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Microprocessors and Microcontrollers/Architecture of Microprocessors Lecture Notes

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• A Computer is a programmable machine.


• The two principal characteristics of a computer are:
• It responds to a specific set of instructions in a well-defined manner.
• It can execute a prerecorded list of instructions (a program ).
• Modern computers are electronic and digital.
• The actual machinery wires, transistors, and circuits is called hardware. the
instructions and data are called software.

• All general-purpose computers require the following hardware components:


• Memory: Enables a computer to store, at least temporarily, data and programs.
• Mass storage device: Allows a computer to permanently retain large amounts of
data. Common mass storage devices include disk drives and tape drives.
• Input device: Usually a keyboard and mouse are the input device through which
data and instructions enter a computer.
• Output device: A display screen, printer, or other device that lets you see what
the computer has accomplished.
• Central processing unit (CPU): The heart of the computer, this is the component
that actually executes instructions.
• In addition to these components, many others make it possible for the basic
components to work together efficiently.
• For example, every computer requires a bus that transmits data from one part of
the computer to another.

M. Krishna Kumar/IISc. Bangalore M1/V1/June 04/1


Microprocessors and Microcontrollers/Architecture of Microprocessors Lecture Notes

• Computers can be generally classified by size and power as follows, though there
is considerable overlap:
• Personal computer: A small, single-user computer based on a microprocessor.
• In addition to the microprocessor, a personal computer has a keyboard for
entering data, a monitor for displaying information, and a storage device for
saving data.
• Working station: A powerful, single-user computer. A workstation is like a
personal computer, but it has a more powerful microprocessor and a higher-
quality monitor.
• Minicomputer: A multi-user computer capable of supporting from 10 to
hundreds of users simultaneously.
• Mainframe: A powerful multi-user computer capable of supporting many
hundreds or thousands of users simultaneously.
• Supercomputer: An extremely fast computer that can perform hundreds of
millions of instructions per second.
Minicomputer:
• A midsized computer. In size and power, minicomputers lie between workstations
and mainframes.
• A minicomputer, a term no longer much used, is a computer of a size intermediate
between a microcomputer and a mainframe.
• Typically, minicomputers have been stand-alone computers (computer systems
with attached terminals and other devices) sold to small and mid-size businesses
for general business applications and to large enterprises for department-level
operations.
• In recent years, the minicomputer has evolved into the "mid-range server" and is
part of a network. IBM's AS/400e is a good example.
• The AS/400 - formally renamed the "IBM iSeries," but still commonly known as
AS/400 - is a midrange server designed for small businesses and departments in
large enterprises and now redesigned so that it will work well in distributed
networks with Web applications.
• The AS/400 uses the PowerPC microprocessor with its reduced instruction set
computer technology. Its operating system is called the OS/400.
• With multi-terabytes of disk storage and a Java virtual memory closely tied into
the operating system, IBM hopes to make the AS/400 a kind of versatile all-
purpose server that can replace PC servers and Web servers in the world's
businesses, competing with both Wintel and Unix servers, while giving its present
enormous customer base an immediate leap into the Internet.
Workstation:
1) A type of computer used for engineering applications (CAD/CAM), desktop
publishing, software development, and other types of applications that require a
moderate amount of computing power and relatively high quality graphics
capabilities.
• Workstations generally come with a large, high- resolution graphics screen, at
least 64 MB (mega bytes) of RAM, built-in network support, and a graphical user
interface.

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Microprocessors and Microcontrollers/Architecture of Microprocessors Lecture Notes

• Most workstations also have a mass storage device such as a disk drive, but a
special type of workstation, called a diskless workstation, comes without a disk
drive.
• The most common operating systems for workstations are UNIX and Windows
NT.
• In terms of computing power, workstations lie between personal computers and
minicomputers, although the line is fuzzy on both ends.
• High-end personal computers are equivalent to low-end workstations. And high-
end workstations are equivalent to minicomputers.
• Like personal computers, most workstations are single-user computers. However,
workstations are typically linked together to form a local-area network, although
they can also be used as stand-alone systems.
2) In networking, workstation refers to any computer connected to a local-area
network. It could be a workstation or a personal computer.
• Mainframe: A very large and expensive computer capable of supporting
hundreds, or even thousands, of users simultaneously. In the hierarchy that starts
with a simple microprocessors (in watches, for example) at the bottom and moves
to supercomputer at the top, mainframes are just below supercomputers.
• In some ways, mainframes are more powerful than supercomputers because they
support more simultaneous programs.
• But supercomputers can execute a single program faster than a mainframe. The
distinction between small mainframes and minicomputers is vague, depending
really on how the manufacturer wants to market its machines.
• Microcomputer: The term microcomputer is generally synonymous with
personal computer, or a computer that depends on a microprocessor.
• Microcomputers are designed to be used by individuals, whether in the form of
PCs, workstations or notebook computers.
• A microcomputer contains a CPU on a microchip (the microprocessor), a memory
system (typically ROM and RAM), a bus system and I/O ports, typically housed
in a motherboard.
• Microprocessor: A silicon chip that contains a CPU. In the world of personal
computers, the terms microprocessor and CPU are used interchangeably.
• A microprocessor (sometimes abbreviated µP) is a digital electronic component
with miniaturized transistors on a single semiconductor integrated circuit (IC).
• One or more microprocessors typically serve as a central processing unit (CPU) in
a computer system or handheld device.
• Microprocessors made possible the advent of the microcomputer.
• At the heart of all personal computers and most working stations sits a
microprocessor.
• Microprocessors also control the logic of almost all digital devices, from clock
radios to fuel-injection systems for automobiles.
• Three basic characteristics differentiate microprocessors:
• Instruction set: The set of instructions that the microprocessor can execute.
• Bandwidth: The number of bits processed in a single instruction.
• Clock speed: Given in megahertz (MHz), the clock speed determines how many
instructions per second the processor can execute.

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Microprocessors and Microcontrollers/Architecture of Microprocessors Lecture Notes

• In both cases, the higher the value, the more powerful the CPU. For example, a 32
bit microprocessor that runs at 50MHz is more powerful than a 16-bit
microprocessor that runs at 25MHz.
• In addition to bandwidth and clock speed, microprocessors are classified as being
either RISC (reduced instruction set computer) or CISC (complex instruction set
computer).
• Supercomputer: A supercomputer is a computer that performs at or near the
currently highest operational rate for computers.
• A supercomputer is typically used for scientific and engineering applications that
must handle very large databases or do a great amount of computation (or both).
• At any given time, there are usually a few well-publicized supercomputers that
operate at the very latest and always incredible speeds.
• The term is also sometimes applied to far slower (but still impressively fast)
computers.
• Most supercomputers are really multiple computers that perform parallel
processing.
• In general, there are two parallel processing approaches: symmetric
multiprocessing (SMP) and massively parallel processing (MPP).
• Microcontroller: A highly integrated chip that contains all the components
comprising a controller.
• Typically this includes a CPU, RAM, some form of ROM, I/O ports, and timers.
• Unlike a general-purpose computer, which also includes all of these components,
a microcontroller is designed for a very specific task - to control a particular
system.
• A microcontroller differs from a microprocessor, which is a general-purpose chip
that is used to create a multi-function computer or device and requires multiple
chips to handle various tasks.
• A microcontroller is meant to be more self-contained and independent, and
functions as a tiny, dedicated computer.
• The great advantage of microcontrollers, as opposed to using larger
microprocessors, is that the parts-count and design costs of the item being
controlled can be kept to a minimum.
• They are typically designed using CMOS (complementary metal oxide
semiconductor) technology, an efficient fabrication technique that uses less power
and is more immune to power spikes than other techniques.
• Microcontrollers are sometimes called embedded microcontrollers, which just
means that they are part of an embedded system that is, one part of a larger device
or system.
• Controller: A device that controls the transfer of data from a computer to a
peripheral device and vice versa.
• For example, disk drives, display screens, keyboards and printers all require
controllers.
• In personal computers, the controllers are often single chips.
• When you purchase a computer, it comes with all the necessary controllers for
standard components, such as the display screen, keyboard, and disk drives.

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Microprocessors and Microcontrollers/Architecture of Microprocessors Lecture Notes

• If you attach additional devices, however, you may need to insert new controllers
that come on expansion boards.
• Controllers must be designed to communicate with the computer's expansion bus.
• There are three standard bus architectures for PCs - the AT bus, PCI (Peripheral
Component Interconnect ) and SCSI.
• When you purchase a controller, therefore, you must ensure that it conforms to
the bus architecture that your computer uses.
• Short for Peripheral Component Interconnect, a local bus standard developed by
Intel Corporation.
• Most modern PCs include a PCI bus in addition to a more general IAS expansion
bus.
• PCI is also used on newer versions of the Macintosh computer.
• PCI is a 64-bit bus, though it is usually implemented as a 32 bit bus. It can run at
clock speeds of 33 or 66 MHz.
• At 32 bits and 33 MHz, it yields a throughput rate of 133 MBps.
• Short for small computer system interface, a parallel interface standard used by
Apple Macintosh computers, PCs, and many UNIX systems for attaching
peripheral devices to computers.
• Nearly all Apple Macintosh computers, excluding only the earliest Macs and the
recent iMac, come with a SCSI port for attaching devices such as disk drives and
printers.
• SCSI interfaces provide for faster data transmission rates (up to 80 megabytes per
second) than standard serial and parallel ports. In addition, you can attach many
devices to a single SCSI port, so that SCSI is really an I/O bus rather than simply
an interface
• Although SCSI is an ANSI standard, there are many variations of it, so two SCSI
interfaces may be incompatible.
• For example, SCSI supports several types of connectors.
• While SCSI has been the standard interface for Macintoshes, the iMac comes with
IDE, a less expensive interface, in which the controller is integrated into the disk
or CD-ROM drive.
• The following varieties of SCSI are currently implemented:
• SCSI-1: Uses an 8-bit bus, and supports data rates of 4 MBps.
• SCSI-2: Same as SCSI-1, but uses a 50-pin connector instead of a 25-pin
connector, and supports multiple devices. This is what most people mean when
they refer to plain SCSI.
• Wide SCSI: Uses a wider cable (168 cable lines to 68 pins) to support 16-bit
transfers.
• Fast SCSI: Uses an 8-bit bus, but doubles the clock rate to support data rates of 10
MBps.
• Fast Wide SCSI: Uses a 16-bit bus and supports data rates of 20 MBps.
• Ultra SCSI: Uses an 8-bit bus, and supports data rates of 20 MBps.
• Wide Ultra2 SCSI: Uses a 16-bit bus and supports data rates of 80 MBps.
• SCSI-3: Uses a 16-bit bus and supports data rates of 40 MBps. Also called Ultra
Wide SCSI.
• Ultra2 SCSI: Uses an 8-bit bus and supports data rates of 40 MBps.

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Microprocessors and Microcontrollers/Architecture of Microprocessors Lecture Notes

• Embedded system: A specialized computer system that is part of a larger system


or machine.
• Typically, an embedded system is housed on a single microprocessor board with
the programs stored in ROM.
• Virtually all appliances that have a digital Interface- watches, microwaves, VCRs,
cars -utilize embedded systems.
• Some embedded systems include an operating system, but many are so
specialized that the entire logic can be implemented as a single program.
MICRO CONTROLLER MICRO PROCESSER
• It is a single chip • It is a CPU
• Consists Memory, • Memory, I/O Ports to be
I/o ports connected externally

CP
CPU MEMORY
MEMORY
I/O PORTS
I/O PORTS
Definitions:
• A Digital Signal Processor is a special-purpose CPU (Central Processing Unit)
that provides ultra-fast instruction sequences, such as shift and add, and multiply
and add, which are commonly used in math-intensive signal processing
applications.
• A digital signal processor (DSP) is a specialized microprocessor designed
specifically for digital signal processing, generally in real time.
Digital
– operating by the use of discrete signals to represent data in the form of
numbers.
Signal
– a variable parameter by which information is conveyed through an
electronic circuit.
Processing
– to perform operations on data according to programmed instructions.
Digital Signal processing
– changing or analysing information which is measured as discrete
sequences of numbers.
• Digital signal processing (DSP) is the study of signals in a digital representation
and the processing methods of these signals.
• DSP and analog signal processing are subfields of signal processing.

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Microprocessors and Microcontrollers/Architecture of Microprocessors Lecture Notes

DSP has three major subfields:


• Audio signal processing, Digital image processing and Speech processing.
• Since the goal of DSP is usually to measure or filter continuous real-world analog
signals, the first step is usually to convert the signal from an analog to a digital
form, by using an analog to digital converter.
• Often, the required output signal is another analog output signal, which requires a
digital to analog converter.
Characteristics of Digital Signal Processors:
• Separate program and data memories (Harvard architecture).
• Special Instructions for SIMD (Single Instruction, Multiple Data) operations.
• Only parallel processing, no multitasking.
• The ability to act as a direct memory access device if in a host environment.
• Takes digital data from ADC (Analog-Digital Converter) and passes out data
which is finally output by converting into analog by DAC (Digital-Analog
Converter).
• analog input-->ADC-->DSP-->DAC--> analog output.
Analog front end Analog back end
Analog Antialiasing DSP D/A converter, Analog
signal in filter, S/H, A/D Processor reconstruction signal
converter filter output

DAP System
Multiply-accumulate hardware:
• Multiply accumulate is the most frequently used operation in digital signal
processing.
• In order to implement this efficiently, the DSP has an hardware multiplier, an
accumulator with an adequate number of bits to hold the sum of products and at
explicit multiply-accumulate instructions.
• Harvard architecture: in this memory architecture, there are two memory spaces.
Program memory and data memory.

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Microprocessors and Microcontrollers/Architecture of Microprocessors Lecture Notes

X Y
n n

Multiplier

Product register

2n

ADD / SUB

Accumulator
2n

A MAC

M. Krishna Kumar/IISc. Bangalore M1/V1/June 04/8


Microprocessors and Microcontrollers/Architecture of Microprocessors Lecture Notes

X Y
16 16

Multiplier

32

40

ADD / SUB

40
Guard bits
8 32

A MAC unit with accumulator guard bits


• The processor core connects to these memory spaces by two separate bus sets,
allowing two simultaneous access to memory. This arrangement doubles the
processor memory bandwidth.

• Zero-overhead looping: one common characteristics of DSP algorithms is that
most of the processing time is split on executing instructions contained with
relatively small loops.
• The term zero overhead looping means that the processor can execute loops
without consuming cycles to test the value of the loop counter, perform a
conditional branch to the top of the loop, and decrement the loop counter.

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Microprocessors and Microcontrollers/Architecture of Microprocessors Lecture Notes

Processing Result
unit Data bus

Operands

Status Opcode
Instructions Data / Instructions

Control unit Data program


memory

Von Neuman Architecture

Processing Result / operands


unit Data
memory
Address

Status Opcode

Control unit
Program memory
Instructions

Address

Harvard Architecture

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Microprocessors and Microcontrollers/Architecture of Microprocessors Lecture Notes

Processing Result / operands


unit Data
memory
Address

Status Opcode

Control unit
program memory
Instructions

Address

Modified Harvard Architecture


Data bus

MEMORY Peripheral
Program Data / Data Serial
ROM program DARAM port 1
SARAM Data /
program Serial
DARAM port 2
TDM
Serial port
Program bus Buffered
serial port
Memory Program controller Memory CALU CPU
control Multiplier Timer
Program counter mapped
Multiproc Status/control registers Accumulator Parallel Host
essing registers ACC buffer logic unit port
Auxiliary shifters (PAL) interface
Interrupt Hardware stack Resisters arithmetic
Generation logic Arithmetic
Initialisation logic unit Test /
Oscillator/ Instruction register Unit (ARAU) (ALU) emulation
timer
Data bus
Internal Architecture of the TMS320C5X DSP
• The advantages of DSP are:
Versatility:
• digital systems can be reprogrammed for other applications (at least where
programmable DSP chips are used)
• digital systems can be ported to different hardware (for example a different DSP
chip or board level product)
Repeatability:
• digital systems can be easily duplicated
• digital system responses do not drift with temperature

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Microprocessors and Microcontrollers/Architecture of Microprocessors Lecture Notes

• digital systems do not depend on strict component tolerances.



Simplicity:
• some things can be done more easily digitally than with analogue systems
• DSP is used in a very wide variety of applications but most share some common
features:
• they use a lot of multiplying and adding signals.
• they deal with signals that come from the real world.
• they require a response in a certain time.

Figure: A block diagram (or dataflow graph)


• What is the difference between a DSP and a microprocessor ?
• The essential difference between a DSP and a microprocessor is that a DSP
processor has features designed to support high-performance, repetitive,
numerically intensive tasks.
• In contrast, general-purpose processors or microcontrollers (GPPs / MCUs for
short) are either not specialized for a specific kind of applications (in the case of
general-purpose processors), or they are designed for control-oriented
applications (in the case of microcontrollers).
• Features that accelerate performance in DSP applications include:
• Single-cycle multiply-accumulate capability; high-performance DSPs often have
two multipliers that enable two multiply-accumulate operations per instruction
cycle; some DSP have four or more multipliers.

• Specialized addressing modes, for example, pre- and post-modification of address
pointers, circular addressing, and bit-reversed addressing.
• Most DSPs provide various configurations of on-chip memory and peripherals
tailored for DSP applications. DSPs generally feature multiple-access memory
architectures that enable DSPs to complete several accesses to memory in a single
instruction cycle.

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Microprocessors and Microcontrollers/Architecture of Microprocessors Lecture Notes

• Specialized execution control. Usually, DSP processors provide a loop instruction


that allows tight loops to be repeated without spending any instruction cycles for
updating and testing the loop counter or for jumping back to the top of the loop
• DSP processors are known for their irregular instruction sets, which generally
allow several operations to be encoded in a single instruction.
• For example, a processor that uses 32-bit instructions may encode two additions,
two multiplications, and four 16-bit data moves into a single instruction.
• In general, DSP processor instruction sets allow a data move to be performed in
parallel with an arithmetic operation. GPPs / MCUs, in contrast, usually specify a
single operation per instruction.
• What is really important is to choose the processor that is best suited for your
application.
• If a GPP/MCU is better suited for your DSP application than a DSP processor, the
processor of choice is the GPP/MCU.
• It is also worth noting that the difference between DSPs and GPPs/MCUs is
fading: many GPPs/MCUs now include DSP features, and DSPs are increasingly
adding microcontroller features.
Module 1: learning unit 2
8085 Microprocessor
ContentsGeneral definitions
• Overview of 8085 microprocessor
• Overview of 8086 microprocessor
• Signals and pins of 8086 microprocessor
The salient features of 8085 µp are:
• It is a 8 bit microprocessor.
• It is manufactured with N-MOS technology.
• It has 16-bit address bus and hence can address up to 216 = 65536 bytes (64KB)
memory locations through A0-A15.
• The first 8 lines of address bus and 8 lines of data bus are multiplexed AD0 – AD7.
• Data bus is a group of 8 lines D0 – D7.
• It supports external interrupt request.
• A 16 bit program counter (PC)
• A 16 bit stack pointer (SP)
• Six 8-bit general purpose register arranged in pairs: BC, DE, HL.
• It requires a signal +5V power supply and operates at 3.2 MHZ single phase
clock.
• It is enclosed with 40 pins DIP (Dual in line package).
Overview of 8085 microprocessor
¾ 8085 Architecture
• Pin Diagram
• Functional Block Diagram

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Microprocessors and Microcontrollers/Architecture of Microprocessors Lecture Notes

X1 1 40 Vcc
X2 39 HOLD
2 DMA
RESE OUT 3 38 HLDA
SOD 4 37 CLK ( OUT)
Serial i/p, o/p signals RESET IN
SID 5 36
TRAP 6 35 READY
7
IO / M
RST 7.5 34
RST 6.5 8 33 S1
RST 5.5
9
8085 A 32 RD
INTR 10 31 WR
IN T A 11
30 ALE
AD0 12
29 S0
AD1 13
28 A15
AD2 A14
14 27
AD3 15 26 A13
AD4 25 A12
16
AD5 24 A11
17
AD6 18 23 A10
AD7 19 22 A9
VSS 20 21 A8

Pin Diagram of 8085


Signal Groups of 8085
+5V GND
XTAL
X1 X2 Vcc Vss
A15
SID 5 High order Address bus
A8
SOD 4
TRAP AD7
RESET 7.5
RESET 6.5 AD0
RESET 5.5 ALE
INTR S1
READY S0
HOLD
IO / M
____
RESET IN
HLDA RD
WR
INTA

REST OUT CLK OUT

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Microprocessors and Microcontrollers/Architecture of Microprocessors Lecture Notes

RES RES RES TRAP SID


INTA SIO
5. 5 6. 5 7. 5

INT
SERIAL I / O CONTROL
INTERRUPT CONTROL

8 BIT INTERNAL
DATA BUS

INSTRUCTION
ACCUMU- (8) MULTIPLXER
REGISTER( 8 )
LATOR TEMP REG
(8) R W(8)
E TEMP. REG.
G C REG ( 8 )
B REG ( 8 )
FLAG ( 5) .
S D REG ( 8 )
FLIP FLOPS E REG ( 8 )
E
INSTRUCTION H REG ( 8 ) L REG ( 8 )
ARITHEMETIC L
DECODER AND E
LOGIC UNIT ( ALU) STACK POINTER ( 16 )
MACHINE C
ENCODING PROGRAM COUNTER ( 16 )
(8) T
+5V INCREAMENT / DECREAMENT
ADDRESS LATCH ( 16 )
GND

X1 TIMING AND CONTROL


CLK
ADDRESS BUFFER ( DATA / ADDRESS
GEN 8)
X2 BUFFER ( 8 )
CONTROL STATUS DMA

CLK A 15 – A8
RESET IN
OUT READY RD WR ALE S0 S1 IO / M HOLD HLDA RESET OUT ADDRESS BUS
AD7 – AD0 ADDRESS /
BUFFER BUS

Block Diagram

Flag Registers
D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0

S Z AC P CY

General Purpose Registers


INDIVIDUAL B, C, D, E, H, L

COMBININATON
B & C, D & E, H&L

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Microprocessors and Microcontrollers/Architecture of Microprocessors Lecture Notes

Memory
• Program, data and stack memories occupy the same memory space. The total
addressable memory size is 64 KB.
• Program memory - program can be located anywhere in memory. Jump, branch
and call instructions use 16-bit addresses, i.e. they can be used to jump/branch
anywhere within 64 KB. All jump/branch instructions use absolute addressing.
• Data memory - the processor always uses 16-bit addresses so that data can be
placed anywhere.
• Stack memory is limited only by the size of memory. Stack grows downward.
• First 64 bytes in a zero memory page should be reserved for vectors used by RST
instructions.
Interrupts
• The processor has 5 interrupts. They are presented below in the order of their
priority (from lowest to highest):

• INTR is maskable 8080A compatible interrupt. When the interrupt occurs the
processor fetches from the bus one instruction, usually one of these instructions:
• One of the 8 RST instructions (RST0 - RST7). The processor saves current
program counter into stack and branches to memory location N * 8 (where N is a
3-bit number from 0 to 7 supplied with the RST instruction).
• CALL instruction (3 byte instruction). The processor calls the subroutine, address
of which is specified in the second and third bytes of the instruction.
• RST5.5 is a maskable interrupt. When this interrupt is received the processor
saves the contents of the PC register into stack and branches to 2CH
(hexadecimal) address.
• RST6.5 is a maskable interrupt. When this interrupt is received the processor
saves the contents of the PC register into stack and branches to 34H
(hexadecimal) address.
• RST7.5 is a maskable interrupt. When this interrupt is received the processor
saves the contents of the PC register into stack and branches to 3CH
(hexadecimal) address.
• TRAP is a non-maskable interrupt. When this interrupt is received the processor
saves the contents of the PC register into stack and branches to 24H
(hexadecimal) address.
• All maskable interrupts can be enabled or disabled using EI and DI instructions.
RST 5.5, RST6.5 and RST7.5 interrupts can be enabled or disabled individually
using SIM instruction.
Reset Signals
• RESET IN: When this signal goes low, the program counter (PC) is set to Zero,
µp is reset and resets the interrupt enable and HLDA flip-flops.
• The data and address buses and the control lines are 3-stated during RESET and
because of asynchronous nature of RESET, the processor internal registers and
flags may be altered by RESET with unpredictable results.
• RESET IN is a Schmitt-triggered input, allowing connection to an R-C network
for power-on RESET delay.

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Microprocessors and Microcontrollers/Architecture of Microprocessors Lecture Notes

• Upon power-up, RESET IN must remain low for at least 10 ms after minimum
Vcc has been reached.
• For proper reset operation after the power – up duration, RESET IN should be
kept low a minimum of three clock periods.
• The CPU is held in the reset condition as long as RESET IN is applied. Typical
Power-on RESET RC values R1 = 75KΩ, C1 = 1µF.
• RESET OUT: This signal indicates that µp is being reset. This signal can be used
to reset other devices. The signal is synchronized to the processor clock and lasts
an integral number of clock periods.
Serial communication Signal
• SID - Serial Input Data Line: The data on this line is loaded into accumulator bit
7 whenever a RIM instruction is executed.
• SOD – Serial Output Data Line: The SIM instruction loads the value of bit 7 of
the accumulator into SOD latch if bit 6 (SOE) of the accumulator is 1.
DMA Signals
• HOLD: Indicates that another master is requesting the use of the address and data
buses. The CPU, upon receiving the hold request, will relinquish the use of the
bus as soon as the completion of the current bus transfer.
• Internal processing can continue. The processor can regain the bus only after the
HOLD is removed.
• When the HOLD is acknowledged, the Address, Data RD, WR and IO/M lines are
3-stated.
• HLDA: Hold Acknowledge: Indicates that the CPU has received the HOLD
request and that it will relinquish the bus in the next clock cycle.
• HLDA goes low after the Hold request is removed. The CPU takes the bus one
half-clock cycle after HLDA goes low.
• READY: This signal Synchronizes the fast CPU and the slow memory,
peripherals.
• If READY is high during a read or write cycle, it indicates that the memory or
peripheral is ready to send or receive data.
• If READY is low, the CPU will wait an integral number of clock cycle for
READY to go high before completing the read or write cycle.
• READY must conform to specified setup and hold times.
Registers
• Accumulator or A register is an 8-bit register used for arithmetic, logic, I/O and
load/store operations.
• Flag Register has five 1-bit flags.
• Sign - set if the most significant bit of the result is set.
• Zero - set if the result is zero.
• Auxiliary carry - set if there was a carry out from bit 3 to bit 4 of the result.
• Parity - set if the parity (the number of set bits in the result) is even.
• Carry - set if there was a carry during addition, or borrow during
subtraction/comparison/rotation.

M. Krishna Kumar/IISc. Bangalore M1/V1/June 04/17


Microprocessors and Microcontrollers/Architecture of Microprocessors Lecture Notes

General Registers
• 8-bit B and 8-bit C registers can be used as one 16-bit BC register pair. When
used as a pair the C register contains low-order byte. Some instructions may use
BC register as a data pointer.
• 8-bit D and 8-bit E registers can be used as one 16-bit DE register pair. When
used as a pair the E register contains low-order byte. Some instructions may use
DE register as a data pointer.
• 8-bit H and 8-bit L registers can be used as one 16-bit HL register pair. When
used as a pair the L register contains low-order byte. HL register usually contains
a data pointer used to reference memory addresses.
• Stack pointer is a 16 bit register. This register is always
decremented/incremented by 2 during push and pop.
• Program counter is a 16-bit register.
Instruction Set
• 8085 instruction set consists of the following instructions:
• Data moving instructions.
• Arithmetic - add, subtract, increment and decrement.
• Logic - AND, OR, XOR and rotate.
• Control transfer - conditional, unconditional, call subroutine, return from
subroutine and restarts.
• Input/Output instructions.
• Other - setting/clearing flag bits, enabling/disabling interrupts, stack operations,
etc.
Addressing mode
• Register - references the data in a register or in a register pair.
Register indirect - instruction specifies register pair containing address, where
the data is located.
Direct, Immediate - 8 or 16-bit data.
Module 1: learning unit 3
8086 Microprocessor
•It is a 16-bit µp.
•8086 has a 20 bit address bus can access up to 220 memory locations (1 MB).
•It can support up to 64K I/O ports.
•It provides 14, 16 -bit registers.
•It has multiplexed address and data bus AD0- AD15 and A16 – A19.
•It requires single phase clock with 33% duty cycle to provide internal timing.
•8086 is designed to operate in two modes, Minimum and Maximum.
•It can prefetches upto 6 instruction bytes from memory and queues them in order to
speed up instruction execution.
•It requires +5V power supply.
•A 40 pin dual in line package
Minimum and Maximum Modes:
•The minimum mode is selected by applying logic 1 to the MN / MX input pin. This is a
single microprocessor configuration.
•The maximum mode is selected by applying logic 0 to the MN / MX input pin. This is a
multi micro processors configuration.

M. Krishna Kumar/IISc. Bangalore M1/V1/June 04/18


Microprocessors and Microcontrollers/Architecture of Microprocessors Lecture Notes

GND 1 40 VCC
AD14 39 AD15
2
AD13 3 38 A16 / S3
AD12 4 37 A17 / S4
AD11 5 36 A18 / S5
AD10 6 35 A19/S6
AD9 7 34 BHE / S7
____
AD8
AD7
8 8086 33 MN/ MX

AD6
9
10
CPU 32 RD _____ _____
RQ / GT0 ( HOLD)
31 ___ _____
AD5 11 RQ / GT1
AD4
30 ( HLDA)
12 _______ ___
29 LOCK (WR) ____
AD3 13
28 ___ S2 (M / IO )
___
AD2
14 27 S1 (DT / R )
_____
AD1 15 26
AD0 S0 ( DEN )
16 25 ________ QS0 (ALE)
NMI 24 QS1 ( INTA )
17
INTR 18 23 TEST
CLK 19 22
READY
GND 20 21
RESET
Pin Diagram of 8086

M. Krishna Kumar/IISc. Bangalore M1/V1/June 04/19


Microprocessors and Microcontrollers/Architecture of Microprocessors Lecture Notes

VCC GND

A0 - A15, A16 / S3 – A19/S6

INTR

INTA ADDRESS / DATA BUS


INTERRUPT
INTERFACE
TEST D0 - D15

NMI 8086 ALE


MPU ___
RESET BHE / S7

M / IO
MEMORY I
/O
HOLD DMA ____ DT / R
CONTROLS
INTERFACE RD
_____
HLDA
WR
VCC
DEN
MODE
____
SELECT READY
MN / MX

CLK

Signal Groups of 8086

M. Krishna Kumar/IISc. Bangalore M1/V1/June 04/20


Microprocessors and Microcontrollers/Architecture of Microprocessors Lecture Notes

AH AL
ADDRESS BUS
BH BL ∑
CH CL ( 20 )
GENERAL DH DL BITS
REGISTERS
SP DATA BUS
BP
( 16 )
SI BITS
DI
ES
CS
SS
DS
ALU DATA IP
8
16 BITS 0
BUS 8
6
TEMPORARY REGISTERS CONTR B
OL U
LOGIC S

EU INSTRUCTION QUEUE
ALU CONTROQ BUS
L 1 2 3 4 5 6
SYSTEM
8 BIT

FLAGS BUS INTERFACE UNIT ( BIU)


EXECUTION UNIT ( EU )

Block Diagram of 8086


Internal Architecture of 8086
•8086 has two blocks BIU and EU.
•The BIU performs all bus operations such as instruction fetching, reading and writing
operands for memory and calculating the addresses of the memory operands. The
instruction bytes are transferred to the instruction queue.
•EU executes instructions from the instruction system byte queue.
•Both units operate asynchronously to give the 8086 an overlapping instruction fetch and
execution mechanism which is called as Pipelining. This results in efficient use of the
system bus and system performance.
•BIU contains Instruction queue, Segment registers, Instruction pointer, Address adder.
•EU contains Control circuitry, Instruction decoder, ALU, Pointer and Index register,
Flag register.
BUS INTERFACR UNIT:
•It provides a full 16 bit bidirectional data bus and 20 bit address bus.
•The bus interface unit is responsible for performing all external bus operations.
Specifically it has the following functions:
•Instruction fetch, Instruction queuing, Operand fetch and storage, Address relocation and
Bus control.
•The BIU uses a mechanism known as an instruction stream queue to implement a
pipeline architecture.
•This queue permits prefetch of up to six bytes of instruction code. When ever the queue
of the BIU is not full, it has room for at least two more bytes and at the same time the EU

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Microprocessors and Microcontrollers/Architecture of Microprocessors Lecture Notes

is not requesting it to read or write operands from memory, the BIU is free to look ahead
in the program by prefetching the next sequential instruction.
•These prefetching instructions are held in its FIFO queue. With its 16 bit data bus, the
BIU fetches two instruction bytes in a single memory cycle.
•After a byte is loaded at the input end of the queue, it automatically shifts up through the
FIFO to the empty location nearest the output.
•The EU accesses the queue from the output end. It reads one instruction byte after the
other from the output of the queue. If the queue is full and the EU is not requesting access
to operand in memory.
•These intervals of no bus activity, which may occur between bus cycles are known as
Idle state.
•If the BIU is already in the process of fetching an instruction when the EU request it to
read or write operands from memory or I/O, the BIU first completes the instruction fetch
bus cycle before initiating the operand read / write cycle.
•The BIU also contains a dedicated adder which is used to generate the 20bit physical
address that is output on the address bus. This address is formed by adding an appended
16 bit segment address and a 16 bit offset address.
•For example: The physical address of the next instruction to be fetched is formed by
combining the current contents of the code segment CS register and the current contents
of the instruction pointer IP register.
•The BIU is also responsible for generating bus control signals such as those for memory
read or write and I/O read or write.
EXECUTION UNIT
The Execution unit is responsible for decoding and executing all instructions.
•The EU extracts instructions from the top of the queue in the BIU, decodes them,
generates operands if necessary, passes them to the BIU and requests it to perform the
read or write bys cycles to memory or I/O and perform the operation specified by the
instruction on the operands.
•During the execution of the instruction, the EU tests the status and control flags and
updates them based on the results of executing the instruction.
•If the queue is empty, the EU waits for the next instruction byte to be fetched and shifted
to top of the queue.
•When the EU executes a branch or jump instruction, it transfers control to a location
corresponding to another set of sequential instructions.
•Whenever this happens, the BIU automatically resets the queue and then begins to fetch
instructions from this new location to refill the queue.
Module 1 and learning unit 4:
Signal Description of 8086•The Microprocessor 8086 is a 16-bit CPU available in
different clock rates and packaged in a 40 pin CERDIP or plastic package.
•The 8086 operates in single processor or multiprocessor configuration to achieve high
performance. The pins serve a particular function in minimum mode (single processor
mode) and other function in maximum mode configuration (multiprocessor mode ).
•The 8086 signals can be categorised in three groups. The first are the signal having
common functions in minimum as well as maximum mode.
•The second are the signals which have special functions for minimum mode and third
are the signals having special functions for maximum mode.

M. Krishna Kumar/IISc. Bangalore M1/V1/June 04/22


Microprocessors and Microcontrollers/Architecture of Microprocessors Lecture Notes

•The following signal descriptions are common for both modes.


