an ogival nose and a four-fin drum tail unit
similar to that used on many Russian conventional bombs. The bomb is fitted with standard Russian 250 mm spaced
suspension lugs, is 2.28 m long, has a body diameter of 500 mm, a tailspan of about 0.5 m and has a launch weight of 520 kg.
The nose section houses a sophisticated electromechanical system for arming the weapon, and activating the fuel-air dispensing
system. The body container is filled with 193 kg of an unknown high-energy explosive fuel, and the tail section contains a
retarding system which involves the use of a parachute. After the ODAB-500 PM is released from the parent aircraft, its safety
and arming mechanism operates and activates the fuel dispensing system and the retarding parachute. It is believed that an
electronic time delay fuze allows the fuel to mix with air, and then ignites the fuel-air mist. The explosive reaction produces an
extremely powerful shockwave overpressure, which in turn is used to injure or damage a wide range of ground targets such as
personnel, aircraft, missile sites, radars and minefields. The bomb's effective blast zone against infantry in the open is a 30 m
radius, against aircraft in the open a 30 m radius, and against trenches and field fortifications a 25 m radius. The ODAB-500
PM bomb can be released from an aircraft at altitudes between 200 to 1,000 m throughout the speed range of 500 to 1,100
km/h.
Operational Status
The ODAB-500 PM is in service with the Russian Air Force and was exhibited in Paris in 1995. There are no known export
orders.
Specifications
Length: 2.28 m
Body diameter: 500 mm
Tailspan: 0.50 m
Lug spacing: 250 mm
Weight: 520 kg
Filling: 193 kg high-energy fuel
Contractor
Not known ; however, the bomb has been offered for export by Aviaexport, Moscow, and by the Bazalt State Research and
Production Enterprise, Moscow.
UPDATED

Cutaway line drawing of an ODAB-500 PM fuel-air explosive bomb

ODAB-500 PM bomb displayed at Paris in 1995 (Duncan Lennox)

A sectioned ODAB-500 PM bomb (SRPE Bazalt)

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BOMBS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

KMG-U DISPENSER and SUBMUNITIONS


Type
Aircraft submunition dispenser.
Development
The KMG-U dispenser was developed to meet a Russian Federation requirement for a close support weapon for use against
personnel and material in the field. KMG-U stands for konteyner malogabaritnykh gruzov universalnyi meaning `universal
small size cargo container'. It is believed that the KMG-U was originally designed to carry 96 AO-2.5 fragmentation bomblets,
and when configured in this manner was designated AO-2.5RT BLU dispenser. The designation letters AO stand for
aviatsionnaya oskolochnayang meaning `aircraft fragmentation' and BLU `bomb load unit'. For some time there was discussion
among Western analysts as to whether or not the container was normally retained by the aircraft (hence the term dispenser) or
released like the RBK family of cluster bombs. However, released documentation in 1991 contained strong evidence that
depending on how the dispenser was mounted on the aircraft and to what station, they were designed to disperse their bomblets
to the right, to the left or vertically downwards. This would indicate that the KMG-U is, under normal conditions, a
non-releasable, reusable container. In 1996, another version of the KMG-U dispenser was advertised in the Fuel Air Explosive
(FAE) section of a Russian air armament catalogue. This weapon was designated the ODS-OD BLU dispenser and was
designed to carry eight ODS-OD FAE bomblets. The designation letters OD stand for obyomno-detoniruyushchaya meaning
`volume detonation'. Two other variants were also advertised in the anti-tank section of the catalogue, the PTAB-1M BLU
dispenser designed to carry 248 PTAB-1M bomblets, and the PTAB-2.5 BLU dispenser designed to carry 96 PTAB-2.5
bomblets. The designation letters PTAB stand for protivotankovaya aviatsionnaya bomba meaning `anti-tank aircraft bomb'.
The dispenser is designed to withstand the high g forces encountered by combat manoeuvres of high-speed attack aircraft, and
is fitted with standard Russian spaced suspension lugs. It is believed to have been cleared for carriage on MiG-21 `Fishbed',
MiG-27 `Flogger', MiG-29 `Fulcrum', Su-17 `Fitter', Su-24 `Fencer', Su-25 `Frogfoot' and Su-27 `Flanker' aircraft of the
Russian and former allied air forces. It has also been cleared for carriage on the Mi-24 `Hind' and Mi-35 helicopters.

Description
The KMG-U dispenser is basically a lightweight canister with a conical nose and a modern type four-fin tail unit. The centre
section, which is fitted with standard Russian 250 mm spaced suspension lugs consists of four compartments and has clamshell
internally rotating doors controlled by a pneumatic actuator. The basic KMG-U dispenser is 3.7 m long, 460 mm wide and 545
mm in height. On reaching the target area the operator activates the dispenser and pneumatic actuators powered by a
high-pressure air bottle open the clamshell doors, and it is believed that the high-pressure air inflates bags that eject the
submunitions over the target area.
When the KMG-U is configured as an AO-2.5RT BLU dispenser, each of the four compartments carries two BLUs, each
holding 12 AO-2.5 bomblets and the weapon's total weight is 525 kg. These bomblets, which are believed to be the same as
those used in the RBK-500 AO-2.5 RTM cluster bomb, are unusual in appearance. They are rounded at both ends and have an
arrangement of six semicircular discs flattened around the centre of the body, on what appears to be a strap type arrangement.
These discs are believed to flip out after the bomblet is dropped to induce a stabilising spin during free-fall. The AO-2.5
bomblet has a prefragmented metal case, is 0.15 m long, has a body diameter of 90 mm and weighs 2.5 kg. An individual
bomblet is reported to have a destructive area of about 210 m2. On reaching the ground the bomblets are activated by their own
mechanical fuze system, It is unclear whether the bomblets are detonated on impact or are contact mines. The AO-2.5RT BLU
dispenser is designed to be operated at altitudes between 30 and 1,000 m, and at speeds up to 1,100 km/h.
When the KMG-U is configured as an ODS-OD BLU dispenser each of the four compartments carries two of the ODS-OD
FAE bomblets, and the weapon's total weight is 526 kg. No details have been released on the ODS-OD bomblets, but from
pictures they appear to be a parachute retarded canister filled with high-energy fuel that has an explosive charge and a
detonation device strapped to the outer casing. When activated by an unspecified timing or height fusing system, the detonation
system will burst open the canister and after a delay will ignite the fuel air mist. This explosive reaction produces an extremely
powerful shockwave overpressure, which in turn will injure or damage a wide range of targets. The ODS-OD BLU dispenser is
designed for use at altitudes between 700 and 4,000 m and at speeds up to 800 km/h.
When configured as a PTAB-2.5 BLU dispenser, each of the four compartments carries two BLUs, each holding 12
PTAB-2.5 bomblets and the weapon's total weight is 470 kg. These bomblets are believed to be an updated version of those
used in the RBK-250/-500 cluster bombs (for details of these see separate entry). They are estimated to be around 0.40 m long,
to have a body diameter of 90 mm and weigh 2.5 kg. The bomblet has a shaped charge warhead for penetration and a
prefragmented case for maximum damage. However, instead of the four fin tail arrangement of earlier PTAB-2.5 bomblets, this
one has five flip up fins that have a `T' shaped cross section. These fins form an umbrella once the bomblet is clear of the BLU
and stabilise the bomblet with a spinning motion during its free-fall to the target. The PTAB-2.5 BLU dispenser is designed for
use at altitudes between 30 and 1,000 m at speeds up to 1,500 km/h.
When configured as a PTAB-1M BLU dispenser, each of the four compartments carries a single BLU containing 62
PTAB-2.5 bomblets and the weapon's total weight is 470 kg. These bomblets are believed to be the same as those used in
RBK-500 PTAB-1M cluster bombs (for details of these see separate entry). These have a shaped charge warhead and are 0.26
m long, have body diameters of 42 mm and weigh 0.94 kg. It is reported that the bomblets have unusual folding stabilising fins
that are extended once they have been released from the BLU. Each PTAB-1M bomblet is credited with the ability to penetrate
up to 210 mm of armour and has a built-in self-destruct of 20 to 40 seconds. The PTAB-1M BLU dispenser is designed for use
at altitudes between 50 and 1,000 m at speeds up to 1,500 km/h. It is believed that there are three different configurations of
dispenser in service. These enable the choice of dispensing to the left, to the right, vertically downward or all three at once in a
single pass.
Operational status
The KMG-U and all the above bomblets are in service with Russian and former allied air forces. These have been offered for
export since 1993, but there have been no reported sales.
Specifications
KMG-U dispenser
Length: 3.7 m
Body diameter: 460 mm
545 mm deep
Lug spacing: 250 mm
Weight: 470-526 kg depending on payload
Filling: 96 AO-2.5 bomblets
8 ODS-OD bomblets
96 PTAB-2.5 bomblets
248 PTAB-1M bomblets

Contractor
Designed by the Spetztekhnika Vympel NPO, Moscow, and manufactured by Bazalt State Research and Production Enterprise,
Moscow.
UPDATED
Three KMG-U dispensers. Note the black direction arrows on the rear end of the two at the left, which
suggest that bomblets can be dispensed to the left, to the right or vertically downwards. The eight drums
alongside each dispenser contain a cluster of twelve AO-2.5 bomblets
(1994)

A KMG-U bomblet dispenser upside down and showing rotary clamshell doors open. Note the AO-2.5
twelve pack cluster on top of the left-hand black barrels
(1994)

Close-up of a cluster pack of six AO-2.5 bomblets. From these pictures it is unclear whether the complete
pack or individual bomblets are loaded into the dispenser
(1993)

A KMG-U dispenser on display in Moscow in 1993 (Christopher F Foss)


(1997)

Line diagram of a PTAB-2.5 bomblet, with its stabilising fins extended


(1999)

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BOMBS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001
Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

KhAB CHEMICAL BOMBS


Type
Chemical bombs.
Development
Little is known of the development of this Russian family of air-dropped chemical bombs other than before 1945 they were generally
known as Khimicheskaya aviabomba, which means `chemical aircraft bomb'. This was usually shortened to KhAB and followed by the
approximate weight in kilogrammes. Before 1986, there were at least four known bombs in this class: KhAB-25, KhAB-100, KhAB-200
and KhAB-500. These were filled with various chemical agents and are divided into two categories: those filled with persistent gases
(stoiskoye otravlyayushchoye veshchestvo - SOV), and those filled with non-persistent gases (nestoiskoye otravlyayushchoye veshchestvo -
NOV). These were further subdivided by mode of employment/fuzing; airburst or impact. Bombs filled with SOV agents were designated
R-5 (War Gas No 5) and used to contaminate areas such as airfields, material depots and terrain, to restrict enemy freedom of movement.
Bombs filled with NOV agents were designated R-10 (War Gas No 10) and used to attack enemy personnel.
In 1986, when Western observers visited Russian Shikany Military Facility during a disarmament conference, they observed a number
of air-launched chemical munitions on show. Three of the chemical weapons were called chemical spray tanks (see separate entry), and
three others were called bombs. None of the airborne weapons on display at Shikany were provided with a designation, but the chemical
bombs are believed to belong to another branch of the KhAB family but from a different design bureau to those above. Two of the bombs
on display had a nominal weight of 100 kg and one had a nominal weight of 250 kg. Their unsophisticated shapes indicated they may have
been developed many years ago, probably in the 1940s. The largest of the three (nominal 250 kg) contained Sarin (GB), a nerve agent
developed by Germany and then used by the former Soviet Union. The bombs were fitted with standard Russian single or twin suspension
lugs allowing them to be carried under the wings or fuselage of some aircraft, or in bomb bays of larger bombers.
It is believed that more modern designs of chemical weapons have also been developed for use by the Russian air forces, although little
information is currently available on them. All the above bombs are believed to be cleared for carriage on MiG-21 `Fishbed', MiG-27
`Flogger', Su-17 and Su-22 `Fitter', Tu-95 `Bear', Tu-16 `Badger', Tu-22 `Blinder' and Tu-22M `Backfire' aircraft of the Russian and allied
air forces.
Description
The KhAB-25 R-5 is a cylindrically shaped bomb, with four stabilising fins. The body consists of a cylindrical centre section of 4 mm
sheet steel, with a hemispherical nose and a rear section welded together. The nose section contains a threaded opening for filling and
inserting the fuze. The rear section consists of a 1 mm thick sheet-iron cone to which is welded the four fins. The bomb is suspended by a
single lug located at the centre of gravity (288 mm from nose). The KhAB-25 R-5 is 0.88 m long, has a maximum body diameter of 203
mm, a fin span of 0.23 m and when filled weighs 26 to 28 kg depending on the chemical agent. Known chemical fillings are 12.73 kg of
War Gas No 5 (Mustard Gas) or 13.78 kg of a 1:1 mixture of Mustard and Lewisite known in the West as HL. The 400 g explosive charge
consists of three trotyl and one tetryl compressed briquettes, each weighing 100 g. The fuze most often used is the AGM-1 impact fuze,
although the AB-4 and AM-A can also be utilised. The area affected by the impact and explosion of a KhAB-25 R-5 is approximately
circular depending upon angle of impact, wind direction and velocity. In summer, and on open ground the total area affected is 500 to 600
m2 with a density of 1 g/m2. Generally speaking, persistence in the summer can be as long as 24 hours, and in the winter as long as seven
days. Distinctive markings include a red painted nose and a 20 mm green band around the rear body of the bomb.
There is very little information available on the KhAB-100 R-5, other than it is reported to weigh 25 kg when empty and contains 30
litres (approximately 68 kg) of War Gas No 5 or HL. It also uses the same fuzing systems and has a contamination area of up to 2,000 m2
in ideal conditions.
The KhAB-200 can be used in both air or ground modes and was designated R-5 or R-10 respectively. It consisted of a 6 mm sheet-iron
body with an ogival nose section formed in one piece. The nose section contains a threaded opening for inserting the fuze, and the body
has a second opening on its side for filling. Attached to the body are standard Russian twin 250 mm suspension lugs. The tail section,
which is welded to the rear of the bombs, consists of a sheet-metal welded cone with four fins. The KhAB-200 is 2.16 m long, has a
maximum body diameter of 320 mm, a fin span of 0.44 m and when filled weighs 159 to 174 kg depending on the chemical agent. The
KhAB-200 R-5 (SOV) is filled with around 80 kg of War Gas No 5 and is fitted with an AGLT, TM-4 or TM-2A airburst fuze. The height
of airburst can range from 50 to 300 m above the ground, according to the setting of the fuze. The area affected by the explosion varies
according to burst height and wind velocity. For a burst height of 150 to 200 m, and a wind velocity of 5 to 7 m/s, the area covered is 40 to
90 m in width and 350 to 400 m in length. The persistence of the gas in summer is approximately 8 hours. The KhAB-200 R-10 (NOV) is
filled with about 90 kg of War Gas No 10 (Phosgene) and is fitted with an AGM-1, AV-4 or AM-A impact fuze. When dropped from an
altitude of 2,000 m, the KhAB-200 R-10 takes approximately 21 seconds to impact. At the moment of impact the explosion produces a
compact white cloud. The effectiveness of the gas cloud in the direction of the wind extends 400 to 600 m in summer, and 500 to 800 m in
winter. The width of the cloud at 450 m is about 200 m, and height at 300 m distance from the explosion is 6 to 8 m. The persistence of the
gas vapours is 10 to 20 minutes in summer and 1 to 2 hours in winter.
KhAB-500 is a larger version of the KhAB-200 and can also be configured in an air- or groundburst mode. These are designated R-5
(SOV) and R-10 (NOV) respectively. The bomb is 2.4 m long, has a maximum body diameter of 450 mm, a fin span of 0.57 m and when
filled weighs 300 kg. The KhAB-500 R-5 (SOV) is believed to be filled with around 175 kg of War Gas No 5 or HL and is fitted with an
AGLT, TM-4 or TM-24A airburst fuze. No details on the operation and effectiveness are available, but these are likely to be better than
the KhAB-200-5.
The KhAB-500 R-10 (NOV) is filled with about 175 kg of War Gas No 10 (Phosgene), although Diphosgene may also be used. It is
fitted with an AGM-1, AV-4 or AM-A impact fuze. At the moment of impact the explosion produces a hemispherical gas cloud of 20 to
25 m radius, which spreads out radially at first, and then according to wind the spread may be as far as 2,000 m downwind of impact point.
All three of the bombs at the Shikany Military Facility were basically thin-skinned cylindrical steel like containers with high-drag
slightly rounded or flat noses and large four-finned drum tail units. The smaller of the two 100 kg bombs has a rounded nose with a nipple
in its centre, a single suspension lug and a filler hole towards the nose. It is 1.10 m long, has a body diameter of around 337 mm and
weighs 80 kg. The body contains 28 kg of a mixture of Mustard and Lewisite (HL). The other 100 kg bomb has a distinctive pointed cone
in the middle of a flat nose. It also is believed to have a single suspension lug and in this case the filler hole is to the rear of the bomb. This
bomb is 1.12 m long, has a body diameter of 300 mm and weighs 100 kg. It contains 39 kg of HL. The largest of the three bombs, the
nominal 250 kg, has a flattened rounded nose, is fitted with both single and 250 mm spaced suspension lugs and has a filler hole near the
nose. It is 1.75 m long, has a body diameter of 375 mm and weighs 233 kg. The bomb contains 49 kg of Sarin (GB) nerve agent. All three
bombs use instantaneous contact fuzes and bursting charges to scatter their contents in vapour, aerosol and droplet form on contact with
the ground. No details are available on the destructive area covered by these bombs.
Operational Status
It is not known which, if any, of the above bombs are still in service with the Russian forces, but knowing Russia's reluctance to discard
any weapon that one day might be useful it is highly likely that some are still available for use if required. It has been reported that the
KhAB-200 R-5 was used as late as 1963 by the Egyptian Air Force in Yemen.
Specifications
KhAB-200
KhAB-25 R-5 KhAB-100 R-5 KhAB-200 R-5 KhAB-500 R-5 KhAB-500 R-10
R-10
Length 0.88 m n/k 2.16 m 2.16 m 2.4 m 2.4 m
Body diameter 203 mm n/k 320 mm 320 mm 450 mm 450 mm
Tailspan 0.23 m n/k 0.44 m 0.44 m 0.57 m 0.57 m
Lug spacing single 250 mm 250 mm 250 mm 250 mm 250 mm
Weight 26-28 kg 93 kg 159-164 kg 159-174 kg 300 kg 300 kg
Filling 12.73 kg War Gas 68 kg War Gas 80 kg War Gas 90 kg War Gas 175 kg War Gas 175 kg War Gas
No 5 or 13.78 kg HL No 5 or HL No 5 No 10 No 5 or HL No 10 or Diphosgene

100 kg (80) 100 kg 250 kg


Length 1.10 m 1.12 m 1.75 m
Body diameter 337 mm 300 mm 375 mm
Tailspan 0.34 m 0.30 m 0.45 m
Lug spacing single single single and 250 mm
Weight 80 kg 100 kg 233 kg
Filling 28 kg HL 39 kg HL 49 kg Sarin (GB)

Contractor
Not known.
UPDATED

From top to bottom line drawings of the Russian 100 kg (80), 100 kg, 250 kg and KhAB-200 chemical bombs

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BOMBS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

KAB-1500L-F/-Pr LASER-GUIDED BOMBS


Type
Laser-guided bombs.
Development
The successful use of Laser-Guided Bombs (LGB) by the US Air Force in Vietnam led to a requirement by the former Soviet
Air Force for similar weapons. A development programme was begun in 1972 by a design team led by Nikolay Pribalov at
GNPP (State Research Production Association) based in Moscow. Judging from the configuration of the laser seeker, it seems
likely that Russia had access to US LGB components obtained in Vietnam. The first Russian LGB designed was the
KAB-500L, and the basic version of this weapon entered service with the Russian Air Force in 1975 (for further details see
separate entry). The letters KAB stand for korrektiruyemaya aviatsionnaya bomba meaning `adjustable aircraft bomb'. The
number in the designation refers to the bomb size category and any additional letters signify special applications. Also in 1975
further development work started under a new team leader, Boris Mertsalov. This work produced other variants of the
KAB-500L, a larger version designated KAB-1500L and a series of TV-guided bombs designated KAB-500Kr (for details of
KAB-500Kr see separate entry). Whereas the KAB-500L was similar to the US Paveway 1, the new larger 1500L was designed
with pop-out fins for additional range and the forward fins on the guidance unit were incorporated as additional steering
control. Both these improvements made the weapon similar to the US Paveway 2. Two versions of the 1500L were developed:
KAB-1500L-Pr, fitted with an 1,100 kg concrete-piercing HE warhead for attacking reinforced concrete fortifications, runways
and rail bridges and KAB-1500L-F with an 1,180 kg blast warhead for surface targets like military and industrial installations.
Development and manufacture of the target designation systems for the Russian LGBs is believed to have been carried out by
the S A Zverev NPO in Krasnogorsk. The Russian approach to laser designation is somewhat different from that of the USA, in
that Russian designators are usually integral to the carrying aircraft, not the podded systems preferred by the USA. The use of
nose-mounted laser designators has several advantages: they can be used as laser range-finders integrated with the aircraft
fire-control system for more accurate delivery of conventional munitions, and their location in the nose frees a hardpoint
otherwise occupied by the designator. Standard Russian designation systems developed for use with Russian LGBs include the
Kaira-27 system on the MiG-27K `Flogger', the Klen-54 on the Su-22M3/M4 `Fitter', the Kaira-24 on the Su-24M `Fencer D'
and the Klen PS on the Su-25 `Frogfoot'. The KAB-1500L is fitted with standard Russian 250 mm spaced suspension lugs to
facilitate carriage on underwing armament stations. Both variants are cleared for carriage on the MiG-27K `Flogger',
Su-22M3/M4 `Fitter', Su-24M `Fencer D' and the Su-25 `Frogfoot' aircraft of the Russian Air Force.
Description
Both versions of the KAB-1500L are externally alike. They have a bomb centre section, with a nose-mounted laser guidance
system, and associated aerodynamic control surfaces fitted to the rear instead of the normal fin assembly. The bolt-on front end
guidance section is a pointed streamlined container with four moving clipped-tip delta control fins at mid-point. Mounted on
the pointed front end of the guidance unit is a stabilised gimballed housing that has a circular wing attached to four fins. This
front assembly, which contains the semi-active laser seeker, `weather-vanes' during bomb flights and aligns approximately
along the bomb flight path. The bolt-on rear end assembly has four fixed flip-out delta wings each with control surfaces on the
trailing-edge of the fixed base. The bomb main body has standard Russian 250 mm suspension lug spacing. Both variants of
the 1500L are 4.6 m long, and have a maximum body diameter of 580 mm.
The tailspan closed is 0.85 m and extends to 1.3 m once the bomb has cleared the release aircraft. The weight of the
1500L-Pr with its 1,100 kg penetration warhead is 1,500 kg. The 1500L-F, with its larger blast warhead of 1,180 kg, weighs
1,560 kg. After the bomb is released the laser error detector measures the angle between the bomb's velocity vector and the line
between the bomb and target. Steering corrections are made by actuating the control surfaces on the rear wings and the forward
fins to adjust the bomb's trajectory to line up with the target. Target illumination for the KAB-1500L is currently by a
nose-mounted designator. Both bomb variants can be released from altitudes between 1,000 to 15,000 m in the speed range 500
to 1,700 km/h, and have a maximum range of 20 km. The KAB-1500L-Pr is credited with the capability of penetrating 10 to 20
m of earth or 2 m of reinforced concrete before detonating.
Operational Status
Both versions of the KAB-1500L entered service with the Russian Air Force in the late 1970s. The basic version was offered
for export in 1992, and was still being exhibited in 1996. Details of any sales are not known.
Specifications
KAB-1500L-F
Length: 4.6 m
Body diameter: 580 mm
Tailspan: 0.85 m (retracted); 1.3 m (extended)
Lug spacing: 250 mm
Weight: 1,560 kg
Filling: 1,180 kg HE blast
KAB-1500L-Pr
Length: 4.6 m
Body diameter: 580 mm
Tailspan: 0.85 m (retracted); 1.3 m (extended)
Lug spacing: 250 mm
Weight: 1,500 kg
Filling: 1,100 kg HE penetration
Contractor
The KAB-1500L was designed by GNPP (State Research Production Association), based in Moscow, but is produced by the
Bazalt State Research and Production Enterprise, Moscow.
UPDATED

A KAB-1500L laser-guided bomb with rear wings stowed in the air carriage position (Paul Jackson)
(1998)

A view of the rear of a KAB-1500L, displayed at Farnborough in 1996 (Duncan Lennox)

A line diagram of the KAB-1500L bomb (SRPE Bazalt)

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BOMBS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

