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Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

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The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) is a personality test designed to assist a person in identifying
some significant personal preferences. Katharine Cook Briggs and her daughter Isabel Briggs Myers
developed the Indicator during World War II, and its criteria follow from Carl Jung's theories in his work
Psychological Types.[1]

The Indicator is frequently used in the areas of pedagogy, group dynamics, employee training, leadership
training, marriage counseling, and personal development. However, scientific skeptics and academic
psychologists have criticized the indicator in research literature, claiming that it "lacks convincing validity
data" [2] and could be an example of the Forer effect.[3][4].

The registered trademark rights in the phrase and its abbreviation have been assigned from the publisher of the
test, Consulting Psychologists Press Inc., to the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Trust.[5]

Contents
[hide]

• 1 Historical development
• 2 About the indicator
• 3 Items & Scoring
• 4 The preferences
• 5 Type dynamics
o 5.1 The type table
• 6 Cognitive function dynamics in each type
o 6.1 Extraverts
o 6.2 Introverts
o 6.3 Function table
o 6.4 Controversy surrounding the cognitive functions
• 7 Temperament
o 7.1 Correlations to Other Instruments
o 7.2 Study of Scoring Consistency
o 7.3 Ethics
• 8 Skeptical claims against the MBTI
• 9 Academic criticism of the MBTI
• 10 See also
• 11 Notes
• 12 References
• 13 External links

[edit] Historical development


C. G. Jung first spoke about typology at the Munich Psychological Congress in 1913. Katharine Cook Briggs
began her research into personality in 1917, developing a four-type framework: Social; Thoughtful;
Executive; Spontaneous. In 1923 Jung's Psychological Types was published in English translation (having
first been published in German in 1921). Katharine Briggs' first publications are two articles describing Jung's
theory, in the journal New Republic in 1926 (Meet Yourself Using the Personality Paint Box) and 1928 (Up
From Barbarism). Katharine Briggs' daughter, Isabel Briggs Myers, wrote a prize-winning mystery novel
Murder Yet to Come in 1929, using typological ideas. She added to her mother's typological research, which
she would progressively take over entirely. In 1942, the "Briggs-Myers Type Indicator®" was created, and the
Briggs Myers Type Indicator Handbook was published in 1944. The indicator changed its name to the modern
form (Myers-Briggs Type Indicator®) in 1956.[6][7]

[edit] About the indicator


The indicator differs from standardized tests and others measuring traits, such as intelligence, instead
classifying people's preferred types. According to Myers-Briggs Theory, while types and traits are both
inborn, traits can be improved akin to skills, whereas types, if supported by a healthy environment, naturally
differentiate over time. The indicator attempts to tell the order in which this occurs in each person, and it is
that information, combined with interviews done with others who have indicated having the same preferences,
that the complete descriptions are based on. The indicator then, is akin to an arrow which attempts to point in
the direction of the proper description. The facet of the theory which posits that the features being sorted for
are in fact types, and not traits which can be improved with practice, is hotly debated.

However, proponents of the indicator will explain that to learn about one's inborn traits is to create the
opportunity to improve how one applies them in different contexts. In that sense, the MBTI can yield much
personal change and growth.

The types the MBTI sorts for, known as dichotomies, are extraversion / introversion, sensing / intuition,
thinking / feeling and judging / perceiving. Participants are given one of 16 four-letter acronyms, such as
ESTJ or INFP, indicating what their preferences are. The term best-fit types refers to the ethical code that
facilitators are required to follow. It states that the person taking the indicator is always the best judge of what
their preferences are and that the indicator alone should never be used to make this decision.

[edit] Items & Scoring


The MBTI includes 93 forced-choice questions, which means there are only two options. Participants may
skip questions if they feel they are unable to choose. Using psychometric techniques, such as item response
theory, the MBTI will then be scored and will attempt to identify which dichotomy the participant prefers.
After taking the MBTI, participants are given a readout of their score, which will include a bar graph and
number of how many points they received on a certain scale. Confusion over the meaning of these numbers
often causes them to be related to trait theory, and people mistakenly believe, for example, that their intuition
is "more developed" than their sensing, or vice versa.