•AD15-AD0: These are the time multiplexed memory I/O address and data lines.
• Address remains on the lines during T1 state, while the data is available on the data bus
during T2, T3, Tw and T4.
•These lines are active high and float to a tristate during interrupt acknowledge and local
bus hold acknowledge cycles.
•A19/S6,A18/S5,A17/S4,A16/S3: These are the time multiplexed address and status
lines.
•During T1 these are the most significant address lines for memory operations.
•During I/O operations, these lines are low. During memory or I/O operations, status
information is available on those lines for T2,T3,Tw and T4.
•The status of the interrupt enable flag bit is updated at the beginning of each clock cycle.
•The S4 and S3 combinedly indicate which segment register is presently being used for
memory accesses as in below fig.
•These lines float to tri-state off during the local bus hold acknowledge. The status line
S6 is always low.
•The address bit are separated from the status bit using latches controlled by the ALE
signal.
S4 S3 Indication
0 0 Alternate Data
0 1 Stack
1 0 Code or none
1 1 Data

• BHE /S7: The bus high enable is used to indicate the transfer of data over the higher
order ( D15-D8 ) data bus as shown in table. It goes low for the data transfer over D15-
D8 and is used to derive chip selects of odd address memory bank or peripherals. BHE is
low during T1 for read, write and interrupt acknowledge cycles, whenever a byte is to be
transferred on higher byte of data bus. The status information is available during T2, T3
and T4. The signal is active low and tristated during hold. It is low during T1 for the first
pulse of the interrupt acknowledges cycle.
BHE A0 Indication
0 0 Whole word
0 1 Upper byte from or to odd
evenaddress
address
1 0 Lower byte from or to even address
1 1 None

• RD Read: This signal on low indicates the peripheral that the processor is performing s
memory or I/O read operation. RD is active low and shows the state for T2, T3, Tw of
any read cycle. The signal remains tristated during the hold acknowledge.

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Microprocessors and Microcontrollers/Architecture of Microprocessors Lecture Notes

•READY: This is the acknowledgement from the slow device or memory that they have
completed the data transfer. The signal made available by the devices is synchronized by
the 8284A clock generator to provide ready input to the 8086. the signal is active high.
•INTR-Interrupt Request: This is a triggered input. This is sampled during the last
clock cycles of each instruction to determine the availability of the request. If any
interrupt request is pending, the processor enters the interrupt acknowledge cycle.
•This can be internally masked by resulting the interrupt enable flag. This signal is active
high and internally synchronized.
• TEST This input is examined by a ‘WAIT’ instruction. If the TEST pin goes low,
execution will continue, else the processor remains in an idle state. The input is
synchronized internally during each clock cycle on leading edge of clock.
•CLK- Clock Input: The clock input provides the basic timing for processor operation
and bus control activity. Its an asymmetric square wave with 33% duty cycle.
•MN/ MX : The logic level at this pin decides whether the processor is to operate in either
minimum or maximum mode.
•The following pin functions are for the minimum mode operation of 8086.
•M/ IO – Memory/IO: This is a status line logically equivalent to S2 in maximum mode.
When it is low, it indicates the CPU is having an I/O operation, and when it is high, it
indicates that the CPU is having a memory operation. This line becomes active high in
the previous T4 and remains active till final T4 of the current cycle. It is tristated during
local bus “hold acknowledge “.
• INTA Interrupt Acknowledge: This signal is used as a read strobe for interrupt
acknowledge cycles. i.e. when it goes low, the processor has accepted the interrupt.
•ALE – Address Latch Enable: This output signal indicates the availability of the valid
address on the address/data lines, and is connected to latch enable input of latches. This
signal is active high and is never tristated.
•DT/ R – Data Transmit/Receive: This output is used to decide the direction of data
flow through the transreceivers (bidirectional buffers). When the processor sends out
data, this signal is high and when the processor is receiving data, this signal is low.
•DEN – Data Enable: This signal indicates the availability of valid data over the
address/data lines. It is used to enable the transreceivers ( bidirectional buffers ) to
separate the data from the multiplexed address/data signal. It is active from the middle of
T2 until the middle of T4. This is tristated during ‘ hold acknowledge’ cycle.
•HOLD, HLDA- Acknowledge: When the HOLD line goes high, it indicates to the
processor that another master is requesting the bus access.
•The processor, after receiving the HOLD request, issues the hold acknowledge signal on
HLDA pin, in the middle of the next clock cycle after completing the current bus
cycle.•At the same time, the processor floats the local bus and control lines. When the
processor detects the HOLD line low, it lowers the HLDA signal. HOLD is an
asynchronous input, and is should be externally synchronized.
•If the DMA request is made while the CPU is performing a memory or I/O cycle, it will
release the local bus during T4 provided:
1.The request occurs on or before T2 state of the current cycle.
2.The current cycle is not operating over the lower byte of a word.
3.The current cycle is not the first acknowledge of an interrupt acknowledge sequence.

M. Krishna Kumar/IISc. Bangalore M1/V1/June 04/24


Microprocessors and Microcontrollers/Architecture of Microprocessors Lecture Notes

4. A Lock instruction is not being executed.


•The following pin function are applicable for maximum mode operation of 8086.
•S2, S1, S0 – Status Lines: These are the status lines which reflect the type of operation,
being carried out by the processor. These become activity during T4 of the previous cycle
and active during T1 and T2 of the current bus cycles.
S2 S1 S0 Indication
0 0 0 Interrupt Acknowledge
0 0 1 Read I/O port
0 1 0 Write I/O port
0 1 1 Halt
1 0 0 Code Access
1 0 1 Read memory
1 1 0 Write memory
1 1 1 Passive
• LOCK This output pin indicates that other system bus master will be prevented from
gaining the system bus, while the LOCK signal is low.
•The LOCK signal is activated by the ‘LOCK’ prefix instruction and remains active until
the completion of the next instruction. When the CPU is executing a critical instruction
which requires the system bus, the LOCK prefix instruction ensures that other processors
connected in the system will not gain the control of the bus.
•The 8086, while executing the prefixed instruction, asserts the bus lock signal output,
which may be connected to an external bus controller.
•QS1, QS0 – Queue Status: These lines give information about the status of the code-
prefetch queue. These are active during the CLK cycle after while the queue operation is
performed.
•This modification in a simple fetch and execute architecture of a conventional
microprocessor offers an added advantage of pipelined processing of the instructions.
•The 8086 architecture has 6-byte instruction prefetch queue. Thus even the largest (6-
bytes) instruction can be prefetched from the memory and stored in the prefetch. This
results in a faster execution of the instructions.
•In 8085 an instruction is fetched, decoded and executed and only after the execution of
this instruction, the next one is fetched.
•By prefetching the instruction, there is a considerable speeding up in instruction
execution in 8086. This is known as instruction pipelining.
•At the starting the CS:IP is loaded with the required address from which the execution is
to be started. Initially, the queue will be empty an the microprocessor starts a fetch
operation to bring one byte (the first byte) of instruction code, if the CS:IP address is odd
or two bytes at a time, if the CS:IP address is even.
•The first byte is a complete opcode in case of some instruction (one byte opcode
instruction) and is a part of opcode, in case of some instructions ( two byte opcode
instructions), the remaining part of code lie in second byte.
•The second byte is then decoded in continuation with the first byte to decide the
instruction length and the number of subsequent bytes to be treated as instruction data.

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Microprocessors and Microcontrollers/Architecture of Microprocessors Lecture Notes

•The queue is updated after every byte is read from the queue but the fetch cycle is
initiated by BIU only if at least two bytes of the queue are empty and the EU may be
concurrently executing the fetched instructions.
•The next byte after the instruction is completed is again the first opcode byte of the next
instruction. A similar procedure is repeated till the complete execution of the
program.•The fetch operation of the next instruction is overlapped with the execution of
the current instruction. As in the architecture, there are two separate units, namely
Execution unit and Bus interface unit.
•While the execution unit is busy in executing an instruction, after it is completely
decoded, the bus interface unit may be fetching the bytes of the next instruction from
memory, depending upon the queue status.
QS1 QS0 Indication
0 0 No operation
0 1 First byte of the opcode from the queue
1 0 Empty queue
1 1 Subsequent byte from the queue

• RQ / GT0 , RQ / GT1 – Request/Grant: These pins are used by the other local bus master
in maximum mode, to force the processor to release the local bus at the end of the
processor current bus cycle.
•Each of the pin is bidirectional with RQ/GT0 having higher priority than RQ/GT1.
•RQ/GT pins have internal pull-up resistors and may be left unconnected.
•Request/Grant sequence is as follows:
1.A pulse of one clock wide from another bus master requests the bus access to 8086.
2.During T4(current) or T1(next) clock cycle, a pulse one clock wide from 8086 to the
requesting master, indicates that the 8086 has allowed the local bus to float and that it
will enter the ‘hold acknowledge’ state at next cycle. The CPU bus interface unit is likely
to be disconnected from the local bus of the system.
3.A one clock wide pulse from the another master indicates to the 8086 that the hold
request is about to end and the 8086 may regain control of the local bus at the next clock
cycle. Thus each master to master exchange of the local bus is a sequence of 3 pulses.
There must be at least one dead clock cycle after each bus exchange.
•The request and grant pulses are active low.
•For the bus request those are received while 8086 is performing memory or I/O cycle,
the granting of the bus is governed by the rules as in case of HOLD and HLDA in
minimum mode.
General Bus Operation:
•The 8086 has a combined address and data bus commonly referred as a time multiplexed
address and data bus.
•The main reason behind multiplexing address and data over the same pins is the
maximum utilisation of processor pins and it facilitates the use of 40 pin standard DIP
package.

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Microprocessors and Microcontrollers/Architecture of Microprocessors Lecture Notes

•The bus can be demultiplexed using a few latches and transreceivers, when ever
required.
•Basically, all the processor bus cycles consist of at least four clock cycles. These are
referred to as T1, T2, T3, T4. The address is transmitted by the processor during T1. It is
present on the bus only for one cycle.
•The negative edge of this ALE pulse is used to separate the address and the data or status
information. In maximum mode, the status lines S0, S1 and S2 are used to indicate the
type of operation.
•Status bits S3 to S7 are multiplexed with higher order address bits and the BHE signal.
Address is valid during T1 while status bits S3 to S7 are valid during T2 through T4.

Memory read cycle Memory write cycle


T1 T2 T3 Tw T4 T1 T2 T3 Tw T4
CLK

ALE

S2 – S0
A19-A16 S3-S7 A19-A16 S3-S7
Add/stat
BHE Bus reserve BHE
Add/data for Data In Data Out D15 – D0
A0-A15 D15-D0 A0-A15 D15-D0
RD/INTA
Ready
READY Ready
DT/R Wait Wait

DEN

WR Memory access time

General Bus Operation Cycle in Maximum Mode

Minimum Mode 8086 System


•In a minimum mode 8086 system, the microprocessor 8086 is operated in minimum
mode by strapping its MN/MX pin to logic 1.
•In this mode, all the control signals are given out by the microprocessor chip itself.
There is a single microprocessor in the minimum mode system.
•The remaining components in the system are latches, transreceivers, clock generator,
memory and I/O devices. Some type of chip selection logic may be required for selecting
memory or I/O devices, depending upon the address map of the system.
•Latches are generally buffered output D-type flip-flops like 74LS373 or 8282. They are
used for separating the valid address from the multiplexed address/data signals and are
controlled by the ALE signal generated by 8086.

M. Krishna Kumar/IISc. Bangalore M1/V1/June 04/27


Microprocessors and Microcontrollers/Architecture of Microprocessors Lecture Notes

•Transreceivers are the bidirectional buffers and some times they are called as data
amplifiers. They are required to separate the valid data from the time multiplexed
address/data signals.
•They are controlled by two signals namely, DEN and DT/R.
•The DEN signal indicates the direction of data, i.e. from or to the processor. The system
contains memory for the monitor and users program storage.
•Usually, EPROM are used for monitor storage, while RAM for users program storage. A
system may contain I/O devices.
•The working of the minimum mode configuration system can be better described in
terms of the timing diagrams rather than qualitatively describing the operations.
•The opcode fetch and read cycles are similar. Hence the timing diagram can be
categorized in two parts, the first is the timing diagram for read cycle and the second is
the timing diagram for write cycle.
•The read cycle begins in T1 with the assertion of address latch enable (ALE) signal and
also M / IO signal. During the negative going edge of this signal, the valid address is
latched on the local bus.
•The BHE and A0 signals address low, high or both bytes. From T1 to T4 , the M/IO
signal indicates a memory or I/O operation.
•At T2, the address is removed from the local bus and is sent to the output. The bus is
then tristated. The read (RD) control signal is also activated in T2.
•The read (RD) signal causes the address device to enable its data bus drivers. After RD
goes low, the valid data is available on the data bus.
•The addressed device will drive the READY line high. When the processor returns the
read signal to high level, the addressed device will again tristate its bus drivers.
•A write cycle also begins with the assertion of ALE and the emission of the address. The
M/IO signal is again asserted to indicate a memory or I/O operation. In T2, after sending
the address in T1, the processor sends the data to be written to the addressed location.
•The data remains on the bus until middle of T4 state. The WR becomes active at the
beginning of T2 (unlike RD is somewhat delayed in T2 to provide time for floating).
•The BHE and A0 signals are used to select the proper byte or bytes of memory or I/O
word to be read or write.
•The M/IO, RD and WR signals indicate the type of data transfer as specified in table
below.

M. Krishna Kumar/IISc. Bangalore M1/V1/June 04/28


Microprocessors and Microcontrollers/Architecture of Microprocessors Lecture Notes

T1 T2 T3 TW T4 T1

Clk

ALE

BHE S7 – S3
ADD / STATUS A19 – A16

ADD / DATA A15 – A0 Valid data D15 – D0

WR

DEN

DT / R

Write Cycle Timing Diagram for Minimum Mode


•Hold Response sequence: The HOLD pin is checked at leading edge of each clock
pulse. If it is received active by the processor before T4 of the previous cycle or during
T1 state of the current cycle, the CPU activates HLDA in the next clock cycle and for
succeeding bus cycles, the bus will be given to another requesting master.
•The control of the bus is not regained by the processor until the requesting master does
not drop the HOLD pin low. When the request is dropped by the requesting master, the
HLDA is dropped by the processor at the trailing edge of the next clock.

Clk

HOLD

HLDA

Bus Request and Bus Grant Timings in Minimum Mode System

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Microprocessors and Microcontrollers/Architecture of Microprocessors Lecture Notes

Maximum Mode 8086 System •In the maximum mode, the 8086 is operated by
strapping the MN/MX pin to ground.
•In this mode, the processor derives the status signal S2, S1, S0. Another chip called bus
controller derives the control signal using this status information.
•In the maximum mode, there may be more than one microprocessor in the system
configuration.
•The components in the system are same as in the minimum mode system.
•The basic function of the bus controller chip IC8288, is to derive control signals like RD
and WR ( for memory and I/O devices), DEN, DT/R, ALE etc. using the information by
the processor on the status lines.
•The bus controller chip has input lines S2, S1, S0 and CLK. These inputs to 8288 are
driven by CPU.
•It derives the outputs ALE, DEN, DT/R, MRDC, MWTC, AMWC, IORC, IOWC and
AIOWC. The AEN, IOB and CEN pins are specially useful for multiprocessor systems.
•AEN and IOB are generally grounded. CEN pin is usually tied to +5V. The significance
of the MCE/PDEN output depends upon the status of the IOB pin.
•If IOB is grounded, it acts as master cascade enable to control cascade 8259A, else it
acts as peripheral data enable used in the multiple bus configurations.
•INTA pin used to issue two interrupt acknowledge pulses to the interrupt controller or to
an interrupting device.
•IORC, IOWC are I/O read command and I/O write command signals respectively. These
signals enable an IO interface to read or write the data from or to the address port.
•The MRDC, MWTC are memory read command and memory write command signals
respectively and may be used as memory read or write signals.
•All these command signals instructs the memory to accept or send data from or to the
bus.
•For both of these write command signals, the advanced signals namely AIOWC and
AMWTC are available.
•Here the only difference between in timing diagram between minimum mode and
maximum mode is the status signals used and the available control and advanced
command signals.

M. Krishna Kumar/IISc. Bangalore M1/V1/June 04/30


Microprocessors and Microcontrollers/Architecture of Microprocessors Lecture Notes

Clk DEN
S0 DT/ R Control bus
S1 8288 IORC
S2 IOWT
AEN MWTC
Reset Reset S0
Clk IOB
S1 CEN AL MRDC
Generator Clk
S2
RDY 8284 Ready + 5V

8086
CLK
AD6-AD15 A/D Address bus
A16-A19 Latches
A
dd
DT/R bu
BHE A0
DIR
Data CS0H CS0L RD CS WR RD
buffer WR
DEN G Memory Peripheral

Data bus

Maximum Mode 8086 System.

•R0, S1, S2 are set at the beginning of bus cycle.8288 bus controller will output a pulse
as on the ALE and apply a required signal to its DT / R pin during T1.
•In T2, 8288 will set DEN=1 thus enabling transceivers, and for an input it will activate
MRDC or IORC. These signals are activated until T4. For an output, the AMWC or
AIOWC is activated from T2 to T4 and MWTC or IOWC is activated from T3 to T4.
•The status bit S0 to S2 remains active until T3 and become passive during T3 and T4.
•If reader input is not activated before T3, wait state will be inserted between T3 and T4.
•Timings for RQ/ GT Signals:
The request/grant response sequence contains a series of three pulses. The request/grant
pins are checked at each rising pulse of clock input.
•When a request is detected and if the condition for HOLD request are satisfied, the
processor issues a grant pulse over the RQ/GT pin immediately during T4 (current) or T1
(next) state.
•When the requesting master receives this pulse, it accepts the control of the bus, it sends
a release pulse to the processor using RQ/GT pin.

M. Krishna Kumar/IISc. Bangalore M1/V1/June 04/31


Microprocessors and Microcontrollers/Architecture of Microprocessors Lecture Notes

One bus cycle


T1 T2 T3 T4 T1

Clk

ALE

S2 – S0 Active Inactive Active

Add/Status BHE, A19 – A16 S7 – S3

Add/Data A15 – A0 D15 – D0

MRDC

DT / R

DEN

Memory Read Timing in Maximum Mode

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Microprocessors and Microcontrollers/Architecture of Microprocessors Lecture Notes

One bus cycle


T1 T2 T3 T4 T1

Clk

ALE

S2 – S0 Active Inactive Active

ADD/STATUS BHE S7 – S3

ADD/DATA A15-A0 Data out D15 – D0


AMWC or AIOWC

MWTC or IOWC

DT / R high
DEN

Memory Write Timing in Maximum mode.

Clk

RQ / GT

Another master CPU grant bus Master releases


request bus access

RQ/GT Timings in Maximum Mode.


Minimum Mode Interface
•When the Minimum mode operation is selected, the 8086 provides all control signals
needed to implement the memory and I/O interface.

M. Krishna Kumar/IISc. Bangalore M1/V1/June 04/33


Microprocessors and Microcontrollers/Architecture of Microprocessors Lecture Notes

•The minimum mode signal can be divided into the following basic groups: address/data
bus, status, control, interrupt and DMA.
•Address/Data Bus: these lines serve two functions. As an address bus is 20 bits long
and consists of signal lines A0 through A19. A19 represents the MSB and A0 LSB. A
20bit address gives the 8086 a 1Mbyte memory address space. More over it has an
independent I/O address space which is 64K bytes in length.
•The 16 data bus lines D0 through D15 are actually multiplexed with address lines A0
through A15 respectively. By multiplexed we mean that the bus work as an address bus
during first machine cycle and as a data bus during next machine cycles. D15 is the MSB
and D0 LSB.
•When acting as a data bus, they carry read/write data for memory, input/output data for
I/O devices, and interrupt type codes from an interrupt controller.
Vcc GND

INTR
A0-A15,A16/S3 – A19/S6
INTA
Interrupt
Address / data bus
interface
TEST

D0 – D15
NMI
8086
MPU ALE
RESET
BHE / S7

M / IO Memory I/O
HOLD controls
DMA DT / R
interface
HLDA RD

WR

Vcc
DEN
Mode select
READY
MN / MX

CLK clock

Block Diagram of the Minimum Mode 8086 MPU


•Status signal:
The four most significant address lines A19 through A16 are also multiplexed but in this
case with status signals S6 through S3. These status bits are output on the bus at the same
time that data are transferred over the other bus lines.
•Bit S4 and S3 together from a 2 bit binary code that identifies which of the 8086 internal
segment registers are used to generate the physical address that was output on the address
bus during the current bus cycle.
•Code S4S3 = 00 identifies a register known as extra segment register as the source of
the segment address.

M. Krishna Kumar/IISc. Bangalore M1/V1/June 04/34


Microprocessors and Microcontrollers/Architecture of Microprocessors Lecture Notes

•Status line S5 reflects the status of another internal characteristic of the 8086. It is the
logic level of the internal enable flag. The last status bit S6 is always at the logic 0 level.

S4 S3 Segment Register

0 0 Extra

0 1 Stack

1 0 Code / none

1 1 Data

Memory segment status codes.


•Control Signals:
The control signals are provided to support the 8086 memory I/O interfaces. They
control functions such as when the bus is to carry a valid address in which direction data
are to be transferred over the bus, when valid write data are on the bus and when to put
read data on the system bus.
•ALE is a pulse to logic 1 that signals external circuitry when a valid address word is on
the bus. This address must be latched in external circuitry on the 1-to-0 edge of the pulse
at ALE.
•Another control signal that is produced during the bus cycle is BHE bank high enable.
Logic 0 on this used as a memory enable signal for the most significant byte half of the
data bus D8 through D1. These lines also serves a second function, which is as the S7
status line.
•Using the M/IO and DT/R lines, the 8086 signals which type of bus cycle is in progress
and in which direction data are to be transferred over the bus.
•The logic level of M/IO tells external circuitry whether a memory or I/O transfer is
taking place over the bus. Logic 1 at this output signals a memory operation and logic 0
an I/O operation.
•The direction of data transfer over the bus is signaled by the logic level output at DT/R.
When this line is logic 1 during the data transfer part of a bus cycle, the bus is in the
transmit mode. Therefore, data are either written into memory or output to an I/O device.

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Microprocessors and Microcontrollers/Architecture of Microprocessors Lecture Notes

•On the other hand, logic 0 at DT/R signals that the bus is in the receive mode. This
corresponds to reading data from memory or input of data from an input port.
•The signal read RD and write WR indicates that a read bus cycle or a write bus cycle is
in progress. The 8086 switches WR to logic 0 to signal external device that valid write or
output data are on the bus.
• On the other hand, RD indicates that the 8086 is performing a read of data of the bus.
During read operations, one other control signal is also supplied. This is DEN ( data
enable) and it signals external devices when they should put data on the bus.
•There is one other control signal that is involved with the memory and I/O interface.
This is the READY signal.
•READY signal is used to insert wait states into the bus cycle such that it is extended by
a number of clock periods. This signal is provided by an external clock generator device
and can be supplied by the memory or I/O sub-system to signal the 8086 when they are
ready to permit the data transfer to be completed.
•Interrupt signals: The key interrupt interface signals are interrupt request (INTR) and
interrupt acknowledge ( INTA).
•INTR is an input to the 8086 that can be used by an external device to signal that it need
to be serviced.
•Logic 1 at INTR represents an active interrupt request. When an interrupt request has
been recognized by the 8086, it indicates this fact to external circuit with pulse to logic 0
at the INTA output.
•The TEST input is also related to the external interrupt interface. Execution of a WAIT
instruction causes the 8086 to check the logic level at the TEST input.
•If the logic 1 is found, the MPU suspend operation and goes into the idle state. The 8086
no longer executes instructions, instead it repeatedly checks the logic level of the TEST
input waiting for its transition back to logic 0.
•As TEST switches to 0, execution resume with the next instruction in the program. This
feature can be used to synchronize the operation of the 8086 to an event in external
hardware.
•There are two more inputs in the interrupt interface: the nonmaskable interrupt NMI and
the reset interrupt RESET.
•On the 0-to-1 transition of NMI control is passed to a nonmaskable interrupt service
routine. The RESET input is used to provide a hardware reset for the 8086. Switching
RESET to logic 0 initializes the internal register of the 8086 and initiates a reset service
routine.
•DMA Interface signals:The direct memory access DMA interface of the 8086
minimum mode consist of the HOLD and HLDA signals.
•When an external device wants to take control of the system bus, it signals to the 8086
by switching HOLD to the logic 1 level. At the completion of the current bus cycle, the
8086 enters the hold state. In the hold state, signal lines AD0 through AD15, A16/S3
through A19/S6, BHE, M/IO, DT/R, RD, WR, DEN and INTR are all in the high Z state.
The 8086 signals external device that it is in this state by switching its HLDA output to
logic 1 level.
Maximum Mode Interface
•When the 8086 is set for the maximum-mode configuration, it provides signals for
implementing a multiprocessor / coprocessor system environment.

M. Krishna Kumar/IISc. Bangalore M1/V1/June 04/36


Microprocessors and Microcontrollers/Architecture of Microprocessors Lecture Notes

•By multiprocessor environment we mean that one microprocessor exists in the system
and that each processor is executing its own program.
•Usually in this type of system environment, there are some system resources that are
common to all processors.
•They are called as global resources. There are also other resources that are assigned to
specific processors. These are known as local or private resources.
•Coprocessor also means that there is a second processor in the system. In this two
processor does not access the bus at the same time.
•One passes the control of the system bus to the other and then may suspend its operation.
•In the maximum-mode 8086 system, facilities are provided for implementing allocation
of global resources and passing bus control to other microprocessor or coprocessor.
INIT
Multi Bus
S0 BUSY
S1 CBRQ
S2 8289 BPRO
LOCK Bus BPRN
CRQLCK
CLK RESB BREQ
Vcc GND SYSB/RESB
ANYREQ CLK AEN IOB BCLK

INTR LOCK CLK AEN IOB


S0 MRDC
TEST CLK AEN IOB MWTC
S1 S0
NMI AMWC
S2 S1 8288 Bus IORC
RESET S2 controller IOWC
DEN AIOWC
DT/ R INTA
8086 MPU ALE MCE / PDEN
DEN
DT / R
ALE
A0-A15,
A16/S3-A19/S6
MN/MX
D0 – D15
BHE
RD
READY
QS1, QS0
Local bus control
RQ / GT1 RQ / GT0 8086 Maximum mode Block Diagram
•8288 Bus Controller – Bus Command and Control Signals:
8086 does not directly provide all the signals that are required to control the memory,
I/O and interrupt interfaces.
•Specially the WR, M/IO, DT/R, DEN, ALE and INTA, signals are no longer produced
by the 8086. Instead it outputs three status signals S0, S1, S2 prior to the initiation of
each bus cycle. This 3- bit bus status code identifies which type of bus cycle is to follow.
•S2S1S0 are input to the external bus controller device, the bus controller generates the
appropriately timed command and control signals.

M. Krishna Kumar/IISc. Bangalore M1/V1/June 04/37


Microprocessors and Microcontrollers/Architecture of Microprocessors Lecture Notes

Status Inputs
CPU Cycles 8288
S2 S1 S0 Command
0 0 0 Interrupt Acknowledge INTA
0 0 1 Read I/O Port IORC
0 1 0 Write I/O Port IOWC, AIOWC
0 1 1 Halt None
1 0 0 Instruction Fetch MRDC

1 0 1 Read Memory MRDC

1 1 0 Write Memory MWTC, AMWC


1 1 1 Passive None

Bus Status Codes


•The 8288 produces one or two of these eight command signals for each bus cycles. For
instance, when the 8086 outputs the code S2S1S0 equals 001, it indicates that an I/O read
cycle is to be performed.
•In the code 111 is output by the 8086, it is signaling that no bus activity is to take place.
•The control outputs produced by the 8288 are DEN, DT/R and ALE. These 3 signals
provide the same functions as those described for the minimum system mode. This set of
bus commands and control signals is compatible with the Multibus and industry standard
for interfacing microprocessor systems.
•The output of 8289 are bus arbitration signals:
Bus busy (BUSY), common bus request (CBRQ), bus priority out (BPRO), bus priority
in (BPRN), bus request (BREQ) and bus clock (BCLK).
•They correspond to the bus exchange signals of the Multibus and are used to lock other
processor off the system bus during the execution of an instruction by the 8086.
•In this way the processor can be assured of uninterrupted access to common system
resources such as global memory.
•Queue Status Signals: Two new signals that are produced by the 8086 in the maximum-
mode system are queue status outputs QS0 and QS1. Together they form a 2-bit queue
status code, QS1QS0.
•Following table shows the four different queue status.

M. Krishna Kumar/IISc. Bangalore M1/V1/June 04/38


Microprocessors and Microcontrollers/Architecture of Microprocessors Lecture Notes

QS1 QS0 Queue Status

0 (low) 0 No Operation. During the last clock cycle, nothing was


taken from the queue.
0 1 First Byte. The byte taken from the queue was the first byte
of the instruction.
1 (high) 0 Queue Empty. The queue has been reinitialized as a result
of the execution of a transfer instruction.
Subsequent Byte. The byte taken from the queue was a
1 1 subsequent byte of the instruction.

Queue status codes


•Local Bus Control Signal – Request / Grant Signals: In a maximum mode
configuration, the minimum mode HOLD, HLDA interface is also changed. These two
are replaced by request/grant lines RQ/ GT0 and RQ/ GT1, respectively. They provide a
prioritized bus access mechanism for accessing the local bus.
Internal Registers of 8086
•The 8086 has four groups of the user accessible internal registers. They are the
instruction pointer, four data registers, four pointer and index register, four segment
registers.
•The 8086 has a total of fourteen 16-bit registers including a 16 bit register called the
status register, with 9 of bits implemented for status and control flags.
•Most of the registers contain data/instruction offsets within 64 KB memory segment.
There are four different 64 KB segments for instructions, stack, data and extra data. To
specify where in 1 MB of processor memory these 4 segments are located the processor
uses four segment registers:
•Code segment (CS) is a 16-bit register containing address of 64 KB segment with
processor instructions. The processor uses CS segment for all accesses to instructions
referenced by instruction pointer (IP) register. CS register cannot be changed directly.
The CS register is automatically updated during far jump, far call and far return
instructions.
•Stack segment (SS) is a 16-bit register containing address of 64KB segment with
program stack. By default, the processor assumes that all data referenced by the stack
pointer (SP) and base pointer (BP) registers is located in the stack segment. SS register
can be changed directly using POP instruction.
•Data segment (DS) is a 16-bit register containing address of 64KB segment with
program data. By default, the processor assumes that all data referenced by general
registers (AX, BX, CX, DX) and index register (SI, DI) is located in the data segment.
DS register can be changed directly using POP and LDS instructions.
•Accumulator register consists of two 8-bit registers AL and AH, which can be
combined together and used as a 16-bit register AX. AL in this case contains the low-
order byte of the word, and AH contains the high-order byte. Accumulator can be used
for I/O operations and string manipulation.

M. Krishna Kumar/IISc. Bangalore M1/V1/June 04/39


Microprocessors and Microcontrollers/Architecture of Microprocessors Lecture Notes

•Base register consists of two 8-bit registers BL and BH, which can be combined together
and used as a 16-bit register BX. BL in this case contains the low-order byte of the word,
and BH contains the high-order byte. BX register usually contains a data pointer used for
based, based indexed or register indirect addressing.
•Count register consists of two 8-bit registers CL and CH, which can be combined
together and used as a 16-bit register CX. When combined, CL register contains the low-
order byte of the word, and CH contains the high-order byte. Count register can be used
in Loop, shift/rotate instructions and as a counter in string manipulation,.
•Data register consists of two 8-bit registers DL and DH, which can be combined
together and used as a 16-bit register DX. When combined, DL register contains the low-
order byte of the word, and DH contains the high-order byte. Data register can be used as
a port number in I/O operations. In integer 32-bit multiply and divide instruction the DX
register contains high-order word of the initial or resulting number.
•The following registers are both general and index registers:
•Stack Pointer (SP) is a 16-bit register pointing to program stack.
•Base Pointer (BP) is a 16-bit register pointing to data in stack segment. BP register is
usually used for based, based indexed or register indirect addressing.
•Source Index (SI) is a 16-bit register. SI is used for indexed, based indexed and register
indirect addressing, as well as a source data address in string manipulation instructions.
•Destination Index (DI) is a 16-bit register. DI is used for indexed, based indexed and
register indirect addressing, as well as a destination data address in string manipulation
instructions.
Other registers:
•Instruction Pointer (IP) is a 16-bit register.
•Flags is a 16-bit register containing 9 one bit flags.
•Overflow Flag (OF) - set if the result is too large positive number, or is too small
negative number to fit into destination operand.
•Direction Flag (DF) - if set then string manipulation instructions will auto-decrement
index registers. If cleared then the index registers will be auto-incremented.
•Interrupt-enable Flag (IF) - setting this bit enables maskable interrupts.
•Single-step Flag (TF) - if set then single-step interrupt will occur after the next
instruction.
•Sign Flag (SF) - set if the most significant bit of the result is set.
•Zero Flag (ZF) - set if the result is zero.
•Auxiliary carry Flag (AF) - set if there was a carry from or borrow to bits 0-3 in the AL
register.
•Parity Flag (PF) - set if parity (the number of "1" bits) in the low-order byte of the
result is even.
•Carry Flag (CF) - set if there was a carry from or borrow to the most significant bit
during last result calculation.
Addressing Modes
•Implied - the data value/data address is implicitly associated with the instruction.
•Register - references the data in a register or in a register pair.
•Immediate - the data is provided in the instruction.
•Direct - the instruction operand specifies the memory address where data is located.

