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Literature Review

Introduction to the literature:

Globalisation and internationalisation today, on one hand take businesses to a whole
new dimension, with flexibility to trade and the convenience added by technological
advancements geographical distances have reduced. With this changing environment
there have a tremendous increase in the intensity of competition both at the domestic
and international levels, businesses today are employing various marketing and
promotional strategies to retain their consumer base. With the concept of relationship
marketing surfacing, the market is completely consumer oriented, and the sole aim of
any business today is to serve and satisfy their customers in the best possible manner.
The fact that consumer retention has gained precedence over acquisition, considering
the cost involved, has made it even more important for businesses to satisfy the
consumers and win their loyalty.

With the evolution of markets, driven by globalisation there has been significant
reforms and developments in the field of marketing practices and concepts. As
mentioned by Jain 1987; Czincota & Ronkainen 1993; Assael 1998; Bullmore 2000 in
their work one aspect of globalisation is the convergence of income, media and
technology and as there researchers and authors strongly believe is that this
convergence leads to homogeneous consumer needs, tastes and lifestyles. Consumer
behaviour and consumer decision making have significantly gained importance over the
last few decades and have rapidly gained importance in the area of research in the field
of consumer science Engel, Blackwell & Miniard (1995:143)

Marketers today, through various research methodologies are trying to analyse and
understand the behaviour of the target market, to best understand their needs and
expectations, as understanding this behaviour would help them serve the customers
better, leading to their satisfaction and loyalty. As mentioned in many literatures on
consumer behaviour, understanding the buying behaviour of consumers / target market
is one of the most dynamic of all marketing activities, owing to the volatile consumer
preferences, and needs which is affected by multiple factors at one point of time making
it difficult to analyse and predict. This has therefore called for the need to continually


study and monitor consumer behaviour for management to introduce and make the
required changes in terms of price, product and distribution which would affect the
overall performance of the product. Sound marketing practices would always have a tab
on this behavioural analysis and ensure that the business capitalises on the competitive
advantage associated with it.

In the last few decades there have been numerous studies and a lot of literature, theories
and models float in the area of research that intend to put forward the intentions of
explaining the buying behaviour of the consumer. Area of social sciences like
economics, Psychology, Sociology and Anthropology have carried out numerous
researches and proposed various models in support of their arguments. This section of
the research would critically review these theories and models on consumer behaviour
and the consumer decision making process, considering different the influence of
different elements like promotions on the consumers buying decision, it would then use
the research findings to establish links with the theories to draw meaningful
constructive conclusions.

Theoretical framework:

The theories of consumer decision-making process assume that the consumer’s
purchase decision process consists of steps through which the buyer passes in
purchasing a product or service. However, this might not be the case. Not every
consumer passed through all these stages when making a decision to purchase and in
fact, some of the stages can be skipped depending on the type of purchases.

The reasons for the study of consumer’s helps firms and organizations improve their
marketing strategies by understanding issues such as:

• The psychology of how consumers think, feel, reason, and select between different
alternatives (e.g., brands, products);
• The psychology of how the consumer is influenced by his or her environment (e.g.,
culture, family, signs, media);
• The behaviour of consumers while shopping or making other marketing decisions;
• Limitations in consumer knowledge or information processing abilities influence
decisions and marketing outcome;


money. According to Solomon (1996). purchase. and • How marketers can adapt and improve their marketing campaigns and marketing strategies to more effectively reach the consumer. or dispose of products.• How consumers’ motivation and decision strategies differ between products. effort) on consumption-related items (Schiffman and Kanuk. evaluating. consumer behavior is a study of the processes involved when individuals or groups select. The field of consumer behavior covers a lot of ground. This model is shown in Figure below. ideas. Consumer Behaviour The study of consumer behavior focuses on how individuals make decisions to spend their available resources (time. purchasing. 3 . The model recognizes the importance of information in the consumer decision-making process. use. 1997). services. or in the context of a group. Behaviour occurs either for the individual. Product use is often of great interest to the marketer. selecting. or an organization. that differ in their level of importance or interest that they entail for the consumer. and disposing of products and services so as to satisfy their needs and desires’. Consumer behaviour involves the use and disposal of products as well as the study of how they are purchased. because this may influence how a product is best positioned or how we can encourage increased consumption. using. or experiences to satisfy needs and desires. It also emphasizes the importance of consumer attitudes although it fails to consider attitudes in relation to repeat purchase behaviour. Andreason (1965) proposed one of the earliest models of consumer behaviour. The official definition of consumer behaviour given by Belch (1998) is ‘the process and activities people engage in when searching for.

