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ADA 123 : HISTORY & THEORY OF ARCHITECTURE 1

CHAPTER 1:INTRODUCTION
SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD
School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

© 2010 Cosmopoint

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CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION

TOPIC OUTLINES

1: INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION TO THE SUBJECT & SYLLABUS OUTLINE


1.1 Introduction to History & Theory of Architecture
1.2 A word about Drawing & Images
1.3 Ancient Mesopotamia
1.3.1 Sumerians & Akkadians
1.3.2 Neo-Sumerians
1.3.3 Babylonians & Hittities
1.3.4 Assyrians
1.3.5 Neo-Babylonians
1.3.6 Persians

SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD


School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

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CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION

COURSE LEARNING OUTCOME

At the end of the course, students should be able to:

LO1 Students able to understand the world architecture and able


to identify building typology such as tombs, palaces, and
temples.

SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD


School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

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CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION

1.3 ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- Introduction

Called MESOPOTAMIA= between rivers


(by Greek)
YEARS ACHIEVEMENTS

Starts: 4000 BCE Developed WRITTEN LANGUAGE for


DOCUMENTING GOVERNMENTAL
Outstanding: 3500 BCE TRANSACTION + LITERARY PURPOSE

Ended: 331 BCE


Developed in independent URBAN
COMMUNITIES=CITY STATES

AREA

TIGRIS & EUPHRATES rivers, Middle


Eastern= NOW IRAQ & IRAN

* MESOPOTAMIA HISTORIC PERIOD HAS BEEN SIGNIFICANTLY EVOLVED BY ITS PEOPLE NAMELY

SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD


School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

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CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION

1.3 ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- Introduction

Called
MESOPOTAMIA=
between 2 rivers

SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD


School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

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CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION

1.3 ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- Introduction

4000-2350 BCE 525-331 BCE

SUMERIANS PERSIANS

THE 612-539 BCE


2350-2150 BCE
CIVILIZATION
EVOLVED BY NEO-
AKKADIANS PEOPLE BABYLONIANS

2150-2000 BCE 900-612 BCE

NEO-
SUMERIANS ASSYRIANS

1800-1600 BCE 1200-900 BCE


BABYLONIANS HITTITIES

1400-1200 BCE
SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD
School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

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CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION

1.3.1 ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- Sumerians

Al-Ubaid,Indo-Europian a nomadic people from steppes of Central Asia migrated to CASPIAN SEA.

YEARS SUMERIANS AREA

Fertile valley of East


Starts: 4000 BCE
Region of Caspian Sea.

ACHIEVEMENTS ARCHITECTURE

1-Mastered ART OF AGRICULTURE Influenced by the RELIGIOUS POWER:


2-Developed system of IRRIGATION=use MONUMENTAL
flood waters of Euphrates.
TEMPLE,
3-Believed in GOD=NATURAL ELEMENTS SHRINES,
4-Urban Communities developed around COMPLEXES,
SHRINES= SACRED PLACES OF GOD.
CULT STATUES
SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD
School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

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CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION

1.3.1 ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- Sumerians


Temple stood on
PLATFORM
SUMERIANS

ARCHITECTURE

Greatly influenced by the


RELIGIOUS POWER

YEARS /
AREA A RECTANGULAR
BUTTRESSED
•ERIDU= earliest WALLS enclosed
development (3800 BCE) LONG SHRINE ROOM
flanked by smaller
SIDE CHAMBERS. SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD
School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

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CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION

1.3.1 ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- Sumerians

SUMERIANS ARCHITECTURE= SHRINES & TEMPLES cont’d..


YEARS/
STYLES / ELEMENTS
PERIOD

• 3800 BCE •MASTER PLANNING=Featured ACROPOLIS with TWO TEMPLES, A SHRINE,


at GAWRA and DWELLING HOUSES

•DESIGN PLANNING=Temple had CENTRAL HALL with SIDE CHAMBERS.

•FORM=U-SHAPED form with OPEN COURTYARD.

•FINISHES=FAÇADE was articulated by BUTTRESSES AND PILASTERS,


MOTIFS OF EGYPTIAN Architecture

•MATERIALS= (super-structure) Sun-Baked BRICK by means of MUD IN


MOLDS. (Roof) light weight WOODEN MEMBERS or REEDS

SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD


School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

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CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION

1.3.1 ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- Sumerians

SUMERIANS

YEARS /
AREA
•GAWRA= 3800 BCE

ARCHITECTURE

U-SHAPED form with BUTTRESSES AND


OPEN COURTYARD. PILASTERS

SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD


School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

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CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION

1.3.1 ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- Sumerians

SUMERIANS ARCHITECTURE= SHRINES & TEMPLES cont’d..