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Microprocessors and Microcontrollers/Architecture of Microprocessors Lecture Notes

•Register indirect - instruction specifies a register containing an address, where data is


located. This addressing mode works with SI, DI, BX and BP registers.
•Based:- 8-bit or 16-bit instruction operand is added to the contents of a base register
(BX or BP), the resulting value is a pointer to location where data resides.
•Indexed:- 8-bit or 16-bit instruction operand is added to the contents of an index register
(SI or DI), the resulting value is a pointer to location where data resides
•Based Indexed:- the contents of a base register (BX or BP) is added to the contents of
an index register (SI or DI), the resulting value is a pointer to location where data resides.
•Based Indexed with displacement:- 8-bit or 16-bit instruction operand is added to the
contents of a base register (BX or BP) and index register (SI or DI), the resulting value is
a pointer to location where data resides.
Memory •Program, data and stack memories occupy the same memory space. As the
most of the processor instructions use 16-bit pointers the processor can effectively
address only 64 KB of memory.
•To access memory outside of 64 KB the CPU uses special segment registers to specify
where the code, stack and data 64 KB segments are positioned within 1 MB of memory
(see the "Registers" section below).
•16-bit pointers and data are stored as:
address: low-order byte
address+1: high-order byte
•Program memory - program can be located anywhere in memory. Jump and call
instructions can be used for short jumps within currently selected 64 KB code segment,
as well as for far jumps anywhere within 1 MB of memory.
•All conditional jump instructions can be used to jump within approximately +127 to -
127 bytes from current instruction.
•Data memory - the processor can access data in any one out of 4 available segments,
which limits the size of accessible memory to 256 KB (if all four segments point to
different 64 KB blocks).
•Accessing data from the Data, Code, Stack or Extra segments can be usually done by
prefixing instructions with the DS:, CS:, SS: or ES: (some registers and instructions by
default may use the ES or SS segments instead of DS segment).
•Word data can be located at odd or even byte boundaries. The processor uses two
memory accesses to read 16-bit word located at odd byte boundaries. Reading word data
from even byte boundaries requires only one memory access.
•Stack memory can be placed anywhere in memory. The stack can be located at odd
memory addresses, but it is not recommended for performance reasons (see "Data
Memory" above).
Reserved locations:
•0000h - 03FFh are reserved for interrupt vectors. Each interrupt vector is a 32-bit pointer
in format segment: offset.
•FFFF0h - FFFFFh - after RESET the processor always starts program execution at the
FFFF0h address.
Interrupts
The processor has the following interrupts:

M. Krishna Kumar/IISc. Bangalore M1/V1/June 04/41


Microprocessors and Microcontrollers/Architecture of Microprocessors Lecture Notes

•INTR is a maskable hardware interrupt. The interrupt can be enabled/disabled using


STI/CLI instructions or using more complicated method of updating the FLAGS register
with the help of the POPF instruction.
•When an interrupt occurs, the processor stores FLAGS register into stack, disables
further interrupts, fetches from the bus one byte representing interrupt type, and jumps to
interrupt processing routine address of which is stored in location 4 * <interrupt type>.
Interrupt processing routine should return with the IRET instruction.
•NMI is a non-maskable interrupt. Interrupt is processed in the same way as the INTR
interrupt. Interrupt type of the NMI is 2, i.e. the address of the NMI processing routine is
stored in location 0008h. This interrupt has higher priority then the maskable interrupt.
•Software interrupts can be caused by:
•INT instruction - breakpoint interrupt. This is a type 3 interrupt.
•INT <interrupt number> instruction - any one interrupt from available 256 interrupts.
•INTO instruction - interrupt on overflow
•Single-step interrupt - generated if the TF flag is set. This is a type 1 interrupt. When the
CPU processes this interrupt it clears TF flag before calling the interrupt processing
routine.
•Processor exceptions: Divide Error (Type 0), Unused Opcode (type 6) and Escape
opcode (type 7).
•Software interrupt processing is the same as for the hardware interrupts.

M. Krishna Kumar/IISc. Bangalore M1/V1/June 04/42


Section 1
8051 Microcontroller Instruction Set

For interrupt response time information, refer to the hardware description chapter.

Instructions that Affect Flag Settings(1)


Instruction Flag Instruction Flag
C OV AC C OV AC
ADD X X X CLR C O
ADDC X X X CPL C X
SUBB X X X ANL C,bit X
MUL O X ANL C,/bit X
DIV O X ORL C,bit X
DA X ORL C,/bit X
RRC X MOV C,bit X
RLC X CJNE X
SETB C 1
Note: 1. Operations on SFR byte address 208 or bit addresses 209-215 (that is, the PSW or bits in the PSW) also affect flag settings.

The Instruction Set and Addressing Modes


Rn Register R7-R0 of the currently selected Register Bank.
direct 8-bit internal data location’s address. This could be an Internal Data RAM location (0-127) or a SFR [i.e., I/O
port, control register, status register, etc. (128-255)].
@R i 8-bit internal data RAM location (0-255) addressed indirectly through register R1or R0.
#data 8-bit constant included in instruction.
#data 16 16-bit constant included in instruction.
addr 16 16-bit destination address. Used by LCALL and LJMP. A branch can be anywhere within the 64K byte Program
Memory address space.
addr 11 11-bit destination address. Used by ACALL and AJMP. The branch will be within the same 2K byte page of
program memory as the first byte of the following instruction.
rel Signed (two’s complement) 8-bit offset byte. Used by SJMP and all conditional jumps. Range is -128 to +127
bytes relative to first byte of the following instruction.
bit Direct Addressed bit in Internal Data RAM or Special Function Register.

Atmel 8051 Microcontrollers Hardware 1


0509C–8051–07/06
Table 1-1. Instruction Set Summary
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

0 NOP JBC JB JNB JC JNC JZ JNZ


bit,rel bit, rel bit, rel rel rel rel rel
[3B, 2C] [3B, 2C] [3B, 2C] [2B, 2C] [2B, 2C] [2B, 2C] [2B, 2C]

1 AJMP ACALL AJMP ACALL AJMP ACALL AJMP ACALL


(P0) (P0) (P1) (P1) (P2) (P2) (P3) (P3)
[2B, 2C] [2B, 2C] [2B, 2C] [2B, 2C] [2B, 2C] [2B, 2C] [2B, 2C] [2B, 2C]

2 LJMP LCALL RET RETI ORL ANL XRL ORL


addr16 addr16 [2C] [2C] dir, A dir, A dir, a C, bit
[3B, 2C] [3B, 2C] [2B] [2B] [2B] [2B, 2C]

3 RR RRC RL RLC ORL ANL XRL JMP


A A A A dir, #data dir, #data dir, #data @A + DPTR
[3B, 2C] [3B, 2C] [3B, 2C] [2C]

4 INC DEC ADD ADDC ORL ANL XRL MOV


A A A, #data A, #data A, #data A, #data A, #data A, #data
[2B] [2B] [2B] [2B] [2B] [2B]

5 INC DEC ADD ADDC ORL ANL XRL MOV


dir dir A, dir A, dir A, dir A, dir A, dir dir, #data
[2B] [2B] [2B] [2B] [2B] [2B] [2B] [3B, 2C]

6 INC DEC ADD ADDC ORL ANL XRL MOV


@R0 @R0 A, @R0 A, @R0 A, @R0 A, @R0 A, @R0 @R0, @data
[2B]

7 INC DEC ADD ADDC ORL ANL XRL MOV


@R1 @R1 A, @R1 A, @R1 A, @R1 A, @R1 A, @R1 @R1, #data
[2B]

8 INC DEC ADD ADDC ORL ANL XRL MOV


R0 R0 A, R0 A, R0 A, R0 A, R0 A, R0 R0, #data
[2B]

9 INC DEC ADD ADDC ORL ANL XRL MOV


R1 R1 A, R1 A, R1 A, R1 A, R1 A, R1 R1, #data
[2B]

A INC DEC ADD ADDC ORL ANL XRL MOV


R2 R2 A, R2 A, R2 A, R2 A, R2 A, R2 R2, #data
[2B]

B INC DEC ADD ADDC ORL ANL XRL MOV


R3 R3 A, R3 A, R3 A, R3 A, R3 A, R3 R3, #data
[2B]

C INC DEC ADD ADDC ORL ANL XRL MOV


R4 R4 A, R4 A, R4 A, R4 A, R4 A, R4 R4, #data
[2B]

D INC DEC ADD ADDC ORL ANL XRL MOV


R5 R5 A, R5 A, R5 A, R5 A, R5 A, R5 R5, #data
[2B]

E INC DEC ADD ADDC ORL ANL XRL MOV


R6 R6 A, R6 A, R6 A, R6 A, R6 A, R6 R6, #data
[2B]

F INC DEC ADD ADDC ORL ANL XRL MOV


R7 R7 A, R7 A, R7 A, R7 A, R7 A, R7 R7, #data
[2B]
Note: Key: [2B] = 2 Byte, [3B] = 3 Byte, [2C] = 2 Cycle, [4C] = 4 Cycle, Blank = 1 byte/1 cycle

2
0509C–8051–07/06
Table 1-2. Instruction Set Summary (Continued)
8 9 A B C D E F

0 SJMP MOV ORL ANL PUSH POP MOVX A, MOVX


REL DPTR,# C, /bit C, /bit dir dir @DPTR @DPTR, A
[2B, 2C] data 16 [2B, 2C] [2B, 2C] [2B, 2C] [2B, 2C] [2C] [2C]
[3B, 2C]
1 AJMP ACALL AJMP ACALL AJMP ACALL AJMP ACALL
(P4) (P4) (P5) (P5) (P6) (P6) (P7) (P7)
[2B, 2C] [2B, 2C] [2B, 2C] [2B, 2C] [2B, 2C] [2B, 2C] [2B, 2C] [2B, 2C]
2 ANL MOV MOV CPL CLR SETB MOVX MOVX
C, bit bit, C C, bit bit bit bit A, @R0 wR0, A
[2B, 2C] [2B, 2C] [2B] [2B] [2B] [2B] [2C] [2C]

3 MOVC A, MOVC A, INC CPL CLR SETB MOVX MOVX


@A + PC @A + DPTR DPTR C C C A, @RI @RI, A
[2C] [2C] [2C] [2C] [2C]

4 DIV SUBB MUL CJNE A, SWAP DA CLR CPL


AB A, #data AB #data, rel A A A A
[2B, 4C] [2B] [4C] [3B, 2C]
5 MOV SUBB CJNE XCH DJNZ MOV MOV
dir, dir A, dir A, dir, rel A, dir dir, rel A, dir dir, A
[3B, 2C] [2B] [3B, 2C] [2B] [3B, 2C] [2B] [2B]
6 MOV SUBB MOV CJNE XCH XCHD MOV MOV
dir, @R0 A, @R0 @R0, dir @R0, #data, rel A, @R0 A, @R0 A, @R0 @R0, A
[2B, 2C] [2B, 2C] [3B, 2C]
7 MOV SUBB MOV CJNE XCH XCHD MOV MOV
dir, @R1 A, @R1 @R1, dir @R1, #data, rel A, @R1 A, @R1 A, @R1 @R1, A
[2B, 2C] [2B, 2C] [3B, 2C]
8 MOV SUBB MOV CJNE XCH DJNZ MOV MOV
dir, R0 A, R0 R0, dir R0, #data, rel A, R0 R0, rel A, R0 R0, A
[2B, 2C] [2B, 2C] [3B, 2C] [2B, 2C]
9 MOV SUBB MOV CJNE XCH DJNZ MOV MOV
dir, R1 A, R1 R1, dir R1, #data, rel A, R1 R1, rel A, R1 R1, A
[2B, 2C] [2B, 2C] [3B, 2C] [2B, 2C]
A MOV SUBB MOV CJNE XCH DJNZ MOV MOV
dir, R2 A, R2 R2, dir R2, #data, rel A, R2 R2, rel A, R2 R2, A
[2B, 2C] [2B, 2C] [3B, 2C] [2B, 2C]
B MOV SUBB MOV CJNE XCH DJNZ MOV MOV
dir, R3 A, R3 R3, dir R3, #data, rel A, R3 R3, rel A, R3 R3, A
[2B, 2C] [2B, 2C] [3B, 2C] [2B, 2C]
C MOV SUBB MOV CJNE XCH DJNZ MOV MOV
dir, R4 A, R4 R4, dir R4, #data, rel A, R4 R4, rel A, R4 R4, A
[2B, 2C] [2B, 2C] [3B, 2C] [2B, 2C]
D MOV SUBB MOV CJNE XCH DJNZ MOV MOV
dir, R5 A, R5 R5, dir R5, #data, rel A, R5 R5, rel A, R5 R5, A
[2B, 2C] [2B, 2C] [3B, 2C] [2B, 2C]
E MOV SUBB MOV CJNE XCH DJNZ MOV MOV
dir, R6 A, R6 R6, dir R6, #data, rel A, R6 R6, rel A, R6 R6. A
[2B, 2C] [2B, 2C] [3B, 2C] [2B, 2C]
F MOV SUBB MOV CJNE XCH DJNZ MOV MOV
dir, R7 A, R7 R7, dir R7, #data, rel A, R7 R7, rel A, R7 R7, A
[2B, 2C] [2B, 2C] [3B, 2C] [2B, 2C]
Note: Key: [2B] = 2 Byte, [3B] = 3 Byte, [2C] = 2 Cycle, [4C] = 4 Cycle, Blank = 1 byte/1 cycle

3
0509C–8051–07/06
8051 Microcontroller Instruction Set

Table 1-3. AT89 Instruction Set Summary(1)


Mnemonic Description Byte Oscillator Mnemonic Description Byte Oscillator
Period Period

ARITHMETIC OPERATIONS LOGICAL OPERATIONS

ADD A,Rn Add register to 1 12 ANL A,Rn AND Register to 1 12


Accumulator Accumulator

ADD A,direct Add direct byte to 2 12 ANL A,direct AND direct byte to 2 12
Accumulator Accumulator

ADD A,@Ri Add indirect RAM to 1 12 ANL A,@Ri AND indirect RAM to 1 12
Accumulator Accumulator

ADD A,#data Add immediate data to 2 12 ANL A,#data AND immediate data to 2 12
Accumulator Accumulator

ADDC A,Rn Add register to 1 12 ANL direct,A AND Accumulator to 2 12


Accumulator with Carry direct byte

ADDC A,direct Add direct byte to 2 12 ANL direct,#data AND immediate data to 3 24
Accumulator with Carry direct byte

ADDC A,@Ri Add indirect RAM to 1 12 ORL A,Rn OR register to 1 12


Accumulator with Carry Accumulator

ADDC A,#data Add immediate data to 2 12 ORL A,direct OR direct byte to 2 12


Acc with Carry Accumulator
SUBB A,Rn Subtract Register from 1 12 ORL A,@Ri OR indirect RAM to 1 12
Acc with borrow Accumulator

SUBB A,direct Subtract direct byte from 2 12 ORL A,#data OR immediate data to 2 12
Acc with borrow Accumulator

SUBB A,@Ri Subtract indirect RAM 1 12 ORL direct,A OR Accumulator to 2 12


from ACC with borrow direct byte

SUBB A,#data Subtract immediate data 2 12 ORL direct,#data OR immediate data to 3 24


from Acc with borrow direct byte

INC A Increment Accumulator 1 12 XRL A,Rn Exclusive-OR register to 1 12


Accumulator
INC Rn Increment register 1 12
XRL A,direct Exclusive-OR direct byte 2 12
INC direct Increment direct byte 2 12
to Accumulator
INC @Ri Increment direct RAM 1 12 XRL A,@Ri Exclusive-OR indirect 1 12
DEC A Decrement Accumulator 1 12 RAM to Accumulator

DEC Rn Decrement Register 1 12 XRL A,#data Exclusive-OR immediate 2 12


data to Accumulator
DEC direct Decrement direct byte 2 12
XRL direct,A Exclusive-OR 2 12
DEC @Ri Decrement indirect RAM 1 12 Accumulator to direct
byte
INC DPTR Increment Data Pointer 1 24
XRL direct,#data Exclusive-OR immediate 3 24
MUL AB Multiply A & B 1 48
data to direct byte
DIV AB Divide A by B 1 48
CLR A Clear Accumulator 1 12
DA A Decimal Adjust 1 12
CPL A Complement 1 12
Accumulator
Accumulator

Note: 1. All mnemonics copyrighted © Intel Corp., 1980. RL A Rotate Accumulator Left 1 12

RLC A Rotate Accumulator Left 1 12


through the Carry

LOGICAL OPERATIONS (continued)

Atmel 8051 Microcontrollers Hardware Manual 1-4


0509C–8051–07/06
8051 Microcontroller Instruction Set

Mnemonic Description Byte Oscillator Mnemonic Description Byte Oscillator


Period Period

RR A Rotate Accumulator 1 12 MOVX @Ri,A Move Acc to External 1 24


Right RAM (8-bit addr)

RRC A Rotate Accumulator 1 12 MOVX @DPTR,A Move Acc to External 1 24


Right through the Carry RAM (16-bit addr)

SWAP A Swap nibbles within the 1 12 PUSH direct Push direct byte onto 2 24
Accumulator stack

DATA TRANSFER POP direct Pop direct byte from 2 24


stack
MOV A,Rn Move register to 1 12
Accumulator XCH A,Rn Exchange register with 1 12
Accumulator
MOV A,direct Move direct byte to 2 12
Accumulator XCH A,direct Exchange direct byte 2 12
with Accumulator
MOV A,@Ri Move indirect RAM to 1 12
Accumulator XCH A,@Ri Exchange indirect RAM 1 12
with Accumulator
MOV A,#data Move immediate data to 2 12
Accumulator XCHD A,@Ri Exchange low-order 1 12
Digit indirect RAM with
MOV Rn,A Move Accumulator to 1 12
Acc
register
BOOLEAN VARIABLE MANIPULATION
MOV Rn,direct Move direct byte to 2 24
register CLR C Clear Carry 1 12

MOV Rn,#data Move immediate data to 2 12 CLR bit Clear direct bit 2 12
register
SETB C Set Carry 1 12
MOV direct,A Move Accumulator to 2 12
SETB bit Set direct bit 2 12
direct byte
CPL C Complement Carry 1 12
MOV direct,Rn Move register to direct 2 24
byte CPL bit Complement direct bit 2 12
MOV direct,direct Move direct byte to direct 3 24 ANL C,bit AND direct bit to CARRY 2 24
MOV direct,@Ri Move indirect RAM to 2 24 ANL C,/bit AND complement of 2 24
direct byte direct bit to Carry
MOV direct,#data Move immediate data to 3 24 ORL C,bit OR direct bit to Carry 2 24
direct byte
ORL C,/bit OR complement of direct 2 24
MOV @Ri,A Move Accumulator to 1 12 bit to Carry
indirect RAM
MOV C,bit Move direct bit to Carry 2 12
MOV @Ri,direct Move direct byte to 2 24
indirect RAM MOV bit,C Move Carry to direct bit 2 24

MOV @Ri,#data Move immediate data to 2 12 JC rel Jump if Carry is set 2 24


indirect RAM JNC rel Jump if Carry not set 2 24
MOV DPTR,#data16 Load Data Pointer with a 3 24
JB bit,rel Jump if direct Bit is set 3 24
16-bit constant
JNB bit,rel Jump if direct Bit is Not 3 24
MOVC A,@A+DPTR Move Code byte relative 1 24 set
to DPTR to Acc
JBC bit,rel Jump if direct Bit is set & 3 24
MOVC A,@A+PC Move Code byte relative 1 24
clear bit
to PC to Acc
PROGRAM BRANCHING
MOVX A,@Ri Move External RAM (8- 1 24
bit addr) to Acc ACAL addr11 Absolute Subroutine Call 2 24
L
DATA TRANSFER (continued)
LCALL addr16 Long Subroutine Call 3 24
MOVX A,@DPTR Move Exernal RAM (16- 1 24
bit addr) to Acc RET Return from Subroutine 1 24

1-5 Atmel 8051 Microcontrollers Hardware Manual


0509C–8051–07/06
8051 Microcontroller Instruction Set

Mnemonic Description Byte Oscillator


Period

RETI Return from 1 24


interrupt

AJMP addr11 Absolute Jump 2 24

LJMP addr16 Long Jump 3 24

SJMP rel Short Jump (relative 2 24


addr)
JMP @A+DPTR Jump indirect relative to 1 24
the DPTR

JZ rel Jump if Accumulator is 2 24


Zero

JNZ rel Jump if Accumulator is 2 24


Not Zero

CJNE A,direct,rel Compare direct byte to 3 24


Acc and Jump if Not
Equal

CJNE A,#data,rel Compare immediate to 3 24


Acc and Jump if Not
Equal
CJNE Rn,#data,rel Compare immediate to 3 24
register and Jump if Not
Equal

CJNE @Ri,#data,rel Compare immediate to 3 24


indirect and Jump if Not
Equal

DJNZ Rn,rel Decrement register and 2 24


Jump if Not Zero

DJNZ direct,rel Decrement direct byte 3 24


and Jump if Not Zero

NOP No Operation 1 12

Atmel 8051 Microcontrollers Hardware Manual 1-6


0509C–8051–07/06
8051 Microcontroller Instruction Set

Table 1-4. Instruction Opcodes in Hexadecimal Order


Hex Number Mnemonic Operands Hex Number Mnemonic Operands
Code of Bytes Code of Bytes
00 1 NOP 26 1 ADD A,@R0
01 2 AJMP code addr 27 1 ADD A,@R1
02 3 LJMP code addr 28 1 ADD A,R0
03 1 RR A 29 1 ADD A,R1
04 1 INC A 2A 1 ADD A,R2
05 2 INC data addr 2B 1 ADD A,R3
06 1 INC @R0 2C 1 ADD A,R4
07 1 INC @R1 2D 1 ADD A,R5
08 1 INC R0 2E 1 ADD A,R6
09 1 INC R1 2F 1 ADD A,R7
0A 1 INC R2 30 3 JNB bit addr,code addr
0B 1 INC R3 31 2 ACALL code addr
0C 1 INC R4 32 1 RETI
0D 1 INC R5 33 1 RLC A
0E 1 INC R6 34 2 ADDC A,#data
0F 1 INC R7 35 2 ADDC A,data addr
10 3 JBC bit addr,code addr 36 1 ADDC A,@R0
11 2 ACALL code addr 37 1 ADDC A,@R1
12 3 LCALL code addr 38 1 ADDC A,R0
13 1 RRC A 39 1 ADDC A,R1
14 1 DEC A 3A 1 ADDC A,R2
15 2 DEC data addr 3B 1 ADDC A,R3
16 1 DEC @R0 3C 1 ADDC A,R4
17 1 DEC @R1 3D 1 ADDC A,R5
18 1 DEC R0 3E 1 ADDC A,R6
19 1 DEC R1 3F 1 ADDC A,R7
1A 1 DEC R2 40 2 JC code addr
1B 1 DEC R3 41 2 AJMP code addr
1C 1 DEC R4 42 2 ORL data addr,A
1D 1 DEC R5 43 3 ORL data addr,#data
1E 1 DEC R6 44 2 ORL A,#data
1F 1 DEC R7 45 2 ORL A,data addr
20 3 JB bit addr,code addr 46 1 ORL A,@R0
21 2 AJMP code addr 47 1 ORL A,@R1
22 1 RET 48 1 ORL A,R0
23 1 RL A 49 1 ORL A,R1
24 2 ADD A,#data 4A 1 ORL A,R2
25 2 ADD A,data addr

1-7 Atmel 8051 Microcontrollers Hardware Manual


0509C–8051–07/06
8051 Microcontroller Instruction Set

Hex Number Mnemonic Operands Hex Number Mnemonic Operands


Code of Bytes Code of Bytes

4B 1 ORL A,R3 71 2 ACALL code addr

4C 1 ORL A,R4 72 2 ORL C,bit addr

4D 1 ORL A,R5 73 1 JMP @A+DPTR

4E 1 ORL A,R6 74 2 MOV A,#data

4F 1 ORL A,R7 75 3 MOV data addr,#data

50 2 JNC code addr 76 2 MOV @R0,#data

51 2 ACALL code addr 77 2 MOV @R1,#data

52 2 ANL data addr,A 78 2 MOV R0,#data

53 3 ANL data addr,#data 79 2 MOV R1,#data

54 2 ANL A,#data 7A 2 MOV R2,#data

55 2 ANL A,data addr 7B 2 MOV R3,#data

56 1 ANL A,@R0 7C 2 MOV R4,#data

57 1 ANL A,@R1 7D 2 MOV R5,#data

58 1 ANL A,R0 7E 2 MOV R6,#data

59 1 ANL A,R1 7F 2 MOV R7,#data

5A 1 ANL A,R2 80 2 SJMP code addr

5B 1 ANL A,R3 81 2 AJMP code addr

5C 1 ANL A,R4 82 2 ANL C,bit addr

5D 1 ANL A,R5 83 1 MOVC A,@A+PC

5E 1 ANL A,R6 84 1 DIV AB

5F 1 ANL A,R7 85 3 MOV data addr,data addr

60 2 JZ code addr 86 2 MOV data addr,@R0

61 2 AJMP code addr 87 2 MOV data addr,@R1

62 2 XRL data addr,A 88 2 MOV data addr,R0

63 3 XRL data addr,#data 89 2 MOV data addr,R1

64 2 XRL A,#data 8A 2 MOV data addr,R2

65 2 XRL A,data addr 8B 2 MOV data addr,R3

66 1 XRL A,@R0 8C 2 MOV data addr,R4

67 1 XRL A,@R1 8D 2 MOV data addr,R5

68 1 XRL A,R0 8E 2 MOV data addr,R6


69 1 XRL A,R1 8F 2 MOV data addr,R7

6A 1 XRL A,R2 90 3 MOV DPTR,#data

6B 1 XRL A,R3 91 2 ACALL code addr


6C 1 XRL A,R4 92 2 MOV bit addr,C

6D 1 XRL A,R5 93 1 MOVC A,@A+DPTR

6E 1 XRL A,R6 94 2 SUBB A,#data

6F 1 XRL A,R7 95 2 SUBB A,data addr

70 2 JNZ code addr 96 1 SUBB A,@R0

Atmel 8051 Microcontrollers Hardware Manual 1-8


0509C–8051–07/06
8051 Microcontroller Instruction Set

Hex Number Mnemonic Operands Hex Number Mnemonic Operands


Code of Bytes Code of Bytes

97 1 SUBB A,@R1 BD 3 CJNE R5,#data,code addr

98 1 SUBB A,R0 BE 3 CJNE R6,#data,code addr

99 1 SUBB A,R1 BF 3 CJNE R7,#data,code addr

9A 1 SUBB A,R2 C0 2 PUSH data addr

9B 1 SUBB A,R3 C1 2 AJMP code addr

9C 1 SUBB A,R4 C2 2 CLR bit addr

9D 1 SUBB A,R5 C3 1 CLR C

9E 1 SUBB A,R6 C4 1 SWAP A

9F 1 SUBB A,R7 C5 2 XCH A,data addr

A0 2 ORL C,/bit addr C6 1 XCH A,@R0

A1 2 AJMP code addr C7 1 XCH A,@R1

A2 2 MOV C,bit addr C8 1 XCH A,R0

A3 1 INC DPTR C9 1 XCH A,R1

A4 1 MUL AB CA 1 XCH A,R2

A5 reserved CB 1 XCH A,R3

A6 2 MOV @R0,data addr CC 1 XCH A,R4

A7 2 MOV @R1,data addr CD 1 XCH A,R5

A8 2 MOV R0,data addr CE 1 XCH A,R6

A9 2 MOV R1,data addr CF 1 XCH A,R7

AA 2 MOV R2,data addr D0 2 POP data addr

AB 2 MOV R3,data addr D1 2 ACALL code addr

AC 2 MOV R4,data addr D2 2 SETB bit addr

AD 2 MOV R5,data addr D3 1 SETB C

AE 2 MOV R6,data addr D4 1 DA A

AF 2 MOV R7,data addr D5 3 DJNZ data addr,code addr

B0 2 ANL C,/bit addr D6 1 XCHD A,@R0

B1 2 ACALL code addr D7 1 XCHD A,@R1

B2 2 CPL bit addr D8 2 DJNZ R0,code addr

B3 1 CPL C D9 2 DJNZ R1,code addr

B4 3 CJNE A,#data,code addr DA 2 DJNZ R2,code addr


B5 3 CJNE A,data addr,code addr DB 2 DJNZ R3,code addr

B6 3 CJNE @R0,#data,code addr DC 2 DJNZ R4,code addr

B7 3 CJNE @R1,#data,code addr DD 2 DJNZ R5,code addr


B8 3 CJNE R0,#data,code addr DE 2 DJNZ R6,code addr

B9 3 CJNE R1,#data,code addr DF 2 DJNZ R7,code addr

BA 3 CJNE R2,#data,code addr E0 1 MOVX A,@DPTR

BB 3 CJNE R3,#data,code addr E1 2 AJMP code addr

BC 3 CJNE R4,#data,code addr E2 1 MOVX A,@R0

1-9 Atmel 8051 Microcontrollers Hardware Manual


0509C–8051–07/06
8051 Microcontroller Instruction Set

Hex Number Mnemonic Operands


Code of Bytes

E3 1 MOVX A,@R1

E4 1 CLR A

E5 2 MOV A,data addr

E6 1 MOV A,@R0

E7 1 MOV A,@R1

E8 1 MOV A,R0

E9 1 MOV A,R1

EA 1 MOV A,R2

EB 1 MOV A,R3

EC 1 MOV A,R4

ED 1 MOV A,R5

EE 1 MOV A,R6

EF 1 MOV A,R7

F0 1 MOVX @DPTR,A

F1 2 ACALL code addr

F2 1 MOVX @R0,A

F3 1 MOVX @R1,A

F4 1 CPL A

F5 2 MOV data addr,A

F6 1 MOV @R0,A

F7 1 MOV @R1,A

F8 1 MOV R0,A

F9 1 MOV R1,A

FA 1 MOV R2,A

FB 1 MOV R3,A

FC 1 MOV R4,A

FD 1 MOV R5,A

FE 1 MOV R6,A

FF 1 MOV R7,A

Atmel 8051 Microcontrollers Hardware Manual 1-10


0509C–8051–07/06
1.1 Instruction Definitions

ACALL addr11
Function: Absolute Call
Description: ACALL unconditionally calls a subroutine located at the indicated address. The instruction increments the PC
twice to obtain the address of the following instruction, then pushes the 16-bit result onto the stack (low-order
byte first) and increments the Stack Pointer twice. The destination address is obtained by successively
concatenating the five high-order bits of the incremented PC, opcode bits 7 through 5, and the second byte of
the instruction. The subroutine called must therefore start within the same 2 K block of the program memory as
the first byte of the instruction following ACALL. No flags are affected.
Example: Initially SP equals 07H. The label SUBRTN is at program memory location 0345 H. After executing the following
instruction,
ACALL SUBRTN
at location 0123H, SP contains 09H, internal RAM locations 08H and 09H will contain 25H and 01H, respectively,
and the PC contains 0345H.
Bytes: 2
Cycles: 2
Encoding: a10 a9 a8 1 0 0 0 1 a7 a6 a5 a4 a3 a2 a1 a0
Operation: ACALL
(PC) ← (PC) + 2
(SP) ← (SP) + 1
((SP)) ← (PC7-0)
(SP) ← (SP) + 1
((SP)) ← (PC15-8)
(PC10-0) ← page address

11
0509C–8051–07/06
ADD A,<src-byte>
Function: Add
Description: ADD adds the byte variable indicated to the Accumulator, leaving the result in the Accumulator. The carry and
auxiliary-carry flags are set, respectively, if there is a carry-out from bit 7 or bit 3, and cleared otherwise. When
adding unsigned integers, the carry flag indicates an overflow occurred.
OV is set if there is a carry-out of bit 6 but not out of bit 7, or a carry-out of bit 7 but not bit 6; otherwise, OV is
cleared. When adding signed integers, OV indicates a negative number produced as the sum of two positive
operands, or a positive sum from two negative operands.
Four source operand addressing modes are allowed: register, direct, register-indirect, or immediate.
Example: The Accumulator holds 0C3H (1100001lB), and register 0 holds 0AAH (10101010B). The following instruction,
ADD A,R0
leaves 6DH (01101101B) in the Accumulator with the AC flag cleared and both the carry flag and OV set to 1.
ADD A,Rn
Bytes: 1
Cycles: 1
Encoding: 0 0 1 0 1 r r r
Operation: ADD
(A) ← (A) + (R n)
ADD A,direct
Bytes: 2
Cycles: 1
Encoding: 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 direct address
Operation: ADD
(A) ← (A) + (direct)

ADD A,@Ri
Bytes: 1
Cycles: 1
Encoding: 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 i
Operation: ADD
(A) ← (A) + ((Ri))

ADD A,#data
Bytes: 2
Cycles: 1
Encoding: 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 immediate data
Operation: ADD
(A) ← (A) + #data

12
0509C–8051–07/06
ADDC A, <src-byte>
Function: Add with Carry
Description: ADDC simultaneously adds the byte variable indicated, the carry flag and the Accumulator contents, leaving the
result in the Accumulator. The carry and auxiliary-carry flags are set respectively, if there is a carry-out from bit 7
or bit 3, and cleared otherwise. When adding unsigned integers, the carry flag indicates an overflow occurred.
OV is set if there is a carry-out of bit 6 but not out of bit 7, or a carry-out of bit 7 but not out of bit 6; otherwise OV
is cleared. When adding signed integers, OV indicates a negative number produced as the sum of two positive
operands or a positive sum from two negative operands.
Four source operand addressing modes are allowed: register, direct, register-indirect, or immediate.
Example: The Accumulator holds 0C3H (11000011B) and register 0 holds 0AAH (10101010B) with the carry flag set. The
following instruction,
ADDC A,R0
leaves 6EH (01101110B) in the Accumulator with AC cleared and both the Carry flag and OV set to 1.

ADDC A,R n
Bytes: 1
Cycles: 1
Encoding: 0 0 1 1 1 r r r
Operation: ADDC
(A) ← (A) + (C) + (Rn)
ADDC A,direct
Bytes: 2
Cycles: 1
Encoding: 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 direct address
Operation: ADDC
(A) ← (A) + (C) + (direct)
ADDC A,@R i
Bytes: 1
Cycles: 1
Encoding: 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 i
Operation: ADDC
(A) ← (A) + (C) + ((R i))

ADDC A,#data
Bytes: 2
Cycles: 1
Encoding: 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 immediate data
Operation: ADDC
(A) ← (A) + (C) + #data

13
0509C–8051–07/06
AJMP addr11
Function: Absolute Jump
Description: AJMP transfers program execution to the indicated address, which is formed at run-time by concatenating the
high-order five bits of the PC (after incrementing the PC twice), opcode bits 7 through 5, and the second byte of
the instruction. The destination must therfore be within the same 2 K block of program memory as the first byte
of the instruction following AJMP.
Example: The label JMPADR is at program memory location 0123H. The following instruction,
AJMP JMPADR
is at location 0345H and loads the PC with 0123H.
Bytes: 2
Cycles: 2
Encoding: a10 a9 a8 0 0 0 0 1 a7 a6 a5 a4 a3 a2 a1 a0
Operation: AJMP
(PC) ← (PC) + 2
(PC10-0) ← page address

ANL <dest-byte>,<src-byte>
Function: Logical-AND for byte variables
Description: ANL performs the bitwise logical-AND operation between the variables indicated and stores the results in the
destination variable. No flags are affected.
The two operands allow six addressing mode combinations. When the destination is the Accumulator, the source
can use register, direct, register-indirect, or immediate addressing; when the destination is a direct address, the
source can be the Accumulator or immediate data.
Note: When this instruction is used to modify an output port, the value used as the original port data will be read
from the output data latch, not the input pins.
Example: If the Accumulator holds 0C3H (1100001lB), and register 0 holds 55H (01010101B), then the following
instruction,
ANL A,R0
leaves 41H (01000001B) in the Accumulator.
When the destination is a directly addressed byte, this instruction clears combinations of bits in any RAM
location or hardware register. The mask byte determining the pattern of bits to be cleared would either be a
constant contained in the instruction or a value computed in the Accumulator at run-time. The following
instruction,
ANL P1,#01110011B
clears bits 7, 3, and 2 of output port 1.
ANL A,R n
Bytes: 1
Cycles: 1
Encoding: 0 1 0 1 1 r r r
Operation: ANL
(A) ← (A) ∧ (Rn)

14
0509C–8051–07/06
ANL A,direct
Bytes: 2
Cycles: 1
Encoding: 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 direct address
Operation: ANL
(A) ← (A) ∧ (direct)
ANL A,@R i
Bytes: 1
Cycles: 1
Encoding: 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 i
Operation: ANL
(A) ← (A) ∧ ((Ri))
ANL A,#data
Bytes: 2
Cycles: 1
Encoding: 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 immediate data
Operation: ANL
(A) ← (A) ∧ #data
ANL direct,A
Bytes: 2
Cycles: 1
Encoding: 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 direct address
Operation: ANL
(direct) ← (direct) ∧ (A)
ANL direct,#data
Bytes: 3
Cycles: 2
Encoding: 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 direct address immediate data
Operation: ANL
(direct) ← (direct) ∧ #data

15
0509C–8051–07/06
ANL C,<src-bit>
Function: Logical-AND for bit variables
Description: If the Boolean value of the source bit is a logical 0, then ANL C clears the carry flag; otherwise, this instruction
leaves the carry flag in its current state. A slash ( / ) preceding the operand in the assembly language indicates
that the logical complement of the addressed bit is used as the source value, but the source bit itself is not
affected. No other flags are affected.
Only direct addressing is allowed for the source operand.
Example: Set the carry flag if, and only if, P1.0 = 1, ACC.7 = 1, and OV = 0:
MOV C,P1.0 ;LOAD CARRY WITH INPUT PIN STATE
ANL C,ACC.7 ;AND CARRY WITH ACCUM. BIT 7
ANL C,/OV ;AND WITH INVERSE OF OVERFLOW FLAG
ANL C,bit
Bytes: 2
Cycles: 2
Encoding: 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 bit address
Operation: ANL
(C) ← (C) ∧ (bit)
ANL C,/bit
Bytes: 2
Cycles: 2
Encoding: 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 bit address
Operation: ANL
(C) ← (C) ∧ (bit)

16
0509C–8051–07/06
CJNE <dest-byte>,<src-byte>, rel
Function: Compare and Jump if Not Equal.
Description: CJNE compares the magnitudes of the first two operands and branches if their values are not equal. The branch
destination is computed by adding the signed relative-displacement in the last instruction byte to the PC, after
incrementing the PC to the start of the next instruction. The carry flag is set if the unsigned integer value of
<dest-byte> is less than the unsigned integer value of <src-byte>; otherwise, the carry is cleared. Neither
operand is affected.
The first two operands allow four addressing mode combinations: the Accumulator may be compared with any
directly addressed byte or immediate data, and any indirect RAM location or working register can be compared
with an immediate constant.
Example: The Accumulator contains 34H. Register 7 contains 56H. The first instruction in the sequence,
CJNE R7, # 60H, NOT_EQ
; ... ..... ;R7 = 60H.
NOT_EQ: JC REQ_LOW ;IF R7 < 60H.
; ... ..... ;R7 > 60H.
sets the carry flag and branches to the instruction at label NOT_EQ. By testing the carry flag, this instruction
determines whether R7 is greater or less than 60H.
If the data being presented to Port 1 is also 34H, then the following instruction,
WAIT: CJNE A, P1,WAIT
clears the carry flag and continues with the next instruction in sequence, since the Accumulator does equal the
data read from P1. (If some other value was being input on P1, the program loops at this point until the P1 data
changes to 34H.)