During construction of the MBTI, thousands of items were used, and most were thrown out because they did
not have high midpoint discrimination, meaning the results of that one item did not, on average, move an
individual score away from the midpoint. Using only items with high midpoint discrimination allows the
MBTI to have fewer items on it but still provide as much statistical information as other instruments with
many more items with lower midpoint discrimination. The MBTI requires five points one way or another
before it is nearly as sure it can statistically be concerning a preference.

[edit] The preferences


Extraversion
Dichotomies Introversion
• The terms Introvert and Extravert (originally spelled ‘extrovert’ by Sensing iNtuition
Carl Gustav Jung, who first used the terms in the context of Thinking Feeling
psychology, and still spelled 'extrovert' in the MBTI Manual and in
Isabel Briggs Myers' book, "Gifts Differing") are referred to as Judging Perceiving
attitudes and show how a person orients and receives their energy. In A dichotomy is a division
the extraverted attitude the energy flow is outward, and the preferred of two mutually
focus is on other people and things, whereas in the introverted attitude exclusive groups, or in
the energy flow is inward, and the preferred focus is on one's own this case, type
thoughts, ideas and impressions. preferences.

• Sensing and Intuition are the perceiving functions. Sensing people tend to focus on the present and on
concrete information gained from their senses. These are the nonrational functions, as a person does
not necessarily have control over receiving data, but only how to process it once they have it. Sensing
prefers to receive data primarily from the five senses. Intuition tend to focus on the future, with a view
toward patterns and possibilities. These people prefer to receive data from the subconscious, or seeing
relationships via insights.

• Thinking and Feeling are the judging functions. They both strive to make rational judgments and
decisions using the data received from their perceiving functions, above. Thinking tend to base their
decisions on logic "true or false, if-then" connections and on objective analysis of cause and effect.
Feeling tend to base their decisions primarily on values and on subjective evaluation of person
centered concerns. Feelings use "more or less, better-worse" evaluations. It could be said that thinkers
decide with their heads, while feelers decide with their hearts. When Thinking or Feeling is
extraverted, judgments tend to rely on external sources and the generally accepted rules and
procedures. When introverted, Thinking and Feeling judgments tend to be subjective, relying on
internally generated ideas for logical organization and evaluation.

• Judging and Perceiving reveals the specific attitudes of the functions. J or P records which of the
strongest of the judging functions or perceiving functions is outwardly displayed. People who prefer
judging tend to like a planned and organized approach to life and prefer to have things settled. People
who prefer Perceiving tend to like a flexible and spontaneous approach to life and prefer to keep their
options open. (The terminology may be misleading for some—the term "Judging" does not imply
"judgmental", and "Perceiving" does not imply "perceptive".)
In J-types, the preferred judging function (T or F) is extraverted (displayed in the outer world). J-types
tend to prefer a step-by-step (left brain: parts to whole) approach to life, relying on external rules and
procedures, and preferring quick closure. The preferred perceiving function (S or N) is introverted.
On the other hand, in P-types the preferred perceiving function is extraverted, and the preferred
judging function is introverted. This can result in a "bouncing around" approach to life (right brain:
whole to parts), relying on subjective judgments, and a desire to leave all options open.
For introverts, it is the auxiliary function, not the dominant function, that this letter refers to. MBTI
INTP, for example, has a dominant Judging function, introverted Thinking (Ti), but it is actually a
Perceiving type in MBTI because the strongest Perceiving function is extraverted iNtuition (Ne).
(Socionics, a personality theory similar to MBTI, follows opposite notation for introverts; the J/P
designation in this theory refers to the dominant function for all types.)
[edit] Type dynamics
The interaction of two, three, or four preferences are known as type dynamics, The Sixteen Types
and when dealing with a four-preference combination it is called a type. In
ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ
total, there are 16 unique types, and many more possible two and three letter
combinations, which each have their own descriptive name. Additionally, it is ISTP ISFP INFP INTP
sometimes possible to observe the interactions that each preference ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP
combination will have with another combination, although this is more ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ
unorthodox. Complete descriptions will contain the unique interactions of all The table organizing the
four preferences in that person, and these are typically written by licensed sixteen types was created
psychologists based on data gathered from thousands of interviews and by Isabel Myers, who
studies. The Center for Applications of Psychological Type has released short preferred INFP (To find
descriptions on the internet.[8] The most in-depth descriptions, including the opposite type of the
statistics, can be found in The Manual.[9] one you are looking at,
jump over one type
[edit] The type table diagonally.)