YEARS/
STYLES / ELEMENTS
PERIOD

• 3500-3000 BCE at •METHOD OF CONTSTRUCTION=Developed by means of built on 40’H BASE of


URUK=WHITE rubble+coated with whitewash over BRICKS+panels with SLOPING BUTRESS
TEMPLE
•DESIGN PLANNING=Temple had CENTRAL HALL with SIDE CHAMBERS.

•FORM=U-SHAPED form with OPEN COURTYARD.

•FINISHES=FAÇADE was articulated by BUTTRESSES AND PILASTERS,


MOTIFS OF EGYPTIAN Architecture

•MATERIALS= (super-structure) Sun-Baked BRICK by means of MUD IN MOLDS.


(Roof) light weight WOODEN MEMBERS or REEDS

SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD


School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

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CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION

1.3.1 ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- Sumerians

SUMERIANS

CENTRAL HALL with SIDE


CHAMBERS.

ARCHITECTURE
U-SHAPED form with OPEN
COURTYARD.

YEARS / 40’H BASE of SLOPING


BUTRESS
AREA

•URUK=
3500-3000 BCE

SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD


School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

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CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION

1.3.1 ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- Akkadians

The settlements of the Sumerians were disrupted about 2350


BCE, by the arrival of a new group of Semitic people from the
steppes of central Asia.

SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD


School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

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CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION

1.3.1 ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- Akkadians

An IMMIGRANTS=SEMITIC people from steppes of Central Asia

YEARS AKKADIANS AREA

City of AKKAD= West


Starts: 2350-2150 BCE
Bank of Euphrates

ACHIEVEMENTS

1-Establishments of WARRIOR KING


2-Imperial States + Many urban Cities

SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD


School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

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CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION

1.3.2 ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- Neo-Sumerians

The Akkadian Empire was overthrown in about 2150 BCE by


the Guti, a group of savage tribes from the mountain regions of
Iran.

SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD


School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

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CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION

1.3.2 ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- Neo-Sumerians

Guti= A group of savage tribe from mountain of Iran,caused of POLITICAL allegiance


reminiscent of the FIRST SUMERIAN CITY STATES

YEARS NEO-SUMERIANS AREA

Starts: City of AKKAD= West


Bank of Euphrates

ACHIEVEMENTS ARCHITECTURE

1-Development of URBAN TEMPLES FORM TEMPLE OF ZIGGURAT:

2-Elevated temple on 1-Stepped platform to elevate temples to GOD


2- Protection of Scared precinct from flood
ARTIFICIAL MOUNT=ZIGGURAT 3-Visual prominence (HIERARCHY)
4-Create Highland Dwelling Place

SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD


School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

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CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION

1.3.2 ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- Neo-Sumerians

NEO-
SUMERIANS

TEMPLE OF ZIGGURAT: Stepped platform to elevate temples


ARCHITECTURE to GOD.

YEARS /
AREA

IRAQ 2100 BCE

School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

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CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION

1.3.3 ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- Babylonians

Dominance in the turbulent Mesopotamian region passed to


the Amorite Dynasty in the city-state of Babylon from about
1800-1600 BCE.

SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD


School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

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CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION

1.3.3 ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- Babylonians

AMORITE DYNASTY= King Hammurabi (1728-1686 BCE) who restored Akkadian Tradition

YEARS BABYLONIANS AREA

Starts: 1800-1600 BCE City of state of Babylon

ACHIEVEMENTS ARCHITECTURE

CENTRAL GOVERNMENT leading diverse GREAT TEMPLE OF MARDUK=KING OF GOD


City States

SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD


School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

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CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION

1.3.3 ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- Babylonians

HITTITIES

ARCHITECTURE

YEARS /
AREA

MARDUK
TEMPLE
CENTRAL GOVERNMENT leading diverse City States
SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD
School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

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CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION

1.3.3 ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- Hittities

About 1530 BCE the Hittities, a vigorous Indo-European


people from Anatolia, overran the First Dynasty of Babylon.

SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD


School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

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CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION

1.3.3 ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- Hittities

Vigorous Indo-European people from Anatolia overran 1st Dynasty of Babylon

YEARS HITTITIES AREA

Starts: 1400-1200 BCE City of state of Babylon

ACHIEVEMENTS ARCHITECTURE

Ruled Northern Mesopotamia and Syria from Asymmetrically built City of HATTUTAS
homeland capital=HATTUSAS (now Bogazkoy in
Turkey)

SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD


School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

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CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION

1.3.3 ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- Hittities

HITTITIES

ARCHITECTURE

YEARS /
AREA

HATTUSAS,
TURKEY
1400-1200 BCE Flanked Gates=Sculptures
Asymmetrical cityandofSphinxes/lions
Hattusa
SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD
School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

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CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION

1.3.4 ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- Assyrians

Fierce people from Northern Mesopotamia

YEARS ASSYRIANS AREA

Starts: 900 BCE


NINEVEH (Kuyunjik)

ACHIEVEMENTS ARCHITECTURE

Ruled Northern Mesopotamia and Syria from THE ROYAL CITY OF KHORSABAD built by
homeland capital=HATTUSAS (now Bogazkoy in Sargon II 720 BCE.
Turkey)

SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD


School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

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CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION

1.3.4 ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- Assyrians

THE ROYAL CITY OF KHORSABAD built by Sargon II 720 BCE


ASSYRIANS

ARCHITECTURE

YEARS /
AREA

KHORSABAD
720 BCE

SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD


School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

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CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION

1.3.5 ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- Neo-Babylonians

After first losing the more remote portions of their Empire, the
Assyrians finally fell in 612 BCE to the combined assaults of
Babylonianss, Scythians, Persians, and Medes.

SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD


School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

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CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION

1.3.5 ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- Neo-Babylonians

Combined assaults of Babylonians, Scythians, Persians, and Medes

YEARS NEO-BABYLONIANS AREA

Starts:

ACHIEVEMENTS ARCHITECTURE

Rebuilding and enlargements of Babylon under 1-City processional way= ISHTAR GATE 2-
Nebuchadnezzar II (604-562 BCE) Planted terraces= HANGING GARDEN
3-Crumbled Ruin of Ziggurat=TOWER OF BABEL

SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD


School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

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CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION

NEO-BABYLONIANS

ARCHITECTURE

YEARS /
AREA

BABYLON
612 BCE City processional way= ISHTAR GATE with animal motifs
SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD
School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

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CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION

NEO-BABYLONIANS

ARCHITECTURE

YEARS /
AREA
This hand-coloured engraving by the 16th-century Dutch artist Martin
BABYLON Heemskerck depicts the fabled Hanging Gardens of Babylon
612 BCE

SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD


School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

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CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION

1.3.6 ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- Persians

Babylon’s greatness was eclipsed in 539 BCE when it became part of


the Persian Empire of Cyrus II.
 The Persian had previously overthrown the Medes, and they
continued to expand outward from their capital at Susa (Iran) to
conquer all Mesopotamia, Asia Minor, and even Egypt by 525 BCE.

SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD


School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

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CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION

1.3.6 ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- Persians

Persian Empire of Cyrus II

YEARS PERSIANS AREA

Starts: 525 BCE Persepolis (Iran)

ARCHITECTURE
ACHIEVEMENTS
1- EGYPTIAN TEMPLE GATES and hypostyle halls

CEREMONIAL CITY founded by Darius (518 BCE) 2- Hittie Audience Chambers


to supplement Susa (Administrative capital) and 3-Mesopotamian Sculpted animal motifs
Pasargadae (centers of court life)
4-The Great Palace
5- King Xerxes throne room=Hall of A Hundred columns
SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD
School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

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CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION

1.3.6 ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- Persians

Plan of the Palace,Persepolis, (Iran, 518 BCE)


PERSIANS

ARCHITECTURE

YEARS /
AREA

BABYLON
612 BCE

SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD


School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

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CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION

1.3.6 ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- Persians


EGYPTIAN TEMPLE GATES
PERSIANS

ARCHITECTURE

YEARS /
AREA

BABYLON
612 BCE

SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD


School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

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CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION

1.3.6 ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- Persians

HYPOSTYLES HALLS= Resting on


PERSIANS pillars (by Greek term)

ARCHITECTURE

YEARS /
AREA

BABYLON
612 BCE

SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD


School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

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CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION

1.3.6 ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA- Persians

PERSIANS

ARCHITECTURE

Mesopotamian Column
Sculpted animal motifs
YEARS /
AREA

BABYLON
612 BCE

SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD


School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

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CHAPTER 1 : INTRODUCTION

THANK YOU
YOUR NEXT SESSION WILL BE:

PLEASE READ:
Chapter 3 A World History of Architecture:
ANCIENT EGYPT

SUBJECT COORDINATOR: MARIATI BAGDAD


School Of Architecture
Faculty Of Built Environment

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