University of California. substitutes.R (1965 Attitudes and Consumer Behavior: A Decision Model in New Research in Marketing (ed. pp. A. Attitudes Income. priorities. household complement capacity Independen t Personalit Hold Yes impersonal y No Intrinsic sources attributes Select Other Advocate purchas personal Beliefs Feeling Ownershi e sources Filtration s p decisio Searc h Independen Extrinsic t personal Disposition attributes sources No action Information Direct Wants storage experienc Want e Price Other customer Key Decision-makers Direct Flows 4 . Preston). physical sources sources Norms. Berkeley.Andreason. capacity. l. Institute of Business and Economic Research. budget impersonal towards towards product.1-61 Information Constraints Advocate Attitudes Perceived beliefs.

makes a purchase. A consumer is generally thought of as a person who identifies a need or desire. and the consumers react to these messages by purchasing response. and then disposes of the product during the three stages in the consumption process in Figure2. the firm tries to influence the consumer and the consumer is influencing the firm by his decision.2 (Solomon.2. The model concentrates on the firm's attempts to communicate with the consumer. Perhaps. These two features are referred to as Field One. It is however. This model was criticized by commentators because it was not empirically tested (Zaltman. 1974). which concentrates on the buying decision for a new product. 1996) NICOSIA MODEL This model focuses on the relationship between the firm and its potential consumers. and the consumers' predisposition to act in a certain way. which was developed in 1969. was proposed by Nicosia (1976). The actual purchase process is referred to as Field Three. 1984). 1973). Schiffman and Kanuk (1997) mentioned that many early theories concerning consumer behaviour were based on economic theory. and the post-purchase feedback process is referred to as Field Four. This model is shown in Figure 2. the most frequently quoted of all consumer behaviour models is the Howard-Sheth model of buyer behaviour.3. which is influenced by attitudes. on the notion that individuals act rationally to maximize their benefits (satisfactions) in the purchase of goods and services. 5 . The Howard-Sheth model is not perfect as it does not explain all buyer behaviour. a comprehensive theory of buyer behaviour that has been developed as a result of empirical research (Horton.A second model. The second stage involves the consumer in a search evaluation process. Pinson and Angelman. The model is important because it highlights the importance of inputs to the consumer buying process and suggests ways in which the consumer orders these inputs before making a final decision. Looking to the model we will find that the firm and the consumer are connected with each other. This stage is referred to as Field Two. The firm communicates with consumers through its marketing messages (advertising). and because of the fact that many of the variables were not defined (Lunn. This model is shown in Figure 2.

The first field is divided into two subfields. The Nicosia model is divided into four major fields: Field 1: The consumer attitude based on the firms’ messages. (1976). Field 1 Subfield Subfield 2 1 Message exposure Consumers Firms Attributes Attitude Experience Searchand Field 2: Search and evaluation evaluation of mean/end(s) relation(s) (Preaction field) Consumption Motivation Field 4: Feedback Decision Field 3: Act of Purchase (Action) Purchasing Behaviour Nicosia Model of Consumer Decision Processes Source: Nicosia. 6 .