CJNE A,direct,rel
Bytes: 3
Cycles: 2
Encoding: 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 direct address rel. address
Operation: (PC) ← (PC) + 3
IF (A) < > (direct)
THEN
(PC) ← (PC) + relative offset
IF (A) < (direct)
THEN
(C) ← 1
ELSE
(C) ← 0

17
0509C–8051–07/06
CJNE A,#data,rel
Bytes: 3
Cycles: 2
Encoding: 1 0 1 1 0 1 0 0 immediate data rel. address
Operation: (PC) ← (PC) + 3
IF (A) < > data
THEN
(PC) ← (PC) + relative offset
IF (A) < data
THEN
(C) ← 1
ELSE
(C) ← 0

CJNE R n,#data,rel
Bytes: 3
Cycles: 2
Encoding: 1 0 1 1 1 r r r immediate data rel. address
Operation: (PC) ← (PC) + 3
IF (Rn) < > data
THEN
(PC) ← (PC) + relative offset
IF (Rn) < data
THEN
(C) ← 1
ELSE
(C) ← 0
CJNE @R i,data,rel
Bytes: 3
Cycles: 2
Encoding: 1 0 1 1 0 1 1 i immediate data rel. address
Operation: (PC) ← (PC) + 3
IF ((Ri)) < > data
THEN
(PC) ← (PC) + relative offset
IF ((Ri)) < data
THEN
(C) ← 1
ELSE
(C) ← 0

18
0509C–8051–07/06
CLR A
Function: Clear Accumulator
Description: CLR A clears the Accumulator (all bits set to 0). No flags are affected
Example: The Accumulator contains 5CH (01011100B). The following instruction,CLR Aleaves the Accumulator set to 00H
(00000000B).
Bytes: 1
Cycles: 1
Encoding: 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 0
Operation: CLR
(A) ← 0

CLR bit
Function: Clear bit
Description: CLR bit clears the indicated bit (reset to 0). No other flags are affected. CLR can operate on the carry flag or any
directly addressable bit.
Example: Port 1 has previously been written with 5DH (01011101B). The following instruction,CLR P1.2 leaves the port set
to 59H (01011001B).

CLR C
Bytes: 1
Cycles: 1
Encoding: 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 1
Operation: CLR
(C) ← 0
CLR bit
Bytes: 2
Cycles: 1
Encoding: 1 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 bit address
Operation: CLR
(bit) ← 0

19
0509C–8051–07/06
CPL A
Function: Complement Accumulator
Description: CPLA logically complements each bit of the Accumulator (one’s complement). Bits which previously contained a
1 are changed to a 0 and vice-versa. No flags are affected.
Example: The Accumulator contains 5CH (01011100B). The following instruction,
CPL A
leaves the Accumulator set to 0A3H (10100011B).
Bytes: 1
Cycles: 1
Encoding: 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0
Operation: CPL
(A) ← (A)

CPL bit
Function: Complement bit
Description: CPL bit complements the bit variable specified. A bit that had been a 1 is changed to 0 and vice-versa. No other
flags are affected. CLR can operate on the carry or any directly addressable bit.
Note: When this instruction is used to modify an output pin, the value used as the original data is read from the
output data latch, not the input pin.
Example: Port 1 has previously been written with 5BH (01011101B). The following instruction sequence,CPL P1.1CPL
P1.2 leaves the port set to 5BH (01011011B).
CPL C
Bytes: 1
Cycles: 1
Encoding: 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1
Operation: CPL
(C) ← (C)

CPL bit
Bytes: 2
Cycles: 1
Encoding: 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 bit address
Operation: CPL
(bit) ← (bit)

20
0509C–8051–07/06
DA A
Function: Decimal-adjust Accumulator for Addition
Description: DA A adjusts the eight-bit value in the Accumulator resulting from the earlier addition of two variables (each in
packed-BCD format), producing two four-bit digits. Any ADD or ADDC instruction may have been used to
perform the addition.
If Accumulator bits 3 through 0 are greater than nine (xxxx1010-xxxx1111), or if the AC flag is one, six is added to
the Accumulator producing the proper BCD digit in the low-order nibble. This internal addition sets the carry flag
if a carry-out of the low-order four-bit field propagates through all high-order bits, but it does not clear the carry
flag otherwise.
If the carry flag is now set, or if the four high-order bits now exceed nine (1010xxxx-1111xxxx), these high-order
bits are incremented by six, producing the proper BCD digit in the high-order nibble. Again, this sets the carry
flag if there is a carry-out of the high-order bits, but does not clear the carry. The carry flag thus indicates if the
sum of the original two BCD variables is greater than 100, allowing multiple precision decimal addition. OV is not
affected.
All of this occurs during the one instruction cycle. Essentially, this instruction performs the decimal conversion by
adding 00H, 06H, 60H, or 66H to the Accumulator, depending on initial Accumulator and PSW conditions.
Note: DA A cannot simply convert a hexadecimal number in the Accumulator to BCD notation, nor does DAA
apply to decimal subtraction.
Example: The Accumulator holds the value 56H (01010110B), representing the packed BCD digits of the decimal number
56. Register 3 contains the value 67H (01100111B), representing the packed BCD digits of the decimal number
67. The carry flag is set. The following instruction sequence
ADDC A,R3
DA A
first performs a standard two’s-complement binary addition, resulting in the value 0BEH (10111110) in the
Accumulator. The carry and auxiliary carry flags are cleared.
The Decimal Adjust instruction then alters the Accumulator to the value 24H (00100100B), indicating the packed
BCD digits of the decimal number 24, the low-order two digits of the decimal sum of 56, 67, and the carry-in. The
carry flag is set by the Decimal Adjust instruction, indicating that a decimal overflow occurred. The true sum of
56, 67, and 1 is 124.
BCD variables can be incremented or decremented by adding 01H or 99H. If the Accumulator initially holds 30H
(representing the digits of 30 decimal), then the following instruction sequence,
ADD A, # 99H
DA A
leaves the carry set and 29H in the Accumulator, since 30 + 99 = 129. The low-order byte of the sum can be
interpreted to mean 30 - 1 = 29.
Bytes: 1
Cycles: 1
Encoding: 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 0
Operation: DA
-contents of Accumulator are BCD
IF [[(A3-0 ) > 9] ∨
[(AC) = 1]]
THEN (A3-0) ← (A3-0) + 6
AND
IF [[(A7-4 ) > 9] ∨
[(C) = 1]]
THEN (A7-4) ← (A7-4) + 6

21
0509C–8051–07/06
DEC byte
Function: Decrement
Description: DEC byte decrements the variable indicated by 1. An original value of 00H underflows to 0FFH. No flags are
affected. Four operand addressing modes are allowed: accumulator, register, direct, or register-indirect.
Note: When this instruction is used to modify an output port, the value used as the original port data will be read
from the output data latch, not the input pins.
Example: Register 0 contains 7FH (01111111B). Internal RAM locations 7EH and 7FH contain 00H and 40H, respectively.
The following instruction sequence,
DEC @R0
DEC R0
DEC @R0
leaves register 0 set to 7EH and internal RAM locations 7EH and 7FH set to 0FFH and 3FH.
DEC A
Bytes: 1
Cycles: 1
Encoding: 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0
Operation: DEC
(A) ← (A) - 1
DEC Rn
Bytes: 1
Cycles: 1
Encoding: 0 0 0 1 1 r r r
Operation: DEC
(Rn) ← (Rn) - 1

DEC direct
Bytes: 2
Cycles: 1
Encoding: 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 direct address
Operation: DEC
(direct) ← (direct) - 1

DEC @R i
Bytes: 1
Cycles: 1
Encoding: 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 i
Operation: DEC
((Ri)) ← ((Ri)) - 1

22
0509C–8051–07/06
DIV AB
Function: Divide
Description: DIV AB divides the unsigned eight-bit integer in the Accumulator by the unsigned eight-bit integer in register B.
The Accumulator receives the integer part of the quotient; register B receives the integer remainder. The carry
and OV flags are cleared.
Exception: if B had originally contained 00H, the values returned in the Accumulator and B-register are
undefined and the overflow flag are set. The carry flag is cleared in any case.
Example: The Accumulator contains 251 (0FBH or 11111011B) and B contains 18 (12H or 00010010B). The following
instruction,
DIV AB
leaves 13 in the Accumulator (0DH or 00001101B) and the value 17 (11H or 00010001B) in B, since
251 = (13 x 18) + 17. Carry and OV are both cleared.
Bytes: 1
Cycles: 4
Encoding: 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
Operation: DIV
(A)15-8 ← (A)/(B)
(B)7-0

23
0509C–8051–07/06
DJNZ <byte>,<rel-addr>
Function: Decrement and Jump if Not Zero
Description: DJNZ decrements the location indicated by 1, and branches to the address indicated by the second operand if
the resulting value is not zero. An original value of 00H underflows to 0FFH. No flags are affected. The branch
destination is computed by adding the signed relative-displacement value in the last instruction byte to the PC,
after incrementing the PC to the first byte of the following instruction.
The location decremented may be a register or directly addressed byte.
Note: When this instruction is used to modify an output port, the value used as the original port data will be read
from the output data latch, not the input pins.
Example: Internal RAM locations 40H, 50H, and 60H contain the values 01H, 70H, and 15H, respectively. The following
instruction sequence,
DJNZ 40H,LABEL_1
DJNZ 50H,LABEL_2
DJNZ 60H,LABEL_3
causes a jump to the instruction at label LABEL_2 with the values 00H, 6FH, and 15H in the three RAM
locations. The first jump was not taken because the result was zero.
This instruction provides a simple way to execute a program loop a given number of times or for adding a
moderate time delay (from 2 to 512 machine cycles) with a single instruction. The following instruction sequence,
MOV R2, # 8
TOGGLE: CPL P1.7
DJNZ R2,TOGGLE
toggles P1.7 eight times, causing four output pulses to appear at bit 7 of output Port 1. Each pulse lasts three
machine cycles; two for DJNZ and one to alter the pin.
DJNZ R n,rel
Bytes: 2
Cycles: 2
Encoding: 1 1 0 1 1 r r r rel. address
Operation: DJNZ
(PC) ← (PC) + 2
(Rn) ← (Rn) - 1
IF (Rn) > 0 or (Rn) < 0
THEN
(PC) ← (PC) + rel

DJNZ direct,rel
Bytes: 3
Cycles: 2
Encoding: 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 direct address rel. address
Operation: DJNZ
(PC) ← (PC) + 2
(direct) ← (direct) - 1
IF (direct) > 0 or (direct) < 0
THEN
(PC) ← (PC) + rel

24
0509C–8051–07/06
INC <byte>
Function: Increment
Description: INC increments the indicated variable by 1. An original value of 0FFH overflows to 00H. No flags are affected.
Three addressing modes are allowed: register, direct, or register-indirect.
Note: When this instruction is used to modify an output port, the value used as the original port data will be read
from the output data latch, not the input pins.
Example: Register 0 contains 7EH (011111110B). Internal RAM locations 7EH and 7FH contain 0FFH and 40H,
respectively. The following instruction sequence,
INC @R0
INC R0
INC @R0
leaves register 0 set to 7FH and internal RAM locations 7EH and 7FH holding 00H and 41H, respectively.
INC A
Bytes: 1
Cycles: 1
Encoding: 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
Operation: INC
(A) ← (A) + 1
INC Rn
Bytes: 1
Cycles: 1
Encoding: 0 0 0 0 1 r r r
Operation: INC
(Rn) ← (Rn) + 1

INC direct
Bytes: 2
Cycles: 1
Encoding: 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 direct address
Operation: INC
(direct) ← (direct) + 1

INC @R i
Bytes: 1
Cycles: 1
Encoding: 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 i
Operation: INC
((Ri)) ← ((Ri)) + 1

25
0509C–8051–07/06
INC DPTR
Function: Increment Data Pointer
Description: INC DPTR increments the 16-bit data pointer by 1. A 16-bit increment (modulo 216) is performed, and an
overflow of the low-order byte of the data pointer (DPL) from 0FFH to 00H increments the high-order byte (DPH).
No flags are affected.
This is the only 16-bit register which can be incremented.
Example: Registers DPH and DPL contain 12H and 0FEH, respectively. The following instruction sequence,
INC DPTR
INC DPTR
INC DPTR
changes DPH and DPL to 13H and 01H.
Bytes: 1
Cycles: 2
Encoding: 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1
Operation: INC
(DPTR) ← (DPTR) + 1

JB blt,rel
Function: Jump if Bit set
Description: If the indicated bit is a one, JB jump to the address indicated; otherwise, it proceeds with the next instruction.
The branch destination is computed by adding the signed relative-displacement in the third instruction byte to the
PC, after incrementing the PC to the first byte of the next instruction. The bit tested is not modified. No flags are
affected.
Example: The data present at input port 1 is 11001010B. The Accumulator holds 56 (01010110B). The following instruction
sequence,
JB P1.2,LABEL1
JB ACC. 2,LABEL2
causes program execution to branch to the instruction at label LABEL2.
Bytes: 3
Cycles: 2
Encoding: 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 bit address rel. address
Operation: JB
(PC) ← (PC) + 3
IF (bit) = 1
THEN
(PC) ← (PC) + rel

26
0509C–8051–07/06
JBC bit,rel
Function: Jump if Bit is set and Clear bit
Description: If the indicated bit is one, JBC branches to the address indicated; otherwise, it proceeds with the next instruction.
The bit will not be cleared if it is already a zero. The branch destination is computed by adding the signed
relative-displacement in the third instruction byte to the PC, after incrementing the PC to the first byte of the next
instruction. No flags are affected.
Note: When this instruction is used to test an output pin, the value used as the original data will be read from the
output data latch, not the input pin.
Example: The Accumulator holds 56H (01010110B). The following instruction sequence,
JBC ACC.3,LABEL1
JBC ACC.2,LABEL2
causes program execution to continue at the instruction identified by the label LABEL2, with the Accumulator
modified to 52H (01010010B).
Bytes: 3
Cycles: 2
Encoding: 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 bit address rel. address
Operation: JBC
(PC) ← (PC) + 3
IF (bit) = 1
THEN
(bit) ← 0
(PC) ← (PC) +rel

JC rel
Function: Jump if Carry is set
Description: If the carry flag is set, JC branches to the address indicated; otherwise, it proceeds with the next instruction. The
branch destination is computed by adding the signed relative-displacement in the second instruction byte to the
PC, after incrementing the PC twice. No flags are affected.
Example: The carry flag is cleared. The following instruction sequence,
JC LABEL1
CPL C
JC LABEL 2
sets the carry and causes program execution to continue at the instruction identified by the label LABEL2.
Bytes: 2
Cycles: 2
Encoding: 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 rel. address
Operation: JC
(PC) ← (PC) + 2
IF (C) = 1
THEN
(PC) ← (PC) + rel

27
0509C–8051–07/06
JMP @A+DPTR
Function: Jump indirect
Description: JMP @A+DPTR adds the eight-bit unsigned contents of the Accumulator with the 16-bit data pointer and loads
the resulting sum to the program counter. This is the address for subsequent instruction fetches. Sixteen-bit
addition is performed (modulo 216): a carry-out from the low-order eight bits propagates through the higher-order
bits. Neither the Accumulator nor the Data Pointer is altered. No flags are affected.
Example: An even number from 0 to 6 is in the Accumulator. The following sequence of instructions branches to one of
four AJMP instructions in a jump table starting at JMP_TBL.
MOV DPTR, # JMP_TBL
JMP @A + DPTR
JMP_TBL: AJMP LABEL0
AJMP LABEL1
AJMP LABEL2
AJMP LABEL3
If the Accumulator equals 04H when starting this sequence, execution jumps to label LABEL2. Because AJMP is
a 2-byte instruction, the jump instructions start at every other address.
Bytes: 1
Cycles: 2
Encoding: 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 1
Operation: JMP
(PC) ← (A) + (DPTR)

28
0509C–8051–07/06
JNB bit,rel
Function: Jump if Bit Not set
Description: If the indicated bit is a 0, JNB branches to the indicated address; otherwise, it proceeds with the next instruction.
The branch destination is computed by adding the signed relative-displacement in the third instruction byte to the
PC, after incrementing the PC to the first byte of the next instruction. The bit tested is not modified. No flags are
affected.
Example: The data present at input port 1 is 11001010B. The Accumulator holds 56H (01010110B). The following
instruction sequence,
JNB P1.3,LABEL1
JNB ACC.3,LABEL2
causes program execution to continue at the instruction at label LABEL2.
Bytes: 3
Cycles: 2
Encoding: 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 bit address rel. address
Operation: JNB
(PC) ← (PC) + 3
IF (bit) = 0
THEN (PC) ← (PC) + rel

JNC rel
Function: Jump if Carry not set
Description: If the carry flag is a 0, JNC branches to the address indicated; otherwise, it proceeds with the next instruction.
The branch destination is computed by adding the signal relative-displacement in the second instruction byte to
the PC, after incrementing the PC twice to point to the next instruction. The carry flag is not modified.
Example: The carry flag is set. The following instruction sequence,
JNC LABEL1
CPL C
JNC LABEL2
clears the carry and causes program execution to continue at the instruction identified by the label LABEL2.
Bytes: 2
Cycles: 2
Encoding: 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 rel. address
Operation: JNC
(PC) ← (PC) + 2
IF (C) = 0
THEN (PC) ← (PC) + rel

29
0509C–8051–07/06
JNZ rel
Function: Jump if Accumulator Not Zero
Description: If any bit of the Accumulator is a one, JNZ branches to the indicated address; otherwise, it proceeds with the
next instruction. The branch destination is computed by adding the signed relative-displacement in the second
instruction byte to the PC, after incrementing the PC twice. The Accumulator is not modified. No flags are
affected.
Example: The Accumulator originally holds 00H. The following instruction sequence,
JNZ LABEL1
INC A
JNZ LABEL2
sets the Accumulator to 01H and continues at label LABEL2.
Bytes: 2
Cycles: 2
Encoding: 0 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 rel. address
Operation: JNZ
(PC) ← (PC) + 2
IF (A) ≠ 0
THEN (PC) ← (PC) + rel

JZ rel
Function: Jump if Accumulator Zero
Description: If all bits of the Accumulator are 0, JZ branches to the address indicated; otherwise, it proceeds with the next
instruction. The branch destination is computed by adding the signed relative-displacement in the second
instruction byte to the PC, after incrementing the PC twice. The Accumulator is not modified. No flags are
affected.
Example: The Accumulator originally contains 01H. The following instruction sequence,
JZ LABEL1
DEC A
JZ LABEL2
changes the Accumulator to 00H and causes program execution to continue at the instruction identified by the
label LABEL2.
Bytes: 2
Cycles: 2
Encoding: 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 rel. address
Operation: JZ
(PC) ← (PC) + 2
IF (A) = 0
THEN (PC) ← (PC) + rel

30
0509C–8051–07/06
LCALL addr16
Function: Long call
Description: LCALL calls a subroutine located at the indicated address. The instruction adds three to the program counter to
generate the address of the next instruction and then pushes the 16-bit result onto the stack (low byte first),
incrementing the Stack Pointer by two. The high-order and low-order bytes of the PC are then loaded,
respectively, with the second and third bytes of the LCALL instruction. Program execution continues with the
instruction at this address. The subroutine may therefore begin anywhere in the full 64K byte program memory
address space. No flags are affected.
Example: Initially the Stack Pointer equals 07H. The label SUBRTN is assigned to program memory location 1234H. After
executing the instruction,
LCALL SUBRTN
at location 0123H, the Stack Pointer will contain 09H, internal RAM locations 08H and 09H will contain 26H and
01H, and the PC will contain 1234H.
Bytes: 3
Cycles: 2
Encoding: 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 addr15-addr8 addr7-addr0
Operation: LCALL
(PC) ← (PC) + 3
(SP) ← (SP) + 1
((SP)) ← (PC7-0)
(SP) ← (SP) + 1
((SP)) ← (PC15-8)
(PC) ← addr 15-0

LJMP addr16
Function: Long Jump
Description: LJMP causes an unconditional branch to the indicated address, by loading the high-order and low-order bytes of
the PC (respectively) with the second and third instruction bytes. The destination may therefore be anywhere in
the full 64K program memory address space. No flags are affected.
Example: The label JMPADR is assigned to the instruction at program memory location 1234H. The instruction,
LJMP JMPADR
at location 0123H will load the program counter with 1234H.
Bytes: 3
Cycles: 2
Encoding: 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 addr15-addr8 addr7-addr0
Operation: LJMP
(PC) ← addr 15-0

31
0509C–8051–07/06
MOV <dest-byte>,<src-byte>
Function: Move byte variable
Description: The byte variable indicated by the second operand is copied into the location specified by the first operand. The
source byte is not affected. No other register or flag is affected.
This is by far the most flexible operation. Fifteen combinations of source and destination addressing modes are
allowed.
Example: Internal RAM location 30H holds 40H. The value of RAM location 40H is 10H. The data present at input port 1 is
11001010B (0CAH).
MOV R0,#30H ;R0 < = 30H
MOV A,@R0 ;A < = 40H
MOV R1,A ;R1 < = 40H
MOV B,@R1 ;B < = 10H
MOV @R1,P1 ;RAM (40H) < = 0CAH
MOV P2,P1 ;P2 #0CAH
leaves the value 30H in register 0, 40H in both the Accumulator and register 1, 10H in register B, and 0CAH
(11001010B) both in RAM location 40H and output on port 2.

MOV A,R n
Bytes: 1
Cycles: 1
Encoding: 1 1 1 0 1 r r r
Operation: MOV
(A) ← (R n)

*MOV A,direct
Bytes: 2
Cycles: 1
Encoding: 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 1 direct address
Operation: MOV
(A) ← (direct)

* MOV A,ACC is not a valid Instruction.


MOV A,@R i
Bytes: 1
Cycles: 1
Encoding: 1 1 1 0 0 1 1 i
Operation: MOV
(A) ← ((R i))

32
0509C–8051–07/06
MOV A,#data
Bytes: 2
Cycles: 1
Encoding: 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 immediate data
Operation: MOV
(A) ← #data
MOV R n,A
Bytes: 1
Cycles: 1
Encoding: 1 1 1 1 1 r r r
Operation: MOV
(Rn) ← (A)
MOV R n,direct
Bytes: 2
Cycles: 2
Encoding: 1 0 1 0 1 r r r direct addr.
Operation: MOV
(Rn) ← (direct)

MOV R n,#data
Bytes: 2
Cycles: 1
Encoding: 0 1 1 1 1 r r r immediate data
Operation: MOV
(Rn) ← #data

MOV direct,A
Bytes: 2
Cycles: 1
Encoding: 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 direct address
Operation: MOV
(direct) ← (A)

MOV direct,R n
Bytes: 2
Cycles: 2
Encoding: 1 0 0 0 1 r r r direct address
Operation: MOV
(direct) ← (Rn)

33
0509C–8051–07/06
MOV direct,direct
Bytes: 3
Cycles: 2
Encoding: 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 dir. addr. (dest) dir. addr. (scr)
Operation: MOV
(direct) ← (direct)
MOV direct,@R i
Bytes: 2
Cycles: 2
Encoding: 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 i direct addr.
Operation: MOV
(direct) ← ((Ri))
MOV direct,#data
Bytes: 3
Cycles: 2
Encoding: 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 direct address immediate data
Operation: MOV
(direct) ← #data

MOV @R i,A
Bytes: 1
Cycles: 1
Encoding: 1 1 1 1 0 1 1 i
Operation: MOV
((Ri)) ← (A)

MOV @R i,direct
Bytes: 2
Cycles: 2
Encoding: 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 i direct addr.
Operation: MOV
((Ri)) ← (direct)

MOV @R i,#data
Bytes: 2
Cycles: 1
Encoding: 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 i immediate data
Operation: MOV
((Ri)) ← #data

34
0509C–8051–07/06
MOV <dest-bit>,<src-bit>
Function: Move bit data
Description: MOV <dest-bit>,<src-bit> copies the Boolean variable indicated by the second operand into the location
specified by the first operand. One of the operands must be the carry flag; the other may be any directly
addressable bit. No other register or flag is affected.
Example: The carry flag is originally set. The data present at input Port 3 is 11000101B. The data previously written to
output Port 1 is 35H (00110101B).
MOV P1.3,C
MOV C,P3.3
MOV P1.2,C
leaves the carry cleared and changes Port 1 to 39H (00111001B).
MOV C,bit
Bytes: 2
Cycles: 1
Encoding: 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 bit address
Operation: MOV
(C) ← (bit)

MOV bit,C
Bytes: 2
Cycles: 2
Encoding: 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 bit address
Operation: MOV
(bit) ← (C)

MOV DPTR,#data16
Function: Load Data Pointer with a 16-bit constant
Description: MOV DPTR,#data16 loads the Data Pointer with the 16-bit constant indicated. The 16-bit constant is loaded into
the second and third bytes of the instruction. The second byte (DPH) is the high-order byte, while the third byte
(DPL) holds the lower-order byte. No flags are affected.
This is the only instruction which moves 16 bits of data at once.
Example: The instruction,
MOV DPTR, # 1234H
loads the value 1234H into the Data Pointer: DPH holds 12H, and DPL holds 34H.
Bytes: 3
Cycles: 2
Encoding: 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 immed. data15-8 immed. data7-0
Operation: MOV
(DPTR) ← #data15-0
DPH ← DPL ← #data15-8 ← #data7-0

35
0509C–8051–07/06
MOVC A,@A+ <base-reg>
Function: Move Code byte
Description: The MOVC instructions load the Accumulator with a code byte or constant from program memory. The address
of the byte fetched is the sum of the original unsigned 8-bit Accumulator contents and the contents of a 16-bit
base register, which may be either the Data Pointer or the PC. In the latter case, the PC is incremented to the
address of the following instruction before being added with the Accumulator; otherwise the base register is not
altered. Sixteen-bit addition is performed so a carry-out from the low-order eight bits may propagate through
higher-order bits. No flags are affected.
Example: A value between 0 and 3 is in the Accumulator. The following instructions will translate the value in the
Accumulator to one of four values defined by the DB (define byte) directive.
REL_PC: INC A
MOVC A,@A+PC
RET
DB 66H
DB 77H
DB 88H
DB 99H
If the subroutine is called with the Accumulator equal to 01H, it returns with 77H in the Accumulator. The INC A
before the MOVC instruction is needed to “get around” the RET instruction above the table. If several bytes of
code separate the MOVC from the table, the corresponding number is added to the Accumulator instead.

MOVC A,@A+DPTR
Bytes: 1
Cycles: 2
Encoding: 1 0 0 1 0 0 1 1
Operation: MOVC
(A) ← ((A) + (DPTR))
MOVC A,@A+PC
Bytes: 1
Cycles: 2
Encoding: 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
Operation: MOVC
(PC) ← (PC) + 1
(A) ← ((A) + (PC))

36
0509C–8051–07/06
MOVX <dest-byte>,<src-byte>
Function: Move External
Description: The MOVX instructions transfer data between the Accumulator and a byte of external data memory, which is why
“X” is appended to MOV. There are two types of instructions, differing in whether they provide an 8-bit or 16-bit
indirect address to the external data RAM.
In the first type, the contents of R0 or R1 in the current register bank provide an 8-bit address multiplexed with
data on P0. Eight bits are sufficient for external I/O expansion decoding or for a relatively small RAM array. For
somewhat larger arrays, any output port pins can be used to output higher-order address bits. These pins are
controlled by an output instruction preceding the MOVX.
In the second type of MOVX instruction, the Data Pointer generates a 16-bit address. P2 outputs the high-order
eight address bits (the contents of DPH), while P0 multiplexes the low-order eight bits (DPL) with data. The P2
Special Function Register retains its previous contents, while the P2 output buffers emit the contents of DPH.
This form of MOVX is faster and more efficient when accessing very large data arrays (up to 64K bytes), since
no additional instructions are needed to set up the output ports.
It is possible to use both MOVX types in some situations. A large RAM array with its high-order address lines
driven by P2 can be addressed via the Data Pointer, or with code to output high-order address bits to P2,
followed by a MOVX instruction using R0 or R1.
Example: An external 256 byte RAM using multiplexed address/data lines is connected to the 8051 Port 0. Port 3 provides
control lines for the external RAM. Ports 1 and 2 are used for normal I/O. Registers 0 and 1 contain 12H and
34H. Location 34H of the external RAM holds the value 56H. The instruction sequence,
MOVX A,@R1
MOVX @R0,A
copies the value 56H into both the Accumulator and external RAM location 12H.
MOVX A,@Ri
Bytes: 1
Cycles: 2
Encoding: 1 1 1 0 0 0 1 i
Operation: MOVX
(A) ← ((R i))

MOVX A,@DPTR
Bytes: 1
Cycles: 2
Encoding: 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0
Operation: MOVX
(A) ← ((DPTR))

37
0509C–8051–07/06
MOVX @R i,A
Bytes: 1
Cycles: 2
Encoding: 1 1 1 1 0 0 1 i
Operation: MOVX
((Ri)) ← (A)
MOVX @DPTR,A
Bytes: 1
Cycles: 2
Encoding: 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0
Operation: MOVX
(DPTR) ← (A)

MUL AB
Function: Multiply
Description: MUL AB multiplies the unsigned 8-bit integers in the Accumulator and register B. The low-order byte of the 16-bit
product is left in the Accumulator, and the high-order byte in B. If the product is greater than 255 (0FFH), the
overflow flag is set; otherwise it is cleared. The carry flag is always cleared.
Example: Originally the Accumulator holds the value 80 (50H). Register B holds the value 160 (0A0H). The instruction,
MUL AB
will give the product 12,800 (3200H), so B is changed to 32H (00110010B) and the Accumulator is cleared. The
overflow flag is set, carry is cleared.
Bytes: 1
Cycles: 4
Encoding: 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 0
Operation: MUL
(A)7-0 ← (A) X (B)
(B)15-8

38
0509C–8051–07/06
NOP
Function: No Operation
Description: Execution continues at the following instruction. Other than the PC, no registers or flags are affected.
Example: A low-going output pulse on bit 7 of Port 2 must last exactly 5 cycles. A simple SETB/CLR sequence generates
a one-cycle pulse, so four additional cycles must be inserted. This may be done (assuming no interrupts are
enabled) with the following instruction sequence,
CLR P2.7
NOP
NOP
NOP
NOP
SETB P2.7
Bytes: 1
Cycles: 1
Encoding: 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Operation: NOP
(PC) ← (PC) + 1

ORL <dest-byte> <src-byte>


Function: Logical-OR for byte variables
Description: ORL performs the bitwise logical-OR operation between the indicated variables, storing the results in the
destination byte. No flags are affected.
The two operands allow six addressing mode combinations. When the destination is the Accumulator, the source
can use register, direct, register-indirect, or immediate addressing; when the destination is a direct address, the
source can be the Accumulator or immediate data.
Note: When this instruction is used to modify an output port, the value used as the original port data is read from
the output data latch, not the input pins.
Example: If the Accumulator holds 0C3H (11000011B) and R0 holds 55H (01010101B) then the following instruction,
ORL A,R0
leaves the Accumulator holding the value 0D7H (1101011lB).When the destination is a directly addressed byte,
the instruction can set combinations of bits in any RAM location or hardware register. The pattern of bits to be set
is determined by a mask byte, which may be either a constant data value in the instruction or a variable
computed in the Accumulator at run-time. The instruction,
ORL P1,#00110010B
sets bits 5, 4, and 1 of output Port 1.
ORL A,Rn
Bytes: 1
Cycles: 1
Encoding: 0 1 0 0 1 r r r
Operation: ORL
(A) ← (A) ∨ (Rn)

39
0509C–8051–07/06
ORL A,direct
Bytes: 2
Cycles: 1
Encoding: 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 direct address
Operation: ORL
(A) ← (A) ∨ (direct)
ORL A,@R i
Bytes: 1
Cycles: 1
Encoding: 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 i
Operation: ORL
(A) ← (A) ∨((Ri))
ORL A,#data
Bytes: 2
Cycles: 1
Encoding: 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 immediate data
Operation: ORL
(A) ← (A) ∨ #data
ORL direct,A
Bytes: 2
Cycles: 1
Encoding: 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 direct address
Operation: ORL
(direct) ← (direct) ∨ (A)
ORL direct,#data
Bytes: 3
Cycles: 2
Encoding: 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 1 direct addr. immediate data
Operation: ORL
(direct) ← (direct) ∨ #data

40
0509C–8051–07/06
ORL C,<src-bit>
Function: Logical-OR for bit variables
Description: Set the carry flag if the Boolean value is a logical 1; leave the carry in its current state otherwise. A slash ( / )
preceding the operand in the assembly language indicates that the logical complement of the addressed bit is
used as the source value, but the source bit itself is not affected. No other flags are affected.
Example: Set the carry flag if and only if P1.0 = 1, ACC. 7 = 1, or OV = 0:
MOV C,P1.0 ;LOAD CARRY WITH INPUT PIN P10
ORL C,ACC.7 ;OR CARRY WITH THE ACC. BIT 7
ORL C,/OV ;OR CARRY WITH THE INVERSE OF OV.

