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# 12-9 泰勒級數與麥克勞林級數

f (n ) (a )
若 f ( x ) = ∑ cn ( x − a ) , x − a < r , 則其係數為 cn =
n

n =0 n!
f (n ) (a )
(x − a )n = f (a ) + f ′(a )(x − a ) + f (a ) (x − a )2 + f (a ) (x − a )3 + L

′′ ′′′
f (x ) = ∑
n =0 n! 2 3!

f (n ) (0 ) n

n =0 n!

π
例題 1 求 f ( x ) = sin x 在 x = 處的泰勒級數並求此冪級數的收斂區間.
4
<解>
⎛π ⎞
f ( x ) = sin x ,
2
f⎜ ⎟=
⎝4⎠ 2
⎛π ⎞
f ′( x ) = cos x ,
2
f ′⎜ ⎟ =
⎝4⎠ 2
⎛π ⎞
f ′′( x ) = − sin x ,
2
f ′′⎜ ⎟ = −
⎝4⎠ 2
⎛π ⎞
f ′′′( x ) = − cos x ,
2
f ′′′⎜ ⎟ = −
⎝4⎠ 2
⎛π ⎞
f (4 ) ( x ) = sin x ,
2
f (4 ) ⎜ ⎟ =
⎝4⎠ 2
M M
π⎞ π⎞ π⎞
2 3 4
⎛ ⎛ ⎛
⎜x− ⎟ ⎜x− ⎟ ⎜x− ⎟
2 2⎛ π⎞ 2⎝ 4⎠ 2 ⎝ 4⎠ 2 ⎝ 4⎠

2 2 ⎝ 4⎠ 2 2 2 3! 2 4!

π⎞
n

⎜x− ⎟
2⎝ 4⎠
令 un = , 利用比值檢驗法,
2 n!

n +1
⎛ π⎞
⎜x− ⎟
u n+1 2⎝ 4⎠ 2n!

n →∞ un n →∞ 2 (n + 1)! ⎛ π⎞
n

2⎜ x − ⎟
⎝ 4⎠
π 1
= x− lim = 0 < 1 , ∀x ∈ R .
4 n →∞ n + 1

例題 2 求 f ( x ) = ln x 在 x = 1 處的泰勒級數.
<解>

f ′( x ) = f ′(1) = 1
1
,
x

f ′′( x ) = − f ′′(1) = −1
1
,
x2
1⋅ 2
f ′′′( x ) = , f ′′′(1) = 2!
x3
M M

f (n ) (x ) = (− 1)
n −1 (n − 1)! , f (n ) (1) = (− 1)
n −1
(n − 1)!
n
x

ln x = ( x − 1) − ( x − 1) + (x − 1) − L +
1 2 1 3 (− 1) n −1
(x − 1)n + L
2 3 n

=∑
(− 1)
n −1

(x − 1)n
n =1 n