personality. and how the consumer develops his attitude toward the product. and characteristics of target market Subfield two specifies the consumer characteristics e.The first subfield deals with the firm’s marketing environment and communication efforts that affect consumer attitudes. experience. Field 4: Feed back This model analyses the feedback of both the firm and the consumer after purchasing the product. but virtually he cannot buy the firm’s brand because it contains something prohibited according to his beliefs. Field 3: The act of the purchase The result of motivation will arise by convincing the consumer to purchase the firm products from a specific retailer. The firm will benefit from its sales data as a feedback. which give more interpretation about the attributes affecting the decision process.. In this case the firm motivates the consumer to purchase its brands. Field 2: search and evaluation The consumer will start to search for other firm’s brand and evaluate the firm’s brand in comparison with alternate brands. For example. Apparently it is very essential to include such factors in the model.g. and the consumer will use his experience with the product affects the individual’s attitude and predisposition’s concerning future messages from the firm. The first level describes the extensive problem solving. which may affect the personality of the consumer. the competitive environment. The Nicosia model offers no detail explanation of the internal factors. HOWARD-SHETH MODEL This model suggests three levels of decision making: 1. the consumer may find the firm’s message very interesting. At this level the consumer does not have any basic information or knowledge about the brand and he does not 7 . and how he perceives the promotional idea toward the product in this stage the consumer forms his attitude toward the firm’s product based on his interpretation of the message.

The third level is a habitual response behavior. reference group.have any preferences for any product. The second level is limited problem solving. and he already decides to purchase a particular product. In order to arrive at a brand preference some comparative brand information is sought. and social class). All three types of stimuli provide inputs concerning the product class or specific brands to the specific consumer. This situation exists for consumers who have little knowledge about the market. In this level the consumer knows very well about the different brands and he can differentiate between the different characteristics of each product. In this situation. 8 . These input variables consist of three distinct types of stimuli (information sources) in the consumer’s environment. The marketer in the form of product or brand information furnishes physical brand characteristics (significative stimuli) and verbal or visual product characteristics (symbolic stimuli). namely: a) Inputs. The third type is provided by the consumer’s social environment (family. or partial knowledge about what they want to purchase. the consumer will seek information about all the different brands in the market before purchasing. 3. 2. According to the Howard-Sheth model there are four major sets of variables.

Learning constructs category. The central part of the model deals with the psychological variables involved when the consumer is contemplating a decision. the model emphasizes on material aspects such as price and quality. and are concerned with how the consumer receives and understands the information from the input stimuli and other parts of the model.b) Perceptual and Learning Constructs. Finally. criteria for evaluation alternatives. Some of the variables are perceptual in nature. The decision-making process. The proposed interaction In between the different variables in the perceptual and learning constructs and other sets give the model its distinctive advantage. 9 . preferences and buying intentions are all included. brand comprehension. In both significative and symbolic stimuli. stimulus ambiguity happened when the consumer does not understand the message from the environment. consumer personality traits. While in social stimuli the model does not mention the basis of decision-making in this stimulus. These stimuli are not applicable in every society. Religion was considered as external factor with no real influence on consumer. some relevant exogenous variables include the importance of the purchase. information about brands. However. consumers’ goals. and time pressure. which Howard-Sheth Model tries to explain. and intention). takes place at three Inputs stages: Significance. Perceptual bias occurs if the consumer distorts the information received so that it fits his or her established needs or experience. religion. For example. such as what influence the family decision? This may differ from one society to another. which give the model obvious weakness in anticipation the consumer decision. no direct relation was drawn on the role of religion in influencing the consumer’s decision-making processes. c) Outputs The outputs are the results of the perceptual and learning variables and how the consumers will response to these variables (attention. Symbolic and Social stimuli. attitudes. d) Exogenous(External) variables Exogenous variables are not directly part of the decision-making process.