The type table is a visualization tool which is useful for discussing the
dynamic qualities and interactions of preference combinations. It will
Population Breakdown
typically be divided by selecting any pair of preferences and comparing or
contrasting. One of the most common and basic has been used to the right. It ISTJ ISFJ INFJ INTJ
11.6% 13.8% 1.5% 2.1%
is the grouping of the mental functions, ST, SF, NF and NT, and focuses on
the combination of perception and judgment. Alternatively, if we group by the ISTP ISFP INFP INTP
5.4% 8.8% 4.4% 3.3%
rows we will have the four attitudes which are IJ, IP, EP and EJ. There are
also more complex groupings, such as combinations of perception and ESTP ESFP ENFP ENTP
orientations to the outer world, which are SJ, SP, NP and NJ, or combinations 4.3% 8.5% 8.1% 3.2%
of judgement and orientations to the outer world, which are TJ, TP, FP, and ESTJ ESFJ ENFJ ENTJ
FJ. 8.7% 12.3% 2.4% 1.8%
By using inferential
statistics an estimate of
[edit] Cognitive function dynamics in each type the preferences found in
the US population has
In each type, all four of the cognitive, or mental functions, which are sensing, been gathered.
intuition, thinking and feeling, are present and arranged in a different order.
The type acronym is used as a quick way to figure out this order, which is
slightly different in introverts and extraverts. An important point to remember is that the first and last letter of
the type are used as guides to figure out the order of the middle two letters, which are the main priority. The
chart below this section has the dynamics worked out for each type.

[edit] Extraverts

If the first letter of the type is an E, such as ESTJ, then the dominant function is extraverted. The next step is
to figure out to which of the middle two letters this applies. If the last letter is a P, then the dominant will be
the second letter, the perceiving function, Sensing in this example, and if it is a J, then it will be the third
letter, the judging function - in this case, Thinking. Thus, we can tell that the first or dominant function in the
ESTJ is extraverted thinking, and the second is introverted sensing. The third function is the opposite of the
second, and in this case is extraverted intuition, and the fourth is introverted feeling.

[edit] Introverts

If the first letter of the type is an I, such as in INFP, then the dominant is introverted. To figure out which of
the middle two letters this applies to, look at the last letter, which indicates which function is extraverted. If it
is a P, then the introverted dominant function will be the third letter, which is the judging function, and if it is
a J, then it will be the second letter, which is the perceiving function. (The process may seem backwards and
slightly confusing for introverts.) Already it is possible to tell that the INFP has an introverted dominant, and
since their perceiving function (iNtuition) is extraverted, the dominant must be the judging function (Feeling).
Thus the dominant function is introverted feeling, and the second function (the auxiliary) is extraverted
intuition.

The four functions alternate in orientation. For introverts, the sequence would proceed introverted,
extraverted, introverted, extraverted. The third function (the tertiary) is the opposite of the second, and the
fourth is the opposite of the first. For an INFP, with introverted feeling and extraverted intuition, the third
function is introverted sensing, and the fourth is extraverted thinking.

[edit] Function table

Type ISITEJ ISIFEJ INIFEJ INITEJ


Dominant or first Introverted Sensing Introverted Sensing Introverted Intuition Introverted Intuition
Auxiliary or second Extraverted Thinking Extraverted Feeling Extraverted Feeling Extraverted Thinking
Tertiary or third Introverted Feeling Introverted Thinking Introverted Thinking Introverted Feeling
Inferior or fourth Extraverted Intuition Extraverted Intuition Extraverted Sensing Extraverted Sensing

Type ISETIP ISEFIP INEFIP INETIP


Dominant or first Introverted Thinking Introverted Feeling Introverted Feeling Introverted Thinking
Auxiliary or second Extraverted Sensing Extraverted Sensing Extraverted Intuition Extraverted Intuition
Tertiary or third Introverted Intuition Introverted Intuition Introverted Sensing Introverted Sensing
Inferior or fourth Extraverted Feeling Extraverted Thinking Extraverted Thinking Extraverted Feeling

Type ESETIP ESEFIP ENEFIP ENETIP


Dominant or first Extraverted Sensing Extraverted Sensing Extraverted Intuition Extraverted Intuition
Auxiliary or second Introverted Thinking Introverted Feeling Introverted Feeling Introverted Thinking
Tertiary or third Extraverted Feeling Extraverted Thinking Extraverted Thinking Extraverted Feeling
Inferior or fourth Introverted Intuition Introverted Intuition Introverted Sensing Introverted Sensing