KAB-500Kr/-500Kr-OD/-1500Kr GUIDED BOMBS


Type
TV-guided bombs.
Development
The first Russian guided bombs were developed soon after the Second World War and were based on wartime German radio
command-guided bombs such as the Fritx-X. One of these, designated UB-2000F, was a massive 2 ton weapon that used a
television seeker in the nose of the bomb. The bomb transmitted a picture image back to the navigator on board the bomber
who then steered the bomb via a radio datalink. The weapon was mainly used in the anti-ship role and was carried by Il-28,
Tu-14 and Tu-16 `Badger' bombers. Because of its release altitude limitation, an IR version was considered, but this proved
impractical given the technology of the period.
The successful use of Laser-Guided Bombs (LGB) by the US Air Force in Vietnam led to a requirement by the former
Soviet Air Force for similar weapons. A development programme was begun in 1972 by a design team led by Nikolay Pribalov
at GNPP (State Research Production Association) based in Moscow. This led to the first Russian LGB, the KAB-500L, which
entered service with the Russian Air Force in 1975 (for details see separate entry). Also in 1975, further development work
started under a new team leader, Boris Mertsalov. This work produced other variants of the KAB-500L, a larger version
designated KAB-1500L (for details see separate entry) and a series of TV-guided bombs designated KAB-500Kr. The letters
stand for korrektiruyemaya aviatsionnaya bomba meaning `adjustable aircraft bomb'. The number in the designation refers to
the bomb size category and any additional letters signify special applications and so on. The KAB-500Kr was a further
development of the KAB-500L, using a 380 kg penetration bomb warhead and bolt-on rear control surfaces.
However, instead of a semi-active laser seeker a nose-mounted daylight TV sensor was developed. It has been reported that
captured US weapons from Vietnam, such as Walleye, were probably involved in this effort. Because the KAB-500Kr was
basically the same weapon as the KAB-500L, except for the seeker, the development period was kept short and the new
weapon is believed to have entered service with the Russian Air Force in the late 1970s. Further development produced a larger
version designated KAB-1500Kr, sometimes referred to in Russian sales brochures as the GBU-1500. Development and
manufacture of suitable EO sensors for use with Russian Electro-Optical Guided Bombs (EOGBs) is believed to have been
carried out by the S A Zverev NPO in Krasnogorsk. Similar TV guidance systems are used on the AS-13 `Kingbolt' and AS-14
`Kedge' TV command-guided air-to-surface missiles. The KAB-500Kr are fitted with standard Russian suspension lugs to
facilitate carriage on underwing armament stations. Both variants are cleared for carriage on the MiG-27K `Flogger', MiG-29
`Fulcrum', Su-24M `Fencer D', Su-25T `Frogfoot' and Su-27 `Flanker' aircraft of the Russian Air Force.
Russia has advertised an IIR weapon, the KAB-500R, which is essentially similar to the KAB-500Kr, but with a new
imaging IR seeker. However, no details are available and this version has not yet been publicly displayed. In 1994, a further
KAB-500Kr bomb, designated KAB-500Kr-OD, was offered for export with a fuel-air explosive filling designed for use
against soft targets and personnel. This version has been cleared for carriage on Su-24 `Fencer', Su-25 `Frogfoot' and MiG-27
`Flogger' aircraft. In 2000, a new version of the KAB-500 Kr bomb was displayed in model form, designated UAB-500. Three
bombs were fitted to the under-fuselage pylons of a model Su-24MK 'fencer D' aircraft. The four small triangular nose fins
have been removed and replaced by four clipped-delta wings at mid-body, and a small rocket motor to provide an increased
range.
Description
The KAB-500Kr is basically a 350 kg free-fall penetration bomb fitted with a nose-mounted TV guidance system, and has
associated control surfaces fitted to its rear end. The bolt-on front end is a constant diameter tube-like container, with four fixed
clipped triangular stabilising fins at the rear end where it is joined to the bomb, and with a glass hemispherical nose. There is a
strake running along the bottom of the bomb to the rear end command datalink antenna. The add-on tail section has four large
clipped triangular fins, with elevator type control surfaces. The bomb body is fitted with standard Russian 250 mm spaced
suspension lugs. The KAB-500Kr is 3.05 m long, has a body diameter of 350 mm, a tailspan of 0.75 m and weighs 525 kg. The
bomb contains around 195 kg of HE in a total warhead weight of 380 kg. Once the nose-mounted TV seeker has acquired and
been designated onto the target, the bomb is released from the aircraft and the TV homing system then guides the weapon to
the target automatically. It can engage concealed targets by the operator defining the target's location by marking the required
reference point on his TV display in the aircraft before bomb release. It is believed that guidance can also be carried out by TV
guidance commands, in which case the launch aircraft would carry a TV receiver and designator pod probably similar to that
used for the TV-guided version of the Russian AS-14 `Kedge'. The KAB-500Kr-OD fuel-air explosive bomb is similar in
appearance to the KAB-500Kr, using the same TV seeker and control surfaces. However, the KAB-500Kr-OD bomb has 280
kg of fuel and a total weight of 385 kg. The bombs can be released in both level flight or dive attacks from altitudes between
500 and 5,000 m in the speed range 550 to 1,100 km/h. The KAB-500Kr is credited with a destructive area capability of 1,500
m2. The only known detail of the KAB-1500Kr is that it uses the same seeker as the KAB-500Kr, and uses pop-out fins similar
to those on the KAB-1500L.
There is also a training version known as the KAB-500Kr-U, which is carried on the aircraft for aircrew training, but is not
released. This simulates the operational weapon and records all the training procedures for analysis after flight. This training
bomb is 1.83 m long, has a body diameter of 350 mm and weighs 85 kg.
Operational status
The KAB-500Kr entered service with the Russian Air Force in the late 1970s. The basic version was offered for export in 1992
and the fuel-air version KAB-500Kr-OD in 1994. Details of any sales are not known. There are reports that the larger version,
the KAB-1500Kr, is also in service, but no details are available.
Specifications
KAB-500Kr KAB-500Kr-OD KAB-500Kr-U
Length 3.05 m 3.05 m 1.83 m
Body diameter 350 mm 350 mm 350 mm
Tailspan 0.75 m 0.75 m n/a
Lug spacing 250 mm 250 mm 250 mm
Weight 525 kg 385 kg 85 kg
Filling 195 kg HE 280 kg fuel n/a

Contractor
The KAB-500Kr was designed by GNPP (State Research Production Association), based in Moscow, but is manufactured by
the Bazalt State Research and Production Enterprise, Moscow.
UPDATED

Picture of a KAB-500Kr, taken at the 1992 Moscow Air Show, clearly shows fixed front fins and control
surfaces on tail surfaces (Christopher F Foss)
(1992)
A KAB-500Kr TV-guided bomb on the forward centreline pylon of an Su-30MK aircraft at Farnborough
in 1994 (Peter Humphris)
(1994)

A KAB-500Kr exhibited at Farnborough in 1996 (Peter Humphris)


(1997)

A line diagram of the KAB-500Kr bomb (SRPE Bazalt)


(1997)

A model of a Su-24MK aircraft with models of three UAB-500 guided bombs under the fuselage, and
what might be an updated KAB-1500Kr on the inboard wing pylon (Piotr Butowski)
(2001)

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BOMBS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

KAB-500L/-500KL LASER-GUIDED BOMBS


Type
Laser-guided bomb.
Development
The successful use of laser-guided bombs (LGB) by the US Air Force in Vietnam led to a requirement by the former Soviet Air
Force for similar weapons. A development programme was begun in 1972 by a design team led by Nikolay Pribalov at GNPP
(State Research Production Association) based in Moscow. Judging from the configuration of the laser seeker, it seems likely
that Russia had access to US LGB components obtained in Vietnam. The first Russian LGB designed was the KAB-500L. The
letters KAB stand for korrektiruyemaya aviatsionnaya bomba meaning `adjustable aircraft bomb'. The number in the
designation refers to the bomb size category, and any additional letters signify special applications and so on. Depending on the
warhead used the KAB-500L is designed to attack overland, waterborne, stationary and mobile targets, military industrial
facilities, parked aircraft, reinforced concrete aircraft shelters, bridges, runways, depots and so on, when illuminated from the
parent aircraft, special illuminating aircraft or ground station. The KAB-500L is similar to the US Paveway munitions, in
which laser seeking guidance packages are fitted as modification kits to conventional free-fall bombs to provide accuracy
against laser marked targets. However, there are two major differences between the KAB-500L system and the US design.
Guidance control movement on the Russian bombs is achieved by control surfaces on the tail unit rather than the forward fins,
but by far the most significant difference is the Russian approach to laser designation.
Russian designators are usually integral to the strike fighter, not the podded systems preferred by the Americans. The use of
nose-mounted laser designators has several advantages: they can be used as laser range-finders integrated with the aircraft
fire-control system for more accurate delivery of conventional munitions, and their location in the aircraft nose frees a
hardpoint otherwise occupied by the designator. Standard Russian designation systems developed for use with Russian LGBs
include the Kaira-27 system on the MiG-27K `Flogger', the Klen-54 on the Su-22M3/M4 `Fitter', the Kaira-24 on the Su-24M
`Fencer D' and the Klen PS on the Su-25 `Frogfoot'. Most of these systems are thought to have been developed and
manufactured by the S A Zverev NPO in Krasnogorsk. Production of the KAB-500L began in 1975, and the weapon entered
service that year. Also in 1975 further development work started under a new team leader, Boris Mertsalov. This work
produced a variety of other weapons in the 500 class adapting other types of HE bomb bodies such as fragmentation and
penetration. A larger class of LGB designated KAB-1500L and a series of Electro-Optical Guided Bombs (EOGBs) designated
KAB-500Kr was also developed (for details of these see separate entries). In 1996, a cluster bomb variant was exhibited,
designated KAB-500KL, substituting a cluster bomb section in place of the HE warhead on the earlier KAB-500L. The
KAB-500L series of bombs is fitted with standard Russian 250 mm suspension lugs to facilitate carriage on underwing
armament stations. The LGB is cleared for carriage on the MiG-27K `Flogger', Su-24M `Fencer D' and the Su-25 `Frogfoot'
aircraft of the Russian Air Force. These modified aircraft versions all have a fixed nose-mounted laser designator, for use with
several LGB types.
Description
The KAB-500L bombs are basically low-drag conventional 500 kg bombs with a nose-mounted laser guidance system and
associated aerodynamic control surfaces fitted to the rear. The bolt-on front end guidance section is a pointed streamlined
container with four fixed clipped-tip delta fins. Mounted on the pointed front end of the guidance unit is a stabilised gimballed
housing that has a circular wing attached to four fins. This front assembly, which contains the semi-active laser seeker,
`weather-vanes' during bomb flight and aligns approximately along the bomb's flight path. The bolt-on rear end assembly has
four fixed clipped delta-wings each with control surfaces on the trailing-edge. The tail mounted control system comprises an
autopilot and four actuators operating on the hot gas generated by a turbo-generator. It stabilises the bomb in the roll, pitch, and
yaw and effects control by signals from the seeker head. The sensing elements comprise a free gyroscope (roll control), three
angular acceleration transducers, and two linear acceleration transducers. The bomb's main body has standard Russian 250 mm
suspension lug spacing. The KAB-500L is 3.05 m long, has a maximum body diameter of 400 mm, a tailspan of 0.75 m and
weighs 534 kg. The bomb has a 460 kg warhead assembly, that contains 200 kg HE. After the bomb is released the laser error
detector measures the angle between the bomb's velocity vector and the line between the bomb and target. Steering corrections
are made by actuating the control surfaces on the rear wings to adjust the bomb's trajectory to line up with the target. Target
illumination for the KAB-500L is currently by a designator mounted in the nose of the aircraft. However, a separate control
aircraft or a ground station could be used.
The KAB-500KL is identical in shape, size and operation to the KAB-500L. The only difference being, instead of a warhead
the centre section consists of a cluster bomb container designed to carry unspecified anti-tank bomblets. The dispensing system
is believed to operate in a similar manner to the KMG-U dispenser and includes a gas generating system, altimeter and safety
and arming mechanism.
The KAB-500L family of LGBs can be released at altitudes between 500 and 5,000 m at speeds of 550 to 1,100 km/h. The
maximum bombing range at 5,000 m altitude is 9 km. The KAB-500L when fitted with general-purpose warhead is credited
with a destructive area of 1,500 m2.
Operational Status
It is believed that KAB-500L bombs entered service with the Russian Air Force in 1975. These bombs have been offered for
export since 1991, but there are no known sales.
Specifications
KAB-500L
Length: 3.05 m
Body diameter: 400 mm
Tailspan: 0.75 m
Lug spacing: 250 mm
Weight: 534 kg
Filling: 200 kg HE
Contractor
The KAB-500L was designed at GNPP (State Research Production Association), Moscow, and is manufactured by the Bazalt
State Research and Production Enterprise, Moscow.
UPDATED

KAB-500L laser-guided bomb on display at Paris in 1995 (Duncan Lennox)

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BOMBS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

FOZAB-500 BOMB
Type
Fire bomb.
Development
The FOZAB-500 bomb was developed to provide the Russian Air Force with a low-level attack incendiary bomb for use
against troops and vulnerable material in the field, such as stores and fuel depots. When development took place is unclear, but
from Russian documentation released in the early 1990s, it is evident that the bomb follows the same basic design of the RBK
family of cluster bombs developed by Russia in recent years. The designation letters ZAB stand for zazhigatelnaya
aviatsionnaya bomba meaning `incendiary aircraft bomb'. The FO stands for fragmentation as the bomb is also known to have
an additional limited fragmentation capability. The designation numbers refer to the bomb size category. The bomb has been
designed to withstand the high g forces encountered by combat manoeuvres of high-speed attack aircraft, and is fitted with
standard Russian spaced suspension lugs. The FOZAB-500 bomb is believed to have been cleared for carriage on MiG-21
`Fishbed', MiG-27 `Flogger', MiG-29 `Fulcrum', Su-17 and Su-22 `Fitter', Su-24 `Fencer', Su-25 `Frogfoot' and Su-27 `Flanker'
aircraft of the Russian and allied forces.
Description
The FOZAB-500 incendiary bomb has a canister shaped body, with a blunt high-drag nose and a large eight-fin drum tail unit
that accounts for about one third of the bomb's total length. The bomb, which is fitted with standard Russian 250 mm spaced
suspension lugs, is 1.5 m long, has a body diameter of 450 mm, a tailspan of about 0.5 m and weighs 450 kg. The nose section
is fitted with an aerodynamically operated arming vane for fuze functioning. The body container is filled with an unknown
incendiary mixture and an unspecified amount of high explosive. Details of the type of fuzing are not known, but on detonation
the incendiary mixture is ignited by the explosive charge and the bomb casing provides a limited fragmentation effect. As the
bomb can be released during low-level passes it is believed that some form of delay and safety device is incorporated in the
final stages of arming/fuzing. It is reported that the FOZAB-500 can be released as low as 200 m at speeds up to 1,100 km/h.
Details of the bomb's destructive capability are not known.
Operational Status
The FOZAB is in service with the Russian Air Force, and was offered for export in 1996.
Specifications
Length: 1.5 m
Body diameter: 450 mm
Tailspan: 0.50 m
Lug spacing: 250 mm
Weight: 450 kg
Filling: HE and incendiary mixture
Contractor
Bazalt State Research and Production Enterprise
Moscow.
UPDATED

Cutaway line drawing of a FOZAB-500 incendiary bomb

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BOMBS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

FAB-100M-62/-250M-62/-500M-62/-1000M-62 BOMBS
Type
Demolition bombs.
Development
There are reported to have been several hundred types of air-carried, free-fall weapons held by former Warsaw Pact countries,
with more than three-quarters of them being of Russian design. The most numerous of these were naturally the FAB series of
bombs (sometimes referred to in the West as AB bombs). FAB stands for fugasnaya aviabomba meaning `aerial demolition
bomb' known as a general purpose bomb in the West. The designation letters are followed by numbers that refer to the bomb
size category. Little is known of the development of this family of conventional free-fall demolition bombs other than it has
been a continuing process since the First World War. Before the 1940s, the known FAB bombs were the FAB-50, FAB-250
and FAB-500 (these early bombs are covered in a separate entry). FAB bombs developed since the early 1940s had an
additional letter `M' followed by a further number in the designation that signifies the year that range of FAB bombs entered
operational service. The FAB M-62 series of bombs was developed in the early 1960s to provide the former Soviet Union air
forces with a range of streamlined low-drag demolition bombs, and to take advantage of newly developed more powerful
explosives like `torpex'. There were four known bombs developed: the FAB-100M-62, the FAB-250M-62, the FAB-500M-62
and FAB-1000M-62. The bombs' design allows them to be carried under the wings or fuselage of high-speed aircraft with
minimum performance degradation and they are fitted with standard Russian spaced suspension lugs. The bombs can also be
carried in bomb bays of larger bombers. It is believed that the bombs have been cleared for carriage on MiG-21 `Fishbed'
MiG-23B `Flogger', MiG-25 `Foxbat', MiG-27 `Flogger', MiG-29 `Fulcrum', Su-17 `Fitter', Su-24 `Fencer', Su-25 `Frogfoot',
Su-27 `Flanker', Tu-95 `Bear' and Tu-16 `Badger' aircraft.

Description
All four of the M-62 range of FAB bombs are believed to be the same shape and construction, and only differ in their size and
destructive capability. The nose and the main body have an aerodynamic shape similar to the US Mk 82/83/84 series of bombs.
However, the tail unit retained the familiar Russian fin and drum configuration although somewhat streamlined. The three
small bombs are fitted with either single, 250 mm spaced suspension lugs or possibly both. The FAB-100M-62 bomb is 1.69 m
long, has a body diameter of 216 mm, a filling of 44.9 kg of high explosive and weighs 99.8 kg. The FAB-250M-62 bomb is
1.92 m long, has a body diameter of 300 mm, a filling of 100 kg high explosive and weighs 227 kg. The FAB-500M-62 is 2.43
m long, has a body diameter of 400 mm and with a filling of 213 kg high explosive weighs 500 kg. The largest of the M-62
series, the FAB-1000M-62, is 3.56 m long, has a body diameter of 498 mm, and weighs 1,033 kg with 476 kg filling of high
explosive.
Details of the fuzing are not certain, but it is thought to be fuzes from the VDU or APUV range. The FAB-250M-62 can be
released from altitudes between 500 and 12,000 m at speeds between 500 and 1,180 km/h. It is credited with a kill radius of up
to 100 m for soft skinned material and up to 33 m for lightly armoured vehicles. The FAB-500M-62 can be released at altitudes
from 570 and 12,000 m at speeds between 500 and 1,100 km/h. It is credited with a kill radius of up to 140 m for soft skinned
material and up to 60 m for lightly armoured vehicles. Performance details for the rest of the series are not known.
Operational Status
All versions of the FAB M-62 bombs are believed to be in service with Russian and allied air forces. The FAB-250M-62 and
-500M-62 bombs were offered for export in 1996.
Specifications
FAB-100 FAB-250 FAB-500 FAB-1000
M-62 M-62 M-62 M-62
Length 1.69 m 1.92 m 2.43 m 3.56 m
Body diameter 216 mm 300 mm 400 mm 498 mm
Tailspan 0.22 m 0.3 m 0.4 m 0.5 m
Lug spacing n/k 250 mm 250 mm n/k
Weight 99.8 kg 227 kg 500 kg 1,033 kg
Filling 44.9 kg HE 100 kg HE 213 kg HE 476 kg HE

Contractor
Bazalt State Research and Production Enterprise
Moscow.
UPDATED

An FAB-500 M62 standard Russian general purpose bomb in the foreground with a BetAB-500 ShP
behind. Third from the front is an FAB-500 ShN bomb

An FAB-100 M62 bomb at Moscow in 1993 (Christopher F Foss)

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BOMBS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

FAB-250M-54/-500M-54/-1500M-54 BOMBS
Type
Demolition bombs.
Development
There are reported to have been several hundred types of air-carried, free-fall weapons held by former Warsaw Pact countries,
with more than three-quarters of them being of Russian design. The most numerous of these were naturally the FAB series of
bombs (sometimes referred to in the West as AB bombs). FAB stands for fugasnaya aviabomba meaning `aerial demolition
bomb' known as a general purpose bomb in the West. The designation letters are followed by numbers that refer to the bomb
size category. Little is known of the development of this family of conventional free-fall demolition bombs other than it has
been a continuing process since the First World War. Before the 1940s, the known FAB bombs were the FAB-50, FAB-250
and FAB-500 (these early bombs are covered in a separate entry). FAB bombs developed since the early 1940s had an
additional letter `M' followed by a number in the designation that signifies the year that range of FAB bombs entered
operational service. The FABM-54 series of bombs was developed in the early 1950s to replace some of the earlier FAB family
of bombs. There were three known bombs developed; the FAB-250M-54, the FAB-500M-54 and FAB-1500M-54. The bomb
design allows them to be carried under the wings or fuselage of small aircraft, or in the bomb bays of larger bombers. It is
believed that the -250 and -500 bombs have been cleared for carriage on MiG-21 `Fishbed', MiG-23B `Flogger', MiG-27
`Flogger', MiG-29 `Fulcrum', Su-17 and Su-22 `Fitter', Su-24 `Fencer', Su-25 `Frogfoot', Su-27 `Flanker', Tu-95 `Bear', Tu-22
and Tu-16 `Badger' aircraft. The -1500M-54 bomb has probably only been cleared for the Tu-16, Tu-22 and Tu-95 bomber
aircraft.
Description
All three of the M-54 range of FAB bombs have the same unsophisticated high-drag shape of the early Russian bombs. They
have cylindrical bodies with a flattened bell type nose and an old-fashioned fin/ring stabilising fin combination. The two
smaller bombs can be fitted with parachute retard systems for low-level release, and these are contained in a cylindrical drum
attached to the rear edge of the outer ring of the tail assembly. The smallest one has a four-tail fin arrangement, and the larger
two an eight-tail fin arrangement. The FAB-250M-54 is fitted with 250 mm spaced suspension lugs. It is 1.5 m long, has a
body diameter of 325 mm, a filling of 97 kg of HE and weighs 236 kg. The FAB-500M-54 also has 250 mm spaced suspension
lugs. It is 1.5 m long, has a body diameter of 450 mm, a filling of 201 kg of HE and weighs 483 kg. The FAB-1500M-54 is
2.31 m long, has a body diameter of 570 mm and with a filling of 667 kg of HE weighs 1,392 kg. Details of the fuzing are not
known, but is is probable that these bombs, like their predecessors, have been updated with more modern explosive fillings and
fuzing systems since original manufacture. Most current Russian FAB bombs are reported to be fitted with nose fuzes from the
VDU and APUV series. Information released in 1992 credited the FAB-500M-54 with a destructive area of 1,500 m2.
The FAB-250M-54 bomb can be released at altitudes between 500 m and 12 km at speeds between 500 and 1,200 km/h. The
FAB-500M-54 bomb can be released at altitudes between 500 m and 16.5 km at speeds between 500 and 1,200 km/h.
Operational Status
All versions of the FAB M-54 bombs are believed to be in service with Russian and allied air forces. FAB-250M-54 and
-500M-54 bombs were offered for export in 1996.
Specifications
FAB-250M-54 FAB-500M-54 FAB-1500M-54
Length 1.49 m 1.5 m 2.31 m
Body diameter 320 mm 450 mm 570 mm
Tailspan 0.32 m 0.45 m 0.57 m
Lug spacing 250 mm 250 mm n/k
Weight 234 kg 474 kg 1,392 kg
Filling 94 kg HE 201 kg HE 667 kg HE

Contractor
Bazalt State Research and Production Enterprise
Moscow.
UPDATED

Line diagrams of a FAB-250M-54 (upper) and a FAB-500M-54 fitted with a retard parachute assembly
(lower)
(1999)

Four FAB-250M-54 bombs on the inner wing pylon of an Su-30MK aircraft at Farnborough in 1994
(Peter Humphris)

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BOMBS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

FAB-250M-46/-500M-46/-1500M-46/-3000M-46 BOMBS
Type
Demolition bombs.
Development
There are reported to have been several hundred types of air-carried, free-fall weapons held by former Warsaw Pact countries,
with more than three-quarters of them being of former Soviet Union design. The most numerous of these were naturally the
FAB series of bombs (sometimes referred to in the West as AB bombs). FAB stands for fugasnaya aviabomba meaning `aerial
demolition bomb' known as a general purpose bomb in the West. The designation letters are followed by numbers that refer to
the bomb size category. Little is known of the development of this family of conventional free-fall demolition bombs other
than it has been a continuing process since the First World War. Before the 1940s, the known FAB bombs were the FAB-50,
FAB-250 and FAB-500 (these early bombs are covered in a separate entry). FAB bombs developed since the early 1940s have
an additional letter `M' followed by a number in its designation that signifies the year that range of FAB bombs entered
operational service. The FABM-46 series of bombs was developed in the mid-1940s to increase and improve the former Soviet
Union's family of FAB bombs as jet aircraft were introduced into service. There were at least six bombs developed. They were
the FAB-250M-46, the FAB-500M-46, the FAB-1500M-46, the FAB-3000M-46, the FAB-4000M-46 and FAB-5000M-46.
The bomb design allows them to be carried under the wings or fuselage of small aircraft, or in bomb bays of larger bombers. It
is believed that all the versions up to the -500M-46 would have been cleared for carriage on MiG-21 `Fishbed', MiG-27
`Flogger', Su-17 and Su-22 `Fitter', Tu-95 `Bear', Tu-16 `Badger' aircraft. The larger FAB-1500, -3000, -4000 and -5000 bombs
would only have been carried by the Tu-95 and Tu-16 bomber aircraft.

Description
All of the M-46 range of FAB bombs are believed to have the same unsophisticated high-drag shape of the early Russian
bombs. They have cylindrical bodies and an old-fashioned fin/ring stabilising fin combination. The smaller ones are believed to
have a flattened pointed nose and a four-fin tail arrangement like the M-43 series, whereas the larger ones have an ogival
shaped nose and a four-, six- or eight-tail fin arrangement. The smaller ones are fitted with single, or 250 mm spaced
suspension lugs or both, while the larger ones have different lug spacing depending on size and weight. The detailed
specifications of the four known individual bombs are listed below. Details of the fuzing are not known, but it is probable that
these bombs, like their predecessors, have been updated with more modern explosive fillings and fuzing systems since original
manufacture. Most current Russian FAB bombs are reported to be fitted with nose fuzes from the VDU and APUV series.
Operational Status
Because of the Russian Federation reluctance to discard any weapon that might have some use, it is believed the four smallest
FAB M-46 bombs are still in use with Russian and allied air forces. However, it has been reported that the FAB-4000M-46 and
the FAB-5000M-46 are no longer in general service.
Specifications
FAB-250M-46 FAB-500M-46 FAB-1500M-46 FAB-3000M-46
Length 1.5 m 1.5 m 2.8 m 3.38 m
Body diameter 320 mm 417 mm 622 mm 850 mm
Tailspan 0.32 m 0.42 m 0.62 m 0.85 m
Lug spacing n/k n/k n/k n/k
Weight 220 kg 429 kg 1,347 kg 2,983 kg
Filling 102 kg HE 206 kg HE 658 kg HE 1,465 kg HE

Contractor
Bazalt State Research and Production Enterprise
Moscow.
UPDATED

Line drawing of an FAB-1500M-46 bomb

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BOMBS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

FAB-100M-43 and FAB-250M-43 BOMBS


Type
Demolition bombs.
Development
There are reported to have been several hundred types of air-carried, free-fall weapons held in former Warsaw Pact countries,
with more than three-quarters of them being of former Soviet Union design. The most numerous of these were naturally the
FAB series of bombs (also referred to sometimes as AB bombs in the West). FAB stands for fugasnaya aviabomba meaning
`aerial demolition bomb' known as a general purpose bomb in the West. The designation letters are followed by numbers that
refer to the bomb size category. Little is known of the development of this family of conventional free-fall general purpose
bombs other than it has been a continuing process since the First World War. Before the 1940s, the known FAB bombs were
the FAB-50, FAB-250, and FAB-500 (these early bombs are covered in a separate entry). FAB bombs developed since the
early 1940s had an additional letter `M' followed by a number in the designation that signifies the year that range of FAB
bombs first entered operational service. The first of these were the FAB M-43 (entered service in 1943) series of which there
are two known versions, the FAB-100M-43 and the FAB-250M-43. The bomb design allows them to be carried under the
wings or fuselage of small aircraft, or in bomb bays of larger bombers and they are probably fitted with single and double
suspension. It is believed that all versions would have been cleared for carrriage on MiG-21 `Fishbed', MiG-27 `Flogger',
Su-22 `Fitter', Tu-95 `Bear' and Tu-16 `Badger' aircraft of the Russian and allied air forces.

