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Munir Ahmed.

Freelance Writer,Based Abbottabad,


Myth & Reality

Ideology may be the most difficult, but the most often used concept in the social sciences,
and one that has endless sub meanings in both academic and every day discussion. 1The
concept of ideology in commonly traced back to French Philosopher Autoine Destull De
Tracy who is thought to be the first to the term in print.2He used the used the word
ideologies during French Revolution and defined it as the science of ideas meaning
thereby as the study of the origin, evolution and nature of ideas.3
Modern ideologies in the contemporary world signify certain values, norms, objectives,
goals, institutions and structure. Ideologies portray consistent program, line of action and
provide dynamism and inspiration for putting these into executive. An ideology bears
potentialities to meet the needs of the changing circumstances and capability of
adaptation and adjustment.4The need for an ideology arises out of men compulsive
striving to give some sort of structure and meaning to his experience. Beyond life’s
apparent uncertainty and chaos he seeks some sort of scheme, a plan, and an order.
Ideology provides man with the means to do so by giving him approved models of action,
goals, ideals and values. 5

Pakistan’s Ideological Foundation

Ideology Keeping in view the ideological dimensions, it is clear that every nation state
has her own which provides objectives, vision and justification to the nation state. No
doubt, Pakistan was achieved on the basis of Two Nation Theory; the propelling slogan
during the struggle for Pakistan was to establish a distinct identity of Muslim as a nation.
Islam was used as a motivating force to rally the Muslim to the cause of Pakistan
politically. And the method to achieve the goal was not a religious movement but political

Quaid-i-Azam and Ideology of Pakistan

Of the great people in history there have been some who created their own place and
grand tradition of leadership, which reflected their special genius. To their class belongs
Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founder of Pakistan. He did not have greatness
thrust upon him; he achieved greatness through the cultivation of his talents and faculties
and the building up of a character marked by sincerely, honestly, hard work and devotion
Muslim’s cause.7
Quaid-i-Azam, the father of Pakistan, was a realist who never permitted his vision to be
obscured by emotionalism. He was an ardent Muslim. He was a state man and a true
leader who always spoke in simple and straightforward manner. Some of his significant
qualities were his independence of thought, courage, integrity, ability and perseverance. 8
Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah envisioned Pakistan as a modern democratic state
to be run strictly on the basis of merit and where all citizens will be equal before the law.
Jinnah’s Ideas about what the new state should be like were very clear, as can be sear
from his speeches and statements. Before the establishment of Pakistan, the first public
picture if Pakistan that Jinnah gave to the world was in the course of an interview in New
Delhi (1946) with the correspondent of Reuter’s news agency the new state would be
modern democratic state, with sovereignty having equal rights of citizenship, regardless
of their religious, caste and creed. 9