Type ESITEJ ESIFEJ ENIFEJ ENITEJ


Dominant or first Extraverted Thinking Extraverted Feeling Extraverted Feeling Extraverted Thinking
Auxiliary or second Introverted Sensing Introverted Sensing Introverted Intuition Introverted Intuition
Tertiary or third Extraverted Intuition Extraverted Intuition Extraverted Sensing Extraverted Sensing
Inferior or fourth Introverted Feeling Introverted Thinking Introverted Thinking Introverted Feeling

Below, the MBTI personality archetypes, after David West Keirsey [1]. Keirsey adds four "Temperaments":
SP - Artisan; SJ - Guardian; NF - Idealist; and NT - Rational.

ISITEJ ISIFEJ INIFEJ INITEJ


Inspector Protector Counselor Mastermind
ISETIP ISEFIP INEFIP INETIP
Crafter Composer Healer Architect
ESETIP ESEFIP ENEFIP ENETIP
Promoter Performer Champion Inventor
ESITEJ ESIFEJ ENIFEJ ENITEJ
Supervisor Provider Teacher Field Marshal
The neutrality of this article or section may be compromised by weasel
words.
You can help Wikipedia by improving weasel-worded statements.
[edit] Controversy surrounding the cognitive functions

Main article: Cognitive functions

Isabel Myers interpreted Jung's writing as saying that the auxiliary, tertiary, and inferior functions are always
in the opposite attitude of the dominant[citation needed]. Many[citation needed], however, have found Jung's writing to
be ambiguous, and those who study and follow Jung's theories (Jungians) are typically adamant that Myers is
incorrect[citation needed]. Some Jungian s[citation needed] assert that Jung made explicit the point that the tertiary
function is actually in the same attitude as the dominant, providing balance. More recently[citation needed],
typologists have examined the relationships between all four functions in both attitudes —introverted or
extroverted. Whether looking at the four functions, or eight "function attitudes," the inferior function remains
most unconscious (least developed).

[edit] Temperament
Hippocrates, a Greek philosopher who lived from 460-377 B.C., proposed four Temperament
humours in his writings. These were blood, phlegm, yellow bile and black bile.
SJ SP NF NT
Around A.D. 190, Galen corresponded these to four temperaments: sanguine,
phlegmatic, choleric and melancholic. In 1978, David Keirsey and Marilyn Bates iStJ iSfJ iNFj iNTj
reintroduced temperament theory in modern form and identified them as Artisan, iStP iSfP iNFp iNTp
Guardian, Idealist, and Rational. After developing modern temperament theory, eStP eSfP eNFp eNTp
Keirsey discovered the MBTI, and found that by combining Sensing with the eStJ eSfJ eNFj eNTj
perceiving functions, SP (Artisan) and SJ (Guardian), and iNtuition with the
Keirsey's four
judging functions, NF (Idealist) and NT (Rational), he had descriptions similar to
temperaments within
his four temperaments.[10][11]
the MBTI.
The Manual states on page 59 that, "It is important to recognize that temperament
theory is not a variant of type theory, nor is type theory a variant of temperament theory." Keirsey later went
on to develop the Keirsey Temperament Sorter, which was first included in his book Please Understand Me.

[edit] Correlations to Other Instruments

McCrae & Costa [12] present correlations between the MBTI scales and the Big Five personality construct,
which is a conglomeration of characteristics found in nearly all personality and psychological tests. The five
personality characteristics are extraversion, openness, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and emotional
stability (or neuroticism). The following study is based on the results from 267 men followed as part of a
longitudinal study of ageing. (Similar results were obtained with 201 women.)

Extraversion Openness Agreeableness Conscientiousness Neuroticism


E-I -.74 .03 -.03 .08 .16
S-N .10 .72 .04 -.15 -.06
T-F .19 .02 .44 -.15 .06
J-P .15 .30 -.06 -.49 .11
The closer the number is to 1.0 or -1.0, the higher the degree of correlation.