Description
All of these early demolition bombs are believed to have the same unsophisticated high-drag shape of the early Russian bombs.
They have cylindrical bodies with a blunt rounded nose, and an old-fashioned fin/ring stabilising fin combination. Both bombs
would be fitted with single, or 250 mm spaced suspension lugs or possibly both. The FAB-100M-43 is 1.06 m long, has a body
diameter of 269 mm and weighs 103 kg. It is filled with 32 kg of HE. The FAB-250M-43 is 2.16 m long, has a body diameter
of 320 mm, is filled with 114 kg of HE and weighs 237 kg. Details of fuzing are not known but should any of these bombs still
exist in service they will probably have been updated with more modern explosive fillings and fuzing systems since original
manufacture. Most current Russian FAB bombs are reported to be fitted with nose fuzes from the VDU and APUV series.
Operational Status
Because of the Russian reluctance to discard any weapon that might have some use, it is possible that some of these bombs
remain available for use with Russian and allied air forces.
Specifications
FAB-100M-43
Length: 1.06 m
Body diameter: 269 mm
Tailspan: n/k
Lug spacing: n/k
Weight: 103 kg
Filling: 32 kg HE
FAB-250M-43
Length: 2.16 m
Body diameter: 320 mm
Tailspan: n/k
Lug spacing: n/k
Weight: 237 kg
Filling: 114 kg HE
Contractor
Bazalt State Research and Production Enterprise
Moscow.
UPDATED

Su-17 `Fitter' with a load of FAB bombs

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BOMBS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

FAB-250ShN and FAB-500ShN/L BOMBS


Type
Parachute retarded demolition bombs.
Development
There are reported to have been several hundred types of air-carried, free-fall weapons held by former Warsaw Pact countries,
with more than three-quarters of them being of former Soviet Union design. The most numerous of these were naturally the
FAB series of bombs (also referred to sometimes in the West as AB bombs). FAB stands for fugasnaya aviabomba meaning
`aerial demolition bomb' known as a general purpose bomb in the West. The designation letters are followed by numbers that
refer to the bomb size category and any additional letters signify special applications. The FAB-250ShN and the FAB-500ShN
are believed to be further developments of the FAB-250 and FAB-500 bombs that are covered in a separate entry. It is not
known what the letters ShN stand for as they do not appear in any of the Russian designation translations that have so far been
released, but it is believed to stand for low-level delivery. From the information available it is unclear as to whether or not the
two bombs are of new design complete with retarding units, or simply that retarding tail units were developed for fitting to
existing FAB-250 and FAB-500 bombs. The programme was to provide the Russian Air Force with a high-speed low-level
delivery capability. The bomb design allows them to be carried under the wings or fuselage of small aircraft. It is believed that
both bombs have been cleared for carriage on MiG-21 `Fishbed', MiG-27 `Flogger', Su-22 `Fitter', Su-24 `Fencer', Su-25
`Frogfoot' and Su-27 `Flanker' aircraft of the Russian and former Warsaw Pact air forces.
In 1996, a 500 kg size bomb designated FAB-500 ShL, was advertised for export with improvements in performance over
the earlier FAB-500 ShN design.
Description
Both of these parachute retarded demolition bombs have the same appearance, differing only in their size and destructive
capability. They have cylindrical bodies with blunted conical noses and the usual Russian four-fin and ring stabilisers on the
tail unit. However, unlike the conventional FAB series of bombs with their tapered tail units these retarded bombs have flat
ended cylindrical tail units for holding the retard parachute systems. Both bombs are fitted with 250 mm spaced suspension
lugs. The FAB-250ShN is 1.99 m long, has a body diameter of 325 mm, and weighs 275 kg. The FAB-500ShN is 2.19 m long,
has a body diameter of 450 mm, a filling of 218 kg of TNT and weighs 518 kg. At this time there is no information available
on the parachute retarding system. Fuzing is also not known, but this is expected to be nose-mounted and to have a choice of
operating mode; a proximity fuze for initiating detonation above ground level, or an impact fuze for detonation on impact. It is
also believed that both bombs are fitted with safety featues that ensure detonation is inhibited if any of the following conditions
are encountered; insufficient altitude, inadequate speed and parachute failure. Information released in 1992 credited the
FAB-500ShN with a destructive area of 1,500 m2. The FAB-500ShN can be released at altitudes from 30 to 500 m at speeds
between 525 and 1,000 km/h.
The FAB-500ShL is identical in appearance to the FAB-500ShN. It is 2.22 m long, has a body diameter of 450 mm, contains
212 kg of an unspecified HE and weighs 515 kg. Details of the weapon's fuzing is not known but it can be released at altitudes
from 30 to 1,000 m at speeds between 500 and 1,100 km/h.
Operational Status
The FAB-250ShN and FAB-500ShN are in service with Russian and former allied air forces. The FAB-500ShL was offered for
export in 1996.
Specifications
FAB-250ShN FAB-500ShN FAB-500ShL
Length 1.99 m 2.19 m 2.22 m
Body diameter 325 mm 450 mm 450 mm
Tailspan 0.41 m n/k n/k
Lug spacing 250 mm 250 mm 250 mm
Weight 275 kg 518 kg 515 kg
Filling HE HE 218 kg HE 212 kg

Contractor
Bazalt State Research and Production Enterprise
Moscow.
UPDATED

Line drawing of an FAB-250 ShN bomb

Second from the front is an FAB-500ShN parachute retarded bomb, while the bomb in the foreground is a
BetAB-500ShP penetration bomb

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BOMBS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

FAB BOMBS
Type
General purpose bombs.
Development
There are reported to have been several hundred types of air-carried, free-fall weapons held by former Warsaw Pact countries, with
more than three-quarters of them being of former Soviet Union design. The most numerous of these were naturally the FAB series
of bombs (also referred to sometimes in the West as AB bombs). FAB stands for fugasnaya aviabomba meaning `aerial demolition
bomb' known in the West as a general purpose bomb. The bombs were designed with thin casings, to maximise the blast effect and
minimise fragmentation. The designation letters are followed by numbers that refer to the bomb size category. Little is known of the
development of this family of bombs other than it has been a continuing process since the First World War. Before 1943, the known
bombs were the FAB-50, FAB-250 and FAB-500. These early bombs were of the high-drag variety and were produced with both
forged or welded steel bodies. FAB bombs developed since the early 1940s had an additional letter `M' followed by a number in its
designation that signified the year that range of FAB bombs entered operational service (these bombs are covered in separate
entries). The bomb design allows them to be carried under the wings or fuselage of small aircraft, or in bomb bays of larger bombers
and they are fitted with single, double or both types of suspension lugs. It is believed that all versions would have been cleared for
carriage on MiG-21 `Fishbed', MiG-27 `Flogger', Su-22 `Fitter', Tu-95 `Bear', Tu-16 `Badger', aircraft of the Russian and allied air
forces.
In 1996, Russia exhibited a new version FAB-500T bomb, believed to be used against soft targets, and a FAB-250TS bomb
believed to have a thick skin for fragmentation effect.
Description
All of these early demolition (blast effect) bombs are believed to have the same unsophisticated high-drag shape of other early
Russian bombs. They are thought to have cylindrical bodies with a rounded nose, have an old-fashioned fin/ring stabilising fin
combination, and be fitted with single, or 250 mm spaced suspension lugs or both. The detailed specifications of the known
individual bombs are listed. Details of fillings and fuzing are not known. However, should any of these bombs still exist they will
probably have been updated with more modern explosive fillings and fuzing systems since original manufacture.
The 250 and 500 kg bombs can be fitted with a parachute retard system for low-level release and air burst operations. This is
contained in a single cylindrical drum attached to the rear edge of the outer ring of the tail assembly.
The FAB-250 TS is different from all the above bombs in that it has a thickened skin and is more aerodynamic. It has a
modernised four fin/ring, welded tail unit and a welded pointed bell shaped nose without the conventional fuze well. The
FAB-250TS is 1.5 m long, has a body diameter of 300 mm, contains 61.4 kg of an unspecified HE and weighs 259.2 kg. Details of
the weapon's fuzing is not known but it can be released from altitudes above 500 m and at speeds up to 1,500 km/h.
The FAB-500T bomb, shown in 1996, was designed for use against lightly armoured vehicles and personnel. The bomb has a
long slender body with four swept fins supported by a narrow ring at their trailing edge. The FAB-500T is 2.43 m long, has a body
diameter of 400 mm, a weight of 477 kg and has 194 kg of high explosive. It can be released at altitudes between 800 and 25,000 m
at speeds between 500 to 2,500 km/h. The warhead is credited with the ability to penetrate lightly armoured vehicles within a radius
of 80 m and soft material within a radius of 175 m.
Operational Status
The FAB class bombs are still in use by the Russian Federation, and in 1996, improved versions of the FAB-500 bombs were
offered for export.
Specifications
FAB-50 FAB-50 FAB-250 FAB-250 FAB-250TS FAB-500 FAB-500T
(welded) (forged) (welded) (forged)
Length 0.95 m 0.94 m 2.16 m 1.82 m 1.5 m 2.41 m 2.47 m
Body 447 mm
241 mm 238 mm 320 mm 325 mm 300 mm 400 mm
diameter
Tailspan n/k n/k n/k n/k n/k n/k 0.42 m
Single or 250 n/k
Lug spacing n/k n/k n/k n/k 250 mm
mm
Weight 60.3 kg 50 kg 249 kg 238 kg 259 kg 506 kg 517 kg
Filling HE HE HE HE 61.4 kg HE HE 194 kg HE

Contractor
Bazalt State Research and Production Enterprise
Moscow.
UPDATED

Two FAB-250 bombs inboard under a Mi-35 helicopter, with a pair of AT-6 `Spiral' missile canisters on the
stub wing tip pylon
(1998)

Line diagrams of the FAB-250TS bomb (top), FAB-250 (centre), and FAB-500 (bottom)
(1998)

A sectioned FAB-500T bomb (Bazalt)


(1999)

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BOMBS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 09 November 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

BetAB-150/-250/-500 PENETRATION BOMBS


Type
Penetration bombs.
Development
This family of penetration bombs was developed to give Russian and allied air forces a capability of attacking concrete and
hardened structures such as airfield runways, concrete shelters, dams, sluices and other solid objects. Before the 1990s, the only
known bombs in this family were the BetAB-150 DS and the BetAB-250. However, in the early 1990s limited details were
released on two larger and more up to date bombs designated BetAB-500 and BetAB-500 ShP. The designation letters BetAB
stand for betonoboynaya aviatsionnaya bomba meaning `concrete-piercing aircraft bomb'. The designation numbers refer to the
bomb size category, and any further letters signify special applications. The BetAB-500 ShP was primarily developed for
cratering airfield runways and is delivered at low level and high speed. It is thought that this bomb is rocket-assisted which
could account for the ShP designation. All the bombs are designed to withstand the high g forces encountered by combat
manoeuvres of high-speed attack aircraft, and are fitted with standard Russian spaced suspension lugs allowing them to be
carried under the wings or fuselage of some aircraft, or in the bomb bays of larger bombers. The bombs are believed to be
cleared for carriage on MiG-21 `Fishbed', MiG-27 `Flogger', MiG-29 `Fulcrum', Su-22 `Fitter', Su-24 `Fencer', Su-25
`Frogfoot', Su-27 `Flanker', Tu-95 `Bear', Tu-16 `Badger', Tu-22 `Blinder' and Tu-22M `Backfire' aircraft of the Russian and
allied air forces.
Description
Details of the two smaller BetAB-150 and -250 are limited. However, they are believed to be similar in appearance, having a
conventional hardened steel body fitted with a standoff nose probe and a tube-like rear end with four tail fins. Both are believed
to be fitted with single and standard Russian twin 250 mm suspension lugs. The BetAB-150 DS is 2.10 m long, has a body
diameter of 203 mm and with a filling of 16 kg of HE weighs 165 kg. The only specification of the BetAB-250 is its overall
weight of 250 kg. The two larger BetAB-500 bombs are quite different in appearance and application. The BetAB-500 has the
general appearance of a modern low-drag free-fall bomb, except for the tail unit which has a four-fin and drum tail similar to
those used on older type Russian bombs. The BetAB-500 is fitted with 250 mm spaced suspension lugs and is 2.23 m long, has
a body diameter of 350 mm and weighs 477 kg, of which 75.8 kg is HE filling. Details of its fuzing system are not known, but
the bomb can be released at altitudes between 30 and 5,000 m at speeds of 600 to 1,000 km/h. It is credited with a penetration
depth for reinforced concrete of up to 1 m, with a covering of 3 m of soil on top of the concrete.
The BetAB-500 ShP was primarily designed for runway cratering and is unusual in appearance, in that it appears to be made
up of two distinctive and separate halves. The front half looks like a normal bomb, whereas the rear looks much like a booster
section of an air-to-surface missile. The rear half has a narrow body diameter where it is attached to the front bomb section, it
then has a straight taper out to the same body diameter and there are four clipped delta stabilising fins at the rear. It is known
that the rear section contains a retard parachute and from the appearance of the rear end and the credited method of delivery it
is believed that the bomb is rocket-assisted. The BetAB-500 ShP is fitted with 250 mm spaced suspension lugs and is 2.5 m
long, has a maximum body diameter of 325 mm and a tailspan of 0.45 m. It is filled with 77 kg of high explosive and has a
total weight of 380 kg. Details of the bomb's fuzing are not known. It is thought that after low-level release from the parent
aircraft the bomb is retarded and stabilised by the parachute, then fired at the runway to give it enough kinetic energy to
penetrate the concrete to a sufficient depth for cratering. The bomb is then detonated below the runway by a delayed contact
fuze resulting in a large hole with its attendant `heave'. It is reported that each individual bomb causes a damage area of 150
m2. The BetAB-500 ShP bomb can be released from an aircraft at altitudes between 170 and 1,000 m throughout the speed
range of 700 to 1,100 km/h.
Operational Status
All four of these concrete-piercing bombs are in service with Russian and allied air forces. The BetAB-500 and BetAB-500
ShP were offered for export from 1993 to 1996, but there are no known exports.
Specifications
BetAB-150 DS BetAB-250 BetAB-500 BetAB-500ShP
Length 2.10 m n/k 2.23 m 2.5 m
Body diameter 203 mm n/k 350 mm 325 mm
Tailspan n/k n/k n/k 0.45 m
Lug spacing 250 mm 250 mm 250 mm 250 mm
Weight 165 kg 250 kg 477 kg 380 kg
Filling 16 kg HE HE 75.8 kg 77 kg

Contractor
Not known; however, the BetAB-500 is marketed by the VO GED, General Export for Defence, Moscow, and the Bazalt State
Research and Production Enterprise, Moscow.
UPDATED

Line drawings of a BetAB-500 (upper) and BetAB-500ShP (lower)


(1999)

A BetAB-500 ShP boosted penetration bomb

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UNDERWATER WEAPONS - UNCLASSIFIED PROJECTS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED
STATES (CIS)
Date Posted: 06 March 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

Shkval Torpedo
The Russian Shkval torpedo, which is believed to be in service and carries the designation VA-111, is credited with an
effective range of 6 to 12 km. It is reported to be 8.2 m long, and to have a body diameter of 533 mm. This is the same
diameter but slightly longer than Russia's Type 53 torpedoes. Shkval is powered by a liquid-propellant motor and travels at
around 100 m/s (200 kt). Reports indicate that a super-cavitation gas envelope is created by diverting part of the rocket motor
efflux to the nose of the torpedo, via an internal tube system, to provide a thin layer of gas around the whole weapon. The
rocket motor would generate considerable noise, making the use of an onboard sonar guidance system difficult, and as pointed
out by its critics, make the torpedo easily detectable by the target. However, in view of the high relative speed of the Shkval,
that might make little difference in the outcome. It is not known if the Shkval has been carried by aircraft or helicopters, but
this might be possible.
In early 1998 the ITAR-TASS news agency reported that the first trials of an upgraded Shkval was to be held by the Russian
Federation Pacific Fleet later that year. A prototype of the upgraded Shkval, which was exhibited at the 1995 IDEX exhibition
in Abu Dhabi, has been discarded and has since been radically improved. The upgraded Shkval is reported to use a new
(unidentified) targeting system, and to be available in the conventional (non-nuclear) role.
In August 1998 it was reported that China had obtained a batch of advanced torpedoes particularly suited to attacking large
surface vessels, such as aircraft carriers. These had been purchased from Kazakhstan, which is known to have inherited a
sophisticated production facility following the break-up of the former Soviet Union. The torpedoes are described by sources
familiar with the deal as capable of high speed, but with limited accuracy. The purchase, at an undisclosed cost, involves about
40 units. The Shkval or a variant is thought most likely to be the weapon involved, based on descriptions provided by these
sources.
Line diagram of a Russian Federation Shkval torpedo (Peter Humphris)
(1999)
UPDATED

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UNDERWATER WEAPONS - UNCLASSIFIED PROJECTS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED


STATES (CIS)
Date Posted: 06 March 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 38

RPK-8 Zapad
In 1994, the Russian Federation state research and production enterprise, Splav, disclosed details of a `smart' rocket-assisted
depth charge designated RPK-8 Zapad. The weapon is 1.83 m long, has a body diameter of 212 mm and weighs 112.5 kg.
From its size, weight and the fact that it carries a 19 kg shaped charge and uses a similar guidance system, some western
analysts believe the RPK-8 and the S-3V (see full entry for S-3V) are variants of the same weapon.
In operation the RPK-8 is fired, with a range of between 600 and 4,300 m, into the target's area. Upon arrival in the target
area the tandem-mounted rocket motor is ejected, and the guided warhead section enters the water. This is then believed to
operate in a similar manner to the S-3V bomb system.
VERIFIED

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CONTRACTORS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)


Date Posted: 13 February 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

Smolensk Aircraft Manufacturing Plant


74 Frunza Street
Smolensk 214006
RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)
Tel: (+7 081) 002 05 29
Entries: AS-13, AS-18 (ASM)
VERIFIED

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CONTRACTORS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)


Date Posted: 13 February 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

Precision Mechanical Engineering Design Bureau


90, Volokolamskoye Shosse,
Moscow 123424
RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)
Tel: (+7 095) 491 04 64
Entries: S-25LD (ASM)
VERIFIED

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CONTRACTORS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)


Date Posted: 13 February 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

LOMO Joint Stock Co


20 Chugannaya Street
St Petersburg
194044
RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)
Tel: (+7 812) 248 50 02
Entries: SA-7/-14/-16/-18 (AAM)
VERIFIED

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CONTRACTORS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)


Date Posted: 13 February 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

Bazalt State Research and Production Enterprise


32 Velyaminovskaya Street
Moscow 105058
RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)
Tel: (+7 095) 369 01 22
Entries: BetAB, FAB, F0ZAB, FZAB, KAB, KMG-U, NOSAB-100TM, ODAB, OFAB, OFZAB, RBK, ZAB, ZB (Bombs)
UPDATED

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CONTRACTORS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)


Date Posted: 13 February 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

Zvezda Strela
Ilyich St, 7
Korolev
141070 Moscow Region
RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)
Tel: (+7 095) 519 20 02
Entries: AS-7, AS-10, AS-12, AS-17, AS-20 (ASM); ARP-2E Torpedo (UWW)
VERIFIED

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CONTRACTORS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)


Date Posted: 13 February 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

Vympel NPO
Volokolamskoje sh, 90
123424 Moscow
RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)
Tel: (+7 095) 491 04 64
Entries: AA-6, AA-7, AA-8, AA-9, AA-10, AA-11, AA-12, R-37, AA-X-13, (AAM); AS-14 (ASM); S-5, S-8, S-13 (Rockets);
KMG-U, RBK-250/500, RBK-500 ShoAB (Bombs); GUV (Guns)
UPDATED

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CONTRACTORS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)


Date Posted: 13 February 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

Scientific and Production Enterprise


Tochnost
2 Mosin St
Tula 300002,
RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)
Tel: (+7 0872) 36 24 65
Entries: 2A42 cannon (Guns)
VERIFIED

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CONTRACTORS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)


Date Posted: 13 February 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

Rosvoorouzhenie
21 Gogolevsky Boulevard
Moscow 119865
RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)
Tel: (+7 095) 202 66 03
Entries: This state corporation supports the export of a wide range of Russian weapon systems.
VERIFIED

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CONTRACTORS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)


Date Posted: 13 February 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

Raduga NPO (Dubna Engineering Plant)


Zhukovsky St, 2a
Dubna
Moscow 141980
RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)
Tel: (+7 09621) 246 47
Entries: AS-4, AS-6, AS-9, AS-11, AS-13, AS-15, AS-16, AS-18, Kh-101, Kh-SD, Kh-41, AS-X-19, Moskit (ASM)
VERIFIED

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CONTRACTORS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)


Date Posted: 13 February 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

Moscow Scientific Research Institute (MNII) Agat


Malaya Gruzinskaya d, 54
123557 Moscow
RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)
Tel: (+7 095) 253 09 96
Entries: AA-10, AA-12 (AAM); AS-20 (ASM)
UPDATED

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CONTRACTORS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)


Date Posted: 13 February 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

Moscow Aggregate Plant Dzerzhinets


B. Novadmitrovskaya St, 12
125015 Moscow
RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)
Tel: (+7 095) 285 94 50
Entries: NPPU-280, 9A-4273 Gun Pods (Guns)
VERIFIED

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CONTRACTORS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)


Date Posted: 13 February 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

MMPP
Moscow
RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)
Tel: (+7 095) 257 72 92
Entries: AA-8, AA-11 (AAM), USPU-24 Pod, SPPU-6 Pod, SPPU-22 Pod (Guns)
VERIFIED

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CONTRACTORS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)


Date Posted: 13 February 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

Novator NPO
Yekaterinburg
RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)
Entries: KS-172 (AAM)
UPDATED

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CONTRACTORS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)


Date Posted: 13 February 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

Mashinostroenia NPO
33 Gagarin Street
Reutov
Moscow Region 143952
RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)
Tel: (+7 095) 302 11 85
Entries: Alfa, Yakhont 3M55 (ASM)
UPDATED

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CONTRACTORS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)


Date Posted: 13 February 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

KBM Engineering Design Bureau


Oksky Prospect, 42
Kolomna
Moscow 140402
RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)
Tel: (+7 096) 613 30 64
Entries: SA-16, SA-18 (AAM); AT-3, AT-6, AT-9, AT-12, AT-16 (ASM)
UPDATED

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CONTRACTORS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)


Date Posted: 13 February 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

KBP Instrument Design Bureau


Scheglovskaya Zaseka Str
Tula 300001
RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)
Tel: (+7 0872) 41 07 50
Entries: AT-12, AT-16 (ASM); TKB-722K AGL (Guns)
UPDATED

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CONTRACTORS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)


Date Posted: 13 February 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

Gridropribov
Central Scientific Research Institute
St Petersburg
RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)
Entries: MDM-3/4/5, APSET-95 (UWW)
VERIFIED

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ANALYSIS - IN-SERVICE COMBAT AIRCRAFT AND THEIR AIR-LAUNCHED WEAPONS CAPABILITIES,


RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)
Underwater
Type Aircraft Missiles Bombs Guns Rockets
Weapons
AT-3 APR-2E
Helicopters Ka-25 `Hormone' S-5 55 mm
`Sagger' Torpedo
UB-16 Nuclear Depth
57 mm Pod Charge
UB-16 Type E 45
57 mm Pod Torpedo
NST-58
Torpedo
(India)
A-244S
Torpedo
(India)
APSET-95
Torpedo
MDM-3 Mine
AS-20 APR-2E
Ka-27 `Helix A' S-8 80 mm
`Kayak' Torpedo
B-8V20A Type E 45
(KA-252)
80 mm Pod Torpedo
APSET-95
Torpedo
MDM-3 Mine

Ka-28 (Export Ka-27) S-8 80 mm APR-2E


Torpedo
B-8V20A Type E 45
80 mm Pod Torpedo
NST-58
Torpedo
A-244S
Torpedo
APSET-95
Torpedo
MDM-3 Mine
AT-6 4 Barrel
Ka-29 `Helix B' S-5 55 mm
`Spiral' 7.62 mm
AT-12 UB-16
2A42 30 mm
`Swinger' 57 mm Pod
UB-32
UPK-23 Pod
57 mm Pod
S-8 80 mm
B-8V20A
80 mm Pod
AT-6/-9
Ka-50 `Werewolf' 2A42 30 mm S-8 80 mm
`Spiral'
AT-12 NPPU-280 B-8V20A
`Swinger' Turret 80 mm Pod
AT-16 UPK-23 Pod
AS-12
`Keglar'

Mi-2 `Hoplite' SA-7 `Grail' 7.62 mm PK S-5 55 mm


Pintle
SA-14 UB-16
NS-23 mm
`Gremlin' 57 mm Pod
AT-3 UB-32
`Sagger' 57 mm Pod
Mi-6 `Hook' UBK 12.7 mm
(Nose-mounted)
AT-2
Mi-8 `Hip' UBK 12.7 mm S-5 55 mm
`Swatter'
AT-3 UB-16
`Sagger' 57 mm Pod
UB-32
57 mm Pod
S-8 80 mm
B-8V20A
80 mm Pod
S-13
122 mm
B-13L
122 mm
Pod
Mi-14 `Haze' APR-2E
Torpedo
Type E45
Torpedo
Nuclear Depth
Charge
APSET-95
Torpedo
MDM-3 Mine
AT-2
Mi-17 `Hip H/K' UBK 12.7 mm S-5 55 mm
`Swatter'
AT-3 UB-16
(Export M1-8) UPK-23 Pod
`Sagger' 57 mm Pod
UB-32
SPPU-6 Pod
57 mm Pod
S-8 80 mm
B-8V20A
80 mm Pod
S-13
122 mm
B-13L
122 mm
Pod
AA-8
Mi-24/25 `Hind' FAB GP UBK 12.7 mm S-5 55 mm
`Aphid'
UB-32
SA-7 `Grail' KMG-U Dispenser YakB-12.7 mm
57 mm Pod
SA-14
ZK-300 Kisajno USPU-24 Turret S-8 80 mm
`Gremlin'
SA-16
Cluster Bomb GSh-23L 23 mm B-8V20A
`Gimlet' 80 mm Pod
SA-18 S-13
9A-4273 Pod
`Grouse' 122 mm

AT-2 B-13L
SPPU-6 Pod 122 mm
`Swatter'
Pod
AT-3 S-16
UPK-23 Pod
`Sagger' 160 mm
AT-6/-9 S-21
Negev 5.56 mm
`Spiral' 220 mm
AT-12 S-24
`Swinger' 240 mm
AT-16 LR-122
(Vikhr M) 122 mm
LRM-122
S-25LD
Pod
AT-6/-9 NPPU-280
Mi-28 `Havoc' S-8 80 mm
`Spiral' Turret
AT-12 B-8V20A
2A42 30 mm
`Swinger' 80 mm Pod
AT-16 S-13
(Vikhr M) 122 mm

SA-16 B-13L
122 mm
`Gimlet'
Pod
SA-18
`Grouse'
AA-2C/-2D S-24
Aircraft MiG-17 `Fresco' FAB GP NS-37 37 mm
`Atoll' 240 mm
PL-2/PL-3 FAB-250 ShN
PL-5 FAB-500ShN
FAB-M43, FAB-M46
FAB-M54, FAB-M62
ZAB Incendiary
KADAR
AA-2C/-2D 3 × NR-30 TRS-190
MiG-19 `Farmer' FAB GP
`Atoll' 30 mm 190 mm
FAB-500ShN ARS-212
PL-2/PL-3
212 mm
PL-5 FAB-M43, FAB-M46
FAB-M54, FAB-M62
ZAB Incendiary

