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PIPE NETWORK ANALYSIS

Presented by-
Azaz Ahmed.
CIB-09-015.

Department of Civil Engineering

School of Engineering, Tezpur University, Napaam 784028, Tezpur,
Assam, India
INTRODUCTION

Pipe Network
An interconnected system of pipes forming several
loops or circuits.
E.g.- Municipal water distribution systems in cities.
Fl
o w
in
A F E

G H

D Flo
B C ou w
t
Fig.: Pipe Network
Pipe network
Necessary conditions for any network of pipes

The flow into each junction must be equal to the

flow out of the junction. This is due to the
continuity equation.

must be zero.

The head loss in each pipe is expressed as hf =

kQn. For Turbulent flow, n = 2.
Pipe network problems are difficult
to solve analytically.

As such HARDY CROSS METHOD

which uses successive approximations is used.
Hardy cross method
A trial distribution of discharges is made

arbitrary in such a way that continuity

equation is satisfied at each junction.

•With the assumed values of Q, the head loss

in each pipe is calculated according the
following equation-
Wher
hf = e,
K
4f x
kQ2 2g Lx (∏∕4)
=
• D5 x considering
Head loss around each loop is calculated 2
the head loss to be positive in CW-flow and negative
in CCW-flow.
If the net head loss due to assumed values of Q round
the loop is zero, then the assumed values of Q are
correct.

But if the net head loss due to assumed values of Q is

not zero, then the assumed values of Q are corrected
by introducing a correction delta Q for the flows, till
circuit is balanced.

The correction factor is obtained by-

-∑
ΔQ (kQ02)

= (2kQ0
If the Correction factor comes out to be positive, then it
should be added to the flows in the CW direction and
subtracted from the flows in the CCW direction.

After the corrections have been applied to each pipe in a

loop and to all loops, a second trial calculation is made
for all loops. The procedure is repeated till Delta Q
becomes negligible.
Let us consider a problem.

2 K= 2 C
D 0 4
0

K= 1
K= 1
K= 4

A
K= 2 B 3
9 0
0

First Trial
2 K= 2 C
D 0 4
2 0
0
K= 1
3 1 K= 1 2
K= 4
0 0 0

A 6
0 B
K= 2 3
9 0
0

Discharges are assumed as in the

above figure
Pipe k Q Hf= 2kQ
kQ2
DB 1 10 -100 20
AB 2 60 -7200 240
Total -3700 500

Q1 = 7.4
Loop DCB
Pipe k Q Hf= 2kQ
kQ2
DC 2 20 800 80
CB 1 20 -400 40
BD 1 10 100 20
Total 500 140

Q2 = -3.6
Corrected flow for second trial.

Pipe Correction Flow Direction

AD 30 + 7.4 37.4 CW
AB 60 – 7.4 52.6 CCW
BD 10 – 7.4 2.6 CCW
DC 20 – 3.6 16.4 CW
BC 20 + 3.6 23.6 CCW
BD 2.6 – 3.6 -1 CW
Second Trial
2 K= 2 C
D 0 4
16. 0
4
K= 1
37. 1 K= 1 23.
K= 4
4 6

A 52.
6 B
K= 2 3
9 0
0

Discharges for the second trial

Pipe k Q Hf= 2kQ
kQ2
DB 1 1 1 2
AB 2 52.6 -5533.5 210.4

Total 62.54 511.6

Q1 = -0.1
Loop DCB
Pipe k Q Hf= 2kQ
kQ2
DC 2 16.4 537.9 65.6
CB 1 23.6 -556.9 47.2
BD 1 1 -1 2
Total -20 114.8

Q2 = 0.2
Since Q1 and Q2 are
very small, the
correction is applied
and furthur trials are
discontinued.
Corrected flow for second trial.

Pipe Correction Flow Direction

AD 37.4 – 0.1 37.3 CW
AB 52.6 + 0.1 52.7 CCW
BD 1 – 0.1 0.9 CW
DC 16.4 + 0.2 16.6 CW
BC 23.6 – 0.2 23.4 CCW
BD 0.9 – 0.2 0.7 CCW
Final Discharge
2 K= 2 C
D 0 4
16. 0
6
K= 1
37. 0. K= 1 23.
K= 4
3 7 4

A 52.
7 B
K= 2 3
9 0
0

Final Distribution of discharges.

Hereby we conclude Hardy Cross method.

time
and patience.