These data suggest that four of the MBTI scales are related to the Big Five personality traits. These
correlations show that E-I and S-N are strongly related to extraversion and openness respectively. T-F and J-P
are more weakly related to agreeableness and conscientiousness respectively. The emotional stability
dimension of the Big Five is largely absent from the MBTI.
[edit] Study of Scoring Consistency

Split-half reliability of the MBTI scales is good, although test-retest reliability is sensitive to the time between
tests. However, because the MBTI dichotomies scores in the middle of the distribution, type allocations are
less reliable. Within each scale, as measured on Form G, about 83% of categorisations remain the same when
retested within nine months, and around 75% when retested after nine months. About 50% of people tested
within nine months remain the same overall type and 36% remain the same after nine months. [13]

[edit] Ethics

Before purchasing the MBTI, practitioners are required to consent to an ethical code, in addition to meeting
the educational requirements of class B and C psychological tests and assessments. After consenting to this
code the usage of the indicator is largely unmonitored, which sometimes leads to abuses of the instrument.
The ethical code contains, but is not limited to, the following points:[14][15]

1. Results should be given directly to respondents and are strictly confidential, including from employers.
2. Respondents should be informed of the nature of the test before taking it, and must choose to take it
voluntarily.
3. Allow respondents to clarify their results. They are always the last word as to which type is truly
theirs. They should then be provided a written description of their preferences.
4. The test must be used in accordance with The Manual.

[edit] Skeptical claims against the MBTI


The basic skeptical claim against the MBTI is that any conclusions made from the types lack falsifiability,
which can cause confirmation bias in the interpretation of the results. It has also been argued[citation needed] that
the terminology of the MBTI is so vague and complicated that it allows any kind of behavior to fit any
personality type, resulting in the Forer effect, where an individual gives a high rating to a positive description
that supposedly applies specifically to them. Therefore it is difficult to validate any of the claims made by the
MBTI using scientific methods. Carroll says, "no matter what your preferences, your behavior will still
sometimes indicate contrasting behavior. Thus, no behavior can ever be used to falsify the type, and any
behavior can be used to verify it." Scientific skeptics such as Robert Todd Carroll, author of The Skeptic's
Dictionary, have presented several potential problems with the MBTI. Neither Katharine Cook Briggs nor
Isabel Briggs Myers had any scientific, medical, psychiatric or psychological qualifications; Isabel Briggs
Myers had a bachelors degree in Political Science. The theory of psychological types created by Carl Jung
was not based on any controlled studies —the only statistical study Jung performed was in the field of
astrology. Jung's methods primarily included introspection and anecdote, methods largely rejected by the
modern field of cognitive psychology.

Skeptics also claim that the instrument's owners, publishers and test administrators, have a clear financial
interest in promoting the test as scientific. Skeptics assert that the instrument's owners, publishers and test
administrators thus may not be unbiased sources of information about this instrument. Indeed, much of the
positive information presented about the MBTI is from the Consulting Psychologists Press (the MBTI's
publishers) and associated organisations.[citation needed]

The MBTI has not been validated by double-blind tests, in which participants accept reports written for other
participants, and are asked whether or not the report suits them, and thus may not qualify as a scientific
assessment. The MBTI has also been criticised on the two measures of any psychometric test: validity and
reliability. Test retest reliability is considered to be low, with test takers who retake the test often being
assigned a different type. Validity has been questioned on theoretical grounds.
Given the strong philosophical belief in the theory of types (as opposed to the continuum hypothesis), one
might expect that scores would show a bimodal distribution with peaks near the ends of the scales. However,
scores on the individual subscales are actually distributed in a peaked manner similar to a normal distribution.
A cut-off exists at the centre of the subscale such that a score on one side is classified as one type, and a score
on the other side as the opposite type. This fails to support the concept of type--the norm is for people to lie
near the middle of the subscale [16].

Forcing a dichotomy leads to people who are very small distances apart on their scores being categorised as
being qualitatively different from one another because they fall on opposite sides of the cut-off, while being
lumped in with much more extreme scores that fall on the same side of the cut-off.