MiG-21 `Fishbed' AA-2C/-2D GSh-23L 23 mm S-5 55 mm


AO Frag, BetAB
`Atoll'
AA-8 UB-16
Aokh Chemical Frag
`Aphid' 57 mm Pod
UB-32
AS-7 `Kerry' BRAB AT
57 mm Pod
AS-17 S-24
Chemical Spray Tanks,
`Krypton' 240 mm
AIM-9
FAB GP
Sidewinder
PL-2/PL-3 FAB-250 ShN
PL-5 FAB-500ShN
PL-7 FAB-M43, FAB-M46
AS-10
FAB-M54, FAB-M62
'Karen'
FOZAB-500
KhAB Chemical
KMG-U Dispenser
ODAB-500 PM
OFAB, OFZAB-500
PROSAB-250
RBK-250/275,
RBK-500
Cluster Bombs
ZAB Incendiary
OFAB-100
OFAB-100/120
OFAB-250/270
P-50-75 Practice
KADAR
ZK-300 Kisajno
Cluster Bomb
NOSAB-100 TM
Hades
FAB-250 (M72) frag
FZAB-500
FAB-100 (M80) GP
P-50T Practice Bomb
FAB-250 (M79) GP

FAB-500 GP

PLAB-150/-200/-350

MiG-23 `Flogger' AA-2 `Atoll' AO Frag, BetAB GSh-23L 23 mm S-5 55 mm

AA-7 `Apex' BRAB AT UPK-23 Pod UB-32


57 mm Pod
AA-8
Chemical Spray Tanks, S-8 80 mm
`Aphid'

AS-7 `Kerry' FAB GP B-8M1


80 mm Pod
S-13
FAB-250 ShN
122 mm
B-13L
FAB-500ShN 122 mm
Pod
S-24
FAB-M43, FAB-M46
240 mm
FAB-M54, FAB-M62
FOZAB-500
FZAB-500
KhAB Chemical
KMG-U Dispenser
ODAB-500 PM
OFAB, OFZAB-500
PROSAB-250
RBK-250/275,
RBK-500
Cluster Bombs
ZAB Incendiary
OFAB-100
OFAB-100/120
OFAB-250/270
P-50-75 Practice
P-50T Practice
BADR-28 GP
FARIS-250 GP
KAAKAA-500 GP
KAAKAA-100/250
Incendiary
KAAKAA-120/250/500
AP
NOSAB-100 TM
NASR GP
NASR-250/400 GP
NASR-500P
ZK-300 Kisajno
Cluster Bomb
MiG-25 `Foxbat' AA-5 `Ash' FAB GP
AA-6
FAB-M62 GP
`Acrid'
AA-7 `Apex' FZAB-500
AA-8
P-50T Practice
`Aphid'
AS-9 `Kyle'
AS-11
`Kilter'
MiG-27 `Flogger' AA-2 `Atoll' AO Frag, BetAB GSh-23L 23 mm S-5 55 mm
UB-16
AS-7 `Kerry' BRAB AT or GSh-6 30 mm
57 mm Pod
AS-9 `Kyle' Chemical Spray Tanks S-8 80 mm
AS-11 B-8M1
Aokh Chemical
`Kilter' 80 mm Pod
AS-12 S-13
FAB-M54, FAB-M62
`Keglar' 122 mm

AS-13 FOZAB-500, B-13L


122 mm
`Kingbolt' KAB-500L
Pod
AS-14 KAB-500Kr, S-24
`Kedge' KAB-1500L 240 mm
AS-17
KhAB Chemical
`Krypton'
AS-18
KMG-U Dispenser
`Kazoo'
ODAB-500 PM
OFAB, OFZAB-500
PROSAB-250
RBK-250/275,
RBK-500
Cluster Bombs
BADR-28 GP
FARIS-250 GP
KAAKAA-500 GP
KAAKAA-100/250
Incendiary
KAAKAA-120/250/500
AP

NASR GP
NASR-250/400 GP
NASR-500P
MiG-29 `Fulcrum' AA-7 `Apex' BetAB GSh-301 30 mm S-8 80 mm
AA-8 B-8M1
BRAB AT
`Aphid' 80 mm Pod
AA-10 M-100
Chemical Spray Tanks
`Alamo' 137 mm
AA-11 S-24
NOSAB-100 TM
`Archer' 240 mm
AA-12
FAB-M54, FAB-M62
`Adder'
AS-14
FOZAB-500
`Kedge'
AS-17
KhAB Chemical
`Krypton'
AS-20
KMG-U Dispenser
`Kayak'
AS-10
ODAB-500 PM
'Karen'
OFZAB-500
RBK-250/275,
RBK-500
Cluster Bombs
OFAB-100
OFAB-100/120
OFAB-250/270
P-50-75 Practice
ZK-300 Kisajno
Cluster Bomb
P-50T Practice
FAB-250 (M72) frag

FAB-100 (M80) GP

FAB-250 (M79) GP
FAB-500 GP

PLAB-150/-200/-350

AA-6
MiG-31 `Foxhound' GSh-6-23 23 mm
`Acrid'
AA-8
`Aphid'
AA-9
`Amos'
R-37
2 × NR-30
Su-7 `Fitter A' AA-2 `Atoll' Aokh Chemical S-5 55 mm
30 mm
UB-16
BetAB
57 mm Pod
S-24
BRAB AT
240 mm
FAB GP
FAB-250 ShN
FAB-500ShN
FAB-M43
FAB-M46
FAB-M54
OFAB
ZAB Incendiary
Su-15 `Flagon' AA-3 `Anab' SPPU-6 Pod
AA-8
SPPU-22 Pod
`Aphid'
2 × NR 30
Su-17/-20/-22 AA-2 `Atoll' AO Frag, BetAB S-8 80 mm
30 mm
AA-8 B-8M1
`Fitter' Aokh Chemical SPPU-6 Pod
`Aphid' 80 mm Pod
AA-11 S-13
BRAB AT SPPU-22 Pod
`Archer' 122 mm
B-13L
AS-7 `Kerry' Chemical Spray Tanks, 122 mm
Pod
S-25
AS-9 `Kyle' FAB GP
325 mm
AS-10 LR-122
FAB-250 ShN
`Karen' 122 mm
AS-11 LRM-122
FAB-500ShN
`Kilter' Pod
AS-12
FAB-M43, FAB-M46
`Keglar'
AS-13
FAB-M54, FAB-M62
`Kingbolt
AS-14
FOZAB-500
`Kedge'
AS-17
KhAB Chemical
`Krypton'
AS-18
KMG-U Dispenser
`Kazoo'
AS-20
ODAB-500 PM
`Kayak'
S-25LD OFAB, OFZAB-500
PROSAB-250
RBK-250/275,
RBK-500
Cluster Bombs
ZAB Incendiary
OFAB-100
OFAB-100/120
OFAB-250/270
P-50-75 Practice
P-50T Practice
KADAR
BADR-28 GP
FARIS-250 GP
KAAKAA-500 GP
KAAKAA-100/250
Incendiary
KAAKAA-120/250/500
AP
NOSAB-100 TM
NASR GP
NASR-250/400 GP
NASR-500P
ZK-300 Kisajno
Cluster Bomb
FZAB-500
Su-21 `Flagon' AA-3 `Anab' SPPU-22 Pod
AA-6
`Acrid'
AA-8
`Aphid'
AA-8
Su-24 `Fencer' BetAB GSh-6-23 23 mm S-8 80 mm
`Aphid'
B-8M1
AS-7 `Kerry' BRAB AT SPPU-22 Pod
80 mm Pod
S-13
AS-9 `Kyle' Chemical Spray Tanks
122 mm
B-13L
AS-10
122 mm
`Karen'
Pod
AS-11
FAB-250 ShN
`Kilter'
AS-12
FAB-500ShN
`Keglar'
AS-13
FAB-M54, FAB-M62
`Kingbolt'
AS-14
FOZAB-500
`Kedge'
AS-17
KAB-500L
`Krypton'
AS-18
KAB-500kr
`Kazoo'
AS-20
KAB-1500L
`Kayak'
S-25LD KMG-U Dispenser
ODAB-500 PM
OFZAB-500
FZAB-500
P-50T Practice
RBK-250/275,
RBK-500
Cluster Bombs
ZAB Incendiary
AA-8 AO-17A 30 mm
Su-25/-39 `Frogfoot' BetAB S-8 80 mm
`Aphid' Twin
AS-10 B-8M1
BRAB AT UPK-23 Pod
`Karen' 80 mm Pod
AS-11 S-13
Chemical Spray Tanks Plamen Pod
`Kilter' 122 mm

AS-12 B-13L
NOSAB-100 TM 122 mm
`Kegler'
Pod
AS-13 M-21-OF
FAB-250 ShN
`Kingbolt' 122 mm
AS-14
FAB-500ShN
`Kedge'
AS-17
FAB-M54, FAB-M62
`Krypton'
AS-18
FOZAB-500
`Kazoo'
AT-12
KAB-500L
`Swinger'
AT-16
KAB-500kr
(Vikhr-M)
S-25LD KAB-1500L
KMG-U Dispenser
ODAB-500 PM
OFZAB-500
RBK-250/275,
RBK-500
Cluster Bombs
OFAB-100
OFAB-100/120
OFAB-250/270
P-50-75 Practice
P-50T Practice
BADR-28 GP
FARIS-250 GP
KAAKAA-500 GP
KAAKAA-100/250
Incendiary
KAAKAA-120/250/500
AP
FZAB-500
NASR GP
NASR-250/400 GP
NASR-500P
Su-27/-30/-32/-33/-34/-35/-37 AA-8
BetAB GSh-301 30 mm S-8 80 mm
`Flanker' `Aphid'
AA-10 B-8M1
BRAB AT
`Alamo' 80 mm Pod
AA-11 S-13
Chemical Spray Tanks
`Archer' 122 mm

AA-12 B-13L
122 mm
`Adder'
Pod
AS-17 M-100
FAB-250 ShN
`Krypton' 137 mm
AS-18 S-25
FAB-500ShN
`Kazoo' 325 mm
AS-20
FAB-M54, FAB-M62
`Kayak'
Kh-41
FOZAB-500
(`Moskit')
S-25LD KAB-500kr
YJ-1 KMG-U Dispenser
YJ-2 ODAB-500 PM
C-701 OFAB, OFZAB-500
RBK-250/275,
RBK-500
Cluster Bombs

AS-6 Type E 45
Tu-16 `Badger' AO Frag, BetAB AM-23 23 mm
`Kingfish' Torpedo

AS-9 `Kyle' BRAB AT Type E 53


Torpedo
Nuclear Depth
Chemical Spray Tanks
Charge
APSET-95
Aokh Chemical
Torpedo
MDM-3/4/5
FAB GP
Mines
FAB-M43, FAB-M46
FAB-M54, FAB-M62
FZAB-500
KhAB Chemical
OFAB
OFZAB-500
Nuclear
ZAB Incendiary
KADAR
AS-4
Tu-22 `Blinder' AO Frag, BetAB NR-23 23 mm
`Kitchen'
GSh-23L 23 mm
BRAB AT
in
Chemical Spray Tanks Tail Mounting
Aokh Chemical
FAB GP
FAB-M43, FAB-M46
FAB-M54, FAB-M62
KhAB Chemical
OFAB
Nuclear
ZAB Incendiary
BADR-28 GP
KAAKAA-500 GP
KAAKAA-500 AP
NASR GP
NASR-500P/1000P
AS-4
Tu-22M/26 `Backfire' AO Frag, BetAB GSh-23L 23 mm
`Kitchen'
AS-6
BRAB AT
`Kingfish'
AS-9 `Kyle' Chemical Spray Tanks
AS-12
Aokh Chemical
`Kegler'
AS-16
FAB GP
`Kickback'
FAB-M43, FAB-M46
FAB-M54, FAB-M62
KhAB Chemical
OFAB
Nuclear
ZAB Incendiary
AS-6
Tu-95 `Bear B/G/H' AO Frag, BetAB NR-23 23 mm
`Kingfish'
AS-9 `Kyle' BRAB AT
AS-15
Chemical Spray Tanks
`Kent'
Aokh Chemical
FAB GP
FAB-M43, FAB-M46
FAB-M54, FAB-M62
FZAB-500
KhAB Chemical
OFAB
OFZAB-500
Nuclear
ZAB Incendiary
Tu-128 `Fiddler' AA-5 `Ash'

Tu-142 `Bear F' Kh-35 GSh-23L 23 mm APR-2E


Torpedo plus
AMD-500
Mine
AMD-1000
Mine
Cluster Gulf
Mine
Cluster Bay
Mine
Type E45
Torpedo
Type E53
Torpedo
Nuclear Depth
Charge
APSET-95
Torpedo
MDM-3/4/5
Mines
AS-15
Tu-160 `Blackjack' AO Frag
`Kent'
AS-16
BetAB
`Kickback'
Chemical Spray Tanks

FAB GP
FAB-M54, FAB-M62
KhAB Chemical
OFAB
OFZAB-500
Nuclear
ZAB Incendiary
Yak-28 `Firebar' AA-3 `Anab' S-5 55 mm
UB-16
57 mm Pod
AA-8
Yak-36/-38 `Forger' AO Frag, BetAB UPK-23 Pod S-5 55 mm
`Aphid'
UB-16
AS-7 `Kerry' Aokh Chemical
57 mm Pod
BRAB AT
FAB GP
FAB-M54, FAB-M62
KMG-U Dispenser
OFAB
RBK-250/275,
RBK-500
Cluster Bombs
ZAB Incendiary
AA-10
Yak-141 `Freestyle' AO FRAG, BetAB 30 mm cannon S-5 55 mm
`Alamo'
AA-11
BRAB AT SPPU-22 Pod S-8 80 mm
`Archer'
AS-12 B-8M1
FAB GP UPK-23 Pod
`Keglar' 80 mm Pod
AS-17
FAB-M54, FAB-M62
`Krypton'
KMG-U Dispenser
OFAB
RBK-250/275,
RBK-500
Cluster Bombs
ZAB Incendiary

Date Posted: 09 February 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

UPDATED

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ANALYSIS - TORPEDOES, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)


Date Posted: 09 February 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

Torpedoes
Torpedo
designator Length Diameter Weight Warhead Guidance Propulsion Range Speed Status In service
and name
APR-2E 3.7 m 350 mm 575 kg 100 kg HE active sonar solid 3.8 km 115 In 1992
propellant km/h service
RPK-8 1.83 m 211 mm 112.5 kg 19 kg HE active sonar n/k n/k 50 kt In n/k
ZAPAD shaped service
charge
APSET 95 3.84 m 406 mm 720 kg 60 kg HE active/passive electric n/k n/k In n/k
sonar service
Type 45 3.9 m 450 mm n/k 100 kg HE active/passive n/k 15 km 30 kt In n/k
sonar service
Type E53 4.7 m 530 mm n/k 150 kg HE active/passive electric 15 km 30 kt In n/k
sonar service
VA-111 8.2 m 533 mm n/k n/k sonar rocket motor 6-12 200 kt In n/k
`Shkval' km service (unclassified)

VERIFIED

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ANALYSIS - ROCKETS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)


Date Posted: 09 February 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

Rockets
Designation Calibre Length Weight Warhead Status Remarks
S-8 HEAT 80 mm 1.57 m 11.3 kg 3.6 kg HEAT in service anti-tank warhead
S-8BM 80 mm 1.54 m 15.2 kg 7.41 kg HE in service demolition warhead
S-8DM 80 mm 1.7 m 11.6 kg 3.63 kg FEA in service fuel-air explosive warhead
S-8 I11 80 mm 1.63 m 12.1 kg 4.3 kg flare compound in service illuminating warhead 2 ×
10-6 candle power
S-13B 122 mm 2.63 m 60 kg 23 kg HE in service anti-shelter warhead
S-13T 122 mm 2.99 m 75 kg 37.3 kg HE in service two module demolition and
fragmentation warhead
S-13-OF 122 mm 2.97 m 69 kg 33 kg APAM in service anti-personnel and
anti-material warhead
S-13D 122 mm 3.12 m 68 kg 32 kg HE in service
ARS-212 212 mm n/k n/k n/k in service unclassified entry
C-25D 265 mm 3.55 m 58 kg n/k in service unclassified entry
S-5 55 mm 1.00 m 4 kg nine types in service wide choice of warheads, for
details see entry text
S-16 160 mm n/k n/k n/k in service unclassified entry
Si-21 220 mm n/k n/k n/k in service unclassified entry
S-24B 240 mm 2.22 m 232 kg 125 kg HE in service
S-25C 266 mm 3.76 m 385 kg 151 kg HE In service uses single rail PU-O-25
launcher
S-25OF 266 mm 3.56 m 380 kg 150 kg HE in service uses single rail PU-O-25
launcher
TRS-190 190 mm n/k n/k n/k in service
M-100 137 mm n/k 15.60 kg HE in service unclassified entry
UPDATED
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ANALYSIS - ROCKET LAUNCHERS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)


Date Posted: 09 February 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

Rocket Launchers
No of Remarks
Designation Calibre Length Body diameter Weight Status
rockets
B-8M1 20 80 mm 2.76 m 520 mm 160 kg in service for fixed-wing
(unloaded) aircraft
B-8V20A 20 80 mm 1.7 m 520 mm 123 kg in service for helicopter use
(unloaded) only
B-13L 5 122 mm 3.56 m 410 mm 160 kg in service for both fixed-
(unloaded) and rotary-wing
UB-8-57 8 55 mm n/k n/k n/k in service normally carried
by small
fixed-wing
aircraft
UB-16-57 16 55 mm n/k n/k n/k in service normally seen
carried by
helicopters
UB-19-57 19 55 mm n/k n/k n/k in service normally seen
carried by
helicopters
UB-32-57 32 55 mm n/k n/k n/k in service normally seen
carried by Mi-24
`Hind'
helicopters
VERIFIED

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ANALYSIS - MINES AND DEPTH CHARGES, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)
Date Posted: 09 February 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

Mines and Depth Charges


Designation Length Body diameter Weight Warhead Operating depth Status Remarks
AMG-1 n/k n/k 1,034 kg 262 kg HE 13-100 m in service World War 2
vintage
five-horned
contact mine
AMD-500 n/k n/k n/k 299 kg HE 4-70 m in service bottom
influence mine
AMD-1000 n/k n/k 987 kg 782 kg HE 4-200 m in service larger version
of AMD-500
Cluster Gulf n/k n/k n/k 230 kg HE 80-2,000 m in service torpedo type
rising mine
Cluster Bay n/k n/k n/k 230 kg HE 80-200 m in service torpedo type
rising mine
MDM-3 1.58 m 450 mm 525 kg 300 kg HE 15-35 m in service
MDM-4 2.78 m 630 mm 1,370 kg 950 kg HE 15-125 m in service
MDM-5 3.05 m 630 mm 1,500 kg 1,350 kg HE 15-300 m in service
S-3V Bomb 1.3 m 211 mm 94 kg 19 kg HE n/k in service

VERIFIED

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ANALYSIS - GUNS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)


Date Posted: 09 February 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

37 mm
Designation No of barrels Rate of fire Muzzle velocity Length Weight Status Remarks
N-37 1 400 rds/min n/k n/k n/k in service
UPDATED

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ANALYSIS - GUNS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)


Date Posted: 09 February 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

30 mm
Designation No of Rate of fire Muzzle Length Weight Status Remarks
barrels velocity
2A 42 1 200-300 or 940-990 m/s n/k 115 kg in service used in Ka-50
600-800 helicoper and
rds/min in NPPU-280
turret
NR-30 1 1,000 rds/min 780 m/s n/k 66 kg in service
GSh-6-30 6 4,600-5,100 845 m/s 2.04 m 160 kg in service fitted to
rds/min MiG-27
GSh-301 1 1,800 rds/min n/k n/k n/k in development will be fitted
to the Su-27,
-30MK, -32
and -35
`Flanker'
aircraft
GSh-2-30 and 2 3,000 rds/min n/k n/k n/k in service fitted to the
AO-17A Su-25
`Frogfoot'
aircraft

VERIFIED

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ANALYSIS - GUNS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)


Date Posted: 09 February 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

23 mm
Designation No of barrels Rate of fire Muzzle velocity Length Weight Status Remarks
GSh-23L 2 2,800-3,000 rds/min 890 m/s n/k 65 kg In service
9A-620 6 10,000 rds/min n/k n/k n/k In service used in SPPU-6 pod
AM-23 1 1,200 rds/min 705 m/s n/k 43 kg In service
NR-23 1 690 rds/min n/k n/k 39 kg In service

VERIFIED

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ANALYSIS - GUNS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)


Date Posted: 09 February 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

12.7 mm
Designation No of barrels Rate of fire Muzzle velocity Length Weight Status Remarks
YAK B 4 4,600 rds/min n/k n/k n/k in service fitted to USPU-24
turret in Mi-24
`Hind' and GUV
helicopter pod
VERIFIED

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ANALYSIS - GUNS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)


Date Posted: 09 February 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

7.62 mm
Designation No of barrels Rate of Muzzle velocity Length Weight Status Remarks
fire
GSh G7.62 1 n/k n/k n/k n/k in service used in GUV
helicopter pod and on
Ka-29 `Helix'

VERIFIED

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ANALYSIS - GUN PODS AND MOUNTINGS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)
Date Posted: 09 February 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

30 mm
No of Ammunition Remarks
Designation Length Body diameter Weight Status
guns capacity
9A-4273 Pod 1 150 rds 3.03 m 550 mm (height) 480 kg loaded in service
540 mm (width)
NPPU-280 Gun 1 300 rds 1.73 m 750 mm (height) 665 kg loaded in service fitted to Mi-28
Turret 1,100 mm (width) and Mi-40
helicopters
VERIFIED

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ANALYSIS - GUN PODS AND MOUNTINGS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)
Date Posted: 09 February 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

23 mm
No of Ammunition Remarks
Designation Length Body diameter Weight Status
guns capacity
SPPU-6 Pod 1 500 rds 5.0 m 500 mm 525 kg loaded in service fitted with
six-barrelled
Type 9A-620 or
9A-768 gun
SPPU-22 Pod 1 260 rds 3.8 m 400 mm 320 kg loaded in service fitted with
GSh-23
twin-barrelled
gun
UPK-23 Pod 1 260 rds 3.0 m 395 mm n/k in service fitted with
GSh-23
twin-barrelled
gun
UPDATED

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ANALYSIS - GUN PODS AND MOUNTINGS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)
Date Posted: 09 February 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

20 mm
No of Ammunition Remarks
Designation Length Body diameter Weight Status
guns capacity
USPU-24 1 1,400 rds n/k 630 mm n/k in service fitted to Mi-24
`Hind'

VERIFIED

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ANALYSIS - GUN PODS AND MOUNTINGS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)
Date Posted: 09 February 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

12.7 mm
Ammunition
Designation No of guns Length Body diameter Weight Status
capacity
GBU Pod 2 750 rds n/k n/k 450 kg in service
loaded
VERIFIED

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ANALYSIS - GUN PODS AND MOUNTINGS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)
Date Posted: 09 February 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

7.62 mm
No of Ammunition Remarks
Designation Length Body diameter Weight Status
guns capacity
GUV Pod 2 with 1 1,500 rds 3.0 m 400 mm 452 kg loaded in service for helicopter use
× 12.7
mm
VERIFIED

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ANALYSIS - BOMBS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)


Date Posted: 09 February 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

Cluster Bombs - Bomblets/Submunitions


Body Lug
Designation Weight Filling Length Tailspan Status Remarks
diameter spacing
OKT-1.5 bomblet 1.5 kg incendiary or n/a 122 mm n/a n/a in spherical shape
chemical service
AO-1SCh 1.2 kg Amatol/TNT 0.16 m 49 mm 50 mm n/a in fragmentation bomblet
bomblet service carried by
RPK-250/275 and 500
cluster bombs
AO-2.5 bomblet 2.88 kg HE 0.38 m 69 mm n/k n/a in fragmentation bomblet
service carried by
RPK-250/275 and 500
cluster bombs
AO-2.5 RTM 2.5 kg HE 0.15 m 90 mm n/a n/a in fragmentation bomblet
bomblet service carried by RPK-500
AO-2.5
BetAB bomblet 25 kg HE 0.66 m 76 mm n/k n/a in concrete penetrating
service bomblet carried by
RBK-500 BetAB
cluster bomb
Prosab bomblet n/k 127 g HE 0.084 m 64 mm n/a n/a in 90 fragmentation/area
service denial bomblet carried
by Prosab-250 cluster
bomb
PTAB-1M 094 kg HE shaped 0.26 m 42 mm 0.4 m n/a in anti-tank bomblet
bomblet charge closed service carried by RBK-500
0.8 m PTAB-1M cluster
extended bomb
PTAB-2.5 2.5 kg 0.66 kg 0.36 m 60 mm 87 mm n/a in anti-armour bomblet
bomblet RDX/TNT service carried by
RPK-250/275 and 500
cluster bombs
PTAB-2.5M 2.5 kg 0.45 kg 0.37 m 90 mm n/k n/a in anti-tank bomblet
(short tail) RDX-TNT service carried by
bomblet RPK-250/275 and 500
cluster bombs
PFM-1 bomblet 1.0 kg 0.3 kg HE 0.115 m 50 mm n/a n/a in anti-personnel minelet
service
PTAB-2.5M 2.5 kg 0.45 kg 0.4 m 90 mm n/k n/a in anti-tank bomblet
(long tail) RDX/TNT service carried by
bomblet RPK-250/275 and 500
cluster bombs
ShOAB-0.5 0.5 kg HE n/k n/k n/k n/a in anti-personnel bomblet
bomblet service carried by RBK-500
ShOAB-0.5 cluster
bomb cluster bomb
SPBE bomblet 15.6 kg 4.5 kg HE 0.29 m 186 mm n/a n/a in anti-tank bomblet
shaped charge service carried by RBK-500
SPBE
SPBE-D SFW 14.9 kg HE shaped 0.28 m 255 × 186 n/a n/a in anti-tank bomblet
bomblet mm service carried by RBK-500
SPBE-D and
RBK-500U cluster
bombs
ZAB-1E bomblet 1.5 kg incendiary mix 0.36 m 65 mm n/k n/a in incendiary bomblet
service carried by various
cluster bombs
ZAB-2.5 bomblet 2.7 kg 1.72 kg 0.135 m 91 mm n/k n/a in incendiary bomblet
incendiary mix service carried by
RPK-250/275 and 500
cluster bombs
UPDATED

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ANALYSIS - BOMBS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)