Hence the first element of the ideology of Pakistan as laid down by Quaid-i-Azam is that
Pakistan is an ideological state not theocratic state. February 19,1948.Quaid-I-Azam
proclaimed: “Make no mistake Pakistan is not a theocracy or anything like it. Islam
depends from us the tolerance of other creeds and we welcome in closest association with
us all those who of whatever creed are themselves willing to play their part as true and
loyal citizens of Pakistan.”10
On another occasion Jinnah categorically states: The great majority of us are Muslims.
We follow the teachings of Prophet Muhammad (S.A.W). We are members of the
brotherhood of Islam in which all are in equal right, dignity and self-respect.
Consequently, we have a special and a very deep sense of unity. But make no mistake:
Pakistan is not a theocracy or anything like it.” 11
August 11,1947. Jinnah, in his memorable speech to the Constituent Assembly of
Pakistan stated the principle on which the new state was to be founded. He said: “You
may belong to any religion or caste or creed – that has nothing to do with the business of
the state…We are starting with this fundamental principle that we are citizens of one
state… in the course of time Hindus would cease to be Hindus and Muslims would cease
to be Muslims, not in the religious sense, because that is the personal faith of the each
individual, but in the political sense as citizens of the state.” 12
Pakistan is a result of democratic political movement; it is great reality that after passing
historic Lahore Resolution, Quaid-i-Azam Struggled to get the support from Muslims on
the question of Pakistan; fruits came when All India Muslim League showed remarkable
victory in the election of 1945-46.Hence the second element of Ideology of Pakistan is
In February 1948,in his broadcast speech to the people of the United States, Mr.Jinnah
said: The constitution of Pakistan has yet to be framed by the Pakistan Constituent
Assembly. I do not know what the ultimate shape of this constitution is going to be, but I
am sure that it will be of a democratic type, embodying the essential principles of Islam.
Today they are as applicable in actual life as they were thirteen years ago. Islam and its
idealism have taught us democracy. It has taught equality of men, justice and fair play to
everybody. We are the inheritors of these glorious traditions and are fully alive to our
responsibilities and obligations as framers of the future constitution of Pakistan. In any
case Pakistan is not going to be theocratic state to be ruled by priests with a divine
mission. We have many non-Muslims i.e. Hindus, Christians And Parsis …but they are
all Pakistanis. They will enjoy the same rights and privileges as any other citizen and will
play their rightful part in the affairs of Pakistan.13
Earlier, in1943, Jinnah in his presidential address to the Delhi session of the All
India Muslim League said: I have no doubt in my mind that a large body of us visualizes
Pakistan as people’s government. It will be a people’s government. Here I should like to
give a warning to the landlords and capitalists who have flourished at our expense by a
system which is no vicious, which is no wicked and which makes so selfish that it is
difficult to reason with them. The exploitation of masses has gone into their blood. They
have forgotten the lesson of Islam. Do you visualize that millions have been exploited
and cannot get one meal a day? If that is the idea of Pakistan, I would not have it.”14
Federalism is the Third element of Ideology of Pakistan. As it is considered
the best form of state in which federating units enjoy the maximum autonomy with
constitutional guarantee; especially this system is very beneficial for the states having
multi lingual, multi ethnic and multi cultural and diverse geographical entities. Quaid-I-
Azam realized the stratification and geographical distance between the country
populations. It is, therefore, projected the federal form of state. He said: The theory of
Pakistan guarantees that federating units of the national government would have all the
autonomy that you will find in the constitutions of the United States of America, Canada
and Australia. …But certain vital powers will remain vested in the central government
such as the monetary system, national defense and other federal responsibilities. Each
federal state or province would have its own legislative, executive and judicial systems,
each of the three branches of the government being constitutionally separate.”15
Islam provides ideals and tools for the edifice of economic system. This
system is based on balanced economic order alongwith protection human rights. This is
the Fourth element of The Ideology of Pakistan.
Quaid-I-Azam fully realized that there was no room for exploitation and making society:
the economic system of the West has created almost insoluble problems for humanity and
to many of us it appears that only a miracle can solve it from the disaster that is now
facing the world. It has failed to do justice between man and man, and to eradicate
friction from the international field. On the contrary, it was largely responsible for the
world wars in the last half century. The Western world, in spite of its advantages of
mechanization and industrial efficiency, is today in a worse mess than ever before in
history. The adoption of Western economic theory and practice will not help us in
achieving our goals of creating a happy and contented people.”16
On March 19,1944.Mr.Jinnah categorically stated: I warn the
communists to keep their hands off Muslims ……Islam is the guide and complete code
for their life. They do not want any isms.”17
In his speech at the opening ceremony of the State Bank of Pakistan on
July 01,1948,he proclaimed: We must work our destiny in our own way and present to the
world an economic system based on true Islamic concepts of equality of man and social
justice. We will thereby be fulfilling our mission as Muslims and giving the humanity
message of peace which alone can save it and would secure the welfare, happiness and
prosperity of mankind.”18
The fifth element of the Ideology of Pakistan is the strong defense. Armed forces
play important role in nation building. They are responsible of national security and play
active and effective role during the course of national and natural calamities and
disasters. Quaid-I-Azam was firm believer of strong defense and professional Armed
In his Address to the 2-15 Punjab Machine Gun Regiment, Peshawar, on
April15, 1948,he said: I am confident that you will live up to your traditions when you
are called upon to defend your country and the safety and security of your nation. You
will, I am sure, hold aloft the banner of Pakistan and maintains its honour and prestige as
a great nation.”19
In his famous address to the Officer of Staff College Quetta, on June14,
1948,Quaid-I-Azam explained the responsibilities of the defense forces. He said: I have
gathered that the spirit of the Army is splendid, the morale is very high and what is very
encouraging is that every officer and soldier, no matter what the race or community to
which he belongs is working as a true Pakistani.”20
The sixth element of the Ideology of Pakistan is Foreign Policy of
friendliness on equality basis. The basic tenets of the foreign policy of the new state of
Pakistan were outlined by the Quaid-I-Azam on August15; 1947:Our objective should be
peace within and peace without. We want to live peacefully and maintain cordial and
friendly relations with our immediate neighbors and with world at large. We have no
aggressive designs against any one we stand by the United Nations Charter and will
gladly make our contribution to the peace and prosperity of the world.21
Prefiguring the doctrine of non-alignment, the Quaid-I-Azam, in his broadcast talk
to the people of the United States of America in Febuary1948 said: Our foreign policy is
one of friendliness and goodwill towards all the nations of the world. We do not cherish
aggressive designs against any country or nation. We believe in the principle of honesty
and fair play in national and international dealings, and are prepared to make our
contribution to the promotion of peace and prosperity among the nations of the world.
Pakistan will never be found lacking in extending its material and moral support to the
oppressed and suppressed people of the world and in upholding the principles of the
United Nations Charter.”22