For this approach to be valid the sixteen different personality types in the MBTI should do more than simply
tell us that someone scored above or below the cut-off score, it should pick-out a real subgroup of people who
share characteristics over and above the score. This is in fact the view of the designers of the MBTI. However,
the existence of these subtypes, independent of the underlying subscales has not been established.[17]

[edit] Academic criticism of the MBTI


As well as questioning the scientific validity of the MBTI others have argued that, while the MBTI may be
useful for self-understanding, it is commonly used for pigeonholing people or for self-pigeonholing which
may be of limited use or even detrimental [4]

The MBTI has also been criticised on the two measures of any psychometric test: validity and reliability. Test
retest reliability is considered to be low, with test takers who retake the test often being assigned a different
type. [4]

[edit] See also


• Personality psychology
• Big five personality traits
• Holland Codes
• Socionics
• Aptitudes
• EQ SQ Theory

[edit] Notes

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:


Psychological Type

1. ^ Jung, Carl Gustav (August 1, 1971). Psychological Types (Collected Works of C.G. Jung, Volume 6).
Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-09770-4.
2. ^ Hunsley J, Lee CM, Wood JM (2004). Controversial and questionable assessment techniques. Science and
Pseudoscience in Clinical Psychology, Lilienfeld SO, Lohr JM, Lynn SJ (eds.). Guilford, ISBN 1-59385-070-0,
p. 65.
3. ^ Carroll, Robert Todd (January 9, 2004). Myers-Briggs Type Indicator®. The Skeptic's Dictionary. Retrieved
January 8, 2004.
4. ^ a b c Pittenger, D.J. (1993) Measuring the MBTI...And Coming Up Short (pdf). Journal of Career Planning &
Placement.
5. ^ Consulting Psychologists Press (2004). Trademark Guidelines. Retrieved December 20, 2004.
6. ^ Geyer, Peter (1998) Some Significant Dates. Retrieved December 5, 2005.
7. ^ University of Florida (2003) Guide to the Isabel Briggs Myers Papers 1885-1992, George A. Smathers
Libraries, Department of Special and Area Studies Collections, Gainesville, FL. Retrieved December 5, 2005.
8. ^ Martin, Charles Dr. (2004) The Sixteen Types at a Glance. The Center for Applications of Psychological
Type. Retrieved December 20, 2004.
9. ^ Myers, Isabel Briggs; McCaulley Mary H.; Quenk, Naomi L.; Hammer, Allen L. (1998). MBTI Manual (A
guide to the development and use of the Myers Briggs type indicator). Consulting Psychologists Press; 3rd ed
edition. ISBN 0-89106-130-4
10. ^ Keirsey, David (1998). Please Understand Me II: Temperament, Character, Intelligence. Prometheus
Nemesis Book Co Inc; 1st ed edition. ISBN 1-885705-02-6
11. ^ Keirsey, David (2001). Keirsey Temperament versus Myers-Briggs Types. Retrieved December 20, 2004.
12. ^ McCrae, R R; Costa, P T (1989) Reinterpreting the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator From the Perspective of the
Five-Factor Model of Personality. Journal of Personality, 57(1):17-40.
13. ^ Harvey, R J (1996) Reliability and Validity, in MBTI Applications. A.L. Hammer, Editor. Consulting
Psychologists Press: Palo Alto, CA. p. 5- 29.
14. ^ The Myers & Briggs Foundation. Ethical Use of the MBTI® Instrument. Retrieved December 20, 2004.
15. ^ The Center for Applications of Psychological Type. MBTI® Code of Ethics. Retrieved December 20, 2004.
16. ^ Bess, T.L. & Harvey, R.J. (2001, April). Bimodal score distributions and the MBTI: Fact or artifact? Paper
presented at the Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology, San Diego.
17. ^ Matthews, P (2004) The MBTI is a flawed measure of personality. bmj.com Rapid Responses.