Date Posted: 09 February 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

Chemical Weapons - Submunitions


Body Lug
Designation Weight Filling Length Tailspan Status Remarks
diameter spacing
AOKh-8 8.0 kg war gas no 12 0.63 m 106 mm n/k n/a in service chemical
and metal fragmentation bomb
fragments
AOKh-10 9.8 kg war gas no 12 0.61 m n/k 0.13 m n/a in service chemical
and metal fragmentation bomb
fragments
AOKh-15 15 kg war gas no 12 0.63 m 107 mm 0.125 m single in service chemical
and metal fragmentation bomb
fragments
AOKh-25 23.6 kg war gas no 12 n/k 122 mm n/k single in service chemical
and metal fragmentation bomb
fragments
UPDATED

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ANALYSIS - BOMBS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)


Date Posted: 09 February 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

Retarded Bombs and Retarding Systems


Designation Weight Filling Length Body diameter Tailspan Lug spacing Status
FAB-250ShN 275 kg HE 1.99 m 325 mm 0.41 m 250 mm in service
FAB-500ShN 513 kg 221 kg 2.19 m 450 mm n/k 250 mm in service

UPDATED

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ANALYSIS - BOMBS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)


Date Posted: 09 February 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

Penetrating and Area Denial Bombs


Designation Weight Filling Length Body diameter Tailspan Lug spacing Status
BetAB-150DS 165 kg 16 kg HE 2.10 m 203 mm n/k 250 mm in service
BetAB-250 250 kg HE n/k n/k n/k 250 mm in service
BetAB-500 478 kg 75.8 kg HE 2.20 m 350 mm 0.44 m 250 mm in service
BetAB-500ShP 380 kg 77 kg HE 2.51 m 325 mm 0.45 m 250 mm in service
FZAB-500 500 kg 200 kg HE 2.5 m 450 mm 0.22 m 250 mm in service

UPDATED

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ANALYSIS - BOMBS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)


Date Posted: 09 February 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

Laser Guided Bombs


Designation Weight Filling Length Body diameter Tailspan Lug spacing Status Remarks

KAB-500L 534 kg 195 kg HE 3.05 m 400 mm 0.67 m 250 mm in service


KAB-1500L-F 1,560 kg 1,180 kg HE 4.6 m 580 mm 0.85 m closed 1.3 250 mm in service warhead is HE blast
m extended
KAB-1500L-Pr 1,500 kg 1,100 kg HE 4.6 m 580 mm 0.85 m closed 1.3 250 mm in service warhead is HE
m extended penetration
VERIFIED

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ANALYSIS - BOMBS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)


Date Posted: 09 February 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

Guided Bombs
Body Lug
Designation Weight Filling Length Tailspan Status Remarks
diameter spacing
KAB-500Kr 560 kg 195 kg HE 3.05 m 350 mm 0.75 m 250 mm in service
KAB-500Kr-U 85 kg n/a 1.83 m 350 mm n/a 250 mm in service non-releasable
training unit
VERIFIED

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ANALYSIS - AIR-TO-AIR MISSILES, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)


Date Posted: 09 February 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

Medium range
Missile Length Diameter Weight Warhead Fuze Guidance Propulsion Status In
designator service
and name
AA-3 `Anab' 3.60 m 220 mm 300 kg 40 kg blast n/k semi-active solid operational 1963
(R-98R) radar
AA-3 `Anab' 3.30 m 220 mm 300 kg 40 kg blast n/k IR solid operational 1963
(R-98T)
AA-5 `Ash' 5.25 m 300 mm 483 kg 54 kg blast n/k semi-active solid operational 1965
(R-4R) radar
AA-5 `Ash' 5.16 m 300 mm 483 kg 54 kg blast n/k IR solid operational 1965
(R-4T)
AA-6 `Acrid' 6.20 m 355 mm 472 kg 55 kg radar command, solid operational 1974
(R-40R) fragmentation and inertial and
laser semi-active
radar
AA-6 `Acrid' 6.20 m 355 mm 467 kg 35 kg radar command, solid operational 1974
(R-40T) fragmentation and inertial and
laser IR
AA-7 `Apex' 4.46 m 200 mm 235 kg 35 kg radar command and solid operational 1973
(R-24R) fragmentation semi-active
radar
AA-7 `Apex' 4.16 m 200 mm 235 kg 35 kg radar command and solid operational 1973
(R-24T) fragmentation IR
AA-10 3.8 m 230 mm 245 kg 33 kg radar inertial, solid operational 1985
`Alamo' expanding command and
(R-27T) rod IR
AA-10 4.08 m 230 mm 253 kg 33 kg radar inertial, solid operational 1985
`Alamo' expanding command and
(R-27R) rod semi-active
radar
AA-10 4.50 m 260 mm 343 kg 39 kg radar inertial, solid operational 1985
`Alamo' expanding command and
(R-27ET) rod IR
AA-10 4.70 m 260 mm 350 kg 39 kg radar inertial, solid operational 1985
`Alamo' expanding command and
(R-27ER) rod semi-active
radar
AA-10 4.78 m 260 mm 350 kg 39 kg radar inertial, solid operational 1995
`Alamo' expanding command and
(R-27AE) rod active radar
AA-11 2.9 m 170 mm 105 kg 7.4 kg radar IR solid operational 1987
`Archer' fragmentation
(R-73)
AA-11 2.9 m 170 mm 110 kg 7.4 kg radar IR solid operational 1996
`Archer' fragmentation
(R-73M2)
AA-12 (R-77) 3.60 m 200 mm 180 kg 22 kg laser inertial, solid development 2003
fragmentation command and
active radar
9M96 2.9 m 240 mm 167 kg HE n/k active radar solid development 2003
fragmentation
UPDATED

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ANALYSIS - AIR-TO-AIR MISSILES, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)


Date Posted: 09 February 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

Short range
Missile Length Diameter Weight Warhead Fuze Guidance Propulsion Status In
designator service
and name
AA-2C `Atoll' 3.50 m 127 mm 83 kg 11.3 kg IR semi-active solid operational 1961
(R-13) blast/fragmentation radar
AA-2D `Atoll' 2.83 m 127 mm 90 kg 11.3 kg RF IR solid operational 1971
(R-13) blast/fragmentation
AA-8 `Aphid' 2.08 m 130 mm 63 kg 3 kg fragmentation radar IR solid operational 1973
(R-60) or
laser
AA-8 'Aphid' 2.09 m 120 mm 43 kg 3.5 kg rod laser IR solid operational 1982
(R-60M)

UPDATED

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ANALYSIS - AIR-TO-AIR MISSILES, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)


Date Posted: 09 February 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

Short range lightweight


Missile Length Diameter Weight Warhead Fuze Guidance Propulsion Status In
designator service
and name
SA-7a `Grail' 1.42 m 72 mm 9.2 kg 1.20 kg impact IR solid operational 1966
(9M32) fragmentation
SA-7b `Grail' 1.44 m 72 mm 10 kg 1.80 kg impact IR solid operational 1971
(9M32) fragmentation
SA-14 1.47 m 72 mm 10.5 kg 2 kg impact IR solid operational 1974
`Gremlin' fragmentation
(9M36)
SA-16 `Gimlet' 1.69 m 72 mm 10.8 kg 2 kg impact IR solid operational 1986
(9M313) fragmentation
SA-18 1.69 m 72 mm 10.8 kg 2 kg impact IR solid operational 1983
`Grouse' fragmentation
(9M39)

VERIFIED

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ANALYSIS - BOMBS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)


Date Posted: 09 February 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

General Purpose Bombs


Body Lug
Designation Weight Filling Length Tailspan Status Remarks
diameter spacing
FAB-50 (welded) 60.3 kg HE 0.95 m 241 mm n/k n/k in service
FAB-50 (forged) 50 kg HE 0.94 m 238 mm n/k n/k in service
FAB-70 (body 69.8 kg HE 0.81 m 241 mm n/k n/k in service
only)
FAB-250 (welded) 249 kg HE 2.16 m 320 mm n/k n/k in service
FAB-250 (forged) 238 kg HE 1.82 m 325 mm n/k n/k in service
FAB-500 506 kg HE 2.41 m 447 mm n/k n/k in service
FAB-100 M43 103 kg 32 kg HE 1.06 m 269 mm n/k n/k in service
FAB-250 M43 237 kg 114 kg HE 2.16 m 320 mm n/k n/k in service
FAB-250 M46 220 kg 102 kg HE 1.5 m 320 mm 0.32 m n/k in service
FAB-500 M46 429 kg 206 kg HE 1.5 m 417 mm 0.42 m n/k in service
FAB-1500 M46 1,347 kg 658 kg HE 2.8 m 622 mm 0.62 m n/k in service
FAB-3000 M46 2,983 kg 1,465 kg HE 3.38 m 850 mm 0.85 m n/k in service
FAB-250 M54 234 kg 94 kg HE 1.49 m 320 mm 0.32 m 250 mm in service
FAB-500 M54 474 kg 201 kg HE 1.5 m 450 mm 0.45 m 250 mm in service
FAB-1500 M54 1,392 kg 667 kg HE 2.31 m 570 mm 0.57 m n/k in service
FAB-100 M62 99.8 kg 44.9 kg torpex 1.69 m 216 mm 0.22 m n/k in service
FAB-250 M62 250 kg 113 kg torpex 2.26 m 292 mm 0.3 m 250 mm in service
FAB-500 M62 497 kg 214 kg torpex 2.43 m 400 mm 0.4 m 250 mm in service
FAB-1000 M62 1,033 kg 476 kg torpex 3.56 m 498 mm 0.5 m n/k in service
P-50T (practice 50 kg pyrotechnic 2.03 m 203 mm 0.25 m 250 mm in service unclassified entry
bomb)

VERIFIED
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ANALYSIS - BOMBS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)


Date Posted: 09 February 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

Fuel/Air Explosive Bombs


Designation Weight Filling Length Body diameter Tailspan Lug spacing Status
ODAB-500PM Bomb 520 kg 193 kg high 2.28 m 500 mm 0.50 m 250 mm in service
energy fuel
KAB-500kr-OD 460 kg 280 kg fuel 3.05 m 350 mm 0.75 m 250 mm in service
UPDATED

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ANALYSIS - BOMBS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)


Date Posted: 09 February 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

Fragmentation Bombs
Body Lug
Designation Weight Filling Length Tailspan Status Remarks
diameter spacing
A0-8M2 7.4 kg 0.9 kg HE 0.48 m 104 mm n/k Single in service
A0-10 9.53 kg 0.86 kg HE 0.48 m 91.5 mm n/k Single in service
A0-10-6.5 6.48 kg 0.68 kg HE 0.46 m 76.3 mm n/k Single in service
A0-20 21.3 kg 3.0 kg HE 0.76 m 114 mm n/k Single in service
A0-20M3 21 kg 3.0 kg HE 0.98 m 119 mm n/k Single in service
A0-25M1 23.6 kg 3.6 kg HE 1.06 m 122 mm n/k Single in service
A0-25M2 24.5 kg 3.8 kg HE 1.08 m 122 mm n/k Single in service
A0-100 99.8 kg 49.9 kg HE 1.09 m 282 mm n/k Single in service
0FAB-100M 136 kg 45.4 kg HE 1.07 m 279 mm n/k Single in service
0FAB-100MH 145 kg 45.4 kg HE 1.19 m 279 mm n/k Single in service
0FAB-100NV 113 kg HE 1.07 m 279 mm n/k Single in service
0FAB-100-120 123 kg 42 kg HE 1.065 m 273 mm 0.34 m Single in service
0FAB-250M 268 kg 88 kg HE 3.00 m 325 mm 0.5 m 250 mm in service length includes
1.5 m probe
0FAB-250-270 275 kg 94 kg HE 1.456 m 325 mm 0.5 m 250 mm in service

VERIFIED

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ANALYSIS - BOMBS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)


Date Posted: 09 February 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

Fire Bombs
Body Lug
Designation Weight Filling Length Tailspan Status Remarks
diameter spacing
FOZAB-500 450 kg incendiary 1.5 m 450 mm 0.50 m 250 mm in service also has limited
agent and HE fragmentation
effect
NOSAB-100 100 kg n/k 1.5 m 240 mm n/k 250 mm in service signal bomb
OFZAB-500 500 kg 37.5 kg HE 2.5 m 450 mm 0.50 m 250 mm in service
and 255 kg
incendiary
ZAB-100 100 kg incendiary n/k n/k n/k single point in service
agent
ZAB-250 250 kg incendiary 1.51 m 325 mm 0.4 m 250 mm in service
agent and single
point
ZAB-500T 500 kg incendiary n/k n/k n/k n/k in service
agent
ZAB-1000 1,000 kg incendiary n/k n/k n/k n/k in service
agent
ZB-500GD 256 to 216 to 303 kg 2.5 m 500 mm n/k 250 mm in service
343 kg incendiary
ZB-500ShM 317.5 kg 260 kg 2.5 m 500 mm n/k 250 mm in service
incendiary
UPDATED

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ANALYSIS - BOMBS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)


Date Posted: 09 February 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

Cluster Bombs
Body Lug
Designation Weight Filling Length Tailspan Status Remarks
diameter spacing
PROSAB-250 250 kg 90 bomblets 1.85 m 400 mm 0.43 m 250 mm in area denial
service fragmentation bomblet
RBK-250 194 kg 48 ZAB 2,5 2.12 m 325 mm n/k 250 mm in
bomblets service
RBK-250-275 250-275 various 2.12 m 325 mm n/k 250 mm in multipurpose with
kg bomblets service several different types
of bomblets
RBK-500 500 kg various 2.5 m 450 mm n/k 250 mm in multipurpose with
bomblets service several different types
of bomblets
RBK-500 A0-2.5 504 kg 108 bomblets 2.5 m 450 mm 0.56 m 250 mm in bomblet is A0-2.5
RTM service RTM
anti-personnel/material
RBK-500 BETAB 525 kg 12 bomblets 2.5 m 450 mm 0.55 m 250 mm in airfield cratering
service bomblet
RBK-500 427 kg 268 bomblets 1.95 m 450 mm 0.55 m 250 mm in anti-tank bomblets
PTAB-1M service
RBK-500 ShOAB 334 kg 565 bomblets 1.5 m 450 mm 0.55 m 250 mm in anti-personnel bomblet
service
RBK-500 SPBE 467 kg 14 bomblets 2.5 m 450 mm 0.55 m 250 mm in anti-tank IR bomblet
service
RBK-500 SPBE-D 500 kg 15 bomblets 2.48 m 450 mm 0.55 m 250 mm in anti-tank smart
service bomblet
RBK-500 U 500 kg submunitions 2.5 m 450 mm 0.65 m 250 mm in multipurpose weapon
service
RBK-500 ZAB 2.5 435 kg 117 ZAB 2.5 2.5 m 450 mm n/k 250 mm in
bomblets service
UPDATED

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ANALYSIS - BOMBS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)


Date Posted: 09 February 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

Chemical Weapons - Chemical Spray Tanks


Body Lug
Designation Weight Filling Length Tailspan Status Remarks
diameter spacing
250 kg 130 kg 45 kg GD 2.05 m 300 mm 0.32 m 250 mm in service filling Soman
nerve agent
500 kg 280 kg 164 kg HL 1.75 m 550 mm 0.60 m n/k in service filling mixture of
Mustard and
Lewisite (HL)
1,500 kg 963 kg 630 kg HL 2.70 m 600 mm 0.75 m n/k in service filling mixture of
Mustard and
Lewisite (HL)
KhAB-25 (R-5) 28 kg 12.7 kg HL 0.88 m 203 mm 0.23 m single in service mustard gas
KhAB 100 kg (80) 80 kg 28 kg HL 1.10 m 337 mm 0.34 m single in service filling mixture of
Mustard and
Lewisite (HL)
KhAB 100 kg 100 kg 39 kg HL 1.12 m 300 mm 0.30 m single in service filling mixture of
Mustard and
Lewisite (HL)
KhAB-200 (R-5) 159-164 80 kg 2.16 m 320 mm 0.44 m 250 mm in service war gas no 5
kg
KhAB-200 (R-10) 159-174 90 kg 2.16 m 320 mm 0.44 m 250 mm in service war gas no 10
kg
KhAB 250 kg 233 kg 49 kg GB 1.75 m 375 mm 0.45 m single and in service filling Sarin nerve
250 mm agent
KhAB-500 (R-5) 300 kg 175 kg 2.4 m 450 mm 0.57 m 250 mm in service diphosgene and
war gas no 5
KRAB-25 YAD 34 kg 2.7 kg 0.88 m 203 mm 0.22 m single in service toxic smoke
AK-2 n/k 240 × 1 kg n/k n/k n/k n/k in service unclassified
dispenser weapon,
bomblets are filled
with mustard gas
and Lewisite
KhAB-100 (R-5) 93 kg 68 kg n/k n/k n/k 250 mm in service filled with war gas
no 5
KhAB-500 (R-10) 300 kg 175 kg 2.4 m 450 mm 0.57 m 250 mm in service filled with war gas
no 10
VAP-200 200 kg Toxic B n/k n/k n/k n/k in service unclassified entry
agents
VAP-1000 1,000 kg 700 litres n/k n/k n/k n/k in service unclassified entry
dispenser type
weapon, chemical
is Hydrogen
Cyanide
UPDATED

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ANALYSIS - BOMBS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)


Date Posted: 09 February 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

Anti-tank bombs
Designation Weight Filling Length Body diameter Tailspan Lug spacing Status
BRAB-200DS 213 kg 12.2 kg HE 2.06 m 203 mm 0.38 m 250 mm In service
BRAB-220 238 kg 38 kg HE 1.68 m 277 mm n/k 250 mm In service
BRAB-500 500 kg 106 kg HE 2.36 m 399 mm n/k 250 mm In service
BRAB-1000 963 kg 207 kg HE 3.08 m 480 mm n/k n/k In service

VERIFIED

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ANALYSIS - BOMBS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)


Date Posted: 09 February 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

Aircraft dispensers
Body Lug
Designation Weight Filling Length Tailspan Status Remarks
diameter spacing
KMG-U 525 kg 48 submunitions 3.7 m 460 mm 0.5 m 250 mm in service carries A0-2.5
bomblets
UPDATED

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ANALYSIS - AUTOMATIC GRENADE LAUNCHERS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)
Date Posted: 09 February 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

30 mm
No of Muzzle
Designation Rate of fire Length Weight Status Remarks
barrels velocity
AGS-17A `Plamya' 1 420-500 rds/min 180 m/s n/k 22 kg in service unclassifed entry also built and
used by the Chinese
TKB-722K 1 395-425 rds/min n/k 1.1 m 16 kg in service unclassified entry, is an
improved version of the
AGS-17 `Plamya'

UPDATED

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ANALYSIS - AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)


Date Posted: 09 February 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

Long range
Missile
In
designator Length Diameter Weight Warhead Guidance Propulsion Range Status
service
and name
AS-4A 11.67 m 920 mm 6,000 kg 200 kT inertial liquid 310 km operational 1965
`Kitchen' nuclear
AS-4C 11.67 m 920 mm 5,780 kg 930 kg HE inertial with liquid 400 km operational 1987
'Kitchen' active radar
AS-6 10.56 m 920 mm 4,500 kg 930 kg HE inertial and solid 400 km operational 1969
`Kingfish' kg or 350 kT passive radar or
nuclear active radar

AS-15A `Kent' 6.04 m 514 mm 1,120 kg 200 kT inertial with turbojet 2,500 operational 1984
nuclear terrain km
comparison
AS-15B `Kent' 6.04 m 770 mm 1,500 200 kT inertial with turbofan 3,000 operational 1987
or1,700 nuclear or terrain km
kg 410 kg HE comparison
Kh-65SE 6.04 m 514 mm 1,300 kg 410 kg HE/ inertial with turbofan 600 km development 2002
(Kh-SD) penetration active radar
AS-16 4.78 m 455 mm 1,200 kg 150 kg HE inertial with solid 150 km operational 1980
`Kickback' or 350 kT active or passive
nuclear radar
Kh-37 n/k n/k n/k n/k inertial with IIR solid 250 km development 2002
AS-17 4.7 or 360 mm 610 or 95 or 110 kg inertial with solid and 70 or operational 1988
`Krypton' 5.23 m 700 kg HE active radar ramjet 100 km
(Kh-31A)
AS-17 4.7 or 360 mm 599 or 87 kg HE inertial with solid and 110 or operational 1989
'Krypton' 5.23 m 625 kg passive radar ramjet 200 km
(Kh-31P)
AS-18 `Kazoo' 5.69 m 380 mm 920 kg 320 kg HE inertial with TV turbojet 115 km operational 1991
or 280 kg command
submunitions
AS-20 `Kayak' 3.75 m 420 mm 480 kg 145 kg HE inertial with turbofan 130 km operational 1983
SAP active radar
Kh-41 Moskit 9.74 m 760 mm 4,500 kg nuclear or inertial with solid and 250 km development 2002
145 kg HE active/passive ramjet
radar
Alfa 3M54 6.0 m 550 mm 1,500 kg 300 kg HE inertial with turbojet 300 km development 2001
active/passive
radar
Kh-101 7.45 m n/k 2,400 kg 400 kg HE inertial with EO turbojet 3,000 development 2003
km
3M55 8.3 m 670 mm 2,550 kg 200 kg HE inertial with ramjet 500 km development 2004
(Yakhont) active radar

UPDATED

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ANALYSIS - AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)


Date Posted: 09 February 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

Medium range
Missile
In
designator and Length Diameter Weight Warhead Guidance Propulsion Range Status
service
name

AS-14 `Kedge' 3.87 m 380 mm 670 kg 317 kg HE TV command solid 12 km operational 1980
(Kh-29T)
AS-14 `Kedge' 3.87 m 380 mm 700 kg 317 kg HE TV command solid 30 km operational 1995
(Kh-29TE)
AS-14 `Kedge' 3.87 m 380 mm 657 kg 317 kg HE semi-active solid 12 km operational 1980
(Kh-29L) laser
AS-10 'Karen' 4.04 m 275 mm 300 kg 86 kg HE TV solid 20 km operational 1987
(Kh-25MT)
AS-10 'Karen' 4.15 m 275 mm 300 kg 86 kg HE IR solid 20 km operational 1987
(Kh-25MTP)
AS-13 'Kingbolt' 5.1 m 380 mm 790 kg 148 kg HE TV solid 40 km operational 1980

UPDATED

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ANALYSIS - AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)


Date Posted: 09 February 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

Medium range anti-radar


Missile
designator Length Diameter Weight Warhead Guidance Propulsion Range Status In service
and name
AS-9 `Kyle' 6.04 m 450 mm 700 kg 200 kg HE blast passive liquid 90 km operational 1973
radar
AS-10 'Karen' 4.3 m 275 mm 320 kg 86 kg HE passive solid 40 km development 2001
(Kh-25MA) radar
AS-11 `Kilter' 4.85 m 360 mm 650 kg 152 kg HE inertial and solid 160 km operational 1981
blast/fragmentation passive
or nuclear radar
AS-11 `Kilter' 4.8 m 380 mm 650 kg 149 kg HE inertial and solid 120 km operational 1992
(Kh-58E) passive
radar
AS-12 4.19 m 275 mm 320 kg 86 kg HE inertial and solid 40/60 operational 1978/1983
`Kegler' blast/fragmentation passive km
radar
UPDATED

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ANALYSIS - AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)


Date Posted: 09 February 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

Short range
Missile
In
designator and Length Diameter Weight Warhead Guidance Propulsion Range Status
service
name
AT-2A/B 1.16 m 132 mm 29.40 kg HEAT radio solid 3 km operational early
`Swatter' command 1960s
AT-2C `Swatter' 1.16 m 132 mm 30 kg HEAT radio solid 4 km operational 1968
command
SACLOS
AT-3 `Sagger' 0.86 m 125 mm 10.9 to 2.6 kg HE wire guided solid 3 km operational 1961
11.4 kg hollow
charge
AT-3 0.98 m 125 mm 12.5 kg 3.5 kg HE wire guided solid 3 km operational 1992
(Malyutka-2)
AT-3 (Malyutka 0.98 m 125 mm 11.9 m 3.0 kg HE wire guided solid 3 km operational 1993
2F
AT-6 `Spiral' 1.63 m 130 mm 35.0 kg 5.4 kg radio solid 5 km operational 1978
HEAT command
AT-9 `Spiral 2' 2.04 m 130 mm 40 kg 7.4 kg radio solid 7 km operational 1988
(Shturm 3) HEAT command
AT-12 `Swinger' 1.70 m 130 mm 49.5 kg 7.4 kg radio solid 6 km operational 1985
HEAT command
AT-16 2.8 m 130 mm 72 kg 8 kg HE semi-active solid 10 km operational 1990
laser
AS-7 `Kerry' 3.59 m 280 mm 286 kg 108 kg HE radio solid 8 km operational 1973
(Kh-23) hollow command
charge
AS-10 `Karen' 3.83 m 275 mm 310 kg 140 kg HE radio solid 10 km operational 1974
(Kh-25MR) command
AS-10 'Karen' 3.75 m 275 mm 300 kg 86 kg HE semi-active solid 10 km operational 1974
(Kh-25L) laser
S-25LD 4.1 m 340 mm 400 kg 155 kg HE semi-active solid 10 km operational 1989
laser
UPDATED

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ANALYSIS - AIR-TO-AIR MISSILES, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)


Date Posted: 09 February 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

Long range
Missile Length Diameter Weight Warhead Fuze Guidance Propulsion Status In
designator service
and name
AA-9 `Amos' 4.15 m 380 mm 490 kg 47 kg HE radar inertial, solid operational 1989
(R-33) command and
semi-active
radar
AA-10 4.78 m 260 mm 350 kg 39 kg radar inertial, solid operational 1990
`Alamo' expanding command and
(R-27EM) rod semi-active
radar
AA-X-13 4.20 m 380 mm 600 kg 60 kg n/k inertial, solid development 2003
(R-37) fragmentation command and
active radar
AAM-L 7.4 m n/k 750 kg 50 kg n/k inertial and solid development 2004
(KS-172) fragmentation active radar
R-77M-PD 3.7 m 200 mm 225 kg HE n/k inertial and ramjet development 2005
active radar
UPDATED

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BOMBS - UNCLASSIFIED PROJECTS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)


Date Posted: 16 January 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

VSM-1 Helicopter Mine-laying System


The VSM-1 helicopter mine dispensing system was developed for use with several Russian anti-personnel and anti-tank mines,
including the PFM-1, POM-2 and PTM-3. Although primarily designed for use with the Mi-8MT and Mi-8T 'Hip' helicopters,
the system could also be used with other combat helicopters. The system is located in a box-shaped unit that is suspended from
the helicopter's weapon station, and consists of 116 vertically held dispensing tubes. Typical loads are 7,424 PFM-1 held in
KSF-1 dispensing tubes, or 464 POM-2 held in KPOM-2 dispensing tubes, or 116 PTM-3 held in KPTM-3 dispensing tubes. If
required, various mixes of these mines may be dispensed from the system. The weight of the system empty is 400 kg, and when
fully loaded is 1,067 kg.
When the system is initiated the mines are dispensed directly downwards at intervals, and are delivered from a helicopter
flying at speeds up to 220 km/hour at altitudes of 30 to 100 m. The minefield formed by the system when scattering PFM-1
mines would be 2,000 m long, or 4,000 m long using POM-2 mines. Using PTM-3 anti-tank mines the minefield would be 400
m long.
The system is operated electrically using the helicopter's 28 V supply. Installing the VSM-1 helicopter mine dispensing
system by a crew of seven takes 1.5 hours, with a further 40 minutes for loading the mines.
The VSM-1 is manufactured by the State Research Engineering Institute, and is reported to be in service with the Russian
Federation and some former members of the Warsaw Pact. It has also been offered for export. Details of any sales are not
known.
NEW ENTRY

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BOMBS - UNCLASSIFIED PROJECTS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)


Date Posted: 16 January 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

VMR-2 Mine-laying System


The VMR-2 is a mine-laying system developed for use with the Russian TM-46/57/62/89 series of anti-tank mines. Although
primarily designed for use with the Mi-8MT 'Hip' helicopter, the system can also be used with towed vehicles. The helicopter
version consists of the following major components: a support frame attached to the floor of the cargo department; a conveyor
mounted on the upper surface of the support frame; a mine rack located above the band conveyor; a feed mechanism that arms
the mines as it dispenses them; and a system to control the dispensing sequence. The weight of the system is 617 kg, and it has
a basic load of 200 mines.
During operation the mines are fed on to the conveyor belt in a pre-set sequence. Once on the belt they are armed, fed to the
rear, and then ejected from the helicopter. Counters on the magazines indicate to the crew the number of mines remaining in
the system. When the mines are delivered from a helicopter flying at speeds from 15 to 20 km/hour at altitudes up to 50 m, the
mines will be spaced at ground intervals of from 5 to 11 m. The system is operated electrically using the helicopter's 28 V
supply. Installing the VMR-2 helicopter mine dispensing system by a crew of seven takes 25 to 30 minutes, with a further 15 to
20 minutes for loading the mines.
The VMR-2 is manufactured by the State Research Engineering Institute, and is reported to be in service with the Russian
Federation and some former members of the Warsaw Pact. It has also been offered for export. Details of any sales are not
known.
NEW ENTRY

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1 Image
BOMBS - UNCLASSIFIED PROJECTS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)
Date Posted: 16 January 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

TM-89 Anti-tank Mine


The TM-89 is a dispersible anti-tank mine that was first shown publicly in early 1993. Although designed primarily to be
dispensed from the VMR-2 helicopter mine dispenser (see below) and the GMZ-3 minelayer, it can also be laid manually. The
TM-89 mine has a cylindrical steel cased body that contains a Misznay Schardin shaped charge warhead and a clearance
charge. The body has a stepped upper surface with a central threaded fuze well that is fitted with a two-channel magnetic
influence fuze. The fuze, which is supplied factory fitted to the mine, has a built in power supply and incorporates an arming
delay of between 20 and 700 seconds. The TM-89 has a height of 132 mm, a body diameter of 320 mm, and weighs 11.5 kg
with 6.7 kg of TG-40 (TNT/RDX) explosive.
When supplied for use with the VMR-2 dispenser, which can carry up to 200 TM-89, the mine is fitted with a black fuze
cover. The TM-89, which is manufactured by VO GED, General Export for Defence, is credited with the ability to penetrate
100 mm of armour, leaving a 60 mm hole. It is reported to be in service with the Russian Federation and some former members
of the Warsaw Pact, and has also been offered for export. Details of any sales are not known.