ENGEL-KOLLAT-BLACKWELL MODEL This model was created to describe the increasing. First stage: decision-process stages The central focus of the model is on five basic decision-process stages: Problem recognition. and outcomes. alternate evaluation (during which beliefs may lead to the formation of attitudes. has gone through many revisions to improve its descriptive ability of the basic relationships between components and sub-components. which in turn may result in a purchase intention) purchase. This model. this model consists also of four stages. like in other models. it depends on whether it is an extended or a routine problem-solving behaviour. But it is not necessary for every consumer to go through all these stages. search for alternatives. 10 . fast-growing body of knowledge concerning consumer behavior.

the search for external information will be activated in order to arrive to a choice or in some cases if the consumer experience dissonance because the selected alternative is less satisfactory than expected.(1995) page No 95 Second stage: Information input At this stage the consumer gets information from marketing and non-marketing sources. and Miniard. Influence Alternativ Personality s: Dominate M e Attitude d. Blackwell. Information Variables Influencing Input Decision Process Individual Processing Problem Precision Process Characterist Recognition ics: Exposure Internal search Search Motives M Values Beliefs Stimuli: Attention Social E Lifestyle Marketer. Comprehensio other O evaluation Culture n Perception Intention Referenc R e Yielding/ group Y Situation Acceptance Purchase al Family Influence Retention s Outcomes External search Dissatisfactio n Satisfaction The Engel-Kollat-Blackwell Model of Consumer Behaviour Source: Engel. 11 . If the consumer still does not arrive to a specific decision. which also influence the problem recognition stage of the decision-making process.

Third stage: information processing This stage consists of the consumer’s exposure. also influence the decision process. 1: Processing capacity In this step he assumes that the consumer has limited capacity for processing information. allocate space for this information. reference groups. consumers are likely to select choice strategies that make product selection an easy process. which influence consumer decision-making such as values. the social influences are culture. This model incorporates many items. lifestyle. Situational influences. To deal with this problem. consumers are not interested in complex computations and extensive information processing. Fourth stage: variables influencing the decision process This stage consists of individual and environmental influences that affect all five stages of the decision process. lifestyle. and this will lead to better understanding of the model and will give more comprehensive view on decision- making. and personality. personality and culture. interpret the stimuli. and retain the message by transferring the input to long-term memory. The model did not show what factors shape these items. Stage No. acceptance. values. He implicate that the consumers rarely analyze the complex alternatives in decision making and apply very simple strategy. and retention of incoming information. attention. perception. and why different types of personality can produce different decision- making? How will we apply these values to cope with different personalities? Religion can explain some behavioral characteristics of the consumer. The consumer must first be exposed to the message. such as a consumer’s financial condition. and family. Bettman’s Information Processing Model of Consumer Choice Bettman (1979) in his model describes the consumer as possessing a limited capacity for processing information. Individual characteristics include motives. In this model there are seven major stages. 12 .

(1979). which make this mechanism serves as an organizer for consumer efforts in making a choice. Most of the general theories of motivation such as Maslow’s 13 . 2: Motivation Motivation is located in the center of Bettman model. which influence both the direction and the intensity of consumer choice for more information in deciding Motivation Goal Perceptual hierarchy encoding interrupt Scanner interpretatio and n Attention interrupt and mechanisms response Information Interrupt Memory Scanner interpretati Processing Acquisition on search and Capacity and External Perceptual interrupt and evaluation search mechanisms response Interrupt Scanner Interpretatio and Decision n interrupt Processes and Interrupt Consumption mechanisms Scanner response And and Interpretatio n learning interrupt and processes mechanisms response The Bettman Information-Processing Model of Consumer Choice Source: Bettman. Pp 402 Between the alternatives Motivation is provided with hierarchy of goals’ mechanism that provides a series of different sub-goals to simplify the choice selection. No concern was given on religious motives. and how religion may motivate the consumer in his decision. This mechanism suggests that the consumers own experience in a specific area of market and he doesn’t need to go through the same hierarchy every time to arrive at a decision. Stage No.