[edit] References
• Hunsley J, Lee CM, Wood JM (2004). Controversial and questionable assessment techniques. Science
and Pseudoscience in Clinical Psychology, Lilienfeld SO, Lohr JM, Lynn SJ (eds.). Guilford, ISBN 1-
59385-070-0
• Martin, Charles R. (2001); Role of Type in Career Mastery. "Quick Guide to the 16 Personality Types
and Career Mastery: Living with Purpose and Working Effectively" (Fountain Valley CA: Telos
Publications, 2001), 3
• Berens, Linda V.; and Nardi, Dario (1999); What Is Personality "Type?". "The 16 Personality Types:
Descriptions for Self-Discovery" (Fountain Valley CA: Telos Publications, 1999), 2
• Berens, Linda V.; and Nardi, Dario (1999); What Is Best-Fit Type?. "The 16 Personality Types:
Descriptions for Self-Discovery" (Fountain Valley CA: Telos Publications, 1999), 6
• Berens, Linda V.; and Nardi, Dario (1999); Ways to Describe Personality. "The 16 Personality Types:
Descriptions for Self-Discovery" (Fountain Valley CA: Telos Publications, 1999), 2
• Berens, Linda V.; Cooper, Sue A.; Ernst, Linda K.; Martin, Charles R.; Myers, Steve; Nardi, Dario;
Pearman, Roger R.; Segal, Marci; and Smith, Melissa A. (2001); Applications of Type in
Organizations. "Quick Guide to the 16 Personality Types in Organizations: Understanding Personality
Differences in the Workplace" (Fountain Valley CA: Telos Publications, 2001), 1
• Bess, T.L. & Harvey, R.J. (2001, April). Bimodal score distributions and the MBTI: Fact or artifact?
Paper presented at the Annual Conference of the Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology,
San Diego.
• Bourne, Dana (2005); Personality Types and the Transgender Community. Retrieved November 14,
2005
• Falt, Jack; Bibliography of MBTI/Temperament Books by Author. Retrieved December 20, 2004
• Geyer, Peter (1988); An MBTI® History. Retrieved December 20, 2004.
• Georgia State University; GSU Master Teacher Program: On Learning Styles. Retrieved December
20, 2004.
• Jung, Carl Gustav (1965); Memories, Dreams, Reflections. Vintage Books: New York, 1965. p. 207
• Matthews, Paul (2004); The MBTI is a flawed measure of personality. bmj.com Rapid Responses.
Retrieved February 9, 2005
• Myers, Isabel Briggs (1970); Personal letter to Mary McCaulley. The MBTI Qualifying Program: The
Center for Applications of Psychological Type, 2004. p. 20
• Myers, Isabel Briggs (1980); Gifts Differing: Understanding Personality Type. Davies-Black
Publishing; Reprint edition (May 1, 1995). ISBN 0-89106-074-X
• Paul, Annie Murpy (2004); The Cult of Personality Testing. Free Press. ch. 5
• Personality Plus; Employers love personality tests. But what do they really reveal?
• Skeptics Dictionary "Myers-Briggs Type Indicator" [2]
• The Myers & Briggs Foundation; Ethical Use of the MBTI® Instrument. Retrieved December 20,
2004
• Virginia Tech; The Relationship Between Psychological Type and Professional Orientation Among
Technology Education Teachers. Retrieved December 20, 2004
• Alex Lukeman, Ph.D., 1998, Personality & Intelligence
• The Myers & Briggs Foundation: How Frequent Is My Type?
• Estimated frequencies compiled from a variety of MBTI® results from 1972 through 2002, including
data banks at the Center for Applications of Psychological Type (CPP, Inc) and Stanford Research
Institute (SRI).

[edit] External links


Myers-Briggs / Keirsey tests

• MBTI Qualification Program


• Otto Kroeger Associates
• Authorized Tests Online
• Qualifying.org MBTI Qualification Program
• MBTI Online Assessments by Qualified Practitioners
• KnowYourType.com - MBTI Personality Testing for Groups and Indviduals
• MBTI seminars, workshops, and online testing

Personality tests inspired by Myers-Briggs / Keirsey

Free

• Duniho and Duniho Life Pattern Indicator, web version


• humanmetrics.com
• personalitytest.net
• similarminds.com
• cognitiveprecesses.com

Commercial

• MajorsPTI – advanced Personality Type Inventory

Additional information and essays on all 16 Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Profiles

• FamousType.com – type profiles of famous people and fictional characters. Loaded with information
on careers, relationships, personal growth and more.
• Myers-Briggs in Fiction List of MBTI types of fictional characters in films and TV series.
• Jimmy's MBTI Population Percentage Thing
• Jimmy's MBTI Political Average Thing – political affiliation averages of the 16 MBTI types
• BestFitType.com - Explore all 16 personality types.
• Backup of the Myers-Briggs´ Webpage
• CognitiveProcesses.com
• Typelogic.com
• TypeTango – links to different descriptions of the 16 Types
• Life Explore – information regarding typology (i.e. MBTI)
• Estimated frenquency of types in U.S. population by sex
• Gersher.org – an in-depth resource]
• Personalitypage.com – information regarding MBTI, including those on relationships
• MBTI Nebulous – free information and community message board to discuss the sixteen types