Ideology is set of ideas that reflect the course of action and vision of the state. No
Doubt, Pakistan movement became a national movement on the basis of two-nation
theory. It was the sole stand of the founder of Pakistan that Muslims are a separate nation
and due to the political and constitution crisis, there is possibility of denial of the
muslims’rights. Therefore, separate Muslim state was inevitable. There is why Quaid-I-
Azam envisioned Pakistan modern Muslim democratic state.

1.David Robertson, The Penguin Dictionary Of Politics, (Penguin Books Ltd,
Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England, 1985), P.153.
2. Adam Kuper, The Social Sciences Encyclopedia, (Services book Club, 1989),
3. M.Ikram Rabbani, A Comprehensive Book Of Pakistan Studies,(The3
Caravan Book House, Karachi Road,Lahore,Pakistan,2004),P.1.
4. Abbas Rashid, Pakistan: The Ideological Dimension, ed, (Zeb Book Ltd, 57
the Caledonian Road, London, England, 1985),P.69.
5. Dr.Javed Iqbal, Ideology of Pakistan, (Ferozsons ltd, Lahore, Pakistan, 1971),
6. Muhammad Farooq Shamim, Jinnah Always Opposed Theocracy,(An Article,
Daily Dawn,Islamabad,Pakistan),march06,2004.
7. Faisal Zahid Malik, Some Aspect Of Quaid’s great Leadership,(An Article of
Daily Pakistan Observer),March23,2004.
8. S.Razi Wasti, Quaid-I-Azam: founder of State, Pakistan Journal Of history &
9. Muhammad Farooq Shamim, Op.cit.
10. Ibid.
11. Ibid
12. Ibid
13. Ahmed Bashir, The So-Called Ideological base-II, (The Daily Frontier Post,
Peshawar, Pakistan) June16, 1994.
14. S.M.Burke, Quaid-I- Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, His Personality and his
Politics, (Oxford university Press, Karachi, Pakistan1997), P.17.
15. Op.cit
16. Dr.Javed Iqbal, Op.cit.
17. Ibid.
18. Ibid
19. Ibid.
20. Anwar Shafique Naqvi, Quaid-I-Azam &Armed forces, Op.cit, P.177.
21. Ibid.
22. Syed Rifaat Hussain, Quaid-I-Azam& Pakistan foreign Policy, Op.cit, P.139.