Stage No. If this informations is not sufficient. which is automatic response to disruptive events (e. The perceptual encoding accounts for the different steps that the consumer needs to perceive the stimuli and whether he needs more information. which may occur during the decision process. There are two types of attention. These specific heuristics a consumer uses are influenced by both individual factors (e. which is a conscious allocation of processing capacity to current goals. The component of this step is quite related to the consumer's goal hierarchy. thus it is unlikely that the same decision by the same consumer will apply in different situation or other consumer in the same situation. 5: Memory In this component the consumer keeps all the information he collects.. Newly acquired information is evaluated and its suitability or usefulness is assessed. urgency of the decision). which are applied in the selection and evaluation of specific brand. The second is involuntary attention. Both different types of attention influence how individuals proceed in reaching goals and making choices. newly acquired complex information). this component deals with the application of heuristics or rules of thumb. 4: Information acquisition and evaluation If the consumer feels that the present information is inadequate. Stage No. Stage No.g. or until he finds that acquiring additional information is more costly in terms of time and money.hierarchy of needs (1970) emphasize self-achievement.g. 6: Decision Process This step in Bettman’s model indicates that different types of choices are normally made associated with other factors. 14 . 3: Attention and perceptual encoding. Stage No.. Specifically. and the need for affiliation. he will start to look for more information from external sources. The consumer continues to acquire additional information until all relevant information has been secured. no doubt he will start looking again for external sources. personality differences) and situational factors (e. the need for power. the first type is voluntary attention..g. and it will be the first place to search when he need to make a choice.

conditional. social. Various disciplines (including economics. and several branches of psychology. Katz (1960). sociology. Katona (1971). emotional. Sheth-Newman Gross Model of Consumption Values According to this model. the model discusses the future results after the purchase is done. and Gross (1991) Pp159-170 15 . Five consumption values form the core of the model: Functional Conditional Social Value Value Value Consumer Choice Behaviour Epistemic Emotional Value Value The five values influencing Consumer Choice Behaviour Source: Sheth. This experience provides the consumer with information to be applied to future choice situation. but no explanation was given about the criteria by which the consumer accepts or refuses to process some specific information. Newman. (Sheth et al. there are five consumption values influencing consumer choice behaviour. Any or all of the five consumption values may influence the decision. Each consumption value in the theory is consistent with various components of models advanced by Maslow (1970). and epistemic values. Bettman in his model emphasize on the information processing and the capacity of the consumer to analyze this information for decision making.Stage No. The consumer in this step will gain experience after evaluating the alternative. 1991). These are functional. and Hanna (1980). 7: Consumption and Learning Process In this stage. marketing and consumer behaviour) have contributed theories and research findings relevant to these values.

Attitude that performs a value-expressive function expresses the consumers’ central values or self-concept. or physical performance. 160) Katz (1960) developed the functional theory of attitudes. This assumption underlies economic utility theory advanced by Marshall (1890) and Stigler (1950) and popularly expressed in terms of "rational economic man. or physical attributes. marketers can emphasize these benefits in their communication and packaging. Example of this 16 . functional value is presumed to be the primary driver of consumer choice. We develop some of our attitude toward products simply based on whether these products provide pleasure or pain. An alternative acquires functional value through the possession of salient functional. The utilitarian function is related to the basic principles of reward and punishment. By identifying the dominant function of a product (i." Traditionally. (1991) the functional value of an alternative is defined as: "The perceived utility acquired from an alternative for functional. durability. (Ferber. perform an ego-defensive function. A person forms a product attitude not because of its objective benefits. Advertisements relevant to the function prompt more favourable thoughts about what is being marketed and can result in a heightened preference for both the ads and the product. the decision to purchase a particular automobile may be based on fuel economy and maintenance record. 2) Value-expressive function. For example. utilitarian. but because of what the product says about him or her as a person. 3) Ego-defensive function.The first value: Functional value To Sheth et al.e. either from external threats or internal feelings. He identifies four attitudes based on the functional values: 1) Utilitarian function. utilitarian. and price. Functional value is measured on a profile of choice attributes. 1973) such as reliability. what benefits it provides).. (Solomon 1996. Attitude formed to protect the person." An alternative’s functional value may be derived from its characteristics or attributes.

