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CHAPTER 1

PROBLEM STATEMENT

As Malaysia’s roads become more congested, the Works Ministry has the daunting task
of ensuring they are constantly in good condition and safe for motorists. Road infrastructure
development is generally synonymous with the overall growth of a nation. Malaysia has had a
tremendous increase in road mileage since the last 40 years, expedited by her independence.
With the convenience of road development comes issues that cause specific inconvenience to the
people, namely poor road condition during rainy seasons, traffic congestion and road accidents.
During the rainy seasons, many areas will have potholes and other types of problems, creating a
dangerous condition and causing accidents as drivers react to avoid them.

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Potholes, cracks, and other problems on roads and pavements can lead to accidents. Road
pavement shall be strong, smooth, rough, economical, and complying with sanitary and hygiene
requirements. These characteristics depend on the type and structure of pavement, traffic
volumes and driving speed, road significance as well as materials used for road construction. The
most important characteristics of pavement are its strength, smoothness and roughness. When
pavement is not strong enough, rutting or even breaching occurs, and rolling resistance increases
considerably. Therefore, it is extremely important to design such road pavement structure, which
complies with the imposed requirements.

Successful chip seal construction depends on a combination of rational science and


qualitative judgment in the field. Success is usually measured by a lack of customer complaints
that sometimes occur when loose aggregate chips come in contact with windshields at high
speed. Allowing traffic on a fresh chip seal too soon can result in windshield damage if the
asphalt binder lacks sufficient strength to resist dislodgement. Therefore, timing the removal of
traffic control is a key element in the success of any chip seal project. A desirable addition to the
technology would be a quantitative process that identifies when a chip seal is ready for
uncontrolled traffic.

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In order to complete our project for BFC 3042, we are required to conduct a survey
on pavement condition to identify the damage which occurred and propose a suitable pavement
method work to local authority.

1.1 SCOPE

For this task we are required to conduct a survey on the pavement condition in the
certain road, along 1kilometer. We have to do a few methods to complete this survey. We
had picked up the main road from Parit Jelutong. At the site survey, we have to determine
some categories of pavement distress and damage. From the data obtained, we have to
discuss and analyze the suitable method to regarding the condition.

1.2 AIM

We had survey a few roads in the radius of UTHM. We found that Parit Jelutong is
most suitable site that we chose to continue the project as it is nearby to UTHM. The
respective road had a few sort of damaged that easily can found on their pavement due to
transportation of oil palm material in and out from the particular place.

1.3 METHOD

For the method of analyzation, we collect the data by filling the damage found into
the condition survey data sheet. We also did the sand patch method in order to covers the
determination of the average texture depth of paved surface sand to give the volume of
voids. For the treatment, we use chip seal to assure that the damage occurred has been
treat and the road will be use safe and smoothly.

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CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

The movement of people and goods throughout the world is primarily dependent upon a
transportation network consisting of roadways. Most, if not all, business economies, personal
economies, and public economies are the result of this transportation system. Considering the
high initial and annual cost of roadways and since each roadway serves many users, the only
prudent owner of roadways is the public sector. Thus it is the discipline of civil engineering that
manages the vast network of roadways. The surface of these roadways, the pavement, must have
sufficient smoothness to allow a reasonable speed of travel, as well as ensure the safety of people
and cargo. Additionally, once the pavement is in service, the economies that depend upon it will
be financially burdened if the pavement is taken out of service for repair or maintenance. Thus,
pavements should be designed to be long lasting with few maintenance needs.

The accomplishment of a successful pavement design depends upon several variables.


The practice of pavement design is based on both engineering principles and experience.
Pavements were built long before computers, calculators, and even slide rules. Prior to more
modern times, pavements were designed by trial-and-error and commonsense methods, rather

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than the more complicated methods being used currently. Even more modern methods require a
certain amount of experience and common sense. The most widely used methods today are based
on experiments with full-scale, in-service pavements that were built and monitored to failure.
Empirical information derived from these road tests is the most common basis for current
pavement design methods. More recently, with the ever-expanding power of personal computers,
more mathematically based pavement design methods such as finite element analysis and refined
elastic layer theory have been introduced. These methods require extensive training to use and
are not developed for the inexperienced. Types of pavements can be broadly categorized as
rigid, flexible, or composite. The characteristics of these types are reviewed in the following
articles.

RIGID PAVEMENT
FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT
COMPOSITE PAVEMENT (OVERLAYS)

In this literature review, we need to spend and focus over the aspect that involving in
pavement design criteria. It is centralized as three of analytical important prospect in this part of
literature review for the Project gaining information as listed below;

 PAVEMENT STRESS
 DESIGN OF CHIP SEAL
 TYPES OF PAVEMENT DISTRESS

Rigid pavement can be constructed with contraction joints, expansion joints, dowelled
joints, no joints, temperature steel, continuous reinforcing steel, or no steel. Most generally, the
construction requirements concerning these options are carefully chosen by the owner or the
public entity that will be responsible for future maintenance of the pavement. The types of joints
and the amount of steel used are chosen in concert as a strategy to control cracking in the
concrete pavement. Often, the owner specifies the construction requirements but requires the
designer to take care of other details such as intersection jointing details and the like. It is

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imperative that a designer understand all of these design options and the role each of these plays
in concrete pavement performance.

Load transfer is the critical element at joints and cracks. In undo welled, unreinforced
pavements, any load transfer must be provided by aggregate interlock.

Source: Highway Engineering Handbook, 2nd edition

Aggregate interlock is lost when slabs contract and the joints or cracks open up. Also,
interlock is slowly destroyed by the movement of the concrete as traffic passes over. Given large
temperature variations and heavy trucks, aggregate interlock is ineffectual, and faulting is the
primary result.

Where a long joint spacing is used and intermediate cracks are expected, steel
reinforcement is added to hold the cracks tightly closed (JRCP). This allows the load transfer to
be accomplished through aggregate interlock without the associated problems described above.
Contraction joints do not provide for expansion of the pavement unless the same amount of
contraction has already taken place. This contraction will initially be from shrinkage due to
concrete curing. Later changes in the pavement length are due to temperature changes. Where

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fixed objects such as structures are placed in the pavement, the use of an expansion joint is
warranted. Expansion joints should be used sparingly. The pavement will be allowed to creep
toward the expansion joint, thus opening the adjacent contraction joints. This can cause
movement in the adjacent contraction joints in excess of their design capabilities and result in
premature failures.

This is showed, how the good implementation and idea given to review the overall
literature of Project Making Process with high intention of other fundamental idea in highway
engineering.