A Russian Federation TM-89 AT blast mine (T J Gander)


(2001)

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BOMBS - UNCLASSIFIED PROJECTS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)
Date Posted: 16 January 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

TM-62 Family of Anti-tank Mines


The TM-62 family of large Anti-Tank (AT) blast mines was designed to be dispersed/ejected from a variety of airborne and
ground delivery systems. These include the helicopter borne VMR-2 system (see below) and the PMZ-4 and GMZ-3 ground
minelayers. The series, which are a further development of the earlier TM-46 and TM-57, consists of the same basic mine fitted
with different cases. These include TM-62B (caseless), TM-62D (wooden case), TM-62M (metal case), TM-62P2 (red/brown
plastic case), TM-62P3 (green plastic case) and the TM-62T (resin/fabric case). These mines can be fitted with a variety of
different fuze systems, including pressure and magnetic influence. The most commonly used mine is the metal cased TM-62M,
fitted with the MVCh-62 conventional pressure fuze.
The basic mine has a cylindrical body with a stepped upper surface with a central threaded fuze well, which is sealed with a
threaded plug during transit. At the base of the fuze well is a large booster in a metal canister. The TM-62M mine has a height
of 128 mm, a body diameter of 320 mm, and weighs 9.5 kg of which 7.5 kg is TNT explosive.
How the mine is initiated depends on the type of fuze. In the case of a pressure fuze, the pressure plate shears at its thin
shoulder and the weight is transferred to the striker, which in turn activates the detonator. A small booster detonates the larger
booster charge in the base of the fuze well, which then initiates the main charge.
The TM-62 series of mines is manufactured by State factories, and is reported to be in service with the Russian Federation
and former members of the Warsaw Pact. It has also been offered for export. Details of any sales are not known. These mines
are reported to have been used in Afghanistan, Angola, Cambodia, Chechnya, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Iraq, Korea, Kuwait,
Mozambique, Namibia, Nicaragua, Rwanda, Somalia, Vietnam, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.

TM-62M AT blast mine with MVCh-62 fuze and safety clip (Colin King)
(2001)

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BOMBS - UNCLASSIFIED PROJECTS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)
Date Posted: 16 January 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

PTM-3 Anti-tank Mine


The PTM-3 is a dispersible anti-tank mine that was first shown publicly in early 1993. It has been designed to be dispensed
from the KPTM-3 mine canister, which holds a single PTM-3 mine. The KPTM-3 is designed to be ejected from a variety of
airborne and ground delivery systems. These include the helicopter borne VSM-1, the UMZ multipurpose tracked vehicle, and
the PMK portable dispenser. The VSM-1 System carries up to 116 canisters.
The mine itself is basically a rectangular box with each side having a U-shaped indentation, so that one side will always be
facing upwards no matter how the mine lands. One end of the mine is dished in order to form a shaped charge, while the other
end contains an integral magnetic influence fuze. The PMT-3 is 330 m long, 84 mm square, and weighs 5 kg with 1.85 kg of
TNT/RDX (60/40) explosive.
On landing, a piezo fuze activates a small charge that ejects the mine from the canister. The mine is armed after 60 seconds
by a two-stage pyrotechnic and electronic safe-arming delay mechanism. A single replaceable battery powers the electronic
device and the influence fuze.
The mine is initiated by the magnetic signature of a target passing overhead, and the shaped charge is credited with the
ability to penetrate a tank's belly armour or to destroy the tracks. The PTM-3 is designed to self-destruct after a period of 16 to
24 hours, and reportedly cannot be neutralised or disarmed.
The PTM-3 is manufactured by VO GED, General Export for Defence, and is reported to be in service with the armed forces
of the Russian Federation and some former Warsaw Pact countries.

PTM-3 dispersible anti-tank mine (Colin King)


(2001)

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BOMBS - UNCLASSIFIED PROJECTS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)


Date Posted: 16 January 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

POM-2S Anti-personnel Mine


The POM-2S is a scatterable Anti-Personnel (AP) fragmentation mine designed to be dispersed/ejected from a variety of
airborne and ground delivery systems. These include the helicopter borne VSM-1, the UMZ multipurpose tracked vehicle, and
the PMK portable dispenser. For the purpose of dispensing, the mine is enclosed in a KPOM-2 canister, which contains four
POM-2S mines. The VSM-1 helicopter system can carry up to 116 KPOM-2 dispensers, with 464 POM-2S mines.
The mine itself has a cylindrical cast-steel body with a cruciform tripwire dispenser on the top and a central fuzing system
surrounded by the main charge. After dispensing, the POM-2S is brought into an upright position by the deployment of six
spring-loaded metal feet. It stands 180 mm high, has a body diameter of 59 mm, and weighs 1.6 kg of which 140 g is TNT
explosive.
Upon release from the dispenser, a pyrotechnic delay in the mine is ignited to begin the arming sequence. Shortly after
landing, a small charge ejects the mine from its tubular casing, allowing the spring-loaded feet to deploy; this brings the mine
into an upright position. A few seconds later, the cruciform alloy top section is blown off by another small charge; this releases
four spring-loaded spools of plastic tripwire. Each pair forms a Y-shape with the two strands connected to the arm of the striker
release mechanism. When a wire is tripped, the arm is rotated and the spring-loaded striker released on to the detonator
assembly. The mine also incorporates a mechanical self-destruct delay, which initiates the fuze between 4 and 100 hours after
deployment. On detonation, the body shatters to create pieces of fragmentation with a reported lethal radius of 16 m.
The POM-2S mine, which reportedly cannot be neutralised or disarmed, was used extensively in Afghanistan.
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BOMBS - UNCLASSIFIED PROJECTS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)
Date Posted: 16 January 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

PTM-1S/PGMDM Anti-tank Mine


The PTM-1S, also known as PGMDM, is a scatterable mine developed to meet a Russian requirement for an Anti-Tank (AT)
mine for delivery from a variety of carriers. These include the KMGU dispenser for fixed wing aircraft, the PKPI dispenser for
use with helicopters and fixed wing aircraft, and the Grad 122 mm rocket system. The mine is similar in principle to the
PFM-1S, in that it uses the same type of liquid explosive to hydraulically operate the integral fuze. The body casing is also
made from flexible plastic. However, it has a triangular bar-shaped body that allows it to be easily packed into the chosen
dispenser. The PTM-1S mine is 320 mm long, 75 mm high and 65 mm wide. The total weight is reported to be between 1.5 and
2 kg, of which 1 to 1.5 kg is explosive. The relatively small charge in this mine and the use of plastic body material suggests it
may have been designed for use against soft-skinned vehicles rather than armour. Operating pressure is likely to be
considerably lower than a conventional AT mine, otherwise a heavy load would split the thin plastic casing before the fuze
could function.
The mine is activated during ejection from its dispenser, after which a 30 second delay allows it to settle before arming. The
actuation mechanism is believed to be similar to that of the PFM-1. Once armed, any pressure on the mine body forces the
liquid explosive into the base of the hydraulic fuze. An internal sleeve is moved up until the striker retaining balls are allowed
to escape into a recess, releasing the spring-loaded striker on to the internal stab-sensitive detonator. The clockwork
self-destruct mechanism, which is mounted on one end of the body, has 12 settings for delays up to 20 hours.
The PTM-1S cannot be neutralised or be disarmed. It is known to be in service with the Russian Federation and several other
former Warsaw Pact countries and was reported to have been used in Afghanistan.

PTM-1S (PGMDM) anti-tank blast mine. Note end mounted clockwork mechanism
(2001)

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AIR-TO-AIR MISSILES - UNCLASSIFIED PROJECTS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES


(CIS)
Date Posted: 16 January 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

9M100 SRAAM
Fakel MKB exhibited a short-range air-to-air missile in 1996, which was about 2.5 m long with a diameter of 125 mm. The
missile had four tail control fins and no wings. It is believed to have been fitted with an imaging IR seeker and was probably in
competition with the Vympel K-30 programme. There have been no further reports about this missile and its current status is
unclear.
VERIFIED

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AIR-TO-AIR MISSILES - UNCLASSIFIED PROJECTS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES


(CIS)
Date Posted: 16 January 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

9M96 (Trieumf variant)


In 1996, Fakel MKB exhibited an active radar-guided medium-range air-to-air missile, similar to the SA-15 `Gauntlet'
surface-to-air missile, in front of an Su-27 `Flanker' aircraft. It is now known that this missile was a proposed air-to-air version
of the 9M96 Trieumf surface-to-air missile, which is considerably larger than the SA-15 missile and has been developed by
Fakel and Almaz together. There are two versions of the Trieumf missile; the 9M96 has a length of 4.75 m, a diameter of 240
mm and a launch weight of 330 kg. The 9M96/2 has a length of 5.65 m and a launch weight of 420 kg. The Trieumf missiles
can be launched as part of the SA-10 'Grumble' system, with four missiles carried in place of one SA-10 missile canister, or as
a stand-alone system with 12 missiles on a new launcher vehicle. It is believed that the active radar seeker has been developed
by AGAT. It seems more likely that the smaller of the two missiles might be adopted as an air-to-air missile, the 9M96 version,
having a 24 kg HE warhead and a 50 km maximum range. The surface-to-air missile versions have been flight tested several
times and it is believed that production will start around 2000. The air-to-air missile version has not been exhibited since 1997,
and its status is unclear, but it is expected that the programme has been terminated.
UPDATED

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AIR-TO-AIR MISSILES - UNCLASSIFIED PROJECTS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES


(CIS)
Date Posted: 16 January 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

K-30
Reports from Russia indicate that Vympel is developing a successor to the R-73 (AA-11 `Archer') short-range AAM, with a
possible in-service date of 2002. This missile is believed to have the designator K-30, although this is probably the Vympel
project number. The new missile is reported to have a fully steerable motor nozzle system, using gas dynamic control, to give
improved range and agility over the R-73. It is believed that the missile is tail controlled with no front fins and just four
rectangular wings with control surfaces at the rear. A dual mode passive radar/imaging IR seeker may be an option for this
missile, although imaging IR is the more likely selection. K-30 is expected to be cleared for carriage on MiG-29 'Fulcrum',
MiG-31 'Foxhound' and Su-27 'Flanker' aircraft.
VERIFIED

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AIR-TO-AIR MISSILES - UNCLASSIFIED PROJECTS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES


(CIS)
Date Posted: 16 January 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

Kh-31 (AS-17)
There are unconfirmed reports that the Zvezda OKB designed Kh-31 air-to-surface missile (AS-17 'Krypton') is being
developed for use against aircraft targets, using either the Kh-31A active radar or Kh-31P passive radar terminal seeker
versions. The Kh-31 missile has a ramjet motor and a range up to 100 km for Kh-31A and up to 200 km for Kh-31P. The
Kh-31 missile has been seen fitted to both Su-27IB `Flanker' and MiG-29K `Fulcrum' aircraft at recent exhibitions, and an
improved version has been developed for China. The improved version is designated KR-1, and is reported to use a passive
radar seeker and to have a range of 400 km. It is possible that the KR-1 will be built in China, and could be fitted to J-10 or
J-11 (Su-27/-30MKK 'Flanker') and used in the long-range air-to-air role.
UPDATED

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AIR-TO-AIR MISSILES - UNCLASSIFIED PROJECTS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES
(CIS)
Date Posted: 16 January 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

R-77M-PD
An improved AA-X-12 `Adder', known as R-77M-PD, is being developed by Vympel as a private venture, even though the
present design has still not been ordered by the Russian Air Force. This improved missile will have a solid propellant ramjet
motor with a maximum range of 150 km. In 1999 a model was displayed, with four air inlets for the ramjet motor, a length of
3.7 m, a body diameter of 200 mm, and a launch weight of 225 kg. The air inlets also act as small rectangular wings, providing
aerodynamic lift, and have a span of 0.39 m. This ramjet powered version has the AA-12 control system with the four
distinctive rectangular moving control fins at the rear with a span of 0.82 m. It uses the same warhead, active laser fuze and
power supply system as the AA-12. The missile has either active or passive radar seekers and might have a dual mode seeker.
The solid propellant generates gaseous fuel and oxygen, which is mixed with air prior to combustion. A variable thrust can be
produced by controlling the flow of the gas to the combustion chamber, giving a thrust variation of 7:1. The missile has a
maximum speed of 1,333 m/s, and takes around 60 seconds to fly out to 100 km. Test launches for the ramjet motor were
started in 1995 and full flight tests of the missile are reported to have started in 1998. It is believed that a surface-to-air version
with vertical launch is also being developed.
UPDATED

A ramjet powered version of AA-12 'Adder' displayed at Paris in 1999 (Duncan Lennox)
(2000)

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AIR-TO-AIR MISSILES - UNCLASSIFIED PROJECTS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES
(CIS)
Date Posted: 16 January 2001

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

AAM-L (KS-172)
Novator NPO has exhibited a long-range AAM development, with the Russian designator KS-172, since early 1993. This
missile has a launch weight of 750 kg and is 7.4 m long, including a solid propellant boost assembly that is believed to be
jettisoned after use. Guidance is inertial with updates in mid-course, followed by active radar terminal guidance. The AAM-L
design is for a 400 km range, with intercepts from 3 m to 30,000 m altitude; probably with the aim of intercepting high-flying
reconnaissance aircraft, AEW and standoff jammers as well as cruise missile launching bombers. The missile has a radar
proximity fuze and a directional HE fragmentation warhead, probably weighing about 50 kg. AAM-L is expected to be carried
by Su-27 `Flanker', Su-30 and Su-35 aircraft. The status of this programme is unclear, but the missile is not thought to be in
service. An export version, with a range of 300 km, was reported in August 1999, and it is assumed that this missile is still
available.
VERIFIED

A model of a Russian long-range AAM, KS-172, shown at Moscow in 1993 (Christopher F Foss)

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AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)
Date Posted: 04 December 2000

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 37

AT-2 `SWATTER' (9M17 SKORPION)


Type
Short-range, radio command-guided air-to-surface missiles.
Development
This second-generation Russian anti-tank missile, frequently mounted on helicopters, has been given the NATO designation
AT-2 `Swatter'. The development of this missile probably started in the late 1950s and it is believed to have the Russian
designator 9M17 and the name Skorpion. Other reports refer to a designator 3M11 Fleyta and the name Falanga, which it is
believed refers to the ground-launched version of AT-2. Clearly there have been several improvements over the years and,
while earlier versions were reported as being wire-guided, the helicopter-carried version has radio-command guidance and
some reports suggest that an infra-red terminal seeker was also developed but not put into service. A later development is
reported with semi-active laser guidance, but this has never been confirmed. AT-2 `Swatter' has been seen carried on Mi-8 `Hip
E' and Mi-24 `Hind A/D' helicopters.
Description
AT-2 has two small delta fins at the nose, and four clipped-tip delta-wings with control surfaces at the rear. The missile is 1.16
m long, has a body diameter of 132 mm, a wing span of 0.66 m and weighs 29.4 kg. Guidance is by radio-command from the
launch helicopter, with the operator keeping cross-wires in his sight over the selected target. The later version, sometimes
referred to as `Swatter C', is reported to have a Semi-Automatic Command to Line Of Sight guidance (SACLOS), to weigh 30
kg and to have an increased range of 4 km. The solid-propellant motor has two exhaust nozzles, situated at two of the rear
wingroots.
Operational Status
The original AT-2 `Swatter' entered service in the early 1960s, but has been updated over the years and AT-2 `Swatter C' is
believed to have entered service in 1968. Production probably ceased in the 1970s and it is believed that exports were made to
Afghanistan, Algeria, Belarus, Bulgaria, Cambodia, China, Cuba, Czech Republic, Ethiopia, Georgia, Hungary, India, Iraq,
North Korea, Latvia, Libya, Mongolia, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Sudan, Ukraine, Vietnam,
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) and Zambia. It is believed that AT-2 is no longer in service in Russia.
Specifications
`Swatter A/B'
Length: 1.16 m
Body diameter: 132 mm
Wing span: 0.66 m
Launch weight: 29.4 kg
Warhead: HEAT
Fuze: Impact
Guidance: Radio-command
Propulsion: Solid propellant
Range: 3 km
`Swatter C'
Length: 1.16 m
Body diameter: 132 mm
Wing span: 0.66 m
Launch weight: 30 kg
Warhead: HEAT
Fuze: Impact
Guidance: SACLOS with radio-command
Propulsion: Solid propellant
Range: 4 km
Contractor
Nudelman OKB-16.
VERIFIED

Two AT-2 `Swatter B' anti-tank missiles on the wingtip pylon of an Mi-24 `Hind D' helicopter

AT-2 `Swatter B'

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AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)
Date Posted: 08 November 2000

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 33

AS-7 `KERRY' (Kh-23/Kh-66 GROM)


Type
Short-range, command, laser and radar guided, air-to-surface missiles.
Development
The AS-7 `Kerry' is the NATO designation for this short-range missile developed from 1962. It was believed to be called Grom
in Russian use, and the initial version had the designator Kh-66, which entered service in 1968. This missile was a direct
development from the Russian AA-1 `Alkali' air-to-air missile programme, but also using some components from the AA-3
`Anab' design. Designed as a beam-riding standoff weapon, it represents the first generation of Russian tactical air-to-surface
missiles. The initial version of AS-7 was replaced by an improved version, Kh-23, which was developed in the late 1960s using
radio command guidance and entered service in 1973. A third version, designated Kh-23L, was fitted with a semi-active laser
seeker, and this entered service in 1973. A fourth version, radio command guided and designated Kh-23M, entered service in
1974, and used technology from the AS-10 `Karen' missile. A fifth version, designated Kh-23PS, was fitted with a passive
radar seeker, and was used against surface-to-air missile radars. The AS-10 `Karen' and AS-12 `Kegler' missiles were
developments from the initial AS-7 `Kerry' basic design. The AS-7 has been reported being carried by MiG-21 `Fishbed',
MiG-23B `Flogger', MiG-27 `Flogger', Su-17 and -22 `Fitter', Su-24 `Fencer', and Su-25 `Frogfoot' aircraft. The anti-radar
version, Kh-23PS, was only carried by the MiG-27 'Flogger' aircraft.

Description
The AS-7 `Kerry' has four small delta control fins at the nose and four clipped-tip delta-wings at the rear with elevators for
control. The Kh-66, Kh-23 and Kh-23M versions are 3.6 m long, have a body diameter of 280 mm and a wing span of 0.81 m.
The Kh-66 missile weighed 273 kg and had an HE hollow charge warhead weighing 103 kg. The Kh-23 and -23M missiles
weigh 286 kg and have an HE hollow charge warhead weighing 108 kg. Guidance for the earlier Kh-66 version used the
aircraft's radar in a form of beam riding, which was inaccurate. Guidance for the later Kh-23 and -23M versions is by
radio-command link, with the pilot lining the missile flare up with the target and adjusting the trajectory by use of a joystick.
This severely limits the standoff range and makes the launch aircraft vulnerable as it cannot break away until the missile has hit
the target. The aircraft-mounted system was known as Delta-N. A solid-propellant motor exhausts through sidebody nozzles
that probably contain moving control vanes. The Kh-66 and Kh-23 missiles had a maximum range of about 8 km.
The Kh-23L version has semi-active laser guidance and is slightly shorter in length at 3.59 m. Otherwise it is identical to the
Kh-23 missile and has a maximum range of 8 km. The Kh23PS, anti-radar version, has what is believed to be an X-band
passive radar seeker, although unconfirmed reports suggest that there were possibly three interchangeable seekers covering S,
C and X bands. This version has a length of 3.6 m and a maximum range of 10 km.
Operational Status
The initial Kh-66 version entered service in 1968, with the Kh-23 version following in 1973, and the Kh-23M in 1974. The
Kh-23L, semi-active laser guided version, entered service in 1973, and the Kh-23PS, anti-radar version, entered service in
1974. It is reported that the AS-7 missile was widely exported; probably to Afghanistan, Algeria, Angola, Azerbaijan, Belarus,
Bulgaria, Cambodia, Congo, Cuba, Czech Republic, Egypt, Finland, Georgia, Germany, Hungary, India, Kazakhstan, North
Korea, Libya, Nigeria, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Sudan, Syria, Ukraine, Vietnam and Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro).
AS-7 was built under licence in Romania and was given the Romanian designator A-921. It is believed that these missiles are
no longer in service in Russia, but may remain in use in other countries with some retained for training.