or political. cultural/ethnic (race. socioeconomic (income. religion).. An alternative acquires emotional value when associated with specific feelings or when precipitating those feelings.g. structure. 161) defined emotional value of an alternative as: "The perceived utility acquired from an alternative’s capacity to arouse feelings or affective states. The third value: Emotional value Sheth et al. embarrassing consequences of being caught with underarm odor in public.g. The second value: Social value Sheth et al. lifestyle). 161) defined social value of an alternative as: "The perceived utility acquired from an alternative association with one or more specific social groups. (1991.. 4) Knowledge function. Emotional values are measured on a profile of feelings associated with the alternative." 17 . Consumers acquire positive or negative stereotypes based on their association with varied demographic (age. socioeconomic.function is deodorant campaigns that stress the dire. or meaning. For example. clothing. a particular make of automobile is being chosen more for the social image evoked than for its functional performance. Social value is measured on a profile choice imagery. (1991. jewellery) and good service to be shared with others (e. Some attitude is formed as a result of a need for order. and cultural-ethnic groups. Choices involving highly visible products (e. Even products generally thought to be functional or utilitarian. This need is often present when a person is in an ambiguous situation or is confronted with a new product. occupation). products used in entertaining) are often driven by social values. An alternative acquires social value through association with positively or negatively stereotyped demographic. gifts. ideological segments of society. are frequently selected based on their social values." Social imagery refers to all relevant primary and secondary reference groups likely to be supportive of the product consumption. sex.

and consumers are sometimes said to have "love affairs" with their cars. anger. The alternative may be chosen because the consumer is bored or satiated with his or her current brand (as in trying a new type of food). 162) defined epistemic value as: "The perceived utility acquired from an alternatives capacity to arouse curiosity. novelty. more tangible and seemingly utilitarian products also have emotional values. and guilt. and/or satisfy a desire for knowledge. sadness. for example. joy. or has a desire to learn (as in experiencing another culture). an alternative that provides a simple change of pace can also be imbued with epistemic value. However. shame. Entirely new experience certainly provides epistemic value. However.g. Izard (1977) develops the taxonomy of affective experience approach that describes the basic emotion that people feel. This approach has been used extensively by consumer researchers. religion causes). A number of different attempts have been made to identify the various emotions that people experience." Epistemic issues refer to reasons that would justify the perceived satisfaction of curiosity. Emotional value is often associated with aesthetic alternatives (e.g.. anger. different).g. (1991. the fear aroused while viewing horror movie). and knowledge. surprise. For example. knowledge. and exploratory needs offered by the product as a change of pace (something new. He measures emotions using ten fundamental categories: interest. as described either by the distinctive categories of emotional experience and expression (e. disgust. contempt.Consumption emotion refers to the set of emotional responses elicited specifically during product usage or consumption experience. Goods and services are frequently associated with emotional responses (e. An alternative acquires epistemic value by items referring to curiosity. 18 . fear. and fear) or by the structural dimensions underlying emotional categories such as pleasantness/ unpleasantness. joy. The fourth value: Epistemic value Sheth et al. relaxation/action. or calmness/excitement. some foods arouse feeling of comfort through their association with childhood experiences. provide novelty. Westbrook and Oliver (1991). is curious (as in visiting a new shopping complex).