2.1 PAVEMENT STRESS

Pavement Stress is considered to be under the flexible pavement. The basic idea of
pavement stress starting from the loading area and impact on the pavement. Rutting in
asphalt pavement includes densification and shear flow of hot-mix asphalt, but the
majority of severe instable rutting results from shear flow within the asphalt mixtures. In
recent years, another type of surface distress called Top-Down Cracking (TDC), which is
usually found in longitudinal path, has become more common in asphalt pavement, this is
also considered as a shear-related failure. As a result, shear stress is believed to be one of
the critical factors affecting pavements performance, and it is necessary to well
understand shear stress in asphalt pavements. To gain an accurate understanding of the
effect of shear stress on pavement performance, a laboratory method of applying tire-
pavement contact pressure is employed in this paper. The results are compared for
differing loading conditions. The effects of tire pressure and stress components in terms
of vertical and horizontal stress on shear stress are comprehensively investigated by
three-dimensional finite element method. In addition, the effects of asphalt layer
thickness and interface conditions are also discussed.

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Car loading is the most important aspect in order to effect the load distribution on
pavement surface to the base. Rutting influenced by the load of car, and regularly
happened on the mid of section in single road. We need to predict and understand stress
- strain distribution within the pavement structure as they relate to failure cracking and
rutting.

In Flexible Pavement Stress Analysis, there are two (2) types of prediction stress in
pavement that occur.
1. Numerical Models
2. Ideal Models

Numerical Models
Need model to compute deflections (δ) and strains (ε). Numerous models available with
different:

–Capabilities
– Underlying assumptions
– Complexity
– Material information requirements

Ideal Models

Predicts and Input Parameters


• Stresses
• Strains
- Static & dynamic loads
- Material properties
- Traffic
- Environment

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Available Models in these fields of highway analysis that use widely in real site as
below listed;
o Multilayer Elastic Theory
o Finite Element Methods
o Viscoelastic Theory (time and temp.-dependent behavior)
o Dynamic Analysis (inertial effects)
o Thermal Models (temperature change)

But most widely used is;


o Reasonable Results
o Properties Relatively Simple to Obtain

Falling Weight Deflectometer

Use elastic theory to predict the deflection basin for the given load. Then iterate with
different module configurations until the calculated deflection basin matches the
measured. This Process using the tools;
• Small trailer
• Dropping Weight
• Geophones
• Deflection Basin

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This Pavement Stress generated by the theory of Multilayer Elastic Theory. And a
few assumptions were taking part of the analysis to make sure that will be reasonable and
practice to be done. As result, a graph generate by the findings in the analysis as theory
assumption had made before the analysis. The figure of finding as showed below.

Figure Generating Finding from Analysis Theory

Source: Dr. Christos Drakos, University of Florida

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Graph: One-layer Solutions (Foster & Ahlvin 1954)
Shear stresses due to circular loading.
Source: Dr. Christos Drakos, University of Florida

Asphalt concrete pavement, also referred to as flexible pavement, is a mixture of


sand, aggregate, a filler material, and asphalt cement combined in a controlled process,
placed, and compacted. The filler material can range from quarry crushing dust and
asphalt-plant bag house fines to wood fibers (cellulose). There are many additives that
can be used in asphalt concrete mixes to encourage thicker cement coatings, more elastic
mixes, stiffer mixes, and less temperature-sensitive mixes. Flexible pavements can be of
a type constructed on a prepared sub grade, which is called full-depth asphalt concrete
pavement (FDACP), or of a type built on an untreated granular base, which is not as
carefully identified by the industry but is referred to herein as deep-strength asphalt
concrete pavement (DSACP).

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2.2 DESIGN OF CHIP SEAL

There are a few questions about the Chip Seal that play around the fields of
construction especially among the people who lively involved in the industry of road
maintenance. To clarify the questions issue that emerged in terms of right knowledge
and fundamental of Chip Seal, the Maintenance Technical Advisory Guide (MTAG) US,
were using to keep maintain and briefly explain the Chip Seal Design.

2.3 MAINTENANCE TECHNICAL ADVISORY GUIDE (MTAG)

2.3.1 Chip Seal from MTAG Review.

Application of asphalt binder on existing pavement followed by a layer of aggregate


chips. The treatment is then rolled to embed the aggregate into the binder.

o Performance
•Typical treatment life: 5 to 10 years
•Function of climate, existing pavement condition, traffic, type of chip
seal
o Average cost
•$2.50 to $5.00/yd2 (depending on oil price)

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The chip seal practice were doing and apply base on where and when the necessary
work were implementing to solve the road maintenance problem base on the criteria that
listed below to make sure the capability and workability of work in high intensity of
enduring quality of pavement for the live years.

o Surface for light to medium traffic (ADT < 30,000)


o Waterproof layer
o Skid resistant surface
o Seal the surface
o Address bleeding
o Temporary base course cover
o Define shoulders

Picture: Chip Seal Process

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After we defined the necessarily when and where, we have to know that the chip seal
also have some condition that not related to the main aspect. So, we have to consider the
right time when we are not going to use the Chip Seal as condition prefer below;

o Structurally deficient pavements


o Cracks >1/4 in width unless sealed
o Large number of potholes
o Rutting >1/2 in
o Ride quality needs significant improvement

In order to the step of success in chip seal design, the right key of chip seal design
we have to consider so that the work going to be success and done properly.

o Proper surface preparation


o Use the right binder and clean aggregates
o Follow the construction specs, including the need for traffic control
o Chip seal in good weather conditions

Picture: Criteria Design Step and Process

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2.3.2 Chip Seal Variations

o Applications
o Single chip seals
o Double or triple chip seals
o Cape seals
o Fabric and chip seals
o Scrub seals
o Asphalt Binder Types
o PME
o PMA
o AR

(Single Chip Seals)

(Double Chip Seals)

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(Cape Seals)

(Fabric and Chip Seals)

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(Fabric and Chip Seals)

2.3.3 Design, Materials & Specifications

Determine Quantity

o Residual asphalt content


o Asphalt cement factor = 1.0
o Emulsion factors range = 0.65 to 0.70
o Aggregate application rate
o Single chip layer
o No more than 10% excess chips
o 70% embedment recommended

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Chip Seal Design Methods

 McLeod procedure
 Asphalt Institute method

1. Determine aggregate size and specific gravity


2. Aggregate and binder quantities from table
3. Adjust aggregate (if necessary)
4. Adjust asphalt content based on condition of road (if necessary)

Material Selection –Binder Material Selection-Emulsion


Ingredients
- Polymer-modified emulsions
- Polymer-modified binder - Asphalt
- Polymer-modified rejuvenating - Water
emulsions (PMRE) - Emulsifying agent (surfactant)
- Asphalt Rubber

2.3.4 Asphalt Rubber Chip Seals

Binder Material Field Blended (min. 45 minutes and viscosity 1,500 cps-4,000)
hot asphalt, extender oil, crumb rubber, and high natural.AR binder application is
usually .60 gal / square yard through an agitated distributor truck attached with a
vapor recovery system. Aggregate Chips are always hot pre-coated, and applied at
35-40 lbs. per square yard.