ORL C,bit
Bytes: 2
Cycles: 2
Encoding: 0 1 1 1 0 0 1 0 bit address
Operation: ORL
(C) ← (C) ∨ (bit)
ORL C,/bit
Bytes: 2
Cycles: 2
Encoding: 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 bit address
Operation: ORL
(C) ← (C) ∨ (bit)
POP direct
Function: Pop from stack.
Description: The contents of the internal RAM location addressed by the Stack Pointer is read, and the Stack Pointer is
decremented by one. The value read is then transferred to the directly addressed byte indicated. No flags are
affected.
Example: The Stack Pointer originally contains the value 32H, and internal RAM locations 30H through 32H contain the
values 20H, 23H, and 01H, respectively. The following instruction sequence,
POP DPH
POP DPL
leaves the Stack Pointer equal to the value 30H and sets the Data Pointer to 0123H. At this point, the following
instruction,
POP SP
leaves the Stack Pointer set to 20H. In this special case, the Stack Pointer was decremented to 2FH before
being loaded with the value popped (20H).
Bytes: 2
Cycles: 2
Encoding: 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 direct address
Operation: POP
(direct) ← ((SP))
(SP) ← (SP) - 1

41
0509C–8051–07/06
PUSH direct
Function: Push onto stack
Description: The Stack Pointer is incremented by one. The contents of the indicated variable is then copied into the internal
RAM location addressed by the Stack Pointer. Otherwise no flags are affected.
Example: On entering an interrupt routine, the Stack Pointer contains 09H. The Data Pointer holds the value 0123H. The
following instruction sequence,
PUSH DPL
PUSH DPH
leaves the Stack Pointer set to 0BH and stores 23H and 01H in internal RAM locations 0AH and 0BH,
respectively.
Bytes: 2
Cycles: 2
Encoding: 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 direct address
Operation: PUSH
(SP) ← (SP) + 1
((SP)) ← (direct)

RET
Function: Return from subroutine
Description: RET pops the high- and low-order bytes of the PC successively from the stack, decrementing the Stack Pointer
by two. Program execution continues at the resulting address, generally the instruction immediately following an
ACALL or LCALL. No flags are affected.
Example: The Stack Pointer originally contains the value 0BH. Internal RAM locations 0AH and 0BH contain the values
23H and 01H, respectively. The following instruction,
RET
leaves the Stack Pointer equal to the value 09H. Program execution continues at location 0123H.
Bytes: 1
Cycles: 2
Encoding: 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0
Operation: RET
(PC15-8) ← ((SP))
(SP) ← (SP) - 1
(PC7-0 ) ← ((SP))
(SP) ← (SP) - 1

42
0509C–8051–07/06
RETI
Function: Return from interrupt
Description: RETI pops the high- and low-order bytes of the PC successively from the stack and restores the interrupt logic to
accept additional interrupts at the same priority level as the one just processed. The Stack Pointer is left
decremented by two. No other registers are affected; the PSW is not automatically restored to its pre-interrupt
status. Program execution continues at the resulting address, which is generally the instruction immediately after
the point at which the interrupt request was detected. If a lower- or same-level interrupt was pending when the
RETI instruction is executed, that one instruction is executed before the pending interrupt is processed.
Example: The Stack Pointer originally contains the value 0BH. An interrupt was detected during the instruction ending at
location 0122H. Internal RAM locations 0AH and 0BH contain the values 23H and 01H, respectively. The
following instruction,
RETI
leaves the Stack Pointer equal to 09H and returns program execution to location 0123H.
Bytes: 1
Cycles: 2
Encoding: 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 0
Operation: RETI
(PC15-8) ← ((SP))
(SP) ← (SP) - 1
(PC7-0 ) ← ((SP))
(SP) ← (SP) - 1

RL A
Function: Rotate Accumulator Left
Description: The eight bits in the Accumulator are rotated one bit to the left. Bit 7 is rotated into the bit 0 position. No flags are
affected.
Example: The Accumulator holds the value 0C5H (11000101B). The following instruction,
RL A
leaves the Accumulator holding the value 8BH (10001011B) with the carry unaffected.
Bytes: 1
Cycles: 1
Encoding: 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 1
Operation: RL
(An + 1) ← (An) n = 0 - 6
(A0) ← (A7)

43
0509C–8051–07/06
RLC A
Function: Rotate Accumulator Left through the Carry flag
Description: The eight bits in the Accumulator and the carry flag are together rotated one bit to the left. Bit 7 moves into the
carry flag; the original state of the carry flag moves into the bit 0 position. No other flags are affected.
Example: The Accumulator holds the value 0C5H(11000101B), and the carry is zero. The following instruction,
RLC A
leaves the Accumulator holding the value 8BH (10001010B) with the carry set.
Bytes: 1
Cycles: 1
Encoding: 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1
Operation: RLC
(An + 1) ← (An) n = 0 - 6
(A0) ← (C)
(C) ← (A7)

RR A
Function: Rotate Accumulator Right
Description: The eight bits in the Accumulator are rotated one bit to the right. Bit 0 is rotated into the bit 7 position. No flags
are affected.
Example: The Accumulator holds the value 0C5H (11000101B). The following instruction,
RR A
leaves the Accumulator holding the value 0E2H (11100010B) with the carry unaffected.
Bytes: 1
Cycles: 1
Encoding: 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
Operation: RR
(An) ← (An + 1) n = 0 - 6
(A7) ← (A0)

RRC A
Function: Rotate Accumulator Right through Carry flag
Description: The eight bits in the Accumulator and the carry flag are together rotated one bit to the right. Bit 0 moves into the
carry flag; the original value of the carry flag moves into the bit 7 position. No other flags are affected.
Example: The Accumulator holds the value 0C5H (11000101B), the carry is zero. The following instruction,
RRC A
leaves the Accumulator holding the value 62 (01100010B) with the carry set.
Bytes: 1
Cycles: 1
Encoding: 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1
Operation: RRC
(An) ← (An + 1) n = 0 - 6
(A7) ← (C)
(C) ← (A0)

44
0509C–8051–07/06
SETB <bit>
Function: Set Bit
Description: SETB sets the indicated bit to one. SETB can operate on the carry flag or any directly addressable bit. No other
flags are affected.
Example: The carry flag is cleared. Output Port 1 has been written with the value 34H (00110100B). The following
instructions,
SETB C
SETB P1.0
sets the carry flag to 1 and changes the data output on Port 1 to 35H (00110101B).

SETB C
Bytes: 1
Cycles: 1
Encoding: 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1
Operation: SETB
(C) ← 1

SETB bit
Bytes: 2
Cycles: 1
Encoding: 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 bit address
Operation: SETB
(bit) ← 1

SJMP rel
Function: Short Jump
Description: Program control branches unconditionally to the address indicated. The branch destination is computed by
adding the signed displacement in the second instruction byte to the PC, after incrementing the PC twice.
Therefore, the range of destinations allowed is from 128 bytes preceding this instruction 127 bytes following it.
Example: The label RELADR is assigned to an instruction at program memory location 0123H. The following instruction,
SJMP RELADR
assembles into location 0100H. After the instruction is executed, the PC contains the value 0123H.
Note: Under the above conditions the instruction following SJMP is at 102H. Therefore, the displacement byte of
the instruction is the relative offset (0123H-0102H) = 21H. Put another way, an SJMP with a displacement of
0FEH is a one-instruction infinite loop.
Bytes: 2
Cycles: 2
Encoding: 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 rel. address
Operation: SJMP
(PC) ← (PC) + 2
(PC) ← (PC) + rel

45
0509C–8051–07/06
SUBB A,<src-byte>
Function: Subtract with borrow
Description: SUBB subtracts the indicated variable and the carry flag together from the Accumulator, leaving the result in the
Accumulator. SUBB sets the carry (borrow) flag if a borrow is needed for bit 7 and clears C otherwise. (If C was
set before executing a SUBB instruction, this indicates that a borrow was needed for the previous step in a
multiple-precision subtraction, so the carry is subtracted from the Accumulator along with the source operand.)
AC is set if a borrow is needed for bit 3 and cleared otherwise. OV is set if a borrow is needed into bit 6, but not
into bit 7, or into bit 7, but not bit 6.
When subtracting signed integers, OV indicates a negative number produced when a negative value is
subtracted from a positive value, or a positive result when a positive number is subtracted from a negative
number.
The source operand allows four addressing modes: register, direct, register-indirect, or immediate.
Example: The Accumulator holds 0C9H (11001001B), register 2 holds 54H (01010100B), and the carry flag is set. The
instruction,
SUBB A,R2
will leave the value 74H (01110100B) in the accumulator, with the carry flag and AC cleared but OV set.
Notice that 0C9H minus 54H is 75H. The difference between this and the above result is due to the carry
(borrow) flag being set before the operation. If the state of the carry is not known before starting a single or
multiple-precision subtraction, it should be explicitly cleared by CLR C instruction.

SUBB A,R n
Bytes: 1
Cycles: 1
Encoding: 1 0 0 1 1 r r r
Operation: SUBB
(A) ← (A) - (C) - (R n)
SUBB A,direct
Bytes: 2
Cycles: 1
Encoding: 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 1 direct address
Operation: SUBB
(A) ← (A) - (C) - (direct)
SUBB A,@R i
Bytes: 1
Cycles: 1
Encoding: 1 0 0 1 0 1 1 i
Operation: SUBB
(A) ← (A) - (C) - ((R i))

SUBB A,#data
Bytes: 2
Cycles: 1
Encoding: 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 immediate data
Operation: SUBB
(A) ← (A) - (C) - #data

46
0509C–8051–07/06
SWAP A
Function: Swap nibbles within the Accumulator
Description: SWAP A interchanges the low- and high-order nibbles (four-bit fields) of the Accumulator (bits 3 through 0 and
bits 7 through 4). The operation can also be thought of as a 4-bit rotate instruction. No flags are affected.
Example: The Accumulator holds the value 0C5H (11000101B). The instruction,
SWAP A
leaves the Accumulator holding the value 5CH (01011100B).
Bytes: 1
Cycles: 1
Encoding: 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 0
Operation: SWAP
(A3-0 ) D (A7-4 )

XCH A,<byte>
Function: Exchange Accumulator with byte variable
Description: XCH loads the Accumulator with the contents of the indicated variable, at the same time writing the original
Accumulator contents to the indicated variable. The source/destination operand can use register, direct, or
register-indirect addressing.
Example: R0 contains the address 20H. The Accumulator holds the value 3FH (0011111lB). Internal RAM location 20H
holds the value 75H (01110101B). The following instruction,
XCH A,@R0
leaves RAM location 20H holding the values 3FH (00111111B) and 75H (01110101B) in the accumulator.
XCH A,R n
Bytes: 1
Cycles: 1
Encoding: 1 1 0 0 1 r r r
Operation: XCH
(A) D ((R n)
XCH A,direct
Bytes: 2
Cycles: 1
Encoding: 1 1 0 0 0 1 0 1 direct address
Operation: XCH
(A) D (direct)

XCH A,@R i
Bytes: 1
Cycles: 1
Encoding: 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 i
Operation: XCH
(A) D ((R i))

47
0509C–8051–07/06
XCHD A,@Ri
Function: Exchange Digit
Description: XCHD exchanges the low-order nibble of the Accumulator (bits 3 through 0), generally representing a
hexadecimal or BCD digit, with that of the internal RAM location indirectly addressed by the specified register.
The high-order nibbles (bits 7-4) of each register are not affected. No flags are affected.
Example: R0 contains the address 20H. The Accumulator holds the value 36H (00110110B). Internal RAM location 20H
holds the value 75H (01110101B). The following instruction,
XCHD A,@R0
leaves RAM location 20H holding the value 76H (01110110B) and 35H (00110101B) in the Accumulator.
Bytes: 1
Cycles: 1
Encoding: 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 i
Operation: XCHD
(A3-0 ) D ((Ri3-0))

XRL <dest-byte>,<src-byte>
Function: Logical Exclusive-OR for byte variables
Description: XRL performs the bitwise logical Exclusive-OR operation between the indicated variables, storing the results in
the destination. No flags are affected.
The two operands allow six addressing mode combinations. When the destination is the Accumulator, the source
can use register, direct, register-indirect, or immediate addressing; when the destination is a direct address, the
source can be the Accumulator or immediate data.
Note: When this instruction is used to modify an output port, the value used as the original port data is read from
the output data latch, not the input pins.
Example: If the Accumulator holds 0C3H (1100001lB) and register 0 holds 0AAH (10101010B) then the instruction,
XRL A,R0
leaves the Accumulator holding the value 69H (01101001B).
When the destination is a directly addressed byte, this instruction can complement combinations of bits in any
RAM location or hardware register. The pattern of bits to be complemented is then determined by a mask byte,
either a constant contained in the instruction or a variable computed in the Accumulator at run-time. The
following instruction,
XRL P1,#00110001B
complements bits 5, 4, and 0 of output Port 1.
XRL A,R n
Bytes: 1
Cycles: 1
Encoding: 0 1 1 0 1 r r r
Operation: XRL
(A) ← (A) V (Rn)

48
0509C–8051–07/06
Document Revision History
Changes from 0509B - 08/05 to 0509C - 07/06

1. Correcto to MOV Direct, page 49.

49
0509C–8051–07/06
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0509C–8051–07/06
ADDRESSING MODES OF 8051
The 8051 instruction set supports 6 addressing modes:
(1) Direct addressing (4) Register specific (Register implied)
(2) Indirect addressing (5) Immediate mode
(3) Register Instructions (6) Indexed addressing.
1) Direct addressing: In this mode, the operands are (addressed) specified using the 8
bit address field in the instruction format. Only internal data RAM and SFRS can be
directly addressed.
Example: MOV R0, 89H  89 H is an address of special function Register TMOD.
2) Register Indirect addressing: In this mode the 8 bit address of a operand is stored
in a register. The register R0 and R1 of the selected bank of register or SP can be used
as address register for storing the 8 bit addresses.
Example: ADD A, @ R0.
3) Register Instructions: In this mode the operands are stored in the register R0 R7 of
the selected register Bank. One of these register is (R0 R7) is specified in the instruction
using the 3-bit register specification field of the opcode format.
Example: ADD A, R7.
4) Register Specific instruction: In this case the operand is implicitly stated as a part
of register. Some of the instruction always operate only on a specific register.
Example: RLA rotates accumulator left.
5) Immediate Mode: In this mode an immediate data i.e., a constant is specified in the
instruction after the opcode byte.
Example: MOV A, # 100.
6) Indexed addressing: Only program memory can be accessed using this addressing
mode. This mode is used in 8051 for look up table operation. PC and data pointers are
allowed 16 bit address register is this mode of addressing. These 16 bit register points
the base of the lookup table and accumulator register contains code to be converted
using the looking table. In other words it contains the relative address of the code in the
lookup table. The lookup table data address is found by adding the contents of
accumulator register with that of PC or data pointer. In the case of jump instruction the
contents of accumulator are added with one of the specified 16 bit register to form a
jump destination address.
Example: MOVC A, @A+DPTR
JMP @A+DPTR.
ARCHITECTURE OF 8051
The internal architecture of 8051 is given in figure below. The functional description
of each block is given below:
1. Accumulator (ACC): The accumulator register (ACC or A) acts as an operand
register, in case of some instruction. This may be either implicit or specified in the
instruction. The ACC register has been allotted an address in the on chip Special
(register) function register bank.
2. B Register: This register is used to store one of the operands for multiplier (or) divide
instruction. In other instruction it may be just used as a scratch pad. This register is
considered as a special function register.
3. Program Status Word (PSW): Thus set of flags contains the status information and
is considered as one of the special function register.
4. Stack Pointer: It’s a 8 bit register. It will be incremented before the data is stored on
to the stack using push or call instruction. This register contains 8 -bit stack top address.
The stack may be defined anywhere in the on chip 128-byte RAM. After reset the SP
is initialized to 07. After each write to stack operation, the 8 bit contents of the operand
are stored on to the stack; after incrementing the SP register by one. If SP contains
07H, the forthcoming PUSH operation will store the data at address 08 H in the internal
RAM. The 8051 stack is not a Top-Down Data Structure like other intel processors.
This register has also been allotted an address in the special function register bank.
5. Data Pointer (DPTR): This 16 bit register contains a higher byte (DPH) and the
lower byte (DPL) of the 16 bit external data RAM address. It’s accessed as a 16 bit
register or two 8 bit register as specified above. It has been allotted two addresses in
the special function register bank for its two bytes DPH and DPL.
6. Port 0 to 3 Latches and Drivers: These 4 latches and driver pairs are allotted to
each of the 4 on chip input output ports. These latches have been allotted addresses in
the special function register bank. Using the allotted address the user can communicate
with these ports. These are identifies as P0, P1, P2 and P3.
7. Serial Data Buffer: The serial data buffer internally contains 2 independent register
one of them is transmit buffer, which is a parallel-in-serial-out register. The other is a
(serial) receive buffer, which is called a serial-in-parallel-out register. The serial data
buffer is identified as SBUF and is one of the special function register. If a byte is
written to SBUF, it initiates the serial transmission and if the SBUF is read it reads the
received serial data.
8. Timer Registers: These two 16 bit register can be accessed as their lower and
upper bytes for example TL0 represents, the lower byte of the timer register 0, while
TH0 register higher byte of the timer register 0 similarly TL1 and TH1 represent the
lower and higher bytes of timing register 1. All these register can be accessed using
the 4 addresses allotted to the which lie in the special function register SFR address
range 80 H to FF.
9. Control Register: The special function register IP, IE, TMOD, TCON, SCON and
PCON contain control and status information for interrupts, times/count and serial
port. All of these register have been allotted addresses in the special function register
bank of 8051.
10. Timing and Control Unit: This unit derives all the necessary timing at control signals
register for internal operation of the circuit. It also derives the control signals required
for controlling the external system bus.
11. Oscillator: Thus circuit generates the basic timing clock signal for the operation of
the circuit using crystal oscillator.
12. Instruction Register: This register decodes the opcode of an instruction to be executed
and gives information to the timing and control unit to generate necessary signals on
the execution of instruction.
13. EPROM and Program address Register: These blocks provides an on chip EPROM
and a mechanism to internally address it. EPROM is not available in all 8051 versions.
14. RAM and RAM address Register: These blocks provide internal 128 bytes of
RAM and a mechanism to address it internally.
15. ALU: It performs 8 bit arithmetic, logical operations over the operands held by temporary
register TMP1 and TMP2. Users can’t access these temporary register.
16. SFR Register Bank: This is a set of special function register, which can be addressed
using their respective addresses which lie in the range 80 H to FF H.
INTERRUPTS OF 8051
8051 provides 5 sources of interrupt, INT0 and INT1 are the two external interrupts.
These can be edge triggered or level triggered, as program with bits IT0 and IT1 is
Register TCON. These interrupts are processed internally by the flags IE0 and IE1. If
the interrupts are programmed as edge sensitive, these flags are automatically cleared
after the control is transferred to the respective vector. On the other hand if the interrupt
are program as level sensitive, these flags are controlled by the external interrupt
sources themselves.
Both timers can be used in timer or counter mode. In counter mode it counts the pulses
at T0 and T1 pin. In timer mode the oscillator clock is divided by a prescalar (1/32) and
then given to the timer. So clock frequency for timer is 1/32th of the controller operating
frequency. The timer is a UP counter and generate an interrupt when the count reaches
FFFF H.
The timer 0 and Timer 1 interrupt sources are generated by TF0 and TF1 bits of the
register TCON; which are set; if a rollover takes place in their respective timer register
except timer 0 in mode 3.
The serial port interrupt is generated if alteast one of the (bits) two bits RI and TI is set
Neither of the flag is cleared after the control is transferred to the service routine RI
and TI flags need to be cleared using software.
In addition to these 5 interrupts, 8051 also allows single step interrupt to be generate
with the help of software. The different sources of interrupt program to have same
level of priority, further follow a sequence of priority under that level as shown.

The All these interrupt are enabled using a special function register called Interrupt
Enable Register (IE) and their priorities are program using a special function register
called Interrupt Priority Register (IP).
MICROCONTROLLERS
INTRODUCTION
While studying microprocessor based system design, a stand alone microprocessor is not
a self sufficient device. It requires other components like memory, and input output device to
form a minimum workable system configuration. To have all these components in discrete
form and to assemble them on a PCB (Printed Circuit Board) is not a affordable solution for
the following reasons.
1. The overall system cost of a microprocessor based system built around a CPU, memory
and other peripherals is high as compared to microcontroller based system.
2. A large sized PCB is required for assembling all these components, resulting in an
enhanced cost of the system.
3. Design of such PCBs requires a lot of effort and time and thus the overall product
design requires more time.
4. Due to the large size of the PCB and the discrete component used, physical size of the
product is big and hence it is not handy.
5. As discrete components are used the system is not reliable nor is it easy to troubleshoot
such a system.
Considering all these problems, Intel decided to integrate a microprocessor along
with IO ports and minimum memory in a single package. Another peripheral,
Timer was also integrated to make this device a self sufficient one.
A device which contains a microprocessor and the above mentioned devices has
been named as microcontrollers. The Design with the microcontrollers has the
following advantages.
1. As the peripherals are integrated in to a single chip, the overall system cost is very low.
2. The product is of a small size as compared to the microprocessor based system and is
thus very handy.
3. The system design now requires very little efforts and is easy to trouble-shoot and
maintain.
4. As the peripherals are integrated with a microprocessor the system is more reliable.
5. Though microcontrollers have on chip RAM, ROM and IO ports, additional RAM,
ROM and IO Ports may be interfaced externally if required.
6. The microcontrollers with on chip ROM provide a software security feature which is
not available with microprocessor based system using ROM/EPROM.
7. All these features are available in a 40 pin package as in an 8-bit processor.
The following figure shows a typical microcontrollers internal block diagram.
As the microcontroller contains most of the components required to form a
microprocessor system, it’s some time called single chip microcomputer.
MEMORY AND IO ADDRESSING
The total memory of an 8051 system is logically divided into program memory and data
memory. Program memory stores the program to be executed while data memory
stores data like immediate results, variables, and constants required for execution of
the program.
Program memory is invariably implemented using EPROM, because it stores only
program code which is to be executed thus it need not be written into. However the
data memory may be read from or written into, thus implemented using RAM.
Further the program memory and data memory both may be categorized as on-chip
(internal) and external memory, depending on whether the memory is physically exists
on chip or it is externally interfaced.
8051 can (address support) 4kB on chip program memory whose map starts from
0000 H to 0FFF H. It can address 64kB of external program memory under the control
of PSEN signal, whose address map is from 0000 H to FFFF H. Here the map of
internal program memory and external program memory may overlap. However, these
two memory spaces can be distinguished by PSEN signal.

8051 supports 64 kB of external data memory whose map starts at 0000 H and ends at
FFFF H. This external data memory can be accessed under the control of register
DPTR which stores he addresses of external data memory accesses.
8051 generators RD and WR signals during external memory accesses. The chip
select line of external data memory may be derived from the address lines. Internal
data memory 8051 consists of two parts:
(1) RAM block of 128 bytes (256 bytes in some various of 8051).
(2) Is a set of addresses from 80 H to FF H which includes addresses allotted to the
special function register.
The address map of 8051 internal 128 bytes RAM starts from 00 to 7F H. This RAM
can be addressed by using direct or indirect addressing modes. However the special
function register address map i.e., from 80 H to FF H is accessed only with direct
addressing mode.
In case of 8051 versions with 256 bytes on-chip RAM, the map starts from 00 H tan
FF H. In this case it may be noted that the address map of special function register i.e.,
80 H to FF overlaps with upper 128 bytes of RAM. The way of addressing i.e.,
addressing mode is differentiates between these two memory spaces. The upper 128
bytes of 256 byte on-chip RAM can be accessed only using indirect addressing; while
the lower 128 bytes can be accessed using either direct or indirect addressing. The
SFR can be accessed only by using direct addressing.
The lower 128 bytes of RAM whose address map is from 00 to 7F is functionally
organized in 3 sections. The address block from 00 to 1F i.e., the lowest 32 bytes from
the 1st section, is divided into 4 banks of 8 register denoted as 00, 01, 10 and 11. Each
of these banks contain 8. 8-bit register.
The stack pointer gets initialized at address 0.7 H i.e., the last address of bank 00, after
reset operation.

After reset bank 0 is selected by default but the actual stack data is stored from 08 H
onwards; i.e., bank 01, 10 and 11.
Note that 20 is the address of the 1st byes of the on-chip RAM. The 3rd block of
internal memory occupies addresses from 30 H to 7F H. This block of memory is byte
addressable memory space.
After reset bank 0 is selected by default but the actual stack data is stored from 08 H
onwards; i.e., bank 01, 10 and 11.
Note that 20 is the address of the 1st byes of the on-chip RAM. The 3rd block of
internal memory occupies addresses from 30 H to 7F H. This block of memory is byte
addressable memory space.
Microcontroller

Presentation
By
Rajul Patkar
Microprocessor and
Microcontroller
Microprocessors is a general purpose
computer. Multi chip required for all the
functions.

Microcontrollers is a true computer on a single


chip. Logic functions, bit addressing, small
cheap and fast.
Microprocessor and
Microcontroller
Essential elements of any computer are:

– CPU
– Memory for both data and program
– I/O or Input Output system
Microprocessor and
Microcontroller
Various different architectures exist depending
on the application

 Mini-computer: all 3 systems on a board


 Micro-controller: All systems on a single chip
Microprocessor
Microcontroller
A Microcontroller application
Intel 8051 Microcontroller

8051 is made by Intel. It is one of the most widely


used microcontroller in the world.

– A stand alone, high performance, single chip computer for


control applications.
– Small, cheap and 40 pins.
– 64K program memory.
– 64K data memory.
8051 Pin layout
8051 Controller

 A minimal 8051 based controller needs only the


following components
 CPU
 Memory
 I/O
8051 Block Diagram
8051 Architecture
8051 architecture contains the following:
 8 bit CPU with registers A and B
 16 bit program counter(PC) and data pointer(DPTR)
 8 bit program status word(PSW)
 8 bit stack pointer
 Internal ROM of 0(8031) to 4K(8051)
 Internal RAM of 128 Bytes
– 4 register banks 00-1f
– 16 bytes(bit addressable) 20-2f
– 80 bytes of general purpose data memory 30-7f
8051 Architecture
 32 I/O pins arranged as four 8 bit ports (P0 – P3)
 2 16-bit timer/counters: T0 and T1
 Full duplex serial data receiver/transmitter: SBUF
 Control registers: TCON, TMOD, SCON, PCON, IP
and IE
 2 external and 3 internal interrupt sources
 Oscillator and clock circuits
8051 Memory Types
The 8051 has two separate memory blocks, for data
and program . Since both blocks have the same
address, this is called a Harvard architecture.
Separating the program memory from the data
memory improves reliability since we cannot
overwrite the program code. and allows us to use
program ROM , or read only memory.
Internal circuitry accesses the correct memory
based on the nature of the operation in progress.
Program Memory
Program memory normally we have 4K on the chip (but not
in the case of the 8031)
Data Memory
Data memory all 64K is off the chip except for (a
miniscule 128 bytes).
Internal 256 bytes is divided into two parts: general
scratch and the special function registers.
The 128 bytes in lower internal RAM have the following
structure:

Only one of the 4 register banks can be active at any


particular time Which one is active is given by flags in
the PSW
Special Function Registers

The Special Function Registers (SFRs) contain memory


locations that are used for special tasks. (They should not
be used for general purpose tasks.)
Each SFR occupies internal RAM from 0x80 to 0xFF, (but
some areas are empty!) They are 8 bits wide. Some
examples are:
A register or accumulator is used for most ALU operations
& external moves
B used for multiplication & division and can also be used
for general purpose storage
PSW Program Status Word is a bit addressable register.
Two special 16- bit registers (double registers):
PC or program counter. This is not directly addressable,
nor does it have a memory location. It is not part of SFR.

DPTR or data pointer. Is accessible as two 8- bit registers:


DPL and DPH. DPTR doesn’t have a single internal
address; DPH and DPL are each assigned an address.
This is used to furnish memory addresses for internal and
external code access and external data access.
Program Status Word
The PSW is the most important of the SFRs. It is a
byte register which holds 8 bits that can addressed
individually.
Each bit is referred to as a flag. Flags can be either set (1)
or cleared (0). This is more efficient than using an entire
byte memory location for a binary variable.
SFRs
SFRs which are also bit addressable
A, B, IP, IE, TCON, SCON, PSW, P0, P1, P2, P3
Other SFRs
TMOD, THO, TLO, TH1, TL1, SBUF, PCON, SP,
DPTR
Port Operations
Total 4 ports
Port 0 may serve as inputs, outputs, or as a low
order
address and data bus for external memory.
Port 1 may be used as input/output port.
Port 2 may be used as input/output or high order
address byte.
Port 3 may be used as an input/output and for
some
alternate function.
Port 3 Alternate Operations
Pin Alternate use SFR
P3.0-RXD Serial data input SBUF
P3.1-TXD Serial data output SBUF
P3.2-INT0~ Ext. Int. 0 TCON.1
P3.3-INT1~ Ext. Int. 1 TCON.3
P3.4-T0 Ext. Tim. 0 TMOD
P3.4-T1 Ext. Tim. 1 TMOD
P3.6-WR~ Ext. Mem write pulse
P3.7-RD~ Ext. Mem Read pulse
Port Operations
To read and write from port:
MOV A, P0 or MOV A,80h
- This copies data from port 0 pins to register A.
MOV P1, #0a5h or MOV 90h,#0a5h
- This moves a constant number into port1.
Moving data to a port changes the port latch,
moving data from a port gets data from the port
pins.
Memory Mapped Port Operations
Store the address of the memory mapped port into the
DPTR register, and indirectly address this through
Acc.
 Reading from a port
MOV DPTR, #0F012h; address to read digital
input
MOVX A, @DPTR ; read the values into Acc
 Writing to a port
MOV DPTR, #0F011h; address of LED outputs
MOVX @DPTR, A ; write this value back out
again
Accessing external memory
Storage problems?
What happens if a program is larger than 4096 bytes of
code?
We have the ‘ROMless’ 8031 version, we must use the
movx
(move external) to access the data block, and movc to fetch
from code memory.
We have two separate read signals,
RD~, (read) and PSEN~, (program send enable).
Prototyping 8051 Design
For many small applications where we might want to
Change the ROM code, we would like to use external
EPROM , which means:
 We have lost the use of ports 0 and ports 2 since they
must be used to interface with external ROM and not
available for I/ O.
 We may need external RAM (since the 128 bytes may
not be enough for our application), which means that we
have lost port 3.6, WR~, and 3.7, RD~
 Any serial communication requires 3.0 (RXD) and
3.1(TXD)
Loss of ports leaves us with:
 1. All of port #1, and
 2. Port P3.2 – P3.5
for general purpose I/ O and external interrupts and
timing inputs.
What is to be done for the lost ports?
Programmable Logic Devices
The PROM chip is an example of a Programmable
Logic Device PLD. Once programmed, it will
retain the program even when the power is turned
off.
One- time programmable devices uses tiny fuses
which are burnt or blown (or we can use antifuses
which have the same end function.
Eraseable Programmable read Only memory
(EPROMS) can be re- programmed. This uses a
modified MOS transistor with a floating gate that
when uncharged does not effect the normal
operation. However if it is subjected to (high)
+12V, then a charge will move into the 2nd
transistor which is stable (will last a decade).
Reprogram by subjecting the cells to UV light via a
ceramic window on top of the package. Wiping
time takes about 20 minutes.
EEPROM or Electrically erasable proms are about
2.5 times larger than eproms, and are quicker to
clear.
FLASH proms are much quicker to erase (hence
the name), and can be reprogrammed while still on
the circuit board . Suitable for easy upgrading by
the public of ROM chips in Modems and PCs.
Interrupts
Interrupts are just special subroutines that may (or may
not) be called explicitly.
If conditions are “right”, when an interrupt occurs, then the
processor will stop what it is doing, and jump to a specific
place in memory (decided by the Intel 8051 designers)
hooked by that particular interrupt.
It is up to the programmer to make sure that you supply a
sensible further course of action. This is called the
interrupt handler routine or interrupt service routine , ISR.
Interrupts
Interrupt programming
Signals or conditions generated external to the main
program
– External events such as a change in a logic value
– Overflow of a counter
– Arrival of data at the serial port.
Interrupts can be enabled or disabled by the programmer.
(Although some interrupts are non- maskable.)
Types of Interrupts
Five interrupts are provided on 8051.
3 are generated by internal operations.
Generated by internal timer/counter
 Timer flag 0 – TF0
 Timer flag 1 – TF1
Indicates that a character has been received or the buffer is empty
and a character can be transmitted
 Serial port interrupt (RI or TI)
2 are triggered by external signals
 INT0~
 INT1~
Interrupts
All interrupt functions are under the control of the
program. The programmer can alter the bits of IE, IP
and TCON register.
Each interrupt forces the processor to jump at the
interrupt location in the memory.
The interrupted program must resume operation at
the instruction where the interrupt took place.
Program resumption is done by storing the
interrupted PC address on to stack.
RETI instruction at the end of ISR will restore the PC
address.
Timers and Counters
The 8051 comes equipped with two timers, both
of which may be controlled, set, read, and
configured individually. The 8051 timers have
three general functions:
1) Keeping time and/or calculating the amount of
time between events,
2) Counting the events themselves, or
3) Generating baud rates for the serial port.
Timers and Counters
Could use software techniques, but this keeps the
processor occupied. Better to use interrupts & the
two 16- bit count- up timers. Can either be
programmed to:
1. count internal - acting as timer
2. count external - acting as counter
All counter action is controlled by the TMOD
(timer mode register) and the TCON (timer/
counter control register).
Timers and Counters
 TCON Timer control SFR contains timer 1& 2
overflow flags, external interrupt flags, timer
control bits, falling edge/ Low level selector bit etc.