The concept of inhibitors was more formally developed by Sheth (1974) in his model of attitude-behavior relationship as anticipated situations and unexpected events.g. (1991. Howard (1969) recognized the importance of learning that takes place as a result of experience with a given situation.. Social. trial.. and switching behavior... For example. a consumer may decide to purchase coins as an inflation hedge (functional value). Howard and Sheth (1969) then extended Howard’s earlier work by defining the construct inhibitors as no internalized forces that impede buyers’ preferences. The Fifth value: Conditional value Sheth et al. Several areas of inquiry have also influenced conditional value." An alternative’s utility will often depend on the situation. novelty seeking. hospital services). 162) defined the conditional value as: "The perceived utility acquired by an alternative is the result of the specific situation or set of circumstances facing the choice maker. who contends that individuals are driven to maintain an optimal or intermediate level of stimulation. some products only have seasonal value (e. and also realize a sense of security (emotional value) from the investment. wedding dress). greeting cards). epistemic. some are associated with once in a life events (e.The concept of epistemic values has been influenced by theory and by several important areas of research.g. and variety seeking motives have been suggested to active product search. Recognizing that behavior cannot be accurately predicted based on attitude or intention alone. (Howard and Sheth 1969). and conditional values have little 19 . For example. The five consumption values identified by the theory make differential contributions in specific choice contexts. Conditional value is measured on a profile of choice contingencies. a number of researchers during the 1970s investigated the predictive ability of situational factors (e.g. Exploratory. Based on the concept of stimulus dynamism advanced by Hall (1963). One of the most significant contributors to the study of the optimal stimulation and arousal has been Berlyne (1970).g. and some are used only in emergencies (e. Hirschman (1980) has advanced innovativeness. An alternative acquires conditional value in the presence of antecedent physical or social contingencies that enhance its functional or social value. or a consumer’ propensity to adopt new products. Sheth 1974). Finally.

and conditional value (starting a family). The ‘exchange’. such as time a stressful or pleasant PURCHASE pressure or store experience? What ISSUES displays. the purchase of a home might provide functional value (the home contains more space than the present apartment). in which two or more organizations or people give and receive 20 . affect the does the purchase say consumer’s purchase about the consumer? Whatdecision? determines Does the product whether a consumer provide pleasure or will be satisfied with a perform its intended product and whether function? he/she will buy it POSTPURCHASE again? ISSUES How is the product eventually disposed of. emotional values (the consumer feels secure in owning a home). Solomon Model of comparison process CONSUMER'S PERSPECTIVE MARKETER'S PERSPECTIVE How are consumer How does a consumer attitudes toward decide that he/she products formed PREPURCHASE needs a product? What and/or changed? ISSUES are the best sources of information to learn What cues do more about alternative consumers use to infer choices? which products are superior to others? How do situational Is acquiring a product factors. Of course. Does this person tell and what are the others about his/her environmental experiences with the consequences of this product and affect act? their purchase Model of comparison process decisions? Source: Solomon (1996) Pp33 The figure explains some of the Issus that is addressed during each stage of the consumption process. to a first-time home buyer. influence. a choice may be influenced positively by all five consumption values For example. social values (friends are also buying homes). epistemic value (the novelty of purchasing a home is enjoyable).

Much of marketing activity. This model is based on the four interactive components with the central component identified as 'buyer characteristics and decision process'. The model is shown in Figure 2. It is also common to stimulate an already existing want through advertising and sales promotion. Organizations can also be involved in the buying process.something of value. they suggest. The definitions and models. Stimulus Input Communication Buyer characteristics Purchase channels and decision process outputs (response) Communication filters Motivation Range of Learning Demographic Advertising competitive economic and Sales promotion produced and Social position Brochures marketed by Personal selling the tourist Psychographic Product PR industry characteristic Brand Perception Price Needs Outlet Wants Friends Goals Family Reference Experience Attitudes Group Post-purchase and Post-consumption feelings Stimulus-Response Model of Buyer Behavior Source: Middleton (1994) Pp 104-112 The model separates out motivators and determinants in consumer buying behavior and also emphasizes the important effects that an organization can have on the consumer buying 21 . rather than creating wants. People may also act as influences on the buying processes. have been from general marketing theory Stimulus-Response Model of Buyer Behavior Middleton (1994) presented an adapted model of consumer behaviour tourism. The purchaser and user of a product might not be the same person. which was termed the stimulus-response model of buyer behaviour. concentrates on adapting product offerings to particular circumstances of target segment needs and wants. He also suggested that consumer behavior involves many different actors. is an integral part of marketing. which have been presented so far.8.

22 .process by the use of communication channels.

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