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Source: Maintenance Technical Advisory Guide (MTAG)-U.S

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2.4 TYPES OF FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT DISTRESS

Index of Pavement Distresses Shown on this Page

Fatigue (alligator) cracking Polished aggregate


Bleeding Potholes
Block cracking Raveling
Corrugation and shoving Rutting
Depression Slippage cracking
Joint reflection cracking Stripping
Lane/shoulder drop-off Transverse (thermal) cracking
Longitudinal cracking Water bleeding and pumping
Patching

2.4.1 Fatigue (Alligator) Cracking

This section is a summary of the major flexible pavement distresses.


Each distress discussion includes (1) pictures if available, (2) a description of
the distress, (3) why the distress is a problem and (4) typical causes of the
distress.

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Description

Series of interconnected cracks caused by fatigue failure of the HMA surface


(or stabilized base) under repeated traffic loading. In thin pavements, cracking
initiates at the bottom of the HMA layer where the tensile stress is the highest
then propagates to the surface as one or more longitudinal cracks. This is
commonly referred to as "bottom-up" or "classical" fatigue cracking. In thick
pavements, the cracks most likely initiate from the top in areas of high localized
tensile stresses resulting from tire-pavement interaction and asphalt binder aging
(top-down cracking). After repeated loading, the longitudinal cracks connect
forming many-sided sharp-angled pieces that develop into a pattern resembling
the back of an alligator or crocodile.

Problem

Indicator of structural failure, cracks allow moisture infiltration, roughness,


may further deteriorate to a pothole

Possible Causes

Inadequate structural support, which can be caused by a myriad of things. A


few of the more common ones are listed here:

 Decrease in pavement load supporting characteristics

o Loss of base, sub base or sub grade support (e.g., poor drainage or spring
thaw resulting in a less stiff base).

o Stripping on the bottom of the HMA layer (the stripped portion


contributes little to pavement strength so the effective HMA thickness
decreases)

o Increase in loading (e.g., more or heavier loads than anticipated in design)

o Inadequate structural design

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o Poor construction (e.g., inadequate compaction)

Repair

A fatigue cracked pavement should be investigated to determine the root


cause of failure. Any investigation should involve digging a pit or coring the
pavement to determine the pavement's structural makeup as well as determining
whether or not subsurface moisture is a contributing factor. Once the characteristic
alligator pattern is apparent, repair by crack sealing is generally ineffective. Fatigue
crack repair generally falls into one of two categories:

o Small, localized fatigue cracking indicative of a loss of subgrade support.


Remove the cracked pavement area then dig out and replace the area of poor
subgrade and improve the drainage of that area if necessary. Patch over the
repaired subgrade.
o Large fatigue cracked areas indicative of general structural failure. Place
an HMA overlay over the entire pavement surface. This overlay must be
strong enough structurally to carry the anticipated loading because the
underlying fatigue cracked pavement most likely contributes little or no
strength (Roberts et. al., 1996).

2.4.2 Bleeding

Description

A film of asphalt binder on the pavement surface. It usually creates a shiny,


glass-like reflecting surface (as in the third photo) that can become quite sticky.

Problem

Loss of skid resistance when wet

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Possible Causes

Bleeding occurs when asphalt binder fills the aggregate voids during hot
weather and then expands onto the pavement surface. Since bleeding is not
reversible during cold weather, asphalt binder will accumulate on the pavement
surface over time. This can be caused by one or a combination of the following:

 Excessive asphalt binder in the HMA (either due to mix


design or manufacturing)

 Excessive application of asphalt binder during BST application (as in the


above figures)

 Low HMA air void content (e.g., not enough room for the asphalt to
expand into during hot weather)

Repair

The following repair measures may eliminate or reduce the asphalt binder
film on the pavement's surface but may not correct the underlying problem that
caused the bleeding:

 Minor bleeding can often be corrected by applying coarse sand to blot up the
excess asphalt binder.

 Major bleeding can be corrected by cutting off excess asphalt with a motor
grader or removing it with a heater planer. If the resulting surface is
excessively rough, resurfacing may be necessary (APAI, no date given).

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2.4.3 Block Cracking

Description

Interconnected cracks that divide the pavement up into rectangular pieces.


Blocks range in size from approximately 0.1 m2 (1 ft2) to 9 m2 (100 ft2). Larger
blocks are generally classified as longitudinal and transverse cracking. Block
cracking normally occurs over a large portion of pavement area but sometimes
will occur only in non-traffic areas.

Problem

Allows moisture infiltration, roughness

Possible Causes

HMA shrinkage and daily temperature cycling. Typically caused by an


inability of asphalt binder to expand and contract with temperature cycles because
of:-

 Asphalt binder aging

 Poor choice of asphalt binder in the mix design

Repair

Strategies depend upon the severity and extent of the block cracking:

 Low severity cracks (< 1/2 inch wide). Crack seal to prevent (1) entry of
moisture into the sub grade through the cracks and (2) further raveling of
the crack edges. HMA can provide years of satisfactory service after
developing small cracks if they are kept sealed (Roberts et. al., 1996).

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 High severity cracks (> 1/2 inch wide and cracks with raveled edges).
Remove and replace the cracked pavement layer with an overlay

2.4.4 Corrugation and Shoving

Description

A form of plastic movement typified by ripples (corrugation) or an abrupt


wave (shoving) across the pavement surface. The distortion is perpendicular to
the traffic direction. Usually occurs at points where traffic starts and stops
(corrugation) or areas where HMA abuts a rigid object (shoving).

Problem

Roughness

Possible Causes

Usually caused by traffic action (starting and stopping) combined with:

 An unstable (i.e. low stiffness) HMA layer (caused by mix contamination,


poor mix design, poor HMA manufacturing, or lack of aeration of liquid
asphalt emulsions)

 Excessive moisture in the sub grade

Repair

A heavily corrugated or shoved pavement should be investigated to


determine the root cause of failure. Repair strategies generally fall into one of two
categories:

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 Small, localized areas of corrugation or shoving. Remove the distorted pavement
and patch.