Specifications
Length: 3.63 m (Kh-66, -23, -23M), 3.59 m (Kh-23L), 3.6 m (Kh-23PS)
Body diameter: 280 mm
Wing span: 0.81 m
Launch weight: 273 kg (Kh-66), 286 kg (Kh-23,-23M, -23L,-23PS)
Warhead: 103 kg (Kh-66), 108 kg (Kh-23, -23M,-23L,-23PS) HE hollow charge
Fuze: Impact
Guidance: Beam riding (Kh-66), radio-command (KH-23,-23M), SAL (Kh-23L), passive radar (Kh-23PS)
Propulsion: Solid propellant
Range: 8 km (Kh-66, Kh-23, -23M, -23L), 10 km (Kh-23PS)
Contractor
It is believed that the initial Kh-66 design was by Vympel NPO, with the later Kh-23 by Zvezda-Strela, Kaliningrad.
UPDATED

Two AS-7 `Kerry' air-to-surface missiles carried on an Su-17 `Fitter H' aircraft

A Romanian-built AS-7 `Kerry' missile, given the Romanian designator A-921

AS-7 `Kerry' (Kh-23M version)

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AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)
Date Posted: 08 November 2000

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 33

AS-4 `KITCHEN' (Kh-22 BURYA)


Type
Long-range, radar-guided, air-to-surface missile.
Development
The AS-4 `Kitchen' is the NATO designation for this missile, which was developed from the late 1950s and first entered
service in 1965. The AS-4 missile has the Russian designation Kh-22, and the complete weapon system is believed to be called
Burya. Three major versions of this missile were developed. The initial Kh-22 NA version (AS-4A) had a nuclear warhead, and
was a replacement for AS-3 `Kangaroo'. The second version, Kh-22 MP (AS-4B), was developed to attack ships and ship or
land-based long-range surveillance radars. This version has a passive radar seeker and a conventional HE warhead, which can
be either HE blast/fragmentation for use against radars or HE semi-armour piercing to attack ships. A third version, designated
Kh-22 N (AS-4C), was developed to attack large ships, and this has an active radar seeker and a HE SAP warhead. Kh-22
missiles have been cleared for carriage on Tu-16 'Badger', Tu-22 `Blinder B', Tu-95K `Bear G' and Tu-22M3 `Backfire'
aircraft. The Tu-22M3 `Backfire-C' variant can carry three `Kitchen' missiles, one under each wing and one in the bomb bay.
Description
The AS-4 `Kitchen' has two delta-wings at mid-body, with delta shaped tails and fin at the rear. The tailplanes and fin are all
moving control surfaces, and the fin remains folded during aircraft carriage. The missile has a liquid propellant motor with two
combustion chambers, so that the thrust level can be varied in flight. There are two exhaust nozzles, with the upper nozzle
larger than the lower one. The maximum thrust during boost is 134 kN, and 5.9 kN during the sustainer cruise phase. The
missiles are designed for carriage and release at high altitude, with launches up to 22 km altitude, and the body, wings, fin and
tail are made from titanium alloy to withstand the high temperatures and stress. For the cruise phase, the missiles can be
pre-programmed to fly at 10 or 14 km altitude, or for a low level flight can fly at 1 km altitude. The missile makes a steep dive
down onto the target in the terminal phase. The missiles are stored in a canister, which has a weight of 3,400 kg. The Kh-22
missile is 11.67 m long, has a body diameter of 920 mm, and a wing span of 2.99 m.
The Kh-22NA (AS-4A) missile weighs 6,000 kg. Guidance is inertial throughout the flight, and the missile has a 1,000 kg
nuclear warhead, with a yield of 200 kT. This version has a maximum cruise speed of M4.0, a minimum range of 50 km and a
maximum range of 310 km.
The Kh-22 MP (AS-4B) missile weighs 5,900 kg. Guidance is inertial with a passive radar terminal seeker, and is believed to
have alternative seekers to home onto L or S band radars. Unconfirmed Russian reports indicate that a later version of the
Kh-22MP missile has a dual-mode terminal seeker, capable of switching between active and passive homing modes. This
version has a 930 kg warhead, either a HE blast/fragmentation warhead for attacking radars or a HE SAP for attacking ships.
The missile has a maximum cruise speed of M4.6, a minimum range of 15 km and a maximum range from medium altitude of
350 km. The range at low level is probably 200 km.
The Kh-22 N (AS-4C) missile weighs 5,780 kg. Guidance is inertial with an active radar terminal seeker. This version has a
930 kg HE SAP warhead for attacking large ships. The missile has a maximum cruise speed of M3.5, a minimum range of 15
km and a maximum range from medium altitude of 400 km. The range at low level is 250 km.
Operational Status
AS-4A `Kitchen' (Kh-22 NA) entered service in 1965, the AS-4B (Kh-22 MP) entered service in 1975, and the AS-4C (Kh-22
N) entered service in 1987. A modernisation programme was started in Russia in 1995, and it is assumed that some of the
missiles will have their lives extended until at least 2010. The HE warhead versions were still being offered for export in 1999.
In 1991, there were 46 Tu-95 `Bear G' aircraft remaining in service located at Ukrainka in Russia, and in excess of 100
Tu-22M3 `Backfire C' aircraft. It is believed that about 300 AS-4 `Kitchen' missiles may remain in service with Belarus,
Kazakhstan, Russia and Ukraine. An unconfirmed report in 1994 indicated that 12 Tu-22M `Backfire' bombers had been sold
to Iran, together with some AS-4 and AS-6 missiles.
Specifications
Length: 11.67 m
Body diameter: 920 mm
Wing span: 2.99 m
Launch weight: 6,000 kg (A), 5,900 kg (B), 5,780 kg (C)
Warhead: 200 kT nuclear (A), or 930 kg HE (B and C)
Fuze: Radar
Guidance: Inertial (A), Inertial with passive radar (B), inertial with active radar (C)
Propulsion: Liquid propellant
Range: 310 km (A), 350 km (B), 400 km (C)
Contractor
It is believed that Tupolev and Mikoyan (OKB-155) design bureau co-operated on the design, with production from the
Kharkov factory and Dubna Engineering Plant, Moscow. AS-4 is supported by Raduga NPO, Moscow.
UPDATED

An AS-4 air-to-surface missile being carried by a Tu-22M3 `Backfire-C' aircraft

AS-4 (Kh-22)
(1999)

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AIR-LAUNCHED ROCKETS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)
Date Posted: 16 August 2000

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 36

AIRCRAFT ROCKETS
Type
Unguided aircraft rockets
Description
Currently, the Russian Federation inventory comprises around 110 models of unguided air weapons (with various
modifications taken into account), including more than 80 per cent general purpose weapons and the remaining 20 per cent
special purpose weapons. Bombs constitute about 65 per cent of the total number of unguided air weapons in service, with
rockets and dispenser weapons more than 20 per cent.
Unguided aircraft rockets are classified according to their use as general purpose or special to type. General purpose rockets
are designed to engage single small targets (soft, hard, armoured) and enemy personnel. Aircraft rockets in service with the
Russian Federation armed forces have the following types of warheads: high explosive (F), fragmentation (C), high
explosive-fragmentation (OF), HEAT-fragmentation (KO), tandem charge (T), penetration (B), flechette (S), fuel-air explosive
(D), illumination (O) and chaff (P) warheads.
The rocket calibre is the maximum diameter of its motor expressed in millimetres. The rockets most commonly used and
currently operational with the Russian Federation have calibres of 57, 80, 122, 240 and 266 mm, and are respectively
designated S-5, S-8, S-13, S-24 and S-25. Some other Russian rocket types are detailed in the Unclassified Projects section.
The rocket designation is usually followed by letters indicating the warhead type. For example, S-8 KO means an 80 mm
rocket with HEAT-fragmentation warhead, while S-25-OF indicates a 266 mm rocket with HE-fragmentation warhead.
Details of the S-5, S-8 and S-13 are covered by separate entries. However, only limited information is available on the S-24
and S-25 rockets. There is only one known 240 mm rocket designated S-24B, indicating a HE concrete piercing (penetration)
weapon. The rocket has the general appearance of a long slender bomb with four fixed rectangular fins at the rear end. The
nose mounted 125 kg warhead is shaped like a penetration bomb, and is fitted with a sharply pointed delayed action contact
fuze. At launch the S-24B is 2.22 m long, has a motor body diameter of 240 mm and at launch weighs 232 kg. The motor has a
burn time of 1.1 seconds and gives the rocket a maximum speed of 410 m/s and a firing range of 2 to 3 km. The S-24B is
launched from a single-rail launcher designated APU-68, and has been fitted to MiG-21 'Fishbed' aircraft and Mi-24 and Mi-35
'Hind' helicopters.
There are two known S-25 aircraft rockets, designated S-25-C and S-25-OF, indicating fragmentation and fragmentation/HE
weapons. From pictures and drawings released in 1996 the S-25 rockets appear to have no rear stabilising fins. The nose
mounted 151 kg warhead of the S-25-C is shaped like a grenade, has a pointed nose fuze and a prefragmented steel body with a
diameter of 420 mm. At launch the S-25-C is 3.76 m long, has a motor body diameter of 266 mm and weighs 385 kg. The
motor has a burn time of 1.95 to 2.86 seconds, which gives the rocket a maximum speed of 540 m/s and a firing range of 2 to 3
km. The nose mounted 150 kg warhead of the S-25-OF has a 340 mm diameter cylindrical body with a long cone shaped nose
with a rounded nose fuze. The S-25-OF is 3.56 mm long, has a motor body diameter of 266 mm and at launch weighs 380 kg.
The motor has a burn time of 1.95 to 2.86 seconds and gives the rocket a maximum speed of 550 m/s and a firing range of 2 to
3 km. The S-25 rockets are launched from a single-rail launcher designated PU-O-25 and have been cleared for launching from
Su-17 'Fitter', Su-24M 'Fencer' and Su-25 'Frogfoot' aircraft. A modified S-25 rocket was adapted as an air-to-surface missile,
using a semi-active laser seeker from the AS-10 'Karen' missile. This is described in the Air-to-Surface missiles section.
NEW ENTRY

A S-24 unguided aircraft rocket displayed at Paris in 1995 between (left) a KMG-U dispenser pod and
(right) a GUV helicopter gun pod (Duncan Lennox)
(2000)

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BOMBS - UNCLASSIFIED PROJECTS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)
Date Posted: 16 August 2000

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 36

NOSAB-100TM Signal Bomb


The NOSAB-100TM signal bomb was first offered for export at the International Exhibition of Weapons and Military
Technology, Idex 93. It was originally developed in order to provide the Russian Federation and allied air forces with a target
marking system for use during night operations. NOSAB stands for nochnaya orientirno signal'naya aviatsionnaya bomba
meaning 'night orientation marker aircraft bomb'. The bomb has a cylindrical body fitted with 250 mm spaced suspension lugs,
a conical nose and a four-fin and ring tail unit similar to those used on many conventional Russian Federation bombs. The tail
unit contains a retarding parachute system. The NOSAB-100TM is 1.5 m long, has a body diameter of 240 mm and weighs 100
kg. It can be released from an aircraft at altitudes between 130 and 20,000 m at speeds up to 2,300 km/h. It is reported the flare
is visible out to a range of 50 km. In 1996 it was offered for export by the Bazalt Research and Production Enterprise. There
are no known exports.
NEW ENTRY
Line diagram of a Russian Federation NOSAB-100TM signal bomb
(2000)

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BOMBS - UNCLASSIFIED PROJECTS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)


Date Posted: 16 August 2000

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 36

Nuclear Bombs
The Russian Federation classifies their nuclear bombs in two categories: strategic, which carry the designation letter 'N'; and
tactical weapons carrying the designation 'TN'. It is not known how many types of the 'N' class strategic nuclear bombs are still
held in the Russian Federation inventory. It is believed that 5, 20 and even perhaps 50 megaton yield weapons could be carried
by long range heavy bombers, such as the Tu-95 'Bear H', (three bombs per aircraft), and Tu-160 'Blackjack' (probably four or
six bombs per aircraft), and by medium range bombers such as the Tu-22M 'Backfire' (two bombs per aircraft).
It is reported that there were at least 14 different types of TN classified bombs, but there is only data available on two. They
are a 1,000 kg weapon with a yield of 350 kT that is designated TN-1000, and a 700 kg weapon with a yield of 250 kT. There
is also a TN-1200 for which no other details are available. As well as the medium range bombers listed above, some of the
following tactical aircraft were also qualified to carry two of these weapons: MiG-27 'Flogger' and possibly MiG-29 'Fulcrum',
plus the Su-24 'Fencer' and possibly Su-27 'Flanker'. Anti-submarine nuclear bombs are covered in the same TN category, and
it is known that two such bombs could have been carried by the Be-12 'Mail', Il-38 'May' and Tu-142 'Bear-F', and one each on
the Ka-25 'Hormone-A', Ka-27 'Helix-A' and M-14 'Haze-A' helicopters.
NEW ENTRY

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BOMBS - UNCLASSIFIED PROJECTS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)


Date Posted: 16 August 2000

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 36

Chemical Dispensers
Since the Second World War, Russia has developed a large number of chemical weapons, several of which are covered in
separate entries within the Bombs section. However, there is insufficient information on the following three aircraft-carried
chemical dispensers to merit a full entry.
The AK-2 is a dispenser weapon that is loaded with 240 × 1 kg bomblets, which are filled with a mixture of mustard gas and
Lewisite.
The VAP-200 weighs a nominal 200 kg, and is filled with persistent Toxic-B agents.
The VAP-1000 (BATT) dispenser weighs a nominal 1,000 kg when filled with 700 litres (154 gallons) of stabilised
hydrogen cyanide. This weapon is normally carried by aircraft in groups of four, and dispensed from low-altitude spraying into
the air over the battlefield.
VERIFIED

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BOMBS - UNCLASSIFIED PROJECTS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)
Date Posted: 16 August 2000

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 36

P-50T Practice Bomb


The P-50T was first displayed and offered for export at the International Exhibition of Weapons and Military Technology,
Idex 93. It was originally developed in order to provide the Russian Air Force with a practice bomb designed to improve
training conditions for pilots by the better simulation of actual delivery conditions. The P-50T has a canister-shaped body, with
a conical blunt nose and a conical four-fin drum tail unit similar to that used on many Russian conventional bombs. The bomb,
which is fitted with a single suspension lug, is 2.03 m long, has a body diameter of 203 mm, tailspan of about 0.25 m and
weighs 50 kg. The bomb's nose-mounted fuze has what appears to be an arming vane, believed to be used in the timing
operation of the contact fuze system. The main body compartment is said to contain three signalling elements that give off both
light and smoke. The burning time of the element is 7 seconds, has a luminous intensity of 1,200,000 candle power and can be
seen from 4 km. The bomb can be delivered at altitudes between 200 to 25,000 m and at speeds up to 2,500 km/h. It was
offered for export by VO GED General Export for Defence, Russia.
VERIFIED

Line drawing of the Russian P-50T practice bomb

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ANALYSIS - COUNTRY INVENTORIES - IN DEVELOPMENT, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED


STATES (CIS)
Date Posted: 16 August 2000

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 36

Underwater
AAM ASM Bombs Guns Rockets
Weapons
AAM-L (KS-172) AS-19 `Koala' GSh-301
AA-10 (R-27AE) KAB-500Kr (powered)
AA-X-13 (R-37) Kh-65SE
Kh-31 variant Kh-101
9 M100 Kh-38
K-30 Kh-SD
R-77M-PD KR-1 (AS-17 plus)
Kh-36
Kh-37
Alfa 3M 51
AT-X-15
3M55 Yakhont
Kh-41 Moskit

UPDATED

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ANALYSIS - COUNTRY INVENTORIES - IN SERVICE, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)
Date Posted: 16 August 2000
Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 36

Underwater
AAM ASM Bombs Guns Rockets
Weapons
AS-4 `Kitchen' AO Frag 2A42 30 mm ARS-212 212 mm AMD-500 Mine
AS-7 `Kerry' AOKh 9A-4273 Pod B-8V20A 80 mm Pod AMD-1000
AS-10 `Karen' BetAB B-8M1 80 mm Pod AMG-1 Mine
AA-6 `Acrid' AS-11 `Kilter' BRAB AT AM-23 23 mm B-13L 122 mm Pod ARP-2E Torpedo

AA-7 `Apex' AS-12 `Kegler' Chemical Spray


GSh-6-23 23 mm C-25D 265 mm Cluster Bay Mine
Tanks
AA-8 `Aphid' AS-13 `Kingbolt' FAB-250/-500 GP GSh-6-30 30 mm M-100 137 mm Cluster Gulf Mine
FAB-1000/1500 GP
AA-9 `Amos' AS-14 `Kedge' FAB-250ShN GSh-23 23 mm S-5 57 mm Type E45 Torpedo
AA-10 `Alamo' AS-15 `Kent' FAB 500ShN/T GSh-301 30 mm S-8 80 mm Type E53 Torpedo
GShG 7.62 mm Gun

GSh-2-30 (AO-17A)

AA-11 `Archer' AS-16 `Kickback' FAB-M43 NPPU-280 Turret S-13 122 mm 3SV Bomb
AA-12 `Adder' AS-17 `Krypton' FAB-M46 NR-23 23 mm S-16 160 mm RPK Zapad
SA-7 `Grail' AS-18 `Kazoo' FAB-M54 NR-30 30 mm S-21 220 mm APSET-95 Torpedo
SA-14 `Gremlin' AS-20 `Kayak' FAB-M62 NS-23 23 mm S-24 240 mm MDM-3/4/5 Mine
SA-16 `Gimlet' AT-3 `Sagger' FOZAB-500 NS-37 37 mm S-25 325 mm Shkval Torpedo
FZAB-500 UMGT-1 Torpedo
SA-18 `Grouse' AT-6/9 `Spiral' KAB-500L LGB SPPU-6 Pod TRS-190 190 mm
AT-12 'Swinger' KAB-500Kr SPPU-22 Pod UB-8-57 57 mm Pod
AT-16 KAB-1500L LGB UBK 12.7 mm UB-16-57 57 mm Pod
S-25LD KhAB Chemical UPK-23 Pod UB-19-57 57 mm Pod
KhAB-25 GUV Pod UB-32-57 57 mm Pod
KhAB-100 USPU-24 Turret
KhAB-200 YakB-12.7 mm
KhAB-500 AIC-17
KMG-U Dispenser
KraB-25 PV-23 23 mm
ODAB-500 PM
OFAB
OFZAB-500
OKT-1.5 Bomblet
P-50T
PFM-1 Bomblet
PROSAB-250
RBK-250/275 Cluster
RBK-500 Cluster
RBK-500 AO-2.5
RTM
Cluster
RBK-500 BetAB
Cluster
RBK-500 PTAB-1M
Cluster
RBK-500
ShOAB-0.5 Cluster
RBK-500 SPBE
Cluster
RBK-500 SPBE-D
Cluster
RBK-500 U Clusters
ZAB-100/-250
Incendiary
ZB-500
AK-2
VAP-200
VAP-1000

UPDATED

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BOMBS - UNCLASSIFIED PROJECTS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)
Date Posted: 16 August 2000

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 36

KRAB-25 YaD
The toxic smoke bomb, (Kuryashchaya Aviabomba Yadovitogo Dyma) KRAB-25 YaD is believed to date back to the early
1950s, with only one known type in service. This bomb has been used to lay toxic smoke over the enemy, with a view to
wearing them down, to impede their movements and impair the accuracy of their fire. KRAB-25 YaD consists of a blunt nose
section, a 5 mm thick cylindrical centre section, tailcone, fin assembly, filling/discharge tube and a inner casing. The nose
section is turned and provided with a threaded opening for insertion of the fuze. The centre section is welded to the nose
section and contains the perforated inner casing that serves as the receptacle for the toxic smoke mixture. The four rectangular
fins are attached around the filling and discharge tube, which is welded to the conical tailcone. The bomb is suspended by a
single lug located 260 mm from the nose, near the centre of gravity. The KRAB-25 YaD is around 0.88 m long, has a
maximum body diameter of 203 mm, a fin span of 0.22 m and when filled weighs around 34 kg. The filling for the KRAB-25
YaD consists of three parts: the ignition charge, combustion charge and approximately 2.7 kg of `KIN-2' (Adamsite Mixture)
toxic smoke. When dropped from an altitude of 2,000 m, the KRAB-25 YaD takes approximately 21 seconds to impact. Upon
impact the AGM-1 or AM-B fuze activates the ignition charge which ignites the combustion charge, initiating the production
of toxic smoke. With a wind speed of 3 to 4 m/s one KRAB-25 YaD will produce a smoke cloud 500 to 1,000 m long, 50 to
60 m wide and 15 to 20 m high.
VERIFIED

A line drawing of the Russian KRAB-25 YaD toxic smoke bomb

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BOMBS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)


Date Posted: 21 July 2000

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 36

GENERAL NOTES - RUSSIAN FEDERATION BOMBS


Currently, the Russian Federation inventory comprises about 100 types of unguided air weapons (with various modifications
taken into account), including more than 80 per cent general purpose weapons and the remaining 20 per cent special purpose
weapons. Aircraft bombs constitute about 65 per cent of the total number of unguided air weapons in service, rockets and
dispenser weapons 20 per cent, and ammunition for aircraft guns and machine guns about 15 per cent.
Unguided aircraft bombs have the following main characteristics: size, dimensions, weight, filler, range of permissible
combat employment conditions and combat effectiveness.
These include high-explosive bombs, incendiary bombs, cluster bombs, penetration bombs and universal submunitions
dispensers filled with bomb-loaded units (BLUs).
In terms of destructive effect and application, general purpose air bombs are divided into the following types:
. Demolition bombs (FAB) and aerosol (fuel-air) explosive bombs (ODAB). FAB stands for fugasnaya aviabomba
meaning `aerial demolition bomb'. ODAB stands for obyomno-detoniruyushchaya aviatsionnaya bomba meaning
`volume-detonation aircraft bomb'. The Russian Federation have long been major exponents of thin-walled weapons
with a high explosive/casing ratio in order to provide maximum blast effect at expense of fragmentation. Demolition
bombs are designed to destroy targets primarily by the blast wave and only have a small fragmentation blast.
b. Fragmentation bombs (AO) AO stands for aviabomba øskolochaya meaning `aerial fragmentation bomb'. There are
also pellet fragmentation bombs designated (ShOAB). These bombs are intended to engage personnel, soft-skinned and
lightly armoured targets. The Russian Federation inventory comprises mainly small-size AO bombs (0.5, 1.0, 2.5 and 10
kg) which are used as payloads for cluster bombs and submunition dispensers.
c. General purpose bombs (OFAB). OFAB stands oskolochno-fugasnaya aviatsionnaya bomba meaning
`fragmentation/high-explosive aircraft bomb'. These bombs are normally high-drag weapons and are designed for use
against personnel, combat material, industrial targets and other facilities.
d. Incendiary bombs (ZAB) and General-purpose incendiary bomb (FOZAB). ZAB stands for zazhigatelnaya
aviatsionnaya bomba meaning `incendiary aircraft bomb'. These weapons are designed to destroy by fire, industrial
facilities, depots, railway stations, trains, urban and rural buildings, as well as personnel. There are also incendiary
(napalm) aerodynamic tank containers, designated ZB.
e. Penetration bombs (BetAB). BetAB stands for betonoboynaya aviatsionnaya bomba meaning `concrete-piercing
aircraft bomb'. These bombs are designed to destroy targets heavily protected with reinforced concrete, airfield runways
and other fortified facilities.
f. Anti-tank bombs (PTAB). PTAB stands for protivo-tankovaya aviatsionnaya bomba meaning anti-tank aircraft bomb.
These bombs are intended to defeat armoured targets such as tanks, infantry combat vehicles, APCs and other armoured
facilities. The Russian Federation inventory comprises 1 and 2.5 kg size anti-tank bombs including PTAB-1M,
PTAB-2.5KO and PTAB-2.5. These are used as payloads for RBK-250 and RBK-500 cluster bombs as well as in
submunition dispensers. The family of anti-tank bombs includes active submunitions SPBE and SPBE-D for use in
cluster bombs and provided with an IR seeker, parachute system and penetrator to defeat heat-emitting armoured targets
from above.
g. Miscellaneous bombs. There are several other bombs and associated payloads produced for use by the Russian
Federation and its allied air forces for which there is no other information. These include the following;
1. ANAB (aero navigatsionnaya aviatsionnaya bomba) meaning `air navigation aircraft bomb'.
2. DAB meaning `underwing smoke dispenser'.
3. DOSAB (dvevnaya orientirno signal'naya aviatsionnaya bomba) meaning `day orientation marker aircraft
bomb'.
4. DVAB meaning `battlefield smoke aircraft bomb'.
5. FoTAB (fotograficheskaya aviatsionnaya bomba) meaning `photographic aircraft bomb'.
6. NOSAB (nochnaya orientirno signal'naya aviatsionnaya bomba) meaning `night orientation marker aircraft
bomb'.
7. SAB (svetyashayasya aviatsionnaya bomba) meaning `illuminating aircraft bomb'.
8. TsOSAB (tsvetnaya orientirno signal'naya aviatsionnaya bomba) meaning `coloured night marker aircraft
bomb'.
Russian Federation bombs are classified by size (which need not be the actual weight). Currently, the following sizes are
established for aircraft bombs: 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 250, 500, 1,500, 3,000, 5,000 and 9,000 kg. The size of a bomb is
indicated in the abbreviated marking, following its abbreviated type designation. In cases where the air bomb/cluster bomb
weight differs significantly from the rated value, the actual weight may be indicated in the abbreviated designation after the
size. The abbreviated designation of cluster bombs contains the designation of the payload submunitions. In a number of cases
the abbreviated bomb designation may contain special indices explaining the features of design or combat use. For example,
FAB-1500-2600 TS means a thick wall 1,500 kg size demolition bomb weighing 2,600 kg; OFAB-250ShN designates a
low-level ground-attack 250 kg size general purpose bomb, FAB-500M-62 implies a 500 kg size demolition bomb, which
entered service in 1962, and so on.
UPDATED

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UNMANNED AIR VEHICLES - UNCLASSIFIED PROJECTS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED


STATES (CIS)
Date Posted: 21 July 2000

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 36

Tu-243
Tupolev exhibited a model of its proposed Tu-243 reconnaissance UAV at the 1995 Paris Air Show. This appears to be similar
in size and shape to the earlier T-143/DR-3, but with improved sensors and an increased range. The Tu-243 will be 8.06 m
long, have a wing span of 2.25 m and a launch weight (excluding a solid-propellant boost motor) of 1,400 kg. The boost motor
weighs an additional 200 kg.
The turbojet-powered UAV can carry IR and TV cameras a range of 360 km at a speed of 900 km/h at altitudes between 50
and 5,000 m. It is believed that development has been completed, but that no production orders have yet been made.
UPDATED

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UNMANNED AIR VEHICLES - UNCLASSIFIED PROJECTS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED
STATES (CIS)
Date Posted: 21 July 2000

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 36

E85/E95
The Russian unmanned air vehicle known as the ENICS 85, was first seen by the West when it was shown at the 1992 Moscow
Air Show. It was displayed by a Kazan-based company called ENICS (Experiments New Ideas Co-operation Science) and
advertised as a remotely piloted vehicle, target drone/cruise missile or guided bomb. ENICS is co-located with the Sokol
Design Bureau, began operating in 1988, and is probably a private venture using some earlier design experience. Nothing is
known of the vehicle's development other than the fact that the engine was developed by ENICS as part of a family of straight
and U-form pulse jet engines. The ENICS 85 is designed to be air launched and is very similar in appearance to a cruise
missile. The vehicle has two narrow tapered wings, with swept up tips, mounted under the fuselage at mid-body and a
conventional all-flying tail arrangement. There are two air intakes for the pulse jet engine, one on either side of the fuselage
just forward of the horizontal tailplanes. The engine has two exhausts, situated on top of the fuselage on either side and to the
rear of the vertical fin. The E85 is 3.05 m long, has a wing span of 2.0 m, a launch weight of 120 kg and a speed range of 250
to 600 km/h. The payload is 40 kg. The guidance system uses GPS and preprogrammed way-points, or the UAV can be radar
tracked and command guided. The pulse jet engine operates at 120 Hz, has an electronic starter and gives the E85 an estimated
range of 70 km when operating at altitudes between 200 and 3,000 m.
A second ENICS design, displayed in 1995, was for an E95 UAV. It is 2.1 m long and has a wing span of 2.4 m. The launch
weight is 60 kg, including a payload of 12 kg. Powered by a small pulse jet engine, the E95 reaches a speed of 220 km/h and
has a range of 200 km.
UPDATED

An E85 air-launched target drone (Charles Bickers)


(1998)

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UNMANNED AIR VEHICLES - UNCLASSIFIED PROJECTS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED
STATES (CIS)
Date Posted: 21 July 2000

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 36

Tu-143/DR-3 Reys/Tu-141
The Tu-143, which belongs to the DR-3 Reys (Dalniy Razvedchik-3/long-range scout-3) Voyage system is a jet-powered
tactical reconnaissance UAV, developed by the Tupolev OKB-116 Design Bureau. Development is believed to have started in
the early 1970s, to meet the Russian Air Force requirement for a UAV replacement for the earlier TBR-1 UAV, a modified
version of the La-17MM aerial target, which was withdrawn from service in 1973. It is reported that the DR-3 Reys system
includes both air-launched and ground-launched vehicles. It had been thought that the Tu-143 vehicle was a Chelomei Design
Bureau drone derived from the SS-N-3 `Shaddock' anti-ship missile, but more recent information indicates it is of Tupolev
design. The UAV is configured with rear-mounted clipped delta-wings and small canard delta fins positioned in the long
pointed nose that has a probe. The air intake for the TR-3-117 turbojet is located above the rear half of the fuselage, with a
large recovery parachute system in an ogival fairing behind it and between the vertical fin and engine exhaust. The Tu-143 is
8.29 m long, has a main body diameter of 610 mm, a wing span of 2.25 m and weighs 1,400 kg at launch. Guidance is
preprogrammed and the vehicle flies at speeds of between 850 and 940 km/h, at altitudes normally between 50 and 5,000 m,
with a maximum range of around 360 km. When ground launched, the DR-3 Reys vehicle uses a solid-fuel rocket booster for
take-off.
Series production of the DR-3 system started in 1973 and continued until 1989, with a total of 1,000 vehicles built. In 1996
about a third of these were still in Russian service as the standard Russian Air Force tactical reconnaissance/surveillance UAV
system, but are reported as being phased out. The system was exported to several former Warsaw Pact countries in the early
1980s and some are still used in the Ukraine. Czechoslovakia, where it is called the VR-3 Rejs, received the system in 1984.
The DR-3 was also supplied to Syria in 1984 and was reported to have been used by Iraq for flights over Iran in the 1980-88
Iran-Iraq War.
In the late 1970s, Tupolev introduced an extended-range UAV for the system, known as the Tu-141 (KR-17) Strizh. This
version was similar in shape but was considerably larger than the Tu-143, with a length of 14.33 m, a span of 3.87 m and a
launch weight of 6,215 kg. The Tu-141 is powered by an R9A-300/KR-17A engine and has a significantly longer range of
1,000 km. It was accepted into service in 1983 and 152 UAVs were built. Tu-141 were still being offered for export in 1997.
UPDATED