 TMOD timer mode SFR is two four- bit registers


(timer #1, timer #0). Select timer/ counter & various
modes.)
Timers and Counters
Applications: (counter)
Say we want to count a specified number of events (clock
pulses or external events), then
1. Store the start number in the counter. (Value maxcount-
desired count+ 1)
2. Counter automatically increments (in the background)
3. When it rolls over to zero, it will set the timer flag.
4. Test the flag in the program, or generate an interrupt .
Timers and Counters
Applications: (Timer)
Timing configures the counter to count the internal clock
frequency/ 12. (E. g. if fc = 6:0Mhz, then the timer clock
will have a frequency of 500kHz.)
To configure as a timer:
1. Clear C/T~ bit in TMOD (Count internal frequency)
2. Set TRx in the TCON (timer run) and the gate bit in the
TMOD must be 0, or the external pin INTx~ must be 1.
3. Select one of 4 modes.
Timing Subroutines
In microcontroller applications we need to wait a
specified time, and so we need to have programmable
time delays.
In all cases your application will be written for a
specific clock frequency, say 12MHz, 16MHz,
11.0592 MHz etc.)
If you subsequently change the clock frequency, you
will need to update your code, & possibly do some
timing tests.
Timing Subroutines
The timing options are:
1. Pure software time delays (wastefull)
2. Software polled timer (still wastefull, but OK in
non- critical apps)
3. Pure hardware using interrupts (accurate &
preferred method)
REGISTER SET OF 8051
8051 has two 8-bit register A and B which can be used to store operands. Including
these register (A and B), 8051 has a family of special purpose register called as Special
Function Register (SFR).
There are 21 8 bit register ACC (A), B, PSW, PO, P1, P2, P3, IP, IE, TCON and
SCON are all 8-bit, bit addressable register. The remaining registers, namely SP, DPH,
DPL, TMOD, TH0, TL0, TH1, TL1, SBUF and PCON register are to be addressed
as bytes i.e., they are not bit addressable.
The Register DPH and DPL are the higher and lower bytes of 16-bit register DPTR,
i.e., Data pointer, which is used for accessing external data memory.
The register TH0 and TL0 form a 16 bit counter/timer register with H-indicating the
upper byte and L-indicatin the lower byte of the 16-bit timer register T0. TH1 and
TL1 form the 16 bit count for timer T1.
The 4 port latches are represented by P0, P1, P2 and P3. Any communication with
these ports is established using SFR addresses to these register.
SP - Stack pointer
PSW - Program status word contains status information
IP - Interrupt priority (is programmable to control interrupt).
TCON: Timer/counter control register. Some of the bits of this register can be used to
turn on/off the times. This register also contain interrupt control flags for external
interrupts INT1 and INT0 .
TMOD: Used for programming the modes of operation of timer/counter.
SCON: Is a serial port mode control register is used for transmit and receive operation.
PCON: Power control register, contains power bit and idle bit which activate the
power down mode and idle mode in 8051.
In power down mode the on chip oscillator is stopped and all the contents of the
controller are held maintaining the contents of RAM. The only way to terminate this mode is
to hardware reset. The reset redefines all SFRs but the RAM contents are left unchanged.
In Idle mode, the oscillator continues to run and the interrupt, serial port and timer
blocks are active but the clock to the CPU is disabled. The CPU status is preserved. This
mode can be terminated by hardware interrupt or hardware reset.
TCON (Timer Control Register):

TF1 − Timer 1 overflow flag. This is set by hardware when the timer/counter 1
overflows and is cleared by hardware.
TR1 − Timer 1 run control bit. This is set/cleared by software to turn
timer/counter1/ON/OFF.
TF0 − Timer 0 overflow flag. This is set by hardware when the Timer/Counter0
overflows and is cleared by hardware.
TR0 − Timer 0 run control bit. This is set/Reset by software to turn
Timer/Counter on/off.
IE1 − External interrupt 1 edge flag. This is set by hardware when external
interrupt edge is detected and is cleared by hardware, i.e., when the interrupt is processed.
IT1 − Interrupt 1 type control bit. This is Set/Reset by software to specify falling
edge/low level triggered external interrupt.
IE0 − External Interrupt 0 edge flag. This is set by hardware when external
interrupt edge is detected, and is cleared by hardware when the hardware interrupt is
processed.
IT0 − Interrupt 0 type control bit. Thus is Set/Reset by software to specify falling
edge/low level triggered external interrupt.
SCON (Serial Ports Control Register):

SM0
Serial port mode specifies.
SM
SM2 This enables the multiprocessor communication feature in modes 2 and 3. If SM2 is
set to 1 then R1 will not be activated, if the received 9th data bit is 0. In mode1 if SM2 = 1
then R1 will not be activated if a valid stop bit was not received. In mode 0 - SM2 should be
0.
REN This is Set/Reset by software to enable/disable reception.
TB8 This selects the 9th bit that will be transmitted in modes 2 and 3. This Set/Reset by
software.
RB8 In modes 2 and 3, this is the 9th data bit that was received. In mode 1, if SM2 = 0,
RB8 is the stop bit that was received. In mode 0, RB8 is not used.
TI Transmit interrupt flag. This is set by hardware at the end of the 8th bit time in mode
0, or at the beginning of the stop bit in the other modes. This must be cleared by software.
RI Receive Interrupt flag. This is set by hardware at the end of the 8th bit time in mode
0, or halfway through the stop bit time in the other modes excepting the case where SM2 is
set. This must be cleared by software.
PCON (Power Control Register):

SMOD − Double band rate bit. If timer 1 is used to generate baud rate, the baud rate is
doubled when the serial port is used in modes 1, 2, 3.
— − Not implemented. Reserved for future use.
GF1
General Purpose Flag Bit.
GF0
PD − Power down bit. Setting this bit activates power down operation in the 8051.
IDL − Idle mode bit setting. This bit activates idle modes operation in 8051.
SIGNAL DESCRIPTIONS OF 8051

1. VCC : It is a 5V power supply pin.


2. VSS : It’s a return pin for the supply.
3. Reset: The reset input pin resets the 8051 only when it goes high for 2 or more cycles.
For a proper reinitialization after reset the clk must be running.
4. ALE/Program: The ALE output pulse indicates that the valid address bits are available
on their respective pins. The ALE signal is valid only for external memory accesses.
This pin acts as programmable pulse input during on chip EPROM programming.
5. EA/VPP: External access enable pin if tied low, indicates that the 8051 can address
external program memory. In other words the 8051 can execute a program in external
memory only if EA is tied low for execution of program in internal memory the EA is
tied high. This pin also receive 21 V for programming of the on chip EPROM.
6. PSEN : Program store enable is an active low output signal that acts as a strobe to
read the external (signal) program memory. This goes low during external program
memory access.
7. Port 0 (P0.0 - P0.7): Port 0 is an 8 bit bi-directional bit addressable IO port. This has
been allotted an address in the SFR address range port 0 acts as multiplexed address/
data lines.
8. Port 1 (Port 1.0 - P 1.7): Port 1 acts as a 8 bit bi-directional bit addresses port. This
has been allotted an address in the SFR address range.
9. Port 2 (P 2.0 - P 2.7): Port 2 acts as 8 bit bi-directional bit addressable IO port. It has
been allotted an address in the SFR address range. During external memory access,
port 2 emits higher eight bits of address (A15-A8) which are valid, if ALE goes high and
EA goes low.
10. Port 3 (P3.0 - P3.7): Port 3 is an 8 bit bi-directional bit addressable IO port which has
been allotted address in SFR address range.
11. XTAL1 and XTAL2: There is an inbuilt oscillator which derives clk frequency for the
operation of the controller. XTA1, is input of the amplifier and XTAL2 is the output of
the amplifier. A crystal is to be connected externally between these two pins to complete
the feedback path to start oscillations.
DIRECT MEMORY ACCESS CONTROLLER (8237)

The 8237 is a LSI controller IC that is most widely used to implement the DMA
transfer. DMA capability permits devices, such as peripherals, to perform high speed
data transfers between either two section of memory or between memory and an input
output device. DMA mode of operation is most frequently used when blocks or packets
of data are to be transferred for instance disk controllers, Local area network controllers
and communication controllers are devices that normally process data as blocks or
packets.
The following figure shows the 8237A DMA controller. In a microprocessor system
the 8237A can acts as a peripheral device and its operation must be initialized through
software. This is done by reading from or writing to the register of DMA controller.
These data transfer takes place through microprocessor interface .
Whenever 8237A is not in use by a peripheral device for DMA operation, it is in a state
known as idle state. When in this state, the microprocessor can issue commands to the
DMA controller and read from or write to its internal register. Data bus lines DB0
through DB7 are the path over which these data transfers take place. Which register is
accessed is determined by a 4-bit register address that is applied to address inputs A0
through A3.
During the data transfer bus cycle, other bits of the address are decoded external
circuitry to produce a chip select (CS ) input for the 8237A when in the idle state, the
8237A continuously samples this input waiting for it to become active. Logic 0 at this
input enables the microprocessor interface. The microprocessor tells the 8237A whether
an input or output bus cycle is in progress with the signal IOR or IOW .
DMA Interface of the 8237A:
With the above discussion, we have seen how a microprocessor talk to the register of
8237A. Now let us see how peripheral devices initiates DMA service.
The 8237A contains 4 independent DMA channels, channels 0 through channel 3.
Typically, each of these channel is dedicated to a specific device, such as a peripheral.
The following figure shows the DMA interface. (Fig. 5.10)
There are 4 DMA request inputs denoted as DREQ0 through DREQ3. These DREQ
inputs corresponds to channels 0 through 3. In the idle state the 8327A continuously
tests these inputs to see if one is active. When a peripheral device wants to perform
DMA operation, it makes a request for service at its DREQ input by switching it to its
active state.
In response to DMA request, the DMA controller switches the hold request output to
logic 1. Normally this output is supplied to the HOLD input of the 8086 and signals the
microprocessor that the DMA controller needs to take control of the system bus.
When the 8088/8086 is ready to give up control of the bus, it puts its bus signals in to
the high impedance state and signals this fact to the 8237A by switching the HLDA
(Hold acknowledge) output to the logic 1. HLDA of the 8088/86 is applied to the
HLDA input of 8237A and signals that the system bus is now available for use by the
DMA controller.
The 8237A tells the requesting device that it is ready by outputting a DMA acknowledge
(DACK) signal for each of these 4 DMA request inputs, DREQ0 through DREQ3, has
a corresponding DMA acknowledge outputs DACK0 then DACK3. Once this DMA
request/acknowledge handshake sequence is complete, the peripheral device gets direct
access to the system bus and memory under the control 8237A following figure shows
DMA interface.

During DMA bus cycles, the system bus is driven by the DMA controller not the
microprocessor. The 8237A generates all the address and control signals needed to
perform the memory and the input/output data transfers. At the beginning of the all
DMA bus cycles, a 16-bit address is output on lines A0 - A7 and DB0 thru DB7. The
upper 8 bits of the address, which are available on the data bus lines, appear at the
same time that address strobe becomes active. The ADSTB is used to strobe the
MSB of the address in to an external latch.
This 16-bit address gives the 8237A the ability to directly address up to 64k bytes of
storage location. The AEN (address latch enable) output signal is active during the
complete DMA bus cycle and can be used to both enable the address latch and disable
other devices connected to the bus.
Let us assume that an IO device wants to transfer data to memory. i.e., IO device
want to write data to memory. In this case 8237A uses IOR output signal to the IO
device to put the data onto data bus lines DB0 thru DB7. At the same time, it asserts
MEMW to signal that the data available on the bus are to be written into memory. In
this case the data are transferred directly from the IO device to memory and don’t go
thru 8327A.
In a similar way DMA transfer of Data can takes place from memory to an IO device.
Now IO device reads data from the memory. For this data transfer the 8237A activates
MEMR and IOW control signals.
5.2.2 Internal Architecture of 8237A:
The following figure shows the internal architecture of 8237A. Here we have the
following blocks.
timing and control.
priority encoder
rotating priority logic.
command control.
12 different types of registers.
Let us consider these functional blocks in detail.

The timing and control part of 8237A generates the timing and control signals needed
by the external bus interface. It accepts input as Ready and CS and produce output
signals like ADSTB and AEN. READY input is used to accommodate for slow memory
of IO devices. READY must go active, logic 1, before the 8237A will complete a
memory or IO bus cycle. As long as READY is at logic 0, wait states are inserted to
extend the duration of the current bus cycle.
If multiple requests for DMA service are received by the 8237A, they are accepted on
priority basis. One of two priority schemes can be selected for the 8237A under software
control. They are called fixed priority and rotating priority. The fixed priority mode
assigns priority to the channels in descending numeric order. That is channel 0 has the
highest priority and channel 3 has the lowest priority. Rotating priority starts with the
priority levels same way as in fixed priority. However, after a DMA request for a
specific level gets services, the priority is rotated so that the previously active channel
is reassigned to the lowest priority level for instance, assuming that channel, which
was initially at priority level was just serviced, then DREQ2 is now at the highest
priority level and DREQ1 rotates to the lowest level.
The command control circuit decodes the register commands applied to 8237 A through
microprocessor interface. In this way it determines which register is to be accessed
and what type of operation is to be performed. However it is used to decode the
programmed operating modes of the device during the DMA operation.
8237 has 12 different types of Internal register.

Each DMA channel has two address register. They are called the base address
register and current address register. The base address register holds the starting
address for the DMA operation. Current address register contains the address of the
next storage location to be accessed. These register must be loaded with appropriate
value prior to initiating a DMA cycle. To load a new 16-bit address into the base
register, we must write two separate byte one after the other to the address of the
register. 8237A has an internal FF called first/last FF. This FF identifies which byte of
the address is being written in to the register. If the FF = 0, then load low byte of
address to the register. If FF = 1 then write high byte of address to the register.
Current Word Register: Each channel has 16-bit current word register that carries
number of data byte transfers to be carried out. The word count is decremented after
each transfer and the new value is again stored back to current word register when a
count becomes zero an EoP (End of Process) signal will be generated.
Base Address and Base Word Count Register: Each channel has a pair of these
register. These contain the original copy of the respective initial current address register
and current word count register (before incrementing or decrementing). These are
automatically written along with the current register. These can’t be read by CPU.
The contents of these register are used for auto initialization.
Command Register: This 8 bit register controls the complete operation of 8237. This
can be programmed by the CPU and cleared by resent operation
Mode Register: Each DMA channel (contains) has an 8-bit mode register. This is
written by CPU in programming mode.

Request Register: Each channel has a request bit associated with it in the required
register. These are non-maskable and subject to prioritization by the priority resolving
network of 8237. Each bit is set or reset under programming

Mask Register: Some times it may be required to disable a DMA request of certain
channel. Each of the 4 channels has a mask bit which can be set under program control to disable
the incoming DREQ requesting at the specific channel. This bit is set when the corresponding
channel produces an EOP signal; if the channel is not programmed for autoinitialization. The
register is set to FFH after a reset operation
Temporary Key: The temporary register holds data during memory-to-memory data
transfers. After the completion of the transfer operation, the last word transferred
remains in the temporary register till it is cleared by reset operation.
Status Register: The status register keep track of all the DMA channel pending
requests and status of their terminal counts (TC). Bits D0 D3 are updated every time;
the corresponding channel reaches TC or an external EOP occurs. These are cleared
upon reset and also on each status read operation. Bits D4 D7 are set, if the
corresponding channels require services

Transfer Modes of 8237:

Single Transfer Mode: In this mode the device transfers only one byte per second. The
word count is decremented and address is decremented or incremented after each such
transfer. The terminal count (TC) state is reached when the count becomes zero. For each
transfer, the DREQ must be active until the DACK is activated.
Block Transfer Mode: In this mode 8237 is activated by DREQ to continue the transfer
until TC is reached i.e., block of data is transferred. The transfer cycle may be terminated
due to EOP which forces the TC. The DREQ needs to be activated only till DACK signal is
activated by DMA controller.
Demand Transfer Mode: In this mode the device continuously transfers until a TC is
reached or an external EOP is detected or DREQ signal goes inactive. Thus a transfer may
exhaust the capacity of data transfer of an input/output device. After the IO device is able to
catch up, the service may be reestablished activating, the DREQ signal again.
Cascade Mode: In this mode, more than one 8237 can be connected together to provide
more than 4 DMA channels. The HRQ and HLDA signals from additional 8237s are
connected with DREQ and DACK pins of a channel of the host 8237 respectively. The
priorities of the DMA requests may be preserved at each level. The 1st device is only used
for prioritizing the additional devices and it does not generate any address or control signal of
its own.
Memory to Memory Transfer: To perform the transfer of a block of data from one set of
memory address to another one, this transfer mode to used. Program the corresponding
mode bit in the command word, set the channel 0 and channel 1 to operate as source and
destination channel. This transfer is initialized by setting the DREQ0 using software commands.
The 8237 sends HRQ signal to the CPU as usual and when the HLDA signal is activated by
the CPU; the device starts operating in block transfer mode to read the data from the memory.
The channel 0 (CAR) Current Address Register acts as a source pointer. The byte read
from the memory is stored in an temporary register of 8237. The channel 1 CAR acts as a
destination pointer the pointers are automatically incremented a decremented, depending
upon program. The channel 1 word count register is used as a counter and is decremented
after each transfer.
PROGRAMMABLE COMMUNICATION INTERFACE (8251)
Programmable communication interface is used for serial data transmission. It is an
Universal Synchronous/Asynchronous Receiver Transmitter (USART). It is compatible
with 8085, 8086, 8088 and 8748.
It is fabricated using N-channel silicon gate technology 8251 can be used to transmit/
Receive serial data.
It accepts data in the parallel format from the microprocessor and converts into serial
data for transmission. It also receives serial data and converts them into parallel data
and sends the data to the CPU. The following figures shows the schematic diagram of
8251.
Pin Diagram

C /D (Control/ Data) when it is low data is transmitted on data bus when


it is high control signals are transmits on the data bus.
RD (Read). When it is low CPU reads data from 8251.
WR (Write). When it is low CPU writes data into 8251.
DSR (Data Set Ready).
DTR (Data Terminal Ready).
RTS (Request to Send).
CTS (Clear to Send). A low or this pin enables 8251 to transmit (data)
serial data.
TXC (Transmitter Clock). It governs the rate of data transmission.
T ξE (Transmitter Empty). TXE goes high when 8251 has no characters
to transmit. It indicates the end of transmission.
T ⋅ RDY (Transmitter Ready).
R ⋅ RDY (Receiver Ready).
R ⋅ D (Line for Recurring Data).
T ⋅ D (Line for serial data transmission).
R ⋅ C (Receiver Clock). It governs the rate at which the characters are
received.
Methods of Data Communication:
The data transmission between two points involves unidirectional or bi-directional
transmission of digital data. There are basically 3 modes of data transfer.
(a) Simplex (b) Half Duplex (c) Duplex.
In Simplex mode data is transmitted only in one direction over a single communication
channel. Example: a computer (CPU) may transmit data for a CRT display unit.
In Half Duplex mode, data transmission may take place on either direction, but only
one direction at a time.
In a Duplex mode data may be transferred between two transreceivers in both
directions simultaneously.
ARCHITECTURE AND SIGNAL DESCRIPTION OF 8251
The following figure shows the block diagram. The data buffer interfaces the internal
bus of the architecture with the system bus. The Read/write control logic controls the
operation of the peripheral depending up on the operation initiated by the CPU. This
unit also selects one of the two internal address these are control address and data
address at the behest of the C/ D signal.
The modem control unit handles the modem handshake signals to coordinate the
communication between the modem and the USART. The transmit control unit transmits
the data byte received by the data buffer from the CPU for further serial communication.
This decides the transmission rate which is controlled by the Tx C ⋅ input frequency.
8251A Operating Modes:
8251A can be programmed to operate in its various modes using the mode control
words. A set of control words may be written in the internal register of 8251A to make
it operate in the desired mode.
Once the 8251A is programmed as, required, the T X RDY is raised high to signal the
CPU that 8251A is ready to receive data byte from it that is to be converted in to serial
format and transmitted. This automatically goes low when the CPU writes the data in
to 8251A.
In the receiver mode 8251A receives serial data byte from modern or IO device. After
receiving a entire data byte, R RDY ⋅ signal is raised high to inform the CPU that
8251A has a character read for it. The R RDY ⋅ , signal is automatically reset after the
CPU reads the received byte from 8251A.
The control words of 8251A are divided into two function type.
(1) Mode Instruction Control Word.
(2) Command Instruction Control Word.
Asynchronous Mode:
Mode instruction control word define the general operational characteristic of the 8251A.
After the internal (reset command) or external (reset input pin) reset, this must be written to
configure the 8251A as per the require operation once this has been written into 8251A,
SYNCH character or command instruction may be programmed further as per the
requirement. To change the mode of operation from synchronous to asynchronous or viceversa,
8251A has to be reset using master chip reset.

Asynchronous Mode (Transmission):


When a data character is sent to 8251A by the CPU, it adds start bits prior to the serial
data bits, followed by optional parity bit and stop bits using the asynchronous mode instruction
control word format. This sequence is the transmitted using T X D output pin on the following
edge T X C. When no data character are sent by the CPU to 8251a the T X D output
remains “high” if a “break” has not been detected.
Asynchronous Mode (Receive):
A falling edge of R X D input line marks a start bit. At a baud rate of 16 X and 64 X, this
start bit is again checked at the center of the start bit pulse and if detected low it is a valid
start bit and the bit counter starts counting. The bit counter locates the data bits, parity bit and
stop bit. If parity error occurs, the parity error flag is set. If a low level is detected as a stop
bit, the framing error flag is set. The receiver require only one stop bit to mark end of the
data bit string regardless of the stop bit program at the transmitting end. The 8-bit character
is the loaded in to parallel IO buffer of 8251 A. R RDY × pin is then realised high to indicate
to the CPU that a character is ready for it. If the previous character has not been read by the
CPU the new character replaces it, and the overrun flag is set indicating that the previous
character is lost.
Synchronous Mode (Transmission):
The T⋅ D output is high until the CPU sends a character to 8251, which usually is a
SYNC character. When CTS line goes low the first character is serially transmitted out. All
the characters are shifted out on the falling edges of TXC . Data is shifted out at the same
rate as TXC , over TXD output line. If the CPU buffer becomes empty, the SYNC character
or characters are inserted in the data stream over TXD output. The TX EMPTY pin is raised
high to indicate that 8251A is empty; and is transmitting SYNC character. The TX
EMPTY pin is reset, automatically when a data character is written to 8251 A by the CPU.

Synchronou
s Mode (Receiver):
In this mode character synchronization can be achieved, internally or externally. If this
mode is programmed, then ‘ENTER HUNT’ command should be included in the 1st command
instruction word written in to the 8251A. The data on RXD pin is sampled on the rising edge
of the R C × . The content of the Receiver buffer is compared with the 1st SYNC character
at every edge until it matches. It 8251 A is programmed for two SYNC character, the
subsequent received character is also checked. When both the characters match, the hunting
stops. The SYNDET pin is set high and is reset automatically by status read operation. If a
parity bit is programmed, the SYNDET signal will not go high until the middle of parity bit,
otherwise till the middle of the last data bit.
Serial IO
Basic concepts in serial IO
• Interface requirements
– Address decoding, control signal generation
• Alphanumeric codes
– ASCII, EBCDIC or any other coding
• Transmission format
– Synch or asynch, simplex/duplex, rate of transmission
• Error checks
– Parity, checksum, CRC
• Data comm over telephone
– Voice:300Hz-3300Hz,Modem,fsk/psk/qpsk etc
Syn and asycn transmission

a) Synch format b) asynch format


Serial bit format

• Baud: number of signal changes per second; bits/second.


• At 1200 baud; ASCII character I (49H) is presented
• 11 bits includes 1 start, 8 data and 2 stop bits
• D7 can be used as parity.
Data comm over telephone
Serial I/O standards
• Commonly used to interface terminal, printer or
modem.
• Standard is a common specification that all the
manufacturer have agreed upon.
– Assigment of pin position for signal, voltage levels,
speed, length of cables and mechanical specs.
• Current loop
– 20mA or 60mA, signals relatively noise free and
suitable over a long distance.
• voltage level
– RS 232C, most commonly used method
– DTE, DCE
RS 232C
• Speed 20Kbaud.
• Distance 50 ft.
• Logic zero: +3v to +15V
• Logic one: -3v to -15V
• Other signals are TTL.
• 25 pins
Minimum interface with RS232C

• Usually printer is a DTE


• Modem is a DCE
Other standard

Specs RS232C RS422A RS423A


Speed 20kbd 10Mbd 100kbd
Distance 50ft 4000ft 4000ft
Logic 0 3 to 15 B>A 4 to 6V
Logic 1 -3 to -15 B<A -4 to -6
Rcvr ±15V ±7 ±12
input volt
Software controlled Asycn serial
I/O
• Output start bit
• Convert chara into
serial stream with
appr delay.
• Add parity
• Output stop bits.
rcv
transmit
Rd o/p port
Init bit cntr N
Strt bit?
Snd strt bit
Y
Wait ½ bit time
Wait bit time
N
Bit still low?
Get chr into A
Y
Set bit cntr
o/p bit using D0 Clr data rgstr
Wait bit time
Wait bit time
Rd i/p
Save bit
Rotate nxt bit to D0.
Dcr bit cntr Redy to rcv nxt bit
Dcr bit cntr
N
Last bit? N
Last bit?
Y
Add parity Chk parity
Snd stop bits Wait for stop bits

return return
8085 serial I/O lines
• SOD (serial output D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0

data) SOD SDE X

• SID (serial input data) 1=enable For interrupts


0=disable
MVI A, 80H ; Set D7 =1
RAR ; set D6 = 1, bring carry into D7
SIM ; output D7
D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0

SID

RIM ; reads a bit and put into D7


Serial i/p data For interrupts
Data trans using SOD
• Send ascii char stored in B register.

SODATA: MVI C, OBH ;setup counter C to 11 bits


XRA A ; reset carry to 0
NXTBIT: MVI A, 80H ; set D7 to 1 of accumltr
RAR ; Bring D7 into D6
SIM ; output D7; start bit
CALL BITTIM ; wait for 1 bit time
STC ; set carry =1
MOV A,B ; place ASCII chr into ACC
RAR ; place ascii D0 in the carry, and 1 in D7
MOV B,A ;save ACC to B
DCR C ;one bit transmitted
JNZ NXTBIT ; if not all bits transmitted, go back
RET
(B) = 47H 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1

CY D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0

XRA A 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
MVI A, 80H 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
RAR 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
SIM outputs 0 as stop bit
STC 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
MOV A,B 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1 1

RAR 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1
MOV B,A B= 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 1
DCR C C= 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 1
JNZ NXTBIT 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
RAR 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
.

When ascii D7 is sent out, register B will have all 1s from D0 to D7. In the
last two iterations logic 1s are sent out as stop bits.
Data reception using SID
SIDATA: RIM ; read input bit
RAL ; plc D7 into CY
JC SIDATA ; if D7 = 1, not a start bit, go bck and read again
CALL HALFBIT ; if D7=0. strt bit. wait hafl bit time
MVI C, 09 ; bit cont = 9
NXTBIT: CALL BITTIME ; wait for one bit time
RIM ; read input bit
RAL ; save the bit D7 to CY
DCR C ; one bit read
JZ RETURN ; if all bits are read return to main prog
MOV A,B ; plc the bits saved so far into acc from B
RAR ;plc bit saved in CY to D7 and sft all bits by 1 position
MOV B,A ; save bits in B
JMP NXTBIT ; get nxt bit
HW controlled serial I/O
• SW control has following requirements:
– An input port and an output port are req for
interfacing.
– In transmission, MPU converts parallel data into serial
bits.
– In reception, MPU converts bits from serial to parallel.
– Trans and rec must match the time delay.
• In HW control has serial IO, all these features
are incorporated in one chip, like 8251A
(USART).
8251A
• Chip select
• Control/Data
• Write
• Read
• Reset
• Clock
• Control register
•16 bit, mode
instr, command
instr
• Status register
•It has the same
add as the
control register
• Data buffer
•bidirectional
Control logic and registers
• Control regstr
– 16 bit: 2 independent bytes
– 1st byte: mode instr
– 2nd byte command inst
• Status rgstr
– Chks the rdy ststs of peripheral
– Accessed when C/D’ is high
– Same port add as control regstr
CS’ C/D’ RD’ WR’ Function
• Data buffer
0 1 1 0 MPU writes in the control register
– Bi directional
0 1 0 1 MPU reads status register
– At C/D’ is low
0 0 1 0 MPU outputs data to data buffer
0 0 0 1 MPU reads data from data buffer
1 X X X USART is not selected
Blk diagram of Trn and Rcv section
• Transmitter section
– TxD: serial bits are tran on
this line.
– TxC: controls bit trans rate.
Clk freq can be 1,16,64
times the baud.
– TxRDY: o/p signal,high
indicates the trans buffer is
empty and USRT ready to
accept a byte. Signal is
reset when data is loaded
in the buffer.
– TxE: o/p signal High
indicates that the O/P
register is empty. Reset
when a byte is trnasferd
frm buffer to o/p rgstr.
Receiver section
• RxD: bits are rcvd serially on this line
• RxC: controls the rate at which bits are
rcvd by USART. In asych mode, it can be
1, 16 or 64 times the baud.
• RxRDY: it goes high when USART has a
char on the input buffer register and ready
to transfer it to MPU. Can be used either
to indicate the status or to interrupt MPU.
Initializing 8251A
• Mode, baud, stop bits, parity, etc.
• Control word: a) mode word b) command word
• After a reset operation, a mode word must be written in
the control register followed by a command word.
Command word can be changed at any time during
operation, but mode can only be changed only after a
reset operation. It can be reset using internal reset bit
(D6) in the command word.
Interfacing RS232 terminal using
8251A
• TxC is 153.6 kHz.
• Asycn mode with 9600 baud
• Character length = 7 bits, two stop
bits
• No parity check.
• Port add
– Data register: FEh
– Control/status register: FFh
•Mode word:
D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0
1 1 0 0 1 0 1 0 =CAh

No parity Baud= TxC/16=153.6k/16 = 9600


Stop bits 7 bits chr

•Command word (asynch mode):


D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0
X 0 X 1 X 0 X 1 =11h

Prvnts Err Rst Rcv Disbl Tr Enbl


Intrnal
reset
•Status word:
D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0
X X X X X X X 1 =01h

Tr rdy
Initialization intruction:
SETUP: MVI A, CAh ; load mode word
OUT FFh ; write mode word to control rgstr
MVI A, 11h ; load command word
OUT FFh ; enable trnsmitter
STATUS: IN FFh ; read stats word
ANI 01h ; mask all bits except D0
JZ STATUS ; if D0 = 0, Tr buffer is full, go back and wait
PROGRAMMABLE INTERVAL TIMER (8253/8254)
• The following fig shows a schematic diagram containing an 8-bit bidirectional port, 5-
bit control port and the relation of INTR with the control pins. Port B can either be set
to Mode 0 or 1 with port A( Group A ) is in Mode 2.
• Mode 2 is not available for port B. The following fig shows the control word.
• The INTR goes high only if either IBF, INTE2, STB and RD go high or OBF,INTE1,
ACK and WR go high. The port C can be read to know the status of the peripheral
device, in terms of the control signals, using the normal I/O instructions.
• Compatible with All Intel and Most other Microprocessors
• Handles Inputs from DC to 10 MHz
• 8 MHz 8254
• 10 MHz 8254-2
• Status Read-Back Command
• Six Programmable Counter Modes
• Three Independent 16-Bit Counters
• Binary or BCD Counting
• Single a 5V Supply
• Standard Temperature Range
• The Intel 8254 is a counter/timer device designed to solve the common timing control
problems in microcomputer system design.
• It provides three independent 16-bit counters, each capable of handling clock inputs up
to 10 MHz.
• All modes are software programmable. The 8254 is a superset of the 8253.
• The 8254 uses HMOS technology and comes in a 24-pin plastic or CERDIP package.
BLOCK DIAGRAM
Functional Description
• The 8254 is a programmable interval timer/counter designed for use with Intel microcomputer
systems.
• It is a general purpose, multi-timing element that can be treated as an array of I/O ports in the
system software.
• The 8254 solves one of the most common problems in any microcomputer system, the
generation of accurate time delays under software control. Instead of setting up timing
loops in software, the programmer configures the 8254 to match his requirements and
programs one of the counters for the desired delay.
• After the desired delay, the 8254 will interrupt the CPU. Software overhead is minimal
and variable length delays can easily be accommodated. Some of the other counter/timer
functions common to microcomputers which can be implemented with the 8254 are:
Real time clock
Event-counter
Digital one-shot
Programmable rate generator
Square wave generator
Binary rate multiplier
Complex waveform generator
Complex motor controller
• DATA BUS BUFFER: This 3-state, bi-directional, 8-bit buffer is used to interface
the 8254 to the system bus, see the figure : Block Diagram Showing Data Bus Buffer
and Read/Write Logic Functions.
• READ/WRITE LOGIC : The Read/Write Logic accepts inputs from the system bus
and generates control signals for the other functional blocks of the 8254. A1 and A0
select one of the three counters or the Control Word Register to be read from/written
into.
• A “low” on the RD input tells the 8254 that the CPU is reading one of the counters.
• A “low” on the WR input tells the 8254 that the CPU is writing either a Control Word
or an initial count. Both RD and WR are qualified by CS; RD and WR are ignored
unless the 8254 has been selected by holding CS low.
• CONTROL WORD REGISTER :The Control Word Register is selected by the
Read/Write Logic when A1,A0 = 11. CPU then does a write operation to the 8254, the
data is stored in the Control Word Register and is interpreted as a Control Word used
to define the operation of the Counters.
• The Control Word Register can only be written to; status information is available with
the Read-Back Command.
• COUNTER 0, COUNTER 1, COUNTER 2 :
These three functional blocks are identical in operation, so only a single Counter will
be described.
• The Counters are fully independent. Each Counter may operate in a different mode.
Each counter has 3 logical lines Clock (CLK) ,Gate and Out. Clock and Gate are input
signals and OUT is the output signal. The functions of these lines changes depending
on how the device is initialized. Gate signals act as start pulse , depending on the mode
of operation of the counter. Clock acts as clock input to the counter. Each counter is
a 16-bit presettable down counter. The counter can be easily read by the CPU and the
data of the counter will not be altered.
Read/write control supports five control signals RD, WR, A0, A1 and CS.
The functions of first four control signals are tabulated above. Address lines A0 and A1
selects Counter 0 or Counter 1 Counter 2 or the Control word register. Based on the RD
or WR signals are enabled at a particular time determines that the selected counter or the
control word register can be read or written into.
Operating Modes of 8253/8254:
The timer can be operated in six different operating modes . These six modes are
denoted as mode 0, mode 1, mode 2, mode 3, mode 4, and mode 5.
Mode 0:
Interrupt on Terminal Count: The counter will be programmed to an initial value
afterwards counts down at a rate equal to the input clock frequency. When the count becomes
zero the OUT pin will be at logic 1. The output will stay at logic 1 until the counter is reloaded
with a new value or the same value or the control word is written in to the device. Once the
counter starts counting down the GATE input can disable the internal conting by setting the
GATE to logic 0.
Mode 1:
Programmable one-Shot: In mode 1 the device can be setup to give an output pulse that
is an integer number of clock pulses. The one-shot is triggered on rising edge of the GATE
input. If the trigger occurs during the pulse output the 8253/8254 will be retriggered again.
Mode 2:
Rate Generator: In this mode the counter behaves as a “ divide by N “ counter. The
OUT pin of the counter goes to low for one input clock period. The time between the pulses of
going low is dependent on the present count in the counter’s register. The formula to find the
count value, which have to be loaded in the counter is determined by input clock frequency
and the output clock frequency.
Count N = Fi / Fo =Input clock frequency / Output clock frequency
Mode 3:
Square wave generator: Mode 3 is same as mode 2 except that the output will be high for
half the period and low for half. If the count is odd the output will be high for (n+1)/2 and low
for (n-1)/2 counts.
Mode 4:
Software Triggered Strobe:In this mode the OUT is initially high. The counter is loaded
with an initial value and upon the terminal count the output will go to a logic 0 for one clock
period and then return to logic1.
Mode 5:
Hardware Triggered Strobe:This mode is similar to Mode 4. In this mode the rising edge
of the trigger input will start counting of the counter. The output goes low for one clock at the
terminal count. The counter is retriggerable i.e if the trigger input is taken low and then high
during a count sequence the sequence will start over. When the external trigger input goes to
logic 1 the timer will start to time out. If the external trigger occurs again prior to the time
completing a full time out the timer will retrigger.
8254
• Compatible with All Intel and Most other Microprocessors
• Handles Inputs from DC to 10 MHz
8 MHz 8254
10 MHz 8254-2
• Status Read-Back Command
• Six Programmable Counter Modes
• Three Independent 16-Bit Counters
• Binary or BCD Counting
• Single a 5V Supply
• Standard Temperature Range

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 1


8254 (cont..)