 Large corrugated or shoved areas indicative of general HMA failure. Remove the
damaged pavement and overlay.

2.4.5 Depression

Description

Localized pavement surface areas with slightly lower elevations than the
surrounding pavement. Depressions are very noticeable after a rain when they fill
with water.

Problem

Roughness, depressions filled with substantial water can cause vehicle


hydroplaning

Possible Causes

Frost heave or sub grade settlement resulting from inadequate compaction


during construction.

Repair

By definition, depressions are small localized areas. A pavement depression


should be investigated to determine the root cause of failure (i.e., sub grade
settlement or frost heave). Depressions should be repaired by removing the
affected pavement then digging out and replacing the area of poor sub
grade. Patch over the repaired sub grade.

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2.4.6 Joint Reflection Cracking

Description

Cracks in a flexible overlay of a rigid pavement. The cracks occur directly


over the underlying rigid pavement joints. Joint reflection cracking does not
include reflection cracks that occur away from an underlying joint or from any
other type of base (e.g., cement or lime stabilized).

Problem

Allows moisture infiltration, roughness

Possible Causes

Movement of the PCC slab beneath the HMA surface because of thermal
and moisture changes. Generally not load initiated, however loading can hasten
deterioration.

Repair

Strategies depend upon the severity and extent of the cracking:

 Low severity cracks (< 1/2 inch wide and infrequent cracks). Crack seal
to prevent (1) entry of moisture into the sub grade through the cracks and
(2) further raveling of the crack edges. In general, rigid pavement joints
will eventually reflect through an HMA overlay without proper surface
preparation.

 High severity cracks (> 1/2 inch wide and numerous cracks). Remove
and replace the cracked pavement layer with an overlay.

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2.4.7 Raveling

Description

The progressive disintegration of an HMA layer from the surface downward


as a result of the dislodgement of aggregate particles.

Problem

Loose debris on the pavement, roughness, water collecting in the raveled


locations resulting in vehicle hydroplaning, loss of skid resistance.

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Possible Causes

Several including:

 Loss of bond between aggregate particles and the asphalt binder as a result
of:-

o A dust coating on the aggregate particles that forces the asphalt binder to
bond with the dust rather than the aggregate

o Aggregate Segregation. If fine particles are missing from the aggregate


matrix, then the asphalt binder is only able to bind the remaining coarse
particles at their relatively few contact points.

o Inadequate compaction during construction. High density is required to


develop sufficient cohesion within the HMA. The third figure above
shows a road suffering from raveling due to inadequate compaction caused
by cold weather paving.

 Mechanical dislodging by certain types of traffic (studded tires, snowplow


blades or tracked vehicles). The first and fourth figures above show
raveling most likely caused by snow plows.

Repair

A raveled pavement should be investigated to determine the root cause of


failure. Repair strategies generally fall into one of two categories:

 Small, localized areas of raveling. Remove the raveled pavement


and patch.

 Large raveled areas indicative of general HMA failure. Remove the


damaged pavement and overlay.

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CHAPTER 3

METHODOLOGY

3.1 FORMING GROUP

In week 1, lecturer told us there is a project for Highway Engineering subject


and she asked us to form in a group. Each group consists of 5 people but special
permission to our group where we contain of 6 students.

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3.2 PROBLEM AND SCOPE OF PROJECT

In week 3, lecturer gave us the problem and the scope of project. She briefly
explained the problem. The problem was about the roads that have been built are
often damaged due to vehicle load and environment. This situation requires the
maintenance work to be done so that it can provide comfortable riding to road
users. Each of the group has to conduct a survey of pavement conditions to
determine damages and recommend appropriate pavement preservation work to
local authorities. The local authority would like to use chip seal method to repair
the damaged road surface. Subsequently, students have to design an appropriate
chip seal treatment. The factors of the damage to the roads also need to be
reviewed, studied and related design aspects of the existing drainage system.

3.3 BRIEFING OR BRAINSTORMING SESSION

Our lecturer gave us a brainstorming on how to solve the related problem. In


this session, lecturer had given us some opinions such as the procedures and the
requirements of the project and the equipments that are needed for this project

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3.4 DISCUSSION / INVESTIGATING PROBLEM

After the lecturer briefed us the project problem and the group discussion on
26 July 2010, we had suggested few sites for our project which are Parit Jelutong,
Jalan Rengit, Taman Melewar road and Parit Haji Rais. To determine the site for
our project, we have to conduct a survey on the site so that the site that we choose
is fulfilled the requirements of this project such as minimum four cracks within
1km of the road. We decided to choose Parit Jelutong as our project site after we
conducted surveys on these few sites on 30 July 2010. Before we start the onsite
laboratory works, we were divided into several small groups. Each of the group
member has to identify the problems and do research on the problems in the
internet, books and journal. After that, the identified problems will be solved in
FILA table by using brainstorming method. The method of FILA table is as
followings:

LEARNING ACTION
FACTS IDEAS
ISSUES PLANS

- the roads that -Single chip seal -Types of chip seal - Identified the
have been built are cracks
often damaged due -Double chip seal -Design of chip seal
to vehicle load and - Based on data
-Stress absorbing -Aggregate for chip analysis, recommend
environment Membrane (SAM) seals a design of chip seal
-Membrane Inter- to repair the cracks
layer (SAMI)

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3.5 ONSITE LABORATORY WORKS

We did our onsite laboratory works on 2 August 2010. First, we measured


1km for the length and the width of the road. At the same time, we counted the
traffic volume for the non-peak hour. Subsequently, we did the sand patch for 4
times at the distance of 250m each. The sand patch procedures are as following:

1. Ensure the pavement surface is clear of debris by sweeping the surface


with a small brush. Test area is to be clear of cracking and the pavement
area must be dry.
2. A known volume of sand, is measured and then poured onto the road
surface to form a cone, using the measuring cylinder.
3. Spread the sand with the spreading disc to form a circular patch. Apply
horizontal forces to the spreading tool and work outwards in a circular
pattern until the surface depressions are filled to the level of the peaks.
Sand is to be used only once.
4. Measure the diameter at four different angles, rotating 45° between each
measurement.

After we had done the sand patch, we identified the types of cracks, measure
the length, width and depth (pothole) and filled the data in the lab sheet.
Consequently, we counted the traffic volume again for the peak hour and non
peak hour from 11pm -2pm and 4pm-7pm.

3.6 LABORATORY WORKS

After we did the onsite laboratory works, we did the Flakiness and
Elongation index laboratory to determine the size of the chip seal to be used.