A line diagram of the Russian DR-3 Reys UAV, without a boost motor

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UNMANNED AIR VEHICLES - UNCLASSIFIED PROJECTS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED
STATES (CIS)
Date Posted: 21 July 2000

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 36

Dan (Tribute)
The Dan aerial target system has been developed by the Sokol Design Bureau as a replacement for the 1950s' vintage La-17
UAV and is manufactured by the Strela Production Association of Orenburg in Russia. It was first unveiled at the 1993
Moscow Air Show, and although promoted as an aerial target system to emulate tactical aircraft and cruise missiles, the Dan
was reportedly initially designed as an anti-radar drone similar to the US AGM-136 Tacit Rainbow. The Dan aerial vehicle,
which is similar in appearance to a small cruise missile, is powered by an MD-120 turbojet and launched with rocket
assistance. It is 4.6 m long, has a body diameter of 450 mm, a wing span of 2.68 m and weighs 345 kg at take-off. Guidance
can be preprogrammed or by radio-control. The Dan flies at speeds of between 300 km/h and 710 km/h and at altitudes of 50 to
9,000 m, with an endurance varying from 25 to 40 minutes. The Dan, which is recovered by parachute, has a maximum life of
10 missions.
Additional system elements include the launcher vehicle and associated ground support equipment, together with a control
station and radars for surveillance and target trajectory measurement.
The prototype flew for the first time in January 1993 and the target is reported to have entered production at the end of 1994.
The system has been offered for export from 1995 to 1998, but there are no known export orders.
UPDATED

The Russian Dan air target (Steven Zaloga)

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AIR-LAUNCHED ROCKETS - UNCLASSIFIED PROJECTS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED


STATES (CIS)
Date Posted: 21 July 2000

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 36

Aircraft Rockets
The former Soviet Union is reported to be one of the first users of unguided rockets for both air-to-air and air-to-surface use.
Development is believed to have started during the Russian Civil War. Early rockets produced were 75 mm (2.95 in) for
air-to-air use, and 82 mm (3.23 in) and 130 mm (5.2 in) calibres for air-to-surface. These weapons are reported to have been
used by the former Soviet Union against Japan in 1938-39, and again during Second World War. Development of Russian
air-launched rockets continued after the Second World War, the most important of these weapons being the M-100, TRS-190
and ARS-212 which were fired from single underwing launchers from aircraft such as the MiG-19 `Farmer'.
In more recent years, Russian air-launched unguided rockets have all carried the `S' designation. The best known of these are
the 57 mm S-5, 80 mm S-8 and the 130 mm S-13, all three of which are covered in separate entries in the Russian section,
other identified types are listed below.
. 137 mm - known as M-100, with launch weight of 15.6 kg
b. 160 mm - no information available except designation (S-16) and the fact that it can be launched from the Mi-24 `Hind
A' helicopter
c. 190 mm - designated TRS-190, has a launch weight of 46 kg and could be launched from the MiG-19 `Farmer' aircraft
d. 212 mm - designated the ARS-212, has a launch weight of 116 kg, and was used with the MiG-19 `Farmer' aircraft
e. 220 mm - little data available but some sources report the existence of a 220 mm rocket known as the Si-21 used with
the Mi-24 `Hind A' helicopter
f. 265 mm - designated C-25D, is 3.55 m long and weighs 58 kg
g. 325 mm - no details available.
UPDATED

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AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES - UNCLASSIFIED PROJECTS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED
STATES (CIS)
Date Posted: 13 May 2000

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 36

Yakhont 3M55
Yakhont is the export name for a new air-to-surface anti-ship missile first displayed in 1999. The missile, which has the
Russian designator 3M55, has been in development since 1985 by NPO Mashinostroenia as the Oniks system.
The NATO designators for the Oniks system are SS-NX-26 for the ship-launched version, and SSC-X-5 for the coastal
defence version. The export variant of the ship-launched missile is called Yakhont, and the coastal defence version is called
Bastion. It was thought that the 3M55 missile would be too heavy for air-launch, but flight trials are expected to start as soon as
an export order has been placed.
A modified version of the Yakhont missile is being offered for the ASM role, with a length of 8.3 m, a body diameter of 670
mm and, a launch weight of 2,550 kg. The missile has a 200 kg HE warhead, probably an SAP type. This version has covers
over the ramjet air inlet and rear nozzle exhaust for air carriage which are jettisoned at launch. The missile itself has a ramjet
air inlet at the nose, with a radar antenna inside the nose cone assembly. There are four clipped-tip delta wings aft of the
mid-body, and four moving delta control fins at the rear. The ramjet exhaust is straight through the boat tail. Yakhont cruises at
M 2.6 at around 15 km altitude, or at M 2.0 at low level. Mid-course guidance is inertial, with a dual mode active/passive radar
for the terminal phase. A land attack version may be developed later, with INS/GPS guidance. The missile has a radar altimeter
to control the low level cruise at 5 to 10 m altitude, and pre-programmed evasive manouevres can be made during the terminal
phase to avoid air defences. The ASM version is reported to have a maximum range of 500 km when cruising at high level, or
200 km when at low level. The missile is expected to be fitted to MiG-29 'Fulcrum', Su-27/-30/-32 'Flanker' aircraft, and it is
believed to be aimed specifically at exports to India or China.

An air-to-surface version of the Russian 3M55 Yakhont missile, displayed in 1999 (Piotr Butowski)
(2000)

NEW ENTRY

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AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES - UNCLASSIFIED PROJECTS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED


STATES (CIS)
Date Posted: 13 May 2000

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 36

Kh-37
There have been reports that an improved version of the Kh-35 missile (AS-20 'Kayak') is being developed, with the Russian
designator Kh-37. This missile will have a longer range, possibly 250 km, and the ability to attack land targets as well as ships.
It is reported that the Kh-37 has INS/GPS mid-course guidance, with an imaging IR terminal phase seeker.
NEW ENTRY

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AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES - UNCLASSIFIED PROJECTS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED


STATES (CIS)
Date Posted: 13 May 2000

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 36

Kh-36
A report in 1999 stated that a Kh-36 air-to-surface missile was being developed in the Russian Federation, and that it would be
fitted with either a TV or imaging IR seeker. This missile is expected to be carried by MiG-29 'Fulcrum' and Su-27 'Flanker'
aircraft.
NEW ENTRY

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AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES - UNCLASSIFIED PROJECTS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED


STATES (CIS)
Date Posted: 13 May 2000

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 36

Kh-101
In October 1995, it was reported that Russia was testing a next-generation air-launched, conventionally armed, long-range
cruise missile at the air force's Ahktubinsk Air Weapons Centre.
The development programme, thought to have been initiated in the late 1980s, is believed to be the subsonic Raduga
Kh-101. The Kh-101 was selected as a priority system for the air force following the cancellation of the AS-19 `Koala' or
Kh-90 in 1992. The primary task for the designers has been the development of guidance and homing capable of accuracy to
around 12 to 20 m, compared with around 100 m required for a nuclear weapon. Such accuracy suggests the weapon is
intended for use against large infrastructure targets rather than hardened targets which require even greater precision. No
details of the missile design have been released, but it is believed to be 7.45 m long and weigh between 2,200 and 2,400 kg.
Guidance is thought to be inertial with GPS and terrain comparison updates, and a TV picture comparison terminal guidance
system. The guidance systems and onboard software will also be used for the new Kh-SD (srednei dalnosti - medium-range)
missile. The Kh-101 and the Kh-SD will also share the same Sigma mission planning system. The penetrating HE warhead
weighs 400 kg. The missile has a cruise altitude of between 30 and 70 m at a speed of M 0.75, although there are reports that a
high level (15 km) cruise option is also available. No details on range are available, but this is believed to be around 3,000 km.
The Kh-101 will probably be carried by Tu-160 'Blackjack' strategic bombers (12 missiles), Tu-95MS 'Bear-H' (eight missiles)
and Tu-22M5 'Backfire' (four missiles) aircraft.
UPDATED

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AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES - UNCLASSIFIED PROJECTS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED
STATES (CIS)
Date Posted: 13 May 2000

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 36

Kh-65SE/Kh-SD
A conventional cruise missile version of the AS-15 `Kent', was displayed in 1992 with an external turbojet engine mounted
beneath the rear body. This version of AS-15 was given the Russian designator Kh-65SE; the missile was 6.04 m long, had a
body diameter of 514 mm, a wing span of 3.1 m and a launch weight of 1,650 kg. A 410 kg penetrating HE warhead was
proposed, and a model of the missile shown in 1993 included a stealth design radome with an active radar terminal seeker for
use against ship targets.
The missile was being marketed by the Raduga NPO, Moscow, and was reported to have a range of 600 km. However, in
1995 a similar missile called Kh-SD (srednei dalnosti - medium range) was reported to be in development, but with a reduced
range of 300 km, and with the turbojet engine retained inside the missile body. Kh-SD is believed to have inertial mid-course
guidance with Glonass GPS and terrain comparison updates, followed by a TV picture comparison terminal guidance system.
An active radar seeker may be fitted for use against ship targets.
The Kh-SD missile is believed to cruise at M 0.75 at altitudes up to 15 km, and it is believed that the Kh-SD missile
maximum range has been increased to 600 km following a high level cruise. Several common system components are being
shared with the larger and longer range Kh-101 programme, including the Sigma mission planning system. Kh-SD missiles are
expected to be carried by Tu-95 'Bear-H' aircraft with up to 14 missiles, and by Tu-22M 'Backfire' with up to 8 missiles.
UPDATED

A Kh-65SE missile exhibited by Raduga NPO in 1992, showing the turbojet engine locked down in the
flight position (Alan Luto)

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AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES - UNCLASSIFIED PROJECTS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED


STATES (CIS)
Date Posted: 13 May 2000

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 36

Kh-38
A report in 1996 suggested that a new Russian ASM, with the designator Kh-38, was in development, with a weight around
300 kg and an imaging IR seeker.
Initial flight tests have been reported from a Su-25 `Frogfoot' aircraft, but it is expected that these missiles will be carried by
MiG-29 'Fulcrum' and Su-27 'Flanker' aircraft. However, a report in 1999 states that the Kh-38 has a passive anti-radar seeker.
It is possible that a dual mode IIR/passive radar seeker is being developed for this missile, so that non-transmitting radars can
also be attacked.
UPDATED

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AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES - UNCLASSIFIED PROJECTS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED


STATES (CIS)
Date Posted: 13 May 2000

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 36

GELA
Raduga NPO revealed its GELA (hypersonic, experimental, flying testbed) programme in August 1995. It is possible that this
trials programme was based on the earlier AS-X-19 `Koala' design. The GELA test vehicle has a single large ramjet engine,
two delta-wings, a vertical tail and a long pointed high nose above the ramjet engine air inlet. GELA was carried on a modified
Tu-95 `Bear' aircraft on two large inboard wing pylons. It is estimated that GELA is about 10.0 m long and weighs 3,500 kg. It
has been suggested that this programme is a prototype for a high-altitude supersonic cruise missile programme, but it is
believed that smaller and less expensive missiles will be developed instead. It was reported in 1998 that the GELA test vehicle
was still being used as a test bed for a future M 5.0 air-to-surface missile research programme.
UPDATED

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AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES - UNCLASSIFIED PROJECTS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED


STATES (CIS)
Date Posted: 13 May 2000

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 36

Guided Aerial Bomb KAB-500 Kr


Russia has developed a concrete-piercing TV-guided bomb, designated the KAB-500 Kr. The bomb was displayed and offered
for export at the 1992 Moscow Air Show. The basis of the system is the KAB-500, a 350 kg general purpose free-fall bomb,
fitted with a laser nose-mounted guidance system and with associated control surfaces fitted to its rear end.
The KAB-500 Kr has a TV-guidance seeker similar to the one used on the AS-14 `Kedge' air-to-surface missile, and four
fixed-clipped triangular stabilising fins fitted to the front end behind the guidance section. There is a strake running along the
bottom of the bomb to the rear end command datalink antenna. The add-on tail section has four large clipped triangular fins,
with elevator-type control surfaces. The KAB-500 Kr is 3.05 m long, has a body diameter of 350 mm, a tailspan of 0.85 m and
weighs 560 kg. Guidance is by TV-command, and the launch aircraft would carry a TV receiver and designator pod probably
similar to that used for the TV-guided version of the Russian AS-14 `Kedge'. Unconfirmed reports suggest that a powered
version has been designed, similar in concept to the US AGM-130, and that this may enter service around 2000.
VERIFIED

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AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES - UNCLASSIFIED PROJECTS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED


STATES (CIS)
Date Posted: 13 May 2000

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 36

AT-X-15 (Chrysanthemum)
Development started in 1990 for a new anti-tank guided missile, but details were not released until 1996. KBM Engineering
Design Bureau (Kolomna NPO) has developed the Chrysanthemum ATGW system, believed to has been given the NATO
designator AT-X-15. The new missile is similar in appearance to the earlier AT-12 (9M120 Vikhr) but with four moving
rectangular tailfins at the rear of the missile located behind four wrap-around stabilising fins and two motor exhaust nozzles.
The missile has a solid propellant motor with exhaust nozzles on the side body, just aft of the stabilising fins. A data link
antenna is at the rear of the missile. Chrysanthemum has the Russian designator 9M 123. The missile is 2.06 m long, has a
body diameter of 150 mm, and a launch weight of around 45 kg.
There are two guidance modes; a CLOS using a millimetric-wave radar on the launch vehicle to track both the target and the
missile, or a laser beam rider mode with a laser designator mounted on the launch vehicle. There are also two warhead options,
either HEAT or HE, depending on the target, and unconfirmed reports suggest that a fuel-air explosive warhead may also be
developed for soft targets. AT-X-15 has a maximum range of 6 km, and a maximum velocity of 400 m/s.
The initial development programme has been to fit AT-X-15 to a converted BMP-3 tracked chassis (Russian designator 9M
157P), with a two-man crew and carrying a two missile launcher assembly that can be raised and lowered. It is believed that a
helicopter-launched version is also in development, and that the missile might be fitted to Mi-24 `Hind', Mi-28 `Havoc', Mi-35,
Ka-29 `Helix', Ka-50 and Ka-52 `Hokum' helicopters by 2000.
UPDATED

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AIR-TO-SURFACE MISSILES - UNCLASSIFIED PROJECTS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED
STATES (CIS)
Date Posted: 13 May 2000

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 36

Alfa
Novator NPO exhibited a new design for a supersonic air-launched, ship-launched or ground-launched cruise missile, known as
Alfa, in 1993. The Alfa missile is believed to have the Russian designator ASM-MS (air launched), but the designator for the
ground-launched version is not known. The ground-launched and ship-launched version is about 6 m long, has a body diameter
of 550 mm and weighs 2,500 kg. The missile has a 300 kg warhead, a maximum speed of M3.0, and a range of 300 km. The
air-launched version is shorter at about 5.0 m, and is believed to have the air inlet feature forward; this version has a launch
weight of 1,600 kg. Alfa has two delta-wings at mid-body and a turbojet engine with a rectangular air inlet below the
centrebody. Reports suggest that Alfa can be targeted against ships or land targets and that it has been designed to fit the
SS-NX-26 (3M55 Oniks) and SSC-X-5 ship- and ground-launched missile system canisters.
The export system names for these two missiles are Yakhont (SS-NX-26) and Bastion (SSC-X-5). A dual mode
active/passive radar seeker is in development for Alfa, believed to be the same radar used on the SS-NX-26 and SSC-X-5
missile programmes. There is also a secure digital datalink to update to the missile in flight, and also to reallocate targets in the
terminal phase. Alfa is planned for both high-altitude or low-altitude cruise profiles, depending on the enemy defences. It is
believed that mid-course guidance will be with INS/GPS. The terminal phase is flown at between 10 to 20 m altitude.
In 1996, NPO Mashinostroenia stated that the Alfa cruise missile was still in development and was not expected to enter
service until after the SS-NX-26 and SCC-X-5 projects. The Alfa programme is seen as an extension to the
SS-NX-26/SSC-X-5 programme developments, using as many similar components and interfaces as possible, and it would
appear that this programme may have been put on hold awaiting funding.
UPDATED

A model of the Russian Alfa cruise missile, exhibited in 1997 (Duncan Lennox)
(1998)

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GUNS, PODS AND MOUNTINGS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION AND ASSOCIATED STATES (CIS)
Date Posted: 13 May 2000

Jane's Air-Launched Weapons 36

GSh-23L 23 mm AIRCRAFT CANNON


Type
Twin-barrel 23 mm aircraft cannon.
Development
This twin-barrelled cannon, designated GSh-23L, designed by Gryazev and Shipunov, is of Russian design and has no known
Western equivalent. It is reported to be an application of the Gast principle, in which the breeches of two cannons are
mechanically linked so that each, in effect, drives its partner. Little is known of the GSh-23L development, other than that it is
believed to have taken place in the early 1960s and the early versions of the weapon entered service in 1969. Since then, it has
become one of the most widely used guns in the Russian inventory. Although originally designed as an internal aircraft
weapon, it was adapted for use in the GP-9 gun pod for belly-mounting. In the latter case on the MiG-21 `Fishbed E', the pod
has a capacity of 200 rounds. A later version of the GSh-23L has been adapted for mounting within a pod known as the
SPPU-22 gun pod (S'yomnaya podvizhnaya pushechynaya - detachable movable gun-system) for carriage on aircraft
underwing attachment hardpoints. In this pod the cannon is pivoted downward in order to fire on ground targets with the
aircraft flying in level flight. Another role for the GSh-23L cannon is in the UPK-23 (Unifitsirovannyi pushechnyi konteyner)
gun pod. The UPK-23 and the SPPU-22 gun pods are covered more fully in a separate entry. As an aircraft-mounted gun the
GSh-23L has been cleared for several aircraft including the MiG-21 `Fishbed' and the MiG-23/M-27 `Flogger', Tu-22M/26
`Backfire' (tail-mounted) and Tu-95 `Bear F'. In 1992 an Mi-24V `Hind-E' was seen in a modified form (Mi-24VP) with a
GSh-23L cannon in place of the usual Yak B-12.7 four-barrelled Gatling-type gun. At the 1995 Paris Air Show Russia
displayed the new Mi-35M combat helicopter. Among its weapons was a chin-mounted twin-barrel cannon which, at the time,
was reported to be an updated GSh-23L.
A Yugoslav-built model of the GSh-23L cannon with 200 rounds of ammunition is fitted in a removable ventral pod on the
G-4 Super Galeb, and two weapons are fitted in the lower nose fuselage on the Yugoslav-built Orao 1/2 (with 200 rounds) and
the Romanian-built IAR-99 Hawk (ventral pod with 200 rounds). The Polish-built I-22 Iryda has one weapon in a ventral pack
(with 200 rounds).
Description
Little is known of the GSh-23L aircraft cannon other than that it is a widely used, twin-barrel automatic and based on the Gast
principle. It weighs around 65 kg, fires 23 mm Type 1 HEI or 23 mm HEIT ammunition at a rate of 2,800 to 3,000 rds/min
with a muzzle velocity of 690 m/s or 890 m/s depending on the ammunition type. When firing HEI ammunition the weapon is
credited with an effective range of around 3,000 m.
Operational status
Models of the GSh-23L are believed to be in service with Russian and allied forces, and are offered for export. It is believed
that the GSh-23L is used by Afghanistan, Algeria, Bangladesh, Bulgaria, Cuba, Czech Republic, Ethiopia, Ghana, Hungary,
Nigeria, Poland, Romania, Syria, Thailand, Ukraine, Vietnam, and the former Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro). In 1999 a
Romanian company, ROMARM, displayed two versions of the twin-barrel GSh-23 cannon for export. The GSh-23L was fitted
with a muzzle brake, and the GSh-23 was without a muzzle brake.
Specifications
Calibre: 23 mm
Number of barrels: 2
Length: n/k
Weight: 65 kg
Rate of fire: 2,800-3,000 rds/min
Muzzle velocity: 690 or 890 m/s
Contractors
Not known.
UPDATED

The front end of a GP-9 gun pod fitted with a GSh-23L twin-barrelled 23 mm cannon

Turret-mounted GSh-23L fitted to an Mi-35 combat helicopter on display at the 1995 Paris Air Show
(Duncan Lennox)

GSh-23L cannon and a UPK-23 gun pod on display at Paris in 1997 (Peter Humphris)
(2000)

A close-up picture of the GSh-23L cannon showing the mechanically linked breeches (Peter Humphris)
(2000)

A close-up view of the GSh-23L cannon installation on an L-39 aircraft

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CONTRACTORS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION


Date Posted: 19 November 1999

Jane's Air Launched Weapons 34

Shipunov OKB
Moscow
Russian Federation
Entries: AT-12, AT-16 (ASM)

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CONTRACTORS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION


Date Posted: 19 November 1999

Jane's Air Launched Weapons 34

AGAT Research Institute


54 Malaya Gruzinskaya St
Moscow 123557
Russian Federation
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BOMBS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 19 August 1999

Jane's Air Launched Weapons 33

PROSAB-250 CLUSTER BOMB


Type
Fragmentation and area denial cluster bomb.
Development
The PROSAB-250 cluster bomb was developed in order to provide the Russian Air Force with a small cluster bomb capable of
delivering area denial submunitions. Little is known of its development, but from its general appearance it was probably
developed about the same time as the early RBK series of cluster bombs, which is thought to have been in the early 1950s. It is
unclear what the designation letters PROS stand for as they do not appear in any of the Russian designation translations that
have so far been released. The AB stands for aviatsionnaya bomba meaning `aircraft bomb' and the 250 refers to the bomb size
category. The PROSAB-250 was designed to carry 90 PROSAB submunitions/bomblets which are believed to be more like
mines than bomblets, and feature a self-destruct timing device. It has been reported that the PROSAB-250 may have also been
used for delivering the PFM-1 bomblet/minelet and OKT-1.5 bomblet (see separate entries for details). The complete cluster
bomb is designed to withstand the high g forces encountered by combat manoeuvres of high-speed attack aircraft, and is fitted
with standard Russian spaced suspension lugs. The bomb is believed to be cleared for carriage on MiG-21 `Fishbed', MiG-27
`Flogger' Su-17 and Su-22 `Fitter' aircraft of the Russian and former allied air forces.

Description
The PROSAB-250 cluster bomb has a canister shaped body, with a blunt nose and an eight-fin drum tail unit similar to that
used on many Russian conventional bombs. The bomb, which is fitted with standard Russian 250 mm spaced suspension lugs,
is estimated to be 1.85 m long, have a body diameter of 400 mm, a tailspan of about 0.43 m and when loaded weighs around
250 kg. The cluster bomb's nose section has an arming vane believed to be used in the fuze operation. There is also a small
propeller on the pointed end of the tail unit in the middle of the fins. The main body compartment holds 90 PROSAB bomblets.
These are a small cylindrical device that is 84 mm long, has a body diameter of 64 mm and contains 127 g of HE. Because of
the cluster bomb's overall weight and the fact that it holds 90 bomblets, it is estimated that the bomblets would weigh around 1
kg. The bomblets can be set to detonate on impact, but they are primarily used as a self-destruct device timed to detonate after a
set time period. The timing period is believed to be built in during manufacture and can be of various delays. It is then arranged
that the full load of 90 bomblets will contain as wide a range of time delays as possible in order to hinder clearance operations
for the longest possible time. It is also believed that the bomblet will have some type of disturbance fuze. Each PROSAB
bomblet has an indication of its self-destruct time on the body rim, usually in the form of silver dots or bands of colour.
After release from the parent aircraft the cluster bomb follows a normal spinning ballistic trajectory. At an altitude
determined by the fuzing system the outer `skin' of the container is opened and the 90 bomblets are dispersed over the target
area. The method used to dispense the bomblets is not known but it is thought to be done simply by centrifugal forces.
Operational Status
The PROSAB-250 cluster bomb is believed to be in service with Russian Federation and former allied air forces.
Specifications
Cluster bomb
Length: 1.85 m
Body diameter: 400 mm
Tailspan: 0.43 m
Lug spacing: 250 mm
Weight: 250 kg
Filling: 90 bomblets
Bomblet
Length: 0.084 m
Body diameter: 64 mm
Tailspan: n/a
Lug spacing: n/a
Weight: n/k
Filling: 127 g HE
Contractor
Not known.
VERIFIED

Line drawing of a PROSAB-250 cluster bomb


(1993)

© 1999 Jane's Information Group Duncan Lennox

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BOMBS, RUSSIAN FEDERATION
Date Posted: 19 August 1999

Jane's Air Launched Weapons 33

PFM-1 BOMBLET
Type
Submunition.
Development
The PFM-1 fragmentation bomblet was developed to meet a Russian Air Force requirement for an anti-personnel
submunition/bomblet for delivery from a variety of airborne carriers. Although the PFM-1 is referred to as a bomblet, its
sequence of operation is like that of an air distributed mine and is similar in concept to the US BLU-43B (Dragons Tooth)
minelet. It was designed to have the least number of metal parts and be filled with a liquid explosive. The bomblet has been
nicknamed `Green Parrot' by the Western media, and is known to have been used extensively in the Afghanistan conflict. It
was designed for dispensing from `onboard' containers carried by helicopters and light aircraft, but it is also believed to have
been used in RBK-250/500 and PROSAB type cluster bombs (see separate entries). There are unconfirmed reports that the
PFM-1 could also be delivered by 240 mm mortars, such as the 2S4.
Description
The PFM-1 has a most distinctive shape resembling that of a sycamore seed or butterfly. It comprises two hollow wing-like
sections, joined at a central core, and is manufactured in one piece from a pliable plastic material. The bomblet is 115 mm long
(wing span), about 50 mm wide (wing chord), and is filled with 35 to 40 g of liquid explosive. The total weight is unknown but
if the designation number follows normal Russian practices the bomblet is likely to weigh around 1 kg. When dispensed, the
PFM-1