• The Intel 8254 is a counter/timer device designed to solve


the common timing control problems in microcomputer
system design.
• It provides three independent 16-bit counters, each capable
of handling clock inputs up to 10 MHz.
• All modes are software programmable. The 8254 is a
superset of the 8253.
• The 8254 uses HMOS technology and comes in a 24-pin
plastic or CERDIP package.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 2


Figure 1. Pin Configuration
M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 3
Figure 2. 8254 Block Diagram
M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 4
Pin Description
Pin Type Name and Function
Symbol
No.
D7-D0 1-8 I/O DATA: Bi-directional three state data bus
lines, connected to system data bus.
CLK 0 9 I CLOCK 0: Clock input of Counter 0.
OUT 0 10 O OUTPUT 0: Output of Counter 0.
GATE 0 11 I GATE 0: Gate input of Counter 0.

GND 12 GROUND: Power supply connection.


VCC 24 POWER: A 5V power supply connection.
WR 23 WRITE CONTROL: This input is low during
I
CPU write operations.
READ CONTROL: This input is low during
RD 22 I
CPU read operations.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 5


Pin Description (cont..)
CHIP SELECT: A low on this input enables the
CS 21 I 8254 to respond to RD and WR signals. RD and
WR are ignored otherwise.
A1, A0 20 – 9 I ADDRESS: Used to select one of the three
Counters or the Control Word Register for read
or write operations. Normally connected to the
system address bus.
A1 A0 Selects
0 0 Counter 0
0 1 Counter 1
1 0 Counter 2
1 1 Control Word Register
CLK 2 18 I CLOCK 2: Clock input of Counter 2.
OUT 2 17 O OUT 2: Output of Counter 2.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 6


Pin Description (cont..)
GATE 2 16 I GATE 2: Gate input of Counter 2.

CLK 1 15 I CLOCK 1: Clock input of Counter 1.

GATE 1 14 I GATE 1: Gate input of Counter 1.


OUT 1 OUT 1 O OUT 1: Output of Counter 1.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 7


Functional Description

• The 8254 is a programmable interval timer/counter


designed for use with Intel microcomputer systems.
• It is a general purpose, multi-timing element that can be
treated as an array of I/O ports in the system software.
• The 8254 solves one of the most common problems in any
microcomputer system, the generation of accurate time
delays under software control. Instead of setting up timing
loops in software, the programmer configures the 8254 to
match his requirements and programs one of the counters
for the desired delay.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 8


Functional Description (cont..)

• After the desired delay, the 8254 will interrupt the CPU.
Software overhead is minimal and variable length delays
can easily be accommodated.
• Some of the other counter/timer functions common to
microcomputers which can be implemented with the 8254
are:
• Real time clock
• Event-counter
• Digital one-shot

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 9


Functional Description (cont..)
• Programmable rate generator
• Square wave generator
• Binary rate multiplier
• Complex waveform generator
• Complex motor controller

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 10


Block Diagram

• DATA BUS BUFFER: This 3-state, bi-directional, 8-bit


buffer is used to interface the 8254 to the system bus, see
the figure below : Block Diagram Showing Data Bus
Buffer and Read/Write Logic Functions.
• READ/WRITE LOGIC : The Read/Write Logic accepts
inputs from the system bus and generates control signals
for the other functional blocks of the 8254. A1 and A0
select one of the three counters or the Control Word
Register to be read from/written into.
• A “low” on the RD input tells the 8254 that the CPU is
reading one of the counters.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 11


Figure 3. Block Diagram Showing Data Bus Buffer and Read/Write Logic Functions
M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 12
Block Diagram (cont..)

• A “low” on the WR input tells the 8254 that the CPU is


writing either a Control Word or an initial count. Both RD
and WR are qualified by CS; RD and WR are ignored
unless the 8254 has been selected by holding CS low.
• CONTROL WORD REGISTER :The Control Word
Register (see Figure 4) is selected by the Read/Write Logic
when A1,A0 = 11. If the CPU then does a write operation to
the 8254, the data is stored in the Control Word Register
and is interpreted as a Control Word used to define the
operation of the Counters.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 13


Figure 4. Block Diagram Showing Control Word Register and Counter Functions

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 14


Block Diagram (cont..)
• The Control Word Register can only be written to; status
information is available with the Read-Back Command.
• COUNTER 0, COUNTER 1, COUNTER 2 :These three
functional blocks are identical in operation, so only a
single Counter will be described. The internal block
diagram of a single counter is shown in Figure 5.
• The Counters are fully independent. Each Counter may
operate in a different Mode.
• The Control Word Register is shown in the figure; it is not
part of the Counter itself, but its contents determine how
the Counter operates.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 15


Block Diagram (cont..)
• The status register, shown in Figure 5, when latched,
contains the current contents of the Control Word Register
and status of the output and null count flag. (See detailed
explanation of the Read-Back command.)
• The actual counter is labelled CE (for ``Counting
Element''). It is a 16-bit presettable synchronous down
counter. OLM and OLL are two 8-bit latches. OL stands
for ``Output Latch''; the subscripts M and L stand for
``Most significant byte'' and ``Least significant byte'‘
respectively.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 16


Figure 5. Internal Block Diagram of a Counter

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 17


Block Diagram (cont..)
• Both are normally referred to as one unit and called just
OL. These latches normally ``follow'‘ the CE, but if a
suitable Counter Latch Command is sent to the 8254, the
latches ``latch'' the present count until read by the CPU and
then return to ``following'' the CE.
• One latch at a time is enabled by the counter's Control
Logic to drive the internal bus. This is how the 16-bit
Counter communicates over the 8-bit internal bus. Note
that the CE itself cannot be read; whenever you read the
count, it is the OL that is being read.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 18


Block Diagram (cont..)
• Similarly, there are two 8-bit registers called CRM and
CRL (for ``Count Register''). Both are normally referred to
as one unit and called just CR.
• When a new count is written to the Counter, the count is
stored in the CR and later transferred to the CE. The
Control Logic allows one register at a time to be loaded
from the internal bus. Both bytes are transferred to the CE
simultaneously.
• CRM and CRL are cleared when the Counter is
programmed. In this way, if the Counter has been
programmed for one byte counts (either most significant
byte only or least significant byte only) the other byte will
be zero.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 19


Block Diagram (cont..)
• Note that the CE cannot be written into, whenever a count
is written, it is written into the CR.
• The Control Logic is also shown in the diagram.
• CLK n, GATE n, and OUT n are all connected to the
outside world through the Control Logic.
• 8254 SYSTEM INTERFACE :The 8254 is a component
of the Intel Microcomputer Systems and interfaces in the
same manner as all other peripherals of the family.
• It is treated by the system's software as an array of
peripheral I/O ports; three are counters and the fourth is a
control register for MODE programming.

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Block Diagram (cont..)
• Basically, the select inputs A0,A1 connect to the A0,A1
address bus signals of the CPU. The CS can be derived
directly from the address bus using a linear select method.
Or it can be connected to the output of a decoder, such as
an Intel 8205 for larger systems.
• Programming the 8254 :Counters are programmed by
writing a Control Word and then an initial count.
• The Control Words are written into the Control Word
Register, which is selected when A1,A0 = 11. The Control
Word itself specifies which Counter is being programmed.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 21


Figure 6. 8254 System Interface

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 22


Block Diagram (cont..)
• Control Word Format: A1,A0 = 11, CS = 0, RD = 1,
WR = 0.
• By contrast, initial counts are written into the Counters, not
the Control Word Register. The A1,A0 inputs are used to
select the Counter to be written into. The format of the
initial count is determined by the Control Word used.
• Write Operations: The programming procedure for the
8254 is very flexible. Only two conventions need to be
remembered:
1) For each Counter, the Control Word must be written before
the initial count is written.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 23


Block Diagram (cont..)
2) The initial count must follow the count format specified in
the Control Word (least significant byte only, most
significant byte only, or least significant byte and then
most significant byte).
• Since the Control Word Register and the three Counters
have separate addresses (selected by the A1,A0 inputs), and
each Control Word specifies the Counter it applies to
(SC0,SC1 bits), no special instruction sequence is required.
• Any programming sequence that follows the conventions
in Figure 7 is acceptable.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 24


NOTE: Don't care bits (X) should be 0 to insure compatibility with future Intel products.
Figure 7. Control Word Format

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 25


Block Diagram (cont..)
• A new initial count may be written to a Counter at any
time without affecting the Counter's programmed Mode in
any way. Counting will be affected as described in the
Mode definitions. The new count must follow the
programmed count format.
• If a Counter is programmed to read/write two-byte counts,
the following precaution applies: A program must not
transfer control between writing the first and second byte
to another routine which also writes into that same
Counter. Otherwise, the Counter will be loaded with an
incorrect count.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 26


Figure 8. A Few Possible Programming Sequences

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 27


Block Diagram (cont..)
• Read Operations: It is often desirable to read the value of
a Counter without disturbing the count in progress. This is
easily done in the 8254.
• There are three possible methods for reading the counters:
a simple read operation, the Counter Latch Command, and
the Read-Back Command.
• Each is explained below. The first method is to perform a
simple read operation. To read the Counter, which is
selected with the A1, A0 inputs, the CLK input of the
selected Counter must be inhibited by using either the
GATE input or external logic.
• Otherwise, the count may be in the process of changing
when it is read, giving an undefined result.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 28


Block Diagram (cont..)
• COUNTER LATCH COMMAND: The second method
uses the ``Counter Latch Command''.
• Like a Control Word, this command is written to the
Control Word Register, which is selected when A1,A0 =
11. Also like a Control Word, the SC0, SC1 bits select one
of the three Counters, but two other bits, D5 and D4,
distinguish this command from a Control Word.
• The selected Counter's output latch (OL) latches the count
at the time the Counter Latch Command is received. This
count is held in the latch until it is read by the CPU (or
until the Counter is reprogrammed).

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 29


Figure 9. Counter Latching Command Format

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 30


Block Diagram (cont..)
• The count is then unlatched automatically and the OL
returns to ``following'' the counting element (CE).
• This allows reading the contents of the Counters ``on the
fly'' without affecting counting in progress.
• Multiple Counter Latch Commands may be used to latch
more than one Counter. Each latched Counter's OL holds
its count until it is read.
• Counter Latch Commands do not affect the programmed
Mode of the Counter in any way.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 31


Block Diagram (cont..)
• If a Counter is latched and then, some time later, latched
again before the count is read, the second Counter Latch
Command is ignored. The count read will be the count at
the time the first Counter Latch Command was issued.
• With either method, the count must be read according to
the programmed format; specifically, if the Counter is
programmed for two byte counts, two bytes must be read.
The two bytes do not have to be read one right after the
other, read or write or programming operations of other
Counters may be inserted between them.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 32


Block Diagram (cont..)
• Another feature of the 8254 is that reads and writes of the
same Counter may be interleaved.
• Example: If the Counter is programmed for two byte
counts, the following sequence is valid.
1) Read least significant byte.
2) Write new least significant byte.
3) Read most significant byte.
4) Write new most significant byte.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 33


Block Diagram (cont..)
• If a Counter is programmed to read/write two-byte counts,
the following precaution applies: A program must not
transfer control between reading the first and second byte
to another routine which also reads from that same
Counter. Otherwise, an incorrect count will be read.
• READ-BACK COMMAND: The third method uses the
Read-Back Command. This command allows the user to
check the count value, programmed Mode, and current
states of the OUT pin and Null Count flag of the selected
counter (s).

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 34


Block Diagram (cont..)

• The command is written into the Control Word Register


and has the format shown in Figure 10. The command
applies to the counters selected by setting their
corresponding bits D3, D2, D1 = 1.
• The read-back command may be used to latch multiple
counter output latches (OL) by setting the COUNT bit
D5 = 0 and selecting the desired counter (s). This single
command is functionally equivalent to several counter
latch commands, one for each counter latched.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 35


Figure 10. Read-Back Command Format

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 36


Block Diagram (cont..)

• Each counter's latched count is held until it is read (or the


counter is reprogrammed).
• The counter is automatically unlatched when read, but
other counters remain latched until they are read. If
multiple count read-back commands are issued to the same
counter without reading the count, all but the first are
ignored; i.e., the count which will be read is the count at
the time the first read-back command was issued.
• The read-back command may also be used to latch status
information of selected counter (s) by setting STATUS bit
D4 = 0. Status must be latched to be read; status of a
counter is accessed by a read from that counter.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 37


Block Diagram (cont..)
• The counter status format is shown in Figure 11.
• Bits D5 through D0 contain the counter's programmed
Mode exactly as written in the last Mode Control Word.
OUTPUT bit D7 contains the current state of the OUT pin.
• This allows the user to monitor the counter's output via
software, possibly eliminating some hardware from a
system. NULL COUNT bit D6 indicates when the last
count written to the counter register (CR) has been loaded
into the counting element (CE).
• The exact time this happens depends on the Mode of the
counter and is described in the Mode Definitions, but until
the count is loaded into the counting element (CE), it can't
be read from the counter.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 38


Figure 11. Status Byte

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 39


Block Diagram (cont..)
• If the count is latched or read before this time, the count
value will not reflect the new count just written. The
operation of Null Count is shown in Figure 12.
• If multiple status latch operations of the counter (s) are
performed without reading the status, all but the first are
ignored; i.e., the status that will be read is the status of the
counter at the time the first status read-back command was
issued.
• Both count and status of the selected counter (s) may be
latched simultaneously by setting both COUNT and
STATUS bits D5,D4 = 0. This is functionally the same as
issuing two separate read-back commands at once, and the
above discussions apply here also.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 40


Figure 12. Null Count Operation

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 41


Block Diagram (cont..)

• Specifically, if multiple count and/or status read-back


commands are issued to the same counter (s) without any
intervening reads, all but the first are ignored. This is
illustrated in Figure 13.
• If both count and status of a counter are latched, the first
read operation of that counter will return latched status,
regardless of which was latched first. The next one or two
reads (depending on whether the counter is programmed
for one or two type counts) return latched count.
Subsequent reads return unlatched count.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 42


Figure 13. Read-Back Command Example

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 43


Figure 14. Read/Write Operations Summary

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 44


Modes (cont..)
• Mode Definitions :The following are defined for use in
describing the operation of the 8254.
• CLK Pulse: A rising edge, then a falling edge, in that
order, of a Counter's CLK input.
• Trigger: A rising edge of a Counter's GATE input.
• Counter loading: The transfer of a count from the CR to
the CE (refer to the ``Functional Description'').
• MODE 0: INTERRUPT ON TERMINAL COUNT :
Mode 0 is typically used for event counting. After the
Control Word is written, OUT is initially low, and will
remain low until the Counter reaches zero.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 45


Modes (cont..)
• OUT then goes high and remains high until a new count or
a new Mode 0 Control Word is written into the Counter.
• GATE = 1 enables counting; GATE = 0 disables counting.
GATE has no effect on OUT.
• After the Control Word and initial count are written to a
Counter, the initial count will be loaded on the next CLK
pulse. This CLK pulse does not decrement the count, so for
an initial count of N, OUT does not go high until N a 1
CLK pulses after the initial count is written.
• If a new count is written to the Counter, it will be loaded
on the next CLK pulse and counting will continue from the
new count. If a two-byte count is written, the following
happens:

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 46


Modes (cont..)

1) Writing the first byte disables counting. OUT is set low


immediately (no clock pulse required).
2) Writing the second byte allows the new count to be loaded
on the next CLK pulse.
• This allows the counting sequence to be synchronized by
software. Again, OUT does not go high until Na1 CLK
pulses after the new count of N is written.
• If an initial count is written while GATE e 0, it will still be
loaded on the next CLK pulse. When GATE goes high,
OUT will go high N CLK pulses later; no CLK pulse is
needed to load the Counter as this has already been done.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 47


Figure 15. Mode 0

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 48


Modes (cont..)
Note:
1. Counters are programmed for binary (not BCD) counting
and for reading/writing least significant byte (LSB) only.
2. The counter is always selected (CS always low).
3. CW stands for ``Control Word''; CW = 10 means a control
word of 10 HEX is written to the counter.
4. LSB stands for ``Least Significant Byte'' of count.
5. Numbers below diagrams are count values. The lower
number is the least significant byte. The upper number is the
most significant byte. Since the counter is programmed to
read/write LSB only, the most significant byte cannot be
read. N stands for an undefined count. Vertical lines show
transitions between count values.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 49


Modes (cont..)

• MODE 1: HARDWARE RETRIGGERABLE ONE-


SHOT: OUT will be initially high.
• OUT will go low on the CLK pulse following a trigger to
begin the one-shot pulse, and will remain low until the
Counter reaches zero.
• OUT will then go high and remain high until the CLK
pulse after the next trigger.
• After writing the Control Word and initial count, the
Counter is armed. A trigger results in loading the Counter
and setting OUT low on the next CLK pulse, thus starting
the one-shot pulse. An initial count of N will result in a
one-shot pulse N CLK cycles in duration.

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Modes (cont..)

• The one-shot is retriggerable, hence OUT will remain low


for N CLK pulses after any trigger. The one-shot pulse can
be repeated without rewriting the same count into the
counter. GATE has no effect on OUT.
• If a new count is written to the Counter during a oneshot
pulse, the current one-shot is not affected unless the
counter is retriggered. In that case, the Counter is loaded
with the new count and the oneshot pulse continues until
the new count expires.

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Figure 16. Mode 1

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 52


Modes (cont..)
• MODE 2: RATE GENERATOR: This Mode functions
like a divide-by-N counter. It is typically used to generate a
Real Time Clock interrupt.
• OUT will initially be high. When the initial count has
decremented to 1, OUT goes low for one CLK pulse. OUT
then goes high again, the Counter reloads the initial count
and the process is repeated.
• Mode 2 is periodic, the same sequence is repeated
indefinitely. For an initial count of N, the sequence repeats
every N CLK cycles.
• GATE = 1 enables counting; GATE = 0 disables counting.
If GATE goes low during an output pulse, OUT is set high
immediately.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 53


Modes (cont..)

• A trigger reloads the Counter with the initial count on the


next CLK pulse, OUT goes low N CLK pulses after the
trigger. Thus the GATE input can be used to synchronize
the Counter.
• After writing a Control Word and initial count, the Counter
will be loaded on the next CLK pulse. OUT goes low N
CLK Pulses after the initial count is written.
• This allows the Counter to be synchronized by software
also. Writing a new count while counting does not affect
the current counting sequence.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 54


Modes (cont..)

• If a trigger is received after writing a new count but before


the end of the current period, the Counter will be loaded
with the new count on the next CLK pulse and counting
will continue from the new count.
• Otherwise, the new count will be loaded at the end of the
current counting cycle. In mode 2, a COUNT of 1 is
illegal.
• MODE 3: SQUARE WAVE MODE :Mode 3 is typically
used for Baud rate generation. Mode 3 is similar to Mode 2
except for the duty cycle of OUT. OUT will initially be
high.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 55


Figure 17. Mode 2
M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 56
Modes (cont..)

• When half the initial count has expired, OUT goes low for
the remainder of the count. Mode 3 is periodic; the
sequence above is repeated indefinitely.
• An initial count of N results in a square wave with a
period of N CLK cycles. GATE = 1 enables counting;
GATE = 0 disables counting. If GATE goes low while
OUT is low, OUT is set high immediately; no CLK pulse
is required.
• A trigger reloads the Counter with the initial count on the
next CLK pulse. Thus the GATE input can be used to
synchronize the Counter.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 57


Modes (cont..)

• After writing a Control Word and initial count, the Counter


will be loaded on the next CLK pulse. This allows the
Counter to be synchronized by software also.
• Writing a new count while counting does not affect the
current counting sequence. If a trigger is received after
writing a new count but before the end of the current half-
cycle of the square wave, the Counter will be loaded with
the new count on the next CLK pulse and counting will
continue from the new count. Otherwise, the new count
will be loaded at the end of the current half-cycle.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 58


Modes (cont..)

• Mode 3:Even counts: OUT is initially high. The initial


count is loaded on one CLK pulse and then is decremented
by two on succeeding CLK pulses.
• When the count expires OUT changes value and the
Counter is reloaded with the initial count. The above
process is repeated indefinitely.
• Odd counts: OUT is initially high. The initial count minus
one (an even number) is loaded on one CLK pulse and
then is decremented by two on succeeding CLK pulses.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 59


Figure 18. Mode 3
M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 60
Modes (cont..)

• One CLK pulse after the count expires, OUT goes low and
the Counter is reloaded with the initial count minus one.
• Succeeding CLK pulses decrement the count by two.
• When the count expires, OUT goes high again and the
Counter is reloaded with the initial count minus one. The
above process is repeated indefinitely.
• So for odd counts, OUT will be high for (N - 1)/2 counts
and low for (N - 1)/2 counts.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 61


Modes (cont..)

• MODE 4: SOFTWARE TRIGGERED STROBE :


• OUT will be initially high. When the initial count expires,
OUT will go low for one CLK pulse and then go high
again. The counting sequence is ``triggered'‘ by writing the
initial count.
• GATE = 1 enables counting; GATE = 0 disables counting.
GATE has no effect on OUT. After writing a Control
Word and initial count, the Counter will be loaded on the
next CLK pulse.
• This CLK pulse does not decrement the count, so for an
initial count of N, OUT does not strobe low until N + 1
CLK pulses after the initial count is written.

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Modes (cont..)

• If a new count is written during counting, it will be loaded


on the next CLK pulse and counting will continue from
the new count. If a two-byte count is written, the
following happens:
1) Writing the first byte has no effect on counting.
2) Writing the second byte allows the new count to be loaded
on the next CLK pulse.
• This allows the sequence to be ``retriggered'' by software.
OUT strobes low N a 1 CLK pulses after the new count of
N is written.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 63


Figure 19. Mode 4

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 64


Modes (cont..)

• MODE 5: HARDWARE TRIGGERED STROBE


(RETRIGGERABLE) :OUT will initially be high.
Counting is triggered by a rising edge of GATE. When the
initial count has expired, OUT will go low for one CLK
pulse and then go high again.
• After writing the Control Word and initial count, the
counter will not be loaded until the CLK pulse after a
trigger. This CLK pulse does not decrement the count, so
for an initial count of N, OUT does not strobe low until
N = 1 CLK pulses after a trigger.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 65


Modes (cont..)

• A trigger results in the Counter being loaded with the


initial count on the next CLK pulse. The counting
sequence is retriggerable. OUT will not strobe low for N a
1 CLK pulses after any trigger. GATE has no effect on
OUT.
• If a new count is written during counting, the current
counting sequence will not be affected. If a trigger occurs
after the new count is written but before the current count
expires, the Counter will be loaded with the new count on
the next CLK pulse and counting will continue from there.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 66


Figure 20. Mode 5

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 67


Modes (cont..)

• Operation Common to All Modes:


• PROGRAMMING: When a Control Word is written to a
Counter, all Control Logic is immediately reset and OUT
goes to a known initial state; no CLK pulses are required
for this.
• GATE: The GATE input is always sampled on the rising
edge of CLK. In Modes 0, 2, 3, and 4 the GATE input is
level sensitive, and the logic level is sampled on the rising
edge of CLK. In Modes 1, 2, 3, and 5 the GATE input is
rising-edge sensitive.

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Modes (cont..)

• In these Modes, a rising edge of GATE (trigger) sets an


edge-sensitive flip-flop in the Counter. This flip-flop is
then sampled on the next rising edge of CLK; the flip-flop
is reset immediately after it is sampled. In this way, a
trigger will be detected no matter when it occurs-a high
logic level does not have to be maintained until the next
rising edge of CLK.
• Note that in Modes 2 and 3, the GATE input is both edge-
and level-sensitive. In Modes 2 and 3, if a CLK source
other than the system clock is used, GATE should be
pulsed immediately following WR of a new count value.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 69


Figure 21. Gate Pin Operations Summary
M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 70
Modes (cont..)

• COUNTER: New counts are loaded and Counters are


decremented on the falling edge of CLK.
• The largest possible initial count is 0, this is equivalent to
16 for binary counting and 4 for BCD counting. The
2 10
Counter does not stop when it reaches zero.
• In Modes 0, 1, 4, and 5 the Counter ``wraps around'' to the
highest count, either FFFF hex for binary counting or 9999
for BCD counting and continues counting.
• Modes 2 and 3 are periodic; the Counter reloads itself with
the initial count and continues counting from there.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 71


NOTE: 0 is equivalent to 216 for binary counting and 104 for BCD counting.

Figure 22. Minimum and Maximum Initial Counts

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9a/V1/2004 72


Programmable Peripheral Interface (8255)

• The parallel input-output port chip 8255 is also called as programmable peripheral
input-output port. The Intel’s 8255 is designed for use with Intel’s 8- bit, 16-bit and
higher capability microprocessors. It has 24 input/output lines which may be individually
programmed in two groups of twelve lines each, or three groups of eight lines. The two
groups of I/O pins are named as Group A and Group B. Each of these two groups
contains a subgroup of eight I/O lines called as 8-bit port and another subgroup of four
lines or a 4-bit port. Thus Group A contains an 8-bit port A along with a 4-bit port. C
upper.
• The port A lines are identified by symbols PA0-PA7 while the port C lines are identified
as PC4-PC7. Similarly, Group B contains an 8-bit port B, containing lines PB0-PB7
and a 4-bit port C with lower bits PC0- PC3. The port C upper and port C lower can be
used in combination as an 8-bit port C.
• Both the port C are assigned the same address. Thus one may have either three 8- bit
I/O ports or two 8-bit and two 4-bit ports from 8255. All of these ports can function
independently either as input or as output ports. This can be achieved by programming
the bits of an internal register of 8255 called as control word register ( CWR ).
• The internal block diagram and the pin configuration of 8255 are shown in fig.
• The 8-bit data bus buffer is controlled by the read/write control logic. The read/write
control logic manages all of the internal and external transfers of both data and control
words.
• RD, WR, A1, A0 and RESET are the inputs provided by the microprocessor to the
READ/ WRITE control logic of 8255. The 8-bit, 3-state bidirectional buffer is used to
interface the 8255 internal data bus with the external system data bus.
• This buffer receives or transmits data upon the execution of input or output instructions
by the microprocessor. The control words or status information is also transferred
through the buffer.
• The signal description of 8255 are briefly presented as follows :
• PA7−PA0: These are eight port A lines that acts as either latched output or buffered
input lines depending upon the control word loaded into the control word register.
• PC7−PC4 : Upper nibble of port C lines. They may act as either output latches or
input buffers lines.
• This port also can be used for generation of handshake lines in mode 1 or mode 2.
• PC3−PC0 : These are the lower port C lines, other details are the same as PC7−PC4
lines.
• PB0−PB7 : These are the eight port B lines which are used as latched output lines or
buffered input lines in the same way as port A.
• RD : This is the input line driven by the microprocessor and should be low to indicate
read operation to 8255.
• WR : This is an input line driven by the microprocessor. A low on this line indicates
write operation.
• CS : This is a chip select line. If this line goes low, it enables the 8255 to respond to RD
and WR signals, otherwise RD and WR signal are neglected.
• A1−A0 : These are the address input lines and are driven by the microprocessor.
These lines A1-A0 with RD, WR and CS from the following operations for 8255.
These address lines are used for addressing any one of the four registers, i.e. three
ports and a control word register as given in table below.
• In case of 8086 systems, if the 8255 is to be interfaced with lower order data bus, the
A0 and A1 pins of 8255 are connected with A1 and A2 respectively.
• D0−D7 : These are the data bus lines those carry data or control word to/from the
microprocessor.
• RESET : A logic high on this line clears the control word register of 8255. All ports are
set as input ports by default after reset.

Block Diagram of 8255


• It has a 40 pins of 4 groups.
1. Data bus buffer
2. Read Write control logic
3. Group A and Group B controls
4. Port A, B and C
• Data bus buffer: This is a tristate bidirectional buffer used to interface the 8255 to
system databus. Data is transmitted or received by the buffer on execution of input or
output instruction by the CPU.
• Control word and status information are also transferred through this unit.
• Read/Write control logic: This unit accepts control signals ( RD, WR ) and also
inputs from address bus and issues commands to individual group of control blocks (
Group A, Group B).
• It has the following pins.
a) CS – Chip select : A low on this PIN enables the communication between CPU
and 8255.
b) RD (Read) – A low on this pin enables the CPU to read the data in the ports or
the status word through data bus buffer.
c) WR ( Write ) : A low on this pin, the CPU can write data on to the ports or on to
the control register through the data bus buffer.
d) RESET: A high on this pin clears the control register and all ports are set to the
input mode
e) A0 and A1 ( Address pins ): These pins in conjunction with RD and WR pins
control the selection of one of the 3 ports.
• Group A and Group B controls : These block receive control from the CPU and
issues commands to their respective ports.
• Group A - PA and PCU ( PC7 –PC4)
• Group B - PCL ( PC3 – PC0)
• Control word register can only be written into no read operation of the CW register is
allowed.
a) Port A: This has an 8 bit latched/buffered O/P and 8 bit input latch. It can be
programmed in 3 modes – mode 0, mode 1, mode 2.
b) Port B: This has an 8 bit latched / buffered O/P and 8 bit input latch. It can be
programmed in mode 0, mode1.
c) Port C : This has an 8 bit latched input buffer and 8 bit out put latched/buffer.
This port can be divided into two 4 bit ports and can be used as control signals for
port A and port B. it can be programmed in mode 0.
Modes of Operation of 8255
• There are two basic modes of operation of 8255. I/O mode and Bit Set-Reset mode
(BSR).
• In I/O mode, the 8255 ports work as programmable I/O ports, while in BSR mode only
port C (PC0-PC7) can be used to set or reset its individual port bits.
• Under the I/O mode of operation, further there are three modes of operation of 8255,
so as to support different types of applications, mode 0, mode 1 and mode 2.
• BSR Mode: In this mode any of the 8-bits of port C can be set or reset depending on
D0 of the control word. The bit to be set or reset is selected by bit select flags D3, D2
and D1 of the CWR as given in table.
• I/O Modes :
a) Mode 0 ( Basic I/O mode ): This mode is also called as basic input/output mode.
This mode provides simple input and output capabilities using each of the three
ports. Data can be simply read from and written to the input and output ports
respectively, after appropriate initialization.
• The salient features of this mode are as listed below:
1. Two 8-bit ports ( port A and port B )and two 4-bit ports (port C upper and lower)
are available. The two 4-bit ports can be combinedly used as a third 8-bit port.
2. Any port can be used as an input or output port.
3. Output ports are latched. Input ports are not latched.
4. A maximum of four ports are available so that overall 16 I/O configuration are
possible.
• All these modes can be selected by programming a register internal to 8255 known as
CWR.
• The control word register has two formats. The first format is valid for I/O modes of
operation, i.e. modes 0, mode 1 and mode 2 while the second format is valid for bit set/
reset (BSR) mode of operation.
b) Mode 1: ( Strobed input/output mode ) In this mode the handshaking control the
input
and output action of the specified port. Port C lines PC0-PC2, provide strobe or
handshake
lines for port B. This group which includes port B and PC0-PC2 is called as group B for
Strobed data input/output. Port C lines PC3-PC5 provide strobe lines for port A. This
group
including port A and PC3-PC5 from group A. Thus port C is utilized for generating
handshake
signals. The salient features of mode 1 are listed as follows:
1. Two groups – group A and group B are available for strobed data transfer.
2. Each group contains one 8-bit data I/O port and one 4-bit control/data port.
3. The 8-bit data port can be either used as input and output port. The inputs and
outputs
both are latched.
4. Out of 8-bit port C, PC0-PC2 are used to generate control signals for port B and PC3-
PC5 are used to generate control signals for port A. the lines PC6, PC7 may be used
as independent data lines.
• The control signals for both the groups in input and output modes are explained as
follows:
Input Control Signal Definitions (Mode 1 ):
• STB (Strobe input) – If this lines falls to logic low level, the data available at 8- bit input
port is loaded into input latches.
• IBF (Input buffer full) – If this signal rises to logic 1, it indicates that data has been
loaded into latches, i.e. it works as an acknowledgement. IBF is set by a low on STB
and is reset by the rising edge of RD input.
• INTR (Interrupt request) – This active high output signal can be used to interrupt the
CPU whenever an input device requests the service. INTR is set by a high STB pin
and a high at IBF pin. INTE is an internal flag that can be controlled by the bit set/reset
mode of either PC4(INTEA) or PC2(INTEB) as shown in fig.
• INTR is reset by a falling edge of RD input. Thus an external input device can be
request the service of the processor by putting the data on the bus and sending the
strobe signal.
Output Control Signal Definitions (Mode 1) :
• OBF (Output buffer full ) – This status signal, whenever falls to low, indicates that
CPU has written data to the specified output port. The OBF flip-flop will be set by a
rising edge of WR signal and reset by a low going edge at the ACK input.
• ACK ( Acknowledge input ) – ACK signal acts as an acknowledgement to be given
by an output device. ACK signal, whenever low, informs the CPU that the data
transferred by the CPU to the output device through the port is received by the output
device.
• INTR ( Interrupt request ) – Thus an output signal that can be used to interrupt the
CPU when an output device acknowledges the data received from the CPU. INTR is
set when ACK, OBF and INTE are 1. It is reset by a falling edge on WR input. The
INTEA and INTEB flags are controlled by the bit set-reset mode of PC6 and PC2
respectively.
Mode 2 ( Strobed bidirectional I/O ): This mode of operation of 8255 is also
called
as strobed bidirectional I/O. This mode of operation provides 8255 with an additional
features for communicating with a peripheral device on an 8-bit data bus. Handshaking
signals are provided to maintain proper data flow and synchronization between the
data transmitter and receiver. The interrupt generation and other functions are similar
to mode 1
• In this mode, 8255 is a bidirectional 8-bit port with handshake signals. The RD and WR
signals decide whether the 8255 is going to operate as an input port or output port.
• The salient features of Mode 2 of 8255 are listed as follows:
1. The single 8-bit port in group A is available.
2. The 8-bit port is bidirectional and additionally a 5-bit control port is available.
3. Three I/O lines are available at port C.( PC2 – PC0 )
4. Inputs and outputs are both latched.
5. The 5-bit control port C (PC3-PC7) is used for generating / accepting handshake
signals for the 8-bit data transfer on port A.
• Control signal definitions in mode 2:
• INTR – (Interrupt request) As in mode 1, this control signal is active high and is used
to interrupt the microprocessor to ask for transfer of the next data byte to/from it. This
signal is used for input (read) as well as output (write) operations.
• OBF ( Output buffer full ) – This signal, when falls to low level, indicates that the CPU
has written data to port A.
• ACK ( Acknowledge ) This control input, when falls to logic low level, acknowledges
that the previous data byte is received by the destination and next byte may be sent by
the processor. This signal enables the internal tristate buffers to send the next data
byte on port A.
• INTE1 ( A flag associated with OBF ) This can be controlled by bit set/reset mode
with PC6.
• Control signals for input operations :
• STB (Strobe input ) A low on this line is used to strobe in the data into the input
latches of 8255.
• IBF ( Input buffer full ) When the data is loaded into input buffer, this signal rises to
logic ‘1’. This can be used as an acknowledge that the data has been received by the
receiver.
• The waveforms in fig show the operation in Mode 2 for output as well as input port.
• Note: WR must occur before ACK and STB must be activated before RD.
8253/8254 Data Sheet for Decision Computer 8255/8254 Timer and Counter Card Seite 1 von 16

The 8255A is a programmable peripheral interface (PPI) device designed for use in Intel mic
systems. Its function is that of a general purposes I/O component to Interface peripheral equ
microcomputer system bush. The functional configuration of the 8255A is programmed by th
software so that normally no external logic is necessary to interface peripheral devices or st

Data Bus Buffer

This 3-stable bi-directional 8-bit buffer is used to interface the 8255A to the systems data bu
transmitted or received by the buffer upon execution of input or output instructions by the CP
words and status information are also transferred through the data bus buffer.