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3.7 RESULT ANALYSIS AND RECOMMENDATION

Based on the data that got from on-site laboratory works and laboratory
works, firstly we have to get the Pavement Condition Index (PCI) value. To
obtain PCI value, there are steps which are Distress Density, Corrected Deduct
Value and PCI Rating scale. The PCI value for section 1, 2, 3 and 4 are 54 (LOS
D, POOR), 83 (LOS B, SATISFACTORY), 81 (LOS B, SATISFACTORY) and
82 (LOS B, SATISFACTORY) respectively. The total PCI value for 1km road is
75 (LOS B, SATISFACTORY) which means section pavement is in satisfactory
condition, Level of Service is B and needed to preventive maintenance. Based on
the total PCI value for 1 km length of the road, we design the chip seal design.
According to our chip seal design, we recommend that the road shall be using
Double Chip Seal, the size for first layer is 14mm and the size for second layer is
6mm.

3.8 FINAL REPORT AND PRESENTATION

We submitted our final report and presented our project on week 12. On
Saturday 16th October there will be a poster presentation will be carried out as
part of our evaluation.

3.9 FINAL EVALUATION

Final evaluation on our group will be given after we submitted our final
report and did our presentation based on quality of our report and presentation and
the way that we presented.

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CHAPTER 4

DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION

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BRANCH : TRAFFIC LABORATORY UTHM DATE : 9 AUGUST 2010

SURVEYED BY: MOGANRAJ SAMPLE UNIT :

SECTION : 4 (1 km) SAMPLE AREA : 4.8m x 250m

11. Patching & 17. Slippage

01. Aligator Cracking (m2) 06. Depression (m2) Utility Cut Cracking (m2)

07. Edge Cracking Patching (m2)

02. Bleeding (m2) (m)

12. Polished

08. Joint Reflection Aggregate (m2)

03. Block Cracking (m2) Cracking (m) 18. Swell (m2)

13. Potholes(no)

04. Bumps and Sags (m) 19. Weathering/

14. Railroad Crossing


05. Corrugation
(m2) 09. Lane/shoulder (m) Ravelling (m2)

Drop

(m) 15. Rutting (m2)

16. Shoving
10. Longitudinal & (m2)

Transverse
Cracking

(m)

36
Sample 1 (for section 0 – 250m)
Determine the Distress Density and Deduct Value

DISTRESS DEDUCT
QUANTITY TOTAL DENSITY (%)
SURVEY VALUE

100*(3.7/1200)
01M 3.7 3.7 14
= 0.31

100*(5.6/1200)
10M 5.6 5.6 6
= 0.47

100*(0.4/1200)
13L 0.4 0.4 42
= 0.03

Maximum allowable number of deducts, m


Highest deduct value, HDV = 42

m = 1 + (9/98)(100 – HDV)
= 1 + (9/98)(100 – 42)
= 6.33

Deducts values in descending order = 42, 14, 6


Number of deduct value = 3

Maximum Corrected Deduct Value, CDV


Number of deduct value greater than 2, q = 3
Total deduct value = 42 + 14 + 6 = 62
From Figure B – 45, CDV = 40

37
NO DEDUCT VALUES TOTAL q CDV

1 42 14 6 62 3 40

2 42 14 2 58 2 43

3 42 2 2 46 1 46

Maximum CDV = 46

Determine the Pavement Condition Index, PCI

PCI = 100 - CDVmax


= 100 - 46
= 54 (LOS D, POOR)

The PCI is 54. Based on the rating for PCI value of 54, this section pavement is in poor
condition, Level of Service is D and needed to major rehabilitation or deferred action.

38
Sample 2 (for section 250 – 500m)
Determine the Distress Density and Deduct Value

DISTRESS DEDUCT
QUANTITY TOTAL DENSITY (%)
SURVEY VALUE

100*(11.3/1200)
10M 11.3 11.3 9
= 0.94

100*(0.3/1200)
13M 0.3 0.3 15
= 0.03

Maximum allowable number of deducts, m

Highest deduct value, HDV = 15

m = 1 + (9/98)(100 – HDV)
= 1 + (9/98)(100 – 15)
= 8.82

Deducts values in descending order = 15, 9


Number of deduct value = 2

Maximum Corrected Deduct Value, CDV


Number of deduct value greater than 2, q = 2
Total deduct value = 15 + 9 = 24
From Figure B – 45, CDV = 17

39
NO DEDUCT VALUES TOTAL q CDV

1 15 9 24 2 17

2 15 2 17 1 17

Maximum CDV = 17

Determine the Pavement Condition Index, PCI

PCI = 100 - CDVmax


= 100 - 17
= 83 (LOS B, SATISFACTORY)

The PCI is 83. Based on the rating for PCI value of 83, this section pavement is in satisfactory
condition, Level of Service is B and needed to preventive maintenance

40
Sample 3 (for section 500 – 750m)
Determine the Distress Density and Deduct Value

DISTRESS DEDUCT
QUANTITY TOTAL DENSITY (%)
SURVEY VALUE

100*(3.6/1200)
10M 3.6 3.6 3
= 0.30

100*(0.4/1200)
13L 0.4 0.4 9
= 0.03

100*(0.3/1200)
13M 0.3 0.3 15
= 0.03

Maximum allowable number of deducts, m


Highest deduct value, HDV = 15

m = 1 + (9/98)(100 – HDV)
= 1 + (9/98)(100 – 15)
= 8.82

Deducts values in descending order = 15, 9, 3


Number of deduct value = 3

Maximum Corrected Deduct Value, CDV


Number of deduct value greater than 2, q = 3
Total deduct value = 15 + 9 + 3 = 27
From Figure B – 45, CDV = 15

41
NO DEDUCT VALUES TOTAL q CDV

1 15 9 3 27 3 15

2 15 9 2 26 2 19

3 15 2 2 19 1 19

Maximum CDV = 19

Determine the Pavement Condition Index, PCI

PCI = 100 - CDVmax


= 100 - 19
= 81 (LOS B, SATISFACTORY)

The PCI is 81. Based on the rating for PCI value of 81, this section pavement is in satisfactory
condition, Level of Service is B and needed to preventive maintenance.

42
Sample 4 (for section 750 – 1000m)
Determine the Distress Density and Deduct Value

DISTRESS DEDUCT
QUANTITY TOTAL DENSITY (%)
SURVEY VALUE

100*(1.3/1200)
01M 0.2 1.1 1.3 8
= 0.11

100*(0/3/1200)
13M 0.3 0.3 15
= 0.03

Maximum allowable number of deducts, m

Highest deduct value, HDV = 15

m = 1 + (9/98)(100 – HDV)
= 1 + (9/98)(100 – 15)
= 8.82

Deducts values in descending order = 15, 8


Number of deduct value = 2

Maximum Corrected Deduct Value, CDV


Number of deduct value greater than 2, q = 2
Total deduct value = 15 + 8 = 23
From Figure B – 45, CDV = 16

43
NO DEDUCT VALUES TOTAL q CDV

1 15 8 23 2 16

2 15 2 17 1 18

Maximum CDV = 18

Determine the Pavement Condition Index, PCI

PCI = 100 - CDVmax


= 100 - 18
= 82 (LOS B, SATISFACTORY)

The PCI is 82. Based on the rating for PCI value of 82, this section pavement is in satisfactory
condition, Level of Service is B and needed to preventive maintenance.

44
Calculation of the PCI section Jalan Parit Jelutong

PCIS = ∑PCIri x Ari


∑Ari

Where,
PCIS = PCI of pavement section.
Ari = Area of the random sample unit i.

PCIS = (54 + 83 + 81 + 82)(1200)


4800

= 75 (LOS B, SATISFACTORY)

The PCI is 75. Based on the rating for PCI value of 75, this section pavement is in satisfactory
condition, Level of Service is B and needed to preventive maintenance.

45
4.2 CHIP SEAL

Criteria of chip seal

Existing Surface and traffic Nominal size (mm)

Soft surface, such as Penetration Macadam with < 1000 vehicle per 20mm
day

Soft surface with > 1000 vehicle per day 14mm

Medium surface, such as rolled asphalt with < 1000 vehicle per day 10mm

Hard surface, such as Portland Cement Concrete or Asphalt Concrete 6mm


> 1000 vehicle per day

Table Single Chip Selection Criteria

Existing Surface and traffic Nominal size

1st + 2nd seal (mm)

Soft to medium surface with < 1000 vehicle per day 20 + 10

Hard surface with > 1000 vehicle per day 14 + 6

Table Double Chip Selection Criteria

Data gained from observation of total vehicles use the road, it is defined that total
vehicles use the road in a day are :

Traffic in lane volume per hour = 62 vph/hour/lane


Traffic in lane (vpd/lane) = 1488 vpd/day/lane

46
Design of Chip Seal For Jalan Parit Jelutong

Proposed of Double chip seal for preventive maintenance at Jalan Parit


Jelutong, Parit Raja, Batu Pahat Johor.

DETERMINATION OF SIZE, SHAPE AND GRADING OF SEALING CHIPS

Class No. Thickness Tally Total Cum. Cum (a) x (c)


(a) Range Stones In tally (c) Tally (d) percent
mm Class (e) (f)

(b)

1 <1 0

2 1-2 1.5 4 4 4 8

3 2-3 2.5 4 8 8 12

4 3-4 3.5 5 13 13 20

5 4-5 4.5 5 18 18 25

6 5-6 5.5 10 28 28 60

7 6-7 6.5 13 41 41 91

8 7-8 7.5 14 55 55 112

9 8-9 8.5 13 68 68 117

10 9 - 10 9.5 13 80 80 120

11 10 - 11 10.5 13 92 92 132

12 11 - 12 11.5 8 100 100 96

13 12 - 13 12.5

14 13 - 14 13.5

47
15 14 - 15 14.5

16 15 - 16 15.5

17 16 - 17 16.5

18 17 - 18 17.5

19 18 - 19 18.5

20 19 - 20 19.5

21 20 - 21 20.5

22 21 - 22 21.5

23 22 - 23 22.5

24 23 - 24 23.5

25 24 - 25 24.5

(c) = 100 (f) = 793

For 6mm:

Aggregate Average Least Dimension, ALD:

ALD6mm = [ (f) / (c) – 0.5 ]


= [ 793 / 100 – 0.5 ]
= 7.97 mm

For 14mm:

48
Class No. Thickness Tally Total Cum. Cum (a) x (c)
(a) Range Stones In tally (c) Tally (d) percent
mm Class (e) (f)

(b)

1 <1 0

2 1-2 1.5

3 2-3 2.5

4 3-4 3.5

5 4-5 4.5

6 5-6 5.5 1 1 1 6

7 6-7 6.5 3 4 4 21

8 7-8 7.5 6 10 10 48

9 8-9 8.5 12 22 22 108

10 9 - 10 9.5 10 32 32 100

11 10 - 11 10.5 13 45 45 143

12 11 - 12 11.5 10 55 55 120

13 12 - 13 12.5 12 67 67 156

14 13 - 14 13.5 10 77 77 140

15 14 - 15 14.5 7 84 84 105

16 15 - 16 15.5 6 90 90 96

17 16 - 17 16.5 4 94 94 68

18 17 - 18 17.5 4 98 98 72

19 18 - 19 18.5 2 100 100 38

20 19 - 20 19.5

21 20 - 21 20.5

49
22 21 - 22 21.5

23 22 - 23 22.5

24 23 - 24 23.5

25 24 - 25 24.5

(c) = 100 (f) = 1221

Aggregate Average Least Dimension, ALD:

ALD14mm = [ (f) / (c) – 0.5 ]


= [ 1221 / 100 – 0.5 ]
= 12.27 mm

Binder Rate of Application, R

R = ( 0.138 x ALD + e ) x Tf

Where :

ALD : Average Least Dimension (mm)

e : Bitumen needed to fill road surface

Tf : Factor to allow an increased application rate for low traffic volume to

delay Durability failure

For 6 mm:

R = [ ( 0.138 x 7.97 ) + 0.004 ] x 1.0021

= 1.106 l/m2

50
For 14 mm:

R = [ ( 0.138 x 12.27 ) + 0.004 ] x 1.0021

= 1.701 l/m2

Aggregate, C

C = 1.364 x ALD

Where :
C = Cover Aggregate (kg/m2)
ALD = Aggregate Average Least Dimension (mm)

For 6 mm:
C = 1.364 x ALD
= 1.364 x 7.97
= 10.87 kg/m2

For 14 mm:
C = 1.364 x ALD
= 1.364 x 12.27
= 16.74 kg/m2

51
4.3 SAND PATCH DATA

Volume = 45 ml

Ø = 2.5 cm
h
Height = 9.30 cm

Diameter Diameter Diameter Diameter Diameter Diameter Average


Point
1 2 3 4 5 6 (mm)

1
510 510 480 500 510 480 498.33

2
490 450 470 480 460 470 470.00

3
450 450 450 460 450 440 450.00

4
510 540 510 540 530 530 526.67

Average Diameter = 498.33 + 470 + 450 + 526.67


4
= 486.25 mm

52
The texture depth, T

T = 4V
D2

Where :
V = Volume (ml)
D = Diameter (mm)

T = 4V
D2
= 4(45)
(486.25)2
= 2.42 x 10-4 mm

4.4 COST RATE ESTIMATION

- Proposed of Double layer chip Seal for preventive maintenance at Jalan Parit
Jelutong, Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor Darul Ta’zim.
- For 4800 m2 area of chip seal will bring two (2) days work.

First layer

Supply and Lay Modified Bitumen or Equivalent for the Chip Seal Layer

o For bitumen application rate of 1.10 litres /sq .m to 1.30 litres/sq.

53
 Machinery

Descriptions Rate per day (RM) Quantity Days Total (RM)

20Tonne Dump
570 1 2 1140
Truck

TOTAL 1140

 Manpower

Descriptions Rate per day (RM) Quantity Days Total (RM)

General
50 2 2 200
Labour

Driver 65 2 2 260

TOTAL 460

 Raw Materials (Bitumen) 1.10 litres /sq .m to 1.30 litres/sq

(Average 1.2 litres/sq.m)

Description Rate per barrel Quantit Total


(RM) y

Bitumen RM 500 29 14500

TOTAL 14500

NOTE :

 1 Barrel = 200 litres


 4800 m2 x 1.2litres/m2 = 5760 litres
 (5760 litres / 200 litres) = 28.8 » 29 barrels
 4800 m2 need 29 barrels bitumen for first layer.

54
 COST for 4800m2

ITEM COST (RM)

Machinery 1 140

Manpower 460

Materials 14 500

Cost 16 100

Profit 40% 16 100 x 0.4 = 6 440

Total for 4800 m² 22 540.00

22540.00
Rate for 1 m² = 4800

= RM 4.70/ m2 to be transfer in Bill of Quantity

55
Supply, Lay and Compact uniformly 16 mm pre coated cover aggregates as Chip
Seal Layer

a) Machinery

Description Rate per day Days


Quantity Total (RM)
(RM)

Asphalt Paver 577 1 2 1154

7 Tonne Tandem 420 1 2 840


Roller

Sweeper 495 1 2 990

TOTAL 2 984

b) Manpower

Description Rate per day Quantity Days Total (RM)


(RM)

Bitumen Worker 50 7 2 700

Operator 85 4 2 680

TOTAL 1 380

56
c) Raw Materials (Aggregate)

Descriptions Rate per tan(RM) Quantity Total (RM)

14 mm
38 178.886 6797.67
Aggregate

TOTAL 6797.67

NOTE :

- Quantity = Area x Thickness of Aggregate x Density of Aggregate


- Quantity = 4800 m2 x 0.014 m x 2.662 Mg/m3
= 178.886 tonne

d) Cost for 4800 m²

ITEM COST (RM)

Machinery 2 984

Manpower 1 380

Materials 6 797.67

Cost 11 161.67

Profit 40% 11 161.67 x 0.4 = 4 464.67

Total for 4 800 m² 15 626.34

15626.34
Rate for 1 m² =
4800

= RM 3.26/ m2 to be transfer in Bill of Quantity

57
SECOND LAYER

Supply and lay second layer modified bitumen or equivalent for the chip seal layer:

For bitumen application rate of 0.8 litres/sq.m to 1.0 litres/sq.

a) Machinery

Rate per day


Descriptions Quantity Days Total (RM)
(RM)

20 Tonne Dump
570 1 2 1140
Truck

TOTAL 1140

b) Manpower

Descriptions Rate per day Quantity Days Total (RM)


(RM)

General
50 2 2 200
Labor

Driver 65 2 2 260

TOTAL 460

58
c) Raw Materials (Bitumen) 1.10 litres /sq .m to 1.30 litres/sq

(Average 1.2 litres/sq.m)

Rate per barrel


Description Quantity Total
(RM)

Bitumen RM 500 22 11 500

TOTAL 11 500

NOTE:-

o 1 Barrel = 200 litres


o 4800 m2 x 0.9litres/m2 = 4 320 litres
o (4 320 litres / 200 litres) = 21.6 » 22 barrels
o 4800 m2 need 22 barrels bitumen for first layer.

d) COST for 4800m2

ITEM COST (RM)

Machinery 1 140

Manpower 460

Materials 11 500

Cost 13 100

Profit 40% 13 100 x 0.4 = 5 240

Total for 4800 m² 18 340.00

59
18340
Rate for 1 m² = 4800

= RM 3.82/ m2 to be transfer in Bill of Quantity

Supply, lay second layer modified bitumen or equivalent for the chip seal layer:
For bitumen application of 0.8 litres/sq.m to 1.0 litres/sq.

a) Machinery

Rate per day Quantity


Description Days Total (RM)
(RM)

Asphalt Paver 577 1 2 1154

7 Tonne Tandem
420 1 2 840
Roller

Sweeper 495 1 2 990

TOTAL 2 984

60
b) Manpower

Rate per day


Description Quantity Days Total (RM)
(RM)

Bitumen
50 7 2 700
Worker

Operator 85 4 2 680

TOTAL 1 380

c) Raw Materials (Aggregate)

Rate per tan


Descriptions Quantity Total (RM)
(RM)

6 mm
40 76.666 3 066.64
Aggregate

TOTAL 3 066.64

NOTE:

- Quantity = Area x Thickness of Aggregate x Density of Aggregate


- Quantity = 4800 m2 x 0.006 m x 2.662 Mg/m3
= 76.666 tonne

61
d) Cost for 4 800 m²

ITEM COST (RM)

Machinery 2 984

Manpower 1 380

Materials 3 066.64

Cost 7 430.64

Profit 40% 7 430.64 x 0.4 = 2 972.26

Total for 4 800 m² 10 402.90

10402.90
Rate for 1 m² =
4800

= RM 2.17/ m2 to be transfer in Bill of Quantity

62
4.4.1 BILL OF QUANTITY.

PROPOSED OF DOUBLE LAYER CHIP SEAL PREVENTIVE


MAINTENANANCE AT JALAN PARIT JELUTONG

ITEM DESCRIPTION UNIT RATE QUANTITY AMOUNT


(RM)
(RM)

1. Supply and lay modified bitumen of m2 4.70 4800 22 560.00


equivalent for the chip seal layer :-

I. For bitumen application rate of


1.10 litres per square meter to
1.30 liters per square meter.

Supply, lay and compact uniformly


14 mm precoated cover aggregates
as chip seal.
2. m2 3.26 4800 15 648.00

Supply and lay second layer


modified bitumen or equivalent for
chip seal layer:

3.
II. For bitumen application rate of
0.8 litres/sq.m to 1.10/sq.m

63
Supply, lay and and compact 6mm
precoated cover aggregate as chip
seal layer. m2 3.82 4800 18 336.00

4 m2 2.17 4800 10 416.00

TOTAL COST 66 960.00

Unquestionably, all of the design methods can effectively guide inexperienced


personnel through the process of chip seal design. The following best practices can be
drawn from a comparison of the chip seal design methodologies. To begin, the selection
of the binder is a very important decision and should be made after considering all the
factors under which the chip seal is expected to perform. After all, the primary purpose of
a chip seal is to prevent water intrusion into the underlying pavement structure, and the
asphalt layer formed by the binder is the mechanism that performs this vital function.

The previously explained design methods are all based on the assumption that
single-course chip seal design required the use of uniformly manner. The application
rates of all methods appear to be based on residual binder and each method has a
procedure for dealing with adjustments owing to factoring the loss of binder to absorption
by the underlying pavement surface and the aggregate being used. Contemporary design
practices need to determine binder application rated based on surface characterization,

64
absorption factors, traffic condition, climate consideration, aggregate selection, and the
type of chip seal being constructed. Another important discovery is that all methods have
a design objective for embedment to be between 50% and 70% of that seal’s depth.

Best practices for chip seal design are difficult to isolate, because there appears to be
such a large variation in practices from agency to agency. However, the following can be
identified as meeting this project’s definition for best practices:

 Chip seal perform best only on roads with low underlying surface distress that will
benefit from this technology.

 The international practice is to characterize the underlying road’s texture and surface
hardness and use that as a basis for developing the subsequent formal chip seal
design. Where the local council responses indicated a routine use of qualitative
characterization in the design process. Thus, the next logical enhancement would be
to incorporate international methods to quantitatively characterize the underlying
surface in the chip seal design process.

 One of those enhancements would be to try using the racked-in seal as the corrective
measure for bleeding instead of spreading fine aggregate and sand on the bleeding
surface.

65
CHAPTER 5

CONCLUSION

5.2 CONCLUSION

The conclusion in this area is quite evident. First, the selection of chip seal materials
is project dependent, and the engineer in charge of design must fully understand not only
the pavement and traffic conditions in which the chip seal will operate but also the
climatic condition under which the chip seal will be applied. It appears that the
widespread use of emulsion binder chip seal results from the nation that emulsion are less
sensitive to environmental conditions during construction. Additionally, as emulsions are
installed at a lower binder temperature they are probably less hazardous to the
construction crew. Binder performance can be improved through the use of modifiers
such as polymers and crumb rubber.

66
Next, the selection of the binder is dependent on the type of aggregate that is
economically available for the chip seal project. In other way, we could to bear
additional aggregate costs to ensure the quality of their chip seals are something that
should be seriously considered in this area.

The aggregate should be checked to ensure that electrostatic compatibility is met


with the type of binder specified. Also pre-coating of the aggregate appears to be required
for use with hot asphalt cement binders to ensure good adhesion after application.
Finally, it appears that the use of geotextile-reinforced chip seal is promising and should
be considered for those roads that have more than normal surface distress and for which
an overlay is not warranted. Therefore, several next practices can be extracted from the
foregoing discussion:

 Conduct electrostatic testing of chip seal aggregate source before chip design
to ensure that the binder selected for the project is compatible with the
potential sources of aggregate.

 Specify a uniformly graded high-quality aggregate.

 Consider using lightweight synthetic aggregate in areas where post-


construction vehicle damage is a major concern.

 Use life-cycle cost analysis to determine the benefit of importing either


synthetic aggregate or high-quality natural aggregate to areas where
availability of high-quality aggregate is limited.

 Use polymer-modified binders to enhance chip seal performance

67
5.1 SUGGESTION

Since the failed pavement been identified and the sand patch method carried out, the
design using chip seal method have been analyzed. So the best ways to solve those
pavement failures are through the chip seal method, this is because of few concrete
reasons which are:-

More durable and long lasting

Protect and preserve the pavement from heavy climate weather

Extend pavement life

Basically chip sealing is a common pavement preservation tactic that prevents water
from seeping into an asphalt pavement's base course and sub-grade, while improving skid
resistance and rehabilitating weathered asphalt surfaces. This assessment has found that
chip seal practices can be instituted that will improve the reliability of maintenance chip
seals. Many of the best practices identified fell in the areas of construction procedures
and equipment management practice. This is not surprising, in that construction is the
most critical portion of the chip seal project life cycle.

The area that apparently been surveyed which is Parit Jelutong has the greatest
potential for enhancement is chip seal design. This is also the area in which
advancements in technical understanding will have the greatest potential to dispel the
view that the use of chip seals is merely an art. The major issue in chip seal design lies in
accurately characterizing the surface on which the seal will be applied, through using
engineering measurements of macro-texture and hardness.

68
APPENDIX

Measuring Distance Length of 1km taken Cone Been Placed

Sand Patch Circle Patching To a Circullar Shape

Sand Patch Diameter Taken Collecting Back The Sand

69
Shoving Edge Drop-off

Pothole
Crocodile Crack

Longitunal Crack Cracking

70
Length of Crack Measured Transverse Crack

Pothole Longitunal Crack

Aligator Crack Tranverse Crack

71
Edge Crack Pothole Depth Measured

Block Crack Crack Length Measured

72
REFERENCES

 Garber N.J. and Hoel L.A. Traffic & Highway Engineering (3rd Edition). US:
Brooks/Cole
 Norman Edwards, Peter Keys (1996), Singapore - A Guide to Buildings, Streets, Places,
Times Books International, Victor R Savage, Brenda S A Yeoh (2003), Toponymics - A
Study of Singapore Street Names, Eastern Universities
 Jones, Ken D., Arthur F. McClure and Alfred E. Twomey. The Types Road Failures.
New York: Castle Books, 1970.

 Small, Kenneth A.; José A. Gomez-Ibañez (1998). Road Pricing for Congestion
Management: The Transition from Theory to Policy. The University of California
Transportation Center, University of California at Berkeley. pp. 213.
 John Shadely, Acoustical analysis of the New Jersey Turnpike widening project between
Raritan and East Brunswick, Bolt Beranek and Newman, 1973
 Michael Hogan, Highway Noise, 3rd Environmental Pollution Symposium

73