Read/Write and Control Logic

The function of this block is to manage all of the Internal and External transfers of both Data
Status words. It accepts inputs from the CPU Address and Control business and in turn, issu
to both of the Control Groups.

(CS)

Chip Select. A ¡§low¡¦ on this input pin enables the communication between the 8255A, and

(RD)

Read. A ¡§low¡¨ on this Input pin enables the 8255A to send the data or status information to
the data bus. In essence, it allows the CPU to ¡§read from the 8255A.

(WR)

Write. A. ¡§ low¡¨ on the input pin enables the CPU to write data or control words into the 82

(A0 and A1)

Port Select 0 and Port Select 1. The Input signals, in conjunction with the RD and WR Input
selection of one of the three ports or the control word registers. They are normally connecte
significant bits of the address bus (A0 and A1).

8255A BASIC OPERATION

___ ___ ___


A1 A0 RD WR CS INPUT OPERATION (READ)

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0 0 0 1 0 PORT A ¡V DATA BUS


0 1 0 1 0 PORT B ¡V DATA BUS
1 0 0 1 0 PORT C ¡V DATA BUS
OUTPUT OPERATION (WRITE)
0 0 1 0 0 DATA BUS ¡V PORT A
0 1 1 0 0 PORT B ¡V DATA BUS
1 0 1 0 0 PORT C ¡V DATA BUS
1 1 1 0 0 DATA BUS ¡V CONTROL
DISABLE FUNCTION
X X X X 1 DATA BUS ¡V 3 STATE
1 1 0 1 0 ILLEGAL CONDITION
X X 1 1 0 DATA BUS ¡V 3 STATE

Figure 3. 8255 A Block Diagram Showing Data Bus Buffer and Read/Write Control Log

(RESET)

Reset. A ¡§high¡¨ on this Input clears the control register and all ports (A, B, C) are set to th

Group A and Group B Controls

The functional configuration of each port is programmed by the systems software. In essenc

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¡§output¡¨ a control word to the 8255A. The control word contains information such as ¡§mo
reset¡¨, etc. that Initializes the functional configuration of the 8255A.

Each of the Control blocks (Group A and Group B) accepts commands from the Read/Write
receives control words from the internal data bus and issues the proper commands to its as

Control Group A ¡V Port A and Port C upper (C7 C4)

Control Group B ¡V Port B and Port C lower (C3 C0)

The Control Word Register can only be written into. No.

Read operation of the Control Word Register is allowed.

Ports A, B, and C

The 8255A contains three 8-bit ports (A , B, and C). All can be configured in a wide variety o
characteristics by the system software but each has its own special features or personally to
the power and flexibility of the 8255A.

Port A. One 8 bit data output latch/buffer and one 8-bit data input latch.

Port B. One 8-bit data output latch/buffer and one 8-bit data input buffer.

Port C. One 8-bit data output latch/buffer and one 8-bit data input buffer (no latch for input).
divided into two 4-bit ports under the mode control. Each 4-bit port contains a 4-bit latch and
for the controls signal outputs and status signal inputs in conjunction with ports A and B.

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D7 ¡V D0 DATA BUS DIRECTIONAL


RESET RESET INPUT
CS CHIP SELECT
RD READ INPUT
WR WRITE INPUT
A0 ¡V A1 PORT ADDRESS
PA 7 PA 0 PORT A (BIT)
PB 7 PB 0 PORT B (BIT)
PC 7 PC 0 PORT C (BIT)
Vcc 5 VOLTS
GND 0 VOLTS

8255A OPERATIONAL DESCRIPTION

Mode Selection

There are three basic modes of operation that can be selected by the systems software:

Mode O ¡V Basic Input/Output

Mode 1 ¡V Strobed Input/Output

Mode 2 ¡V Bi-Directional Bus

When the reset Input goes ¡§high¡¨ all ports will be set to the Input mode (i.e., all 24 lines wi
Impedance state). After the reset is removed the 8255A can remain in the input mode with n
required. During the execution of the systems program any of the other modes may be selec
output Instruction. This allows a single 8255A to service a variety of peripheral devices with
maintenance routine.

The modes for Ports A and Port B can be separately defined, while Port C is divided into two
the Port A and Port B definitions. All of the output registers, including the status flip-flops, wi
mode is changed. Modes may be combined so that their functional definition can be ¡§tailore
stricture. For instance; Group B can be programmed in Mode 0 to monitor simple switch clos
computational results, Group A could be programmed in Mode 1 to monitor a keyboard or ta
interrupt-driven basis.

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Figure 6. Mode Definition Format

The Mode definitions and possible mode combinations may seem confusing at first but after
complete device operation a simple , logical I/O approach will surface. The design of the 825
things such as efficient PC board layout, control signal definition vs PC layout and complete
almost any peripheral device with no use of the available pints.

Single Bit Set/Reset Feature

Any of the eight bits of Port C can be Set or Reset using a single OUT put Instruction. This f
requirements in Control-based applications.

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When Port C is being used as status/control for Port A or B these Bits can be set or reset by
just as if they were data output port.

Interrupt Control Functions

When the 8255A is programmed to operate in mode 1 or mode 2, control signals are provide
request input to the CPU. The interrupt request signal generated from port C, can be inhibite
the associated INTE flip-flop, using the bit set/reset function of port C.

This function allows the Programmer to disallow or allow a specific I/O device to interrupt the
device in the interrupt structure.

INTE flip-flop definition


(BIT-SET) ¡V INTE is SET ¡V Interrupt enable

(BIT-RESET) ¡V INTE is RESET ¡V Interrupt disable

Note: All Mask flip-flops are automatically reset during mode selection and device reset.

Operating Modes

Mode 0 (Basic Input/Output). This functional configuration provides simple input operations f
¡§handshaking¡¨ is required data is simply written to or read from a specified port.

Mode O Basic Functional Definitions:

*Two 8-bit ports and two 4-bit port

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*Any port can be input or output.


*Outputs are not latched.
*Inputs are not latched.
*16 different Input/output configurations are not possible in this Mode.

Mode 0 Configuration

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Operating Modes

MODE 1 (Strobed Input/Output). This functional configuration provides a means for transferr
port in conjunction with strobes or ¡§handshaking¡¨ signals. In mode 1, port A and Port B use
or accept these ¡§handshaking¡¨ signals.

Mode 1 Basic Functional Definitions:

*Two groups (Group A and Group B)


*Each group contains one 8-bit data port and one 4-bit control/data port
*The 8-bit data port can be either Inputs or output Both inputs and outputs are latched.
*The 4-bit port is used for control and status of the 8-bit data port.

Input Control Signal Definition

STB (Strobe Input). A ¡§ low ¡§ on the input loads data into the input latch.

IBF (Input Buffer Full F/F)

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A ¡§high¡¨ on this output indicates that the data has been loaded into the input latch. In esse

IBF is set by STB input being low and is reset by the rising edge of the RD input.

INTR (Interrupt Request)

A ¡§high¡¨ on this output can be used to interrupt the CPU when an input device is requestin
is a ¡§one¡¨, IBF is a ¡§one ¡§ and INTE is ¡§one ¡§. It is reset by the falling edge of RD. This
device to request service from the CPU by simply strobing its data into port.

INTE A

Controlled by bit set/reset of PC4

INTE B

Controlled by set/reset PC2

Output Control Signal Definition

OBF (Output Buffer Full F/F). The OBF output will go ¡§low¡¨ to indicate that the CPU has
The OBF F/F will be set by rising edge of the WR input being low.

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ACK (Acknowledge Input). A ¡§low¡¨ on this input informs the 8255A that the data from po
essence, a response from the peripheral device indicating that it has received the data outpu

INTR (Interrupt Request). A ¡§high¡¨ on the output can be used to interrupt the CPU when
transmitted by the CPU. INTR is set when ACK is a ¡§one¡¨, OBF is a ¡§one¡¨, and INTE is a
edge of WR.

INTE A

Controlled by bit set/reset of PC6.

INTE B

Controlled by bit s
of
PC2.

Combination of MODE 1

Port A and B can be Individually defined as Input or output in Mode 1 to support a wide varle

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Mode 2 (Strobed Bidirectional Bus I/O). This functional configuration provides a means fo
device or structure on a single 8-bit bus for both transmitting and receiving data (bi-direction
are provided to maintain proper bus flow discipline in a similar manner to MODE.

1. Interrupt generation and enable/disable functions are also available.

MODE 2 Basic Functional Definitions:

*Used in Group A only.


*One 8-bit, bi-directional bus Port (Port A) and a 5-bit control Port (Port C).
*Both Inputs and Outputs are latched.
*The 5-bit control port (Port C) is used for control and status for the 8-bit,bi-directional bus po

Bi-directional Bus I/O Control Signal Definition

INTR (Interrupt Request). A high on this output can be used to interrupt the CPU for both in

Output Operations
OBF (Output Buffer Full). The OBF output will go ¡§low¡¨ to indicate that the CPU has writt

ACK (Acknowledge). A ¡§low¡¨ on this input enables the iri-state output buffer of port A to s
output buffer will be in the high impedance state.

INTE 1 (The INTE Flip-Flop Associated with OBF). Controlled by bit set/reset of PC6

Input Operations
STB (Strobe Interrupt)

STB (Strobed Input). A ¡§low¡¨ on this input loads data into the input latch.

IBF (Input Buffer Full F/F). A ¡§high¡¨ on this output indicates that data has been loaded into

INTE 2 (The INTE Flip-Flop Associated with IBF). Controlled by bit set/reset of PC4.

Mode Definition Summary

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Special Mode Combination Considerations

There are several combinations or modes when not all of the bits in Port C are used for cont
can be used as follows:

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If Programmed as Inputs-

All input lines can be accessed during a normal Port C read.

If programmed as Outputs-

Bits in C upper (PC7-PC4) must be individually accessed using the bit set/reset function.

Bits in C lower (PC3_Pco) can be accessed using the bit set/reset function or accessed as a

Source Current Capability on Port B and Port C

Any set of eight output buffers, selected randomly from Ports B and Ports C can source 1mA
the 8255A to directly drive Darlington type drivers and high-voltage displays that require suc

Reading Port C Status

In Mode O, Port C transfers data to or from the peripheral device. When the 8255 is program
Port C generates or accepts ¡§hand shaking¡¨ signals with the peripheral device. Reading th
programmer to test or verify the ¡§status¡¨ of each peripheral device and change the program

There is co special instruction to read the status information from Port C. A normal read ope
perform this function.

Figure 17. MODE 1 STATUS WORD FORMAT


INPUT CONFIGURATION

OUTPUT CONFIGURATION

Figure 18. Mode 2 Status Word Format

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DEFINE BY MODE 0 MODE 1 SELECTION

DOWNLOAD 8255 DATA SHEET

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PIO 8255 (cont..)
• The parallel input-output port chip 8255 is also called as
programmable peripheral input-output port. The Intel’s
8255 is designed for use with Intel’s 8-bit, 16-bit and
higher capability microprocessors. It has 24 input/output
lines which may be individually programmed in two
groups of twelve lines each, or three groups of eight lines.
The two groups of I/O pins are named as Group A and
Group B. Each of these two groups contains a subgroup of
eight I/O lines called as 8-bit port and another subgroup of
four lines or a 4-bit port. Thus Group A contains an 8-bit
port A along with a 4-bit port. C upper.

M Krishna kumar MAM/M3/LU9e/V1/2004 1


PIO 8255 (cont..)
• The port A lines are identified by symbols PA0-PA7 while
the port C lines are identified as PC4-PC7. Similarly, Group
B contains an 8-bit port B, containing lines PB0-PB7 and a
4-bit port C with lower bits PC0- PC3. The port C upper
and port C lower can be used in combination as an 8-bit
port C.
• Both the port C are assigned the same address. Thus one
may have either three 8-bit I/O ports or two 8-bit and two
4-bit ports from 8255. All of these ports can function
independently either as input or as output ports. This can
be achieved by programming the bits of an internal register
of 8255 called as control word register ( CWR ).

M Krishna kumar MAM/M3/LU9e/V1/2004 2


PIO 8255 (cont..)

• The internal block diagram and the pin configuration of


8255 are shown in fig.
• The 8-bit data bus buffer is controlled by the read/write
control logic. The read/write control logic manages all of
the internal and external transfers of both data and control
words.
• RD, WR, A1, A0 and RESET are the inputs provided by the
microprocessor to the READ/ WRITE control logic of
8255. The 8-bit, 3-state bidirectional buffer is used to
interface the 8255 internal data bus with the external
system data bus.

M Krishna kumar MAM/M3/LU9e/V1/2004 3


PIO 8255 (cont..)

• This buffer receives or transmits data upon the execution


of input or output instructions by the microprocessor. The
control words or status information is also transferred
through the buffer.
• The signal description of 8255 are briefly presented as
follows :
• PA7-PA0: These are eight port A lines that acts as either
latched output or buffered input lines depending upon the
control word loaded into the control word register.
• PC7-PC4 : Upper nibble of port C lines. They may act as
either output latches or input buffers lines.

M Krishna kumar MAM/M3/LU9e/V1/2004 4


PIO 8255 (cont..)

• This port also can be used for generation of handshake


lines in mode 1 or mode 2.
• PC3-PC0 : These are the lower port C lines, other details
are the same as PC7-PC4 lines.
• PB0-PB7 : These are the eight port B lines which are used
as latched output lines or buffered input lines in the same
way as port A.
• RD : This is the input line driven by the microprocessor
and should be low to indicate read operation to 8255.
• WR : This is an input line driven by the microprocessor. A
low on this line indicates write operation.

M Krishna kumar MAM/M3/LU9e/V1/2004 5


PIO 8255 (cont..)
• CS : This is a chip select line. If this line goes low, it
enables the 8255 to respond to RD and WR signals,
otherwise RD and WR signal are neglected.
• A1-A0 : These are the address input lines and are driven by
the microprocessor. These lines A1-A0 with RD, WR and
CS from the following operations for 8255. These address
lines are used for addressing any one of the four registers,
i.e. three ports and a control word register as given in table
below.
• In case of 8086 systems, if the 8255 is to be interfaced
with lower order data bus, the A0 and A1 pins of 8255 are
connected with A1 and A2 respectively.

M Krishna kumar MAM/M3/LU9e/V1/2004 6


RD WR CS A1 A0 Input (Read) cycle
0 1 0 0 0 Port A to Data bus
0 1 0 0 1 Port B to Data bus
0 1 0 1 0 Port C to Data bus
0 1 0 1 1 CWR to Data bus

RD WR CS A1 A0 Output (Write) cycle


1 0 0 0 0 Data bus to Port A
1 0 0 0 1 Data bus to Port B
1 0 0 1 0 Data bus to Port C
1 0 0 1 1 Data bus to CWR

RD WR CS A1 A0 Function
X X 1 X X Data bus tristated
1 1 0 X X Data bus tristated

Control Word Register


M Krishna kumar MAM/M3/LU9e/V1/2004 7
PIO 8255.

• D0-D7 : These are the data bus lines those carry data or
control word to/from the microprocessor.
• RESET : A logic high on this line clears the control word
register of 8255. All ports are set as input ports by default
after reset.

M Krishna kumar MAM/M3/LU9e/V1/2004 8


Block Diagram of 8255 (Architecture)
( cont..)
• It has a 40 pins of 4 groups.
1. Data bus buffer
2. Read Write control logic
3. Group A and Group B controls
4. Port A, B and C
• Data bus buffer: This is a tristate bidirectional buffer
used to interface the 8255 to system databus. Data is
transmitted or received by the buffer on execution of
input or output instruction by the CPU.
• Control word and status information are also transferred
through this unit.

M Krishna kumar MAM/M3/LU9e/V1/2004 9


Block Diagram of 8255 (Architecture)
( cont..)
• Read/Write control logic: This unit accepts control
signals ( RD, WR ) and also inputs from address bus and
issues commands to individual group of control blocks
( Group A, Group B).
• It has the following pins.
a) CS – Chipselect : A low on this PIN enables the
communication between CPU and 8255.
b) RD (Read) – A low on this pin enables the CPU to read
the data in the ports or the status word through data bus
buffer.

M Krishna kumar MAM/M3/LU9e/V1/2004 10


Block Diagram of 8255 (Architecture)
( cont..)
c) WR ( Write ) : A low on this pin, the CPU can write
data on to the ports or on to the control register through
the data bus buffer.
d) RESET: A high on this pin clears the control register
and all ports are set to the input mode
e) A0 and A1 ( Address pins ): These pins in conjunction
with RD and WR pins control the selection of one of the
3 ports.
• Group A and Group B controls : These block receive
control from the CPU and issues commands to their
respective ports.

M Krishna kumar MAM/M3/LU9e/V1/2004 11


Block Diagram of 8255 (Architecture)
( cont..)
• Group A - PA and PCU ( PC7 –PC4)
• Group B - PCL ( PC3 – PC0)
• Control word register can only be written into no read
operation of the CW register is allowed.
• a) Port A: This has an 8 bit latched/buffered O/P and 8
bit input latch. It can be programmed in 3 modes – mode 0,
mode 1, mode 2.
b) Port B: This has an 8 bit latched / buffered O/P and 8
bit input latch. It can be programmed in mode 0, mode1.

M Krishna kumar MAM/M3/LU9e/V1/2004 12


Block Diagram of 8255 (Architecture).

c) Port C : This has an 8 bit latched input buffer and 8 bit


out put latched/buffer. This port can be divided into two 4
bit ports and can be used as control signals for port A and
port B. it can be programmed in mode 0.

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Modes of Operation of 8255 (cont..)

• These are two basic modes of operation of 8255. I/O mode


and Bit Set-Reset mode (BSR).
• In I/O mode, the 8255 ports work as programmable I/O
ports, while in BSR mode only port C (PC0-PC7) can be
used to set or reset its individual port bits.
• Under the I/O mode of operation, further there are three
modes of operation of 8255, so as to support different
types of applications, mode 0, mode 1 and mode 2.

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Modes of Operation of 8255 (cont..)

• BSR Mode: In this mode any of the 8-bits of port C can be


set or reset depending on D0 of the control word. The bit to
be set or reset is selected by bit select flags D3, D2 and D1
of the CWR as given in table.
• I/O Modes :
a) Mode 0 ( Basic I/O mode ): This mode is also called as
basic input/output mode. This mode provides simple input
and output capabilities using each of the three ports. Data
can be simply read from and written to the input and output
ports respectively, after appropriate initialisation.

M Krishna kumar MAM/M3/LU9e/V1/2004 15


D3 D2 D1 Selected bits of port C
0 0 0 D0
0 0 1 D1
0 1 0 D2
0 1 1 D3
1 0 0 D4
1 0 1 D5
1 1 0 D6
1 1 1 D7

BSR Mode : CWR Format

M Krishna kumar MAM/M3/LU9e/V1/2004 16


PA PA6 – PA7 PA PA
8 PCU PC4 – PC7 8
2 PCU
2 PC
5 PCL PC0-PC3 5 PCL
5 5
PB PB0 – PB7 PB PB0 – PB7

All Output Port A and Port C acting as


O/P. Port B acting as I/P

Mode 0

M Krishna kumar MAM/M3/LU9e/V1/2004 17


Modes of Operation of 8255 (cont..)

• The salient features of this mode are as listed below:


1. Two 8-bit ports ( port A and port B )and two 4-bit ports
(port C upper and lower ) are available. The two 4-bit
ports can be combinedly used as a third 8-bit port.
2. Any port can be used as an input or output port.
3. Output ports are latched. Input ports are not latched.
4. A maximum of four ports are available so that overall 16
I/O configuration are possible.
• All these modes can be selected by programming a
register internal to 8255 known as CWR.

M Krishna kumar MAM/M3/LU9e/V1/2004 18


Modes of Operation of 8255 (cont..)

• The control word register has two formats. The first format
is valid for I/O modes of operation, i.e. modes 0, mode 1
and mode 2 while the second format is valid for bit
set/reset (BSR) mode of operation. These formats are
shown in following fig.
D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0
1 X X X

0- Reset
0-for BSR mode Bit select flags 1- Set
D3, D2, D1 are from 000 to 111 for bits PC0 TO PC7

I/O Mode Control Word Register Format and


BSR Mode Control Word Register Format

M Krishna kumar MAM/M3/LU9e/V1/2004 19


PA3 1 40 PA4
PA2 2 39 PA5
PA1 3 38 PA6
PA0 4 37 PA7
RD 5 36 WR
CS 6 35 Reset
GND 7 34 D0
A1 8 33 D1
A0 32 D2
9
PC7 10 31 D3
PC6 8255A 30
11 D4
PC5 29 D5
12
PC4 13 28 D6
PC0 14 27 D7
PC1 15 26 Vcc
PC2 16 25 PB7
PC3 17 24 PB6
PB0 18 23 PB5
PB1 19 22 PB4
PB2 20 21 PB3
8255A Pin Configuration
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PA0-PA7
D0-D7

CS PC4-PC7
RESET
8255A
PC0-PC3
A0

A1 PB0-PB7

RD
Vcc
WR
GND

Signals of 8255

M Krishna kumar MAM/M3/LU9e/V1/2004 21


3 4 PA0-PA7
Group A Group A
control Port A(8)

1
D0-D7 Data bus Group A PC7-PC4
Buffer Port C
8 bit int data bus upper(4)

Group B PC0-PC3
2 Port C
RD Lower(4)
WR READ/
WRITE PB7-PB0
A0 Group B
Control Group B
A1 Logic control Port B(8)
RESET

CS
Block Diagram of 8255
M Krishna kumar MAM/M3/LU9e/V1/2004 22
D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0
Mode for PA PC U Mode PB PC L
Port A for PB
Mode Set flag
1- active
0- BSR mode
Group - A Group - B
1 Input
PC u PCL 1 Input
0 Output
0 Output
1 Input
PA PB 1 Input
0 Output
00 – mode 0 0 Output
Mode
01 – mode 1 Mode 0 mode- 0
Select
10 – mode 2 Select
of PA 1 mode- 1

Control Word Format of 8255


M Krishna kumar MAM/M3/LU9e/V1/2004 23
Modes of Operation of 8255 (cont..)

b) Mode 1: ( Strobed input/output mode ) In this mode the


handshaking control the input and output action of the
specified port. Port C lines PC0-PC2, provide strobe or
handshake lines for port B. This group which includes port
B and PC0-PC2 is called as group B for Strobed data
input/output. Port C lines PC3-PC5 provide strobe lines for
port A. This group including port A and PC3-PC5 from
group A. Thus port C is utilized for generating handshake
signals. The salient features of mode 1 are listed as
follows:

M Krishna kumar MAM/M3/LU9e/V1/2004 24


Modes of Operation of 8255 (cont..)

1. Two groups – group A and group B are available for


strobed data transfer.
2. Each group contains one 8-bit data I/O port and one 4-bit
control/data port.
3. The 8-bit data port can be either used as input and output
port. The inputs and outputs both are latched.
4. Out of 8-bit port C, PC0-PC2 are used to generate control
signals for port B and PC3-PC5 are used to generate
control signals for port A. the lines PC6, PC7 may be
used as independent data lines.

M Krishna kumar MAM/M3/LU9e/V1/2004 25


Modes of Operation of 8255 (cont..)

• The control signals for both the groups in input and output
modes are explained as follows:
Input control signal definitions (mode 1 ):
• STB( Strobe input ) – If this lines falls to logic low level,
the data available at 8-bit input port is loaded into input
latches.
• IBF ( Input buffer full ) – If this signal rises to logic 1, it
indicates that data has been loaded into latches, i.e. it
works as an acknowledgement. IBF is set by a low on STB
and is reset by the rising edge of RD input.

M Krishna kumar MAM/M3/LU9e/V1/2004 26


Modes of Operation of 8255 (cont..)

• INTR ( Interrupt request ) – This active high output signal


can be used to interrupt the CPU whenever an input device
requests the service. INTR is set by a high STB pin and a
high at IBF pin. INTE is an internal flag that can be
controlled by the bit set/reset mode of either PC4(INTEA)
or PC2(INTEB) as shown in fig.
• INTR is reset by a falling edge of RD input. Thus an
external input device can be request the service of the
processor by putting the data on the bus and sending the
strobe signal.

M Krishna kumar MAM/M3/LU9e/V1/2004 27


Modes of Operation of 8255 (cont..)

Output control signal definitions (mode 1) :


• OBF (Output buffer full ) – This status signal, whenever
falls to low, indicates that CPU has written data to the
specified output port. The OBF flip-flop will be set by a
rising edge of WR signal and reset by a low going edge at
the ACK input.
• ACK ( Acknowledge input ) – ACK signal acts as an
acknowledgement to be given by an output device. ACK
signal, whenever low, informs the CPU that the data
transferred by the CPU to the output device through the
port is received by the output device.

M Krishna kumar MAM/M3/LU9e/V1/2004 28


Modes of Operation of 8255 (cont..)

• INTR ( Interrupt request ) – Thus an output signal that can


be used to interrupt the CPU when an output device
acknowledges the data received from the CPU. INTR is set
when ACK, OBF and INTE are 1. It is reset by a falling
edge on WR input. The INTEA and INTEB flags are
controlled by the bit set-reset mode of PC6 and PC2
respectively.

M Krishna kumar MAM/M3/LU9e/V1/2004 29


Input control signal definitions in
Mode 1
1 0 1 0 1/0 X X X 1 X X X X 1 1 X
D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0
1 - Input
0 - Output
For PC6 – PC7

PA0 – PA7 PB0 – PB7

INTEA PC4 INTEB PC2 STBB


STBA
PC5 IBFA PC1 IBFB

PC0 INTR
PC3 INTRA A
RD PC6 – PC7 I/O
RD
Mode 1 Control Word Group A Mode 1 Control Word Group B
I/P I/P
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STB

IBF

INTR

RD

DATA from
Peripheral

Mode 1 Strobed Input Data Transfer

M Krishna kumar MAM/M3/LU9e/V1/2004 31


WR

OBF

INTR

ACK

Data OP to
Port
Mode 1 Strobed Data Output

M Krishna kumar MAM/M3/LU9e/V1/2004 32


Output control signal definitions Mode 1

1 0 1 0 1/0 X X X 1 X X X X 1 0 X
D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0
1 - Input
0 - Output
For PC4 – PC5

PA0 – PA7 PB0 –


PB7
INTEA PC7 INTEB PC1 OBFB
OBF
PC6 ACK
A PC2 ACKB
A

PC0 INTRB
PC3 INTRA
WR PC4 – PC5 I/O

Mode 1 Control Word Group A Mode 1 Control Word Group B

M Krishna kumar MAM/M3/LU9e/V1/2004 33


Modes of Operation of 8255 (cont..)

• Mode 2 ( Strobed bidirectional I/O ): This mode of


operation of 8255 is also called as strobed bidirectional
I/O. This mode of operation provides 8255 with an
additional features for communicating with a peripheral
device on an 8-bit data bus. Handshaking signals are
provided to maintain proper data flow and synchronization
between the data transmitter and receiver. The interrupt
generation and other functions are similar to mode 1.
• In this mode, 8255 is a bidirectional 8-bit port with
handshake signals. The RD and WR signals decide
whether the 8255 is going to operate as an input port or
output port.

M Krishna kumar MAM/M3/LU9e/V1/2004 34


Modes of Operation of 8255 (cont..)

• The Salient features of Mode 2 of 8255 are listed as


follows:
1. The single 8-bit port in group A is available.
2. The 8-bit port is bidirectional and additionally a 5-bit
control port is available.
3. Three I/O lines are available at port C.( PC2 – PC0 )
4. Inputs and outputs are both latched.
5. The 5-bit control port C (PC3-PC7) is used for
generating / accepting handshake signals for the 8-bit
data transfer on port A.

M Krishna kumar MAM/M3/LU9e/V1/2004 35


Modes of Operation of 8255 (cont..)

• Control signal definitions in mode 2:


• INTR – (Interrupt request) As in mode 1, this control
signal is active high and is used to interrupt the
microprocessor to ask for transfer of the next data byte
to/from it. This signal is used for input ( read ) as well as
output ( write ) operations.
• Control Signals for Output operations:
• OBF ( Output buffer full ) – This signal, when falls to low
level, indicates that the CPU has written data to port A.

M Krishna kumar MAM/M3/LU9e/V1/2004 36


Modes of Operation of 8255 (cont..)

• ACK ( Acknowledge ) This control input, when falls to


logic low level, acknowledges that the previous data byte
is received by the destination and next byte may be sent by
the processor. This signal enables the internal tristate
buffers to send the next data byte on port A.
• INTE1 ( A flag associated with OBF ) This can be
controlled by bit set/reset mode with PC6.
• Control signals for input operations :
• STB (Strobe input ) A low on this line is used to strobe in
the data into the input latches of 8255.

M Krishna kumar MAM/M3/LU9e/V1/2004 37


Modes of Operation of 8255 (cont..)

• IBF ( Input buffer full ) When the data is loaded into input
buffer, this signal rises to logic ‘1’. This can be used as an
acknowledge that the data has been received by the
receiver.
• The waveforms in fig show the operation in Mode 2 for
output as well as input port.
• Note: WR must occur before ACK and STB must be
activated before RD.

M Krishna kumar MAM/M3/LU9e/V1/2004 38


WR

OBF

INTR

ACK

STB

IBF

Data bus Data from 8085 Data towards


8255
RD

Mode 2 Bidirectional Data Transfer

M Krishna kumar MAM/M3/LU9e/V1/2004 39


Modes of Operation of 8255 (cont..)

• The following fig shows a schematic diagram containing


an 8-bit bidirectional port, 5-bit control port and the
relation of INTR with the control pins. Port B can either be
set to Mode 0 or 1 with port A( Group A ) is in Mode 2.
• Mode 2 is not available for port B. The following fig
shows the control word.
• The INTR goes high only if either IBF, INTE2, STB and
RD go high or OBF, INTE1, ACK and WR go high. The
port C can be read to know the status of the peripheral
device, in terms of the control signals, using the normal
I/O instructions.

M Krishna kumar MAM/M3/LU9e/V1/2004 40


D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0

1 1 X X X 1/0 1/0 1/0

1/0 mode Port B mode


0-mode 0
Port A 1- mode 1 PC2 – PC0
mode 2 1 - Input
0 - Output
Port B
1- I/P
0-O/P

Mode 2 control word

M Krishna kumar MAM/M3/LU9e/V1/2004 41


PC3 INTR

PA0-PA7

PC7 OBF
INTE 1 PC6
ACK

INTE 2 PC4 STB


RD
PC5 IBF
WR
I/O
3

Mode 2 pins

M Krishna kumar MAM/M3/LU9e/V1/2004 42


PROGRAMMABLE INTERRUPT CONTROLLER (8259A)
• The architectural block diagram of 8259A is shown in fig1. The functional explication
of each block is given in the following text in brief.
• Interrupt Request Register (RR): The interrupts at IRQ input lines are handled by
Interrupt Request internally. IRR stores all the interrupt request in it in order to serve
them one by one on the priority basis.
• In-Service Register (ISR): This stores all the interrupt requests those are being
served, i.e. ISR keeps a track of the requests being served.

• Priority Resolver : This unit determines the priorities of the interrupt requests
appearing simultaneously. The highest priority is selected and stored into the
corresponding bit of ISR during INTA pulse. The IR0 has the highest priority while the
IR7 has the lowest one, normally in fixed priority mode. The priorities however may
be altered by programming the 8259A in rotating priority mode.
• Interrupt Mask Register (IMR) : This register stores the bits required to mask the
interrupt inputs. IMR operates on IRR at the direction of the Priority Resolver.
• Interrupt Control Logic: This block manages the interrupt and interrupt acknowledge
signals to be sent to the CPU for serving one of the eight interrupt requests. This also
accepts the interrupt acknowledge (INTA) signal from CPU that causes the 8259A to
release vector address on to the data bus.
• Data Bus Buffer : This tristate bidirectional buffer interfaces internal 8259A bus to
the microprocessor system data bus. Control words, status and vector information
pass through data buffer during read or write operations.
• Read/Write Control Logic: This circuit accepts and decodes commands from the
CPU. This block also allows the status of the 8259A to be transferred on to the data
bus.
• Cascade Buffer/Comparator: This block stores and compares the ID’s all the 8259A
used in system. The three I/O pins CASO-2 are outputs when the 8259A is used as a
master. The same pins act as inputs when the 8259A is in slave mode.
The 8259A in master mode sends the ID of the interrupting slave device on these
lines. The slave thus selected, will send its preprogrammed vector address on the data
bus during the next INTA pulse.
• CS: This is an active-low chip select signal for enabling RD and WR operations of
8259A. INTA function is independent of CS.
• WR : This pin is an active-low write enable input to 8259A. This enables it to accept
command words from CPU.
• RD : This is an active-low read enable input to 8259A. A low on this line enables
8259A to release status onto the data bus of CPU.
• D0-D7 : These pins from a bidirectional data bus that carries 8-bit data either to
control word or from status word registers. This also carries interrupt vector information.
• CAS0 – CAS2 Cascade Lines : A signal 8259A provides eight vectored interrupts.
If more interrupts are required, the 8259A is used in cascade mode. In cascade mode,
a master 8259A along with eight slaves 8259A can provide upto 64 vectored interrupt
lines. These three lines act as select lines for addressing the slave 8259A.
• PS/EN : This pin is a dual purpose pin. When the chip is used in buffered mode, it can
be used as buffered enable to control buffer transreceivers. If this is not used in
buffered mode then the pin is used as input to designate whether the chip is used as a
master (SP =1) or slave (EN = 0).
• INT : This pin goes high whenever a valid interrupt request is asserted. This is used to
interrupt the CPU and is connected to the interrupt input of CPU.
• IR0 – IR7 (Interrupt requests) :These pins act as inputs to accept interrupt request
to the CPU. In edge triggered mode, an interrupt service is requested by raising an IR
pin from a low to a high state and holding it high until it is acknowledged, and just by
latching it to high level, if used in level triggered mode.
• INTA ( Interrupt acknowledge ): This pin is an input used to strobe-in 8259A interrupt
vector data on to the data bus. In conjunction with CS, WR and RD pins, this selects
the different operations like, writing command words, reading status word, etc.
• The device 8259A can be interfaced with any CPU using either polling or interrupt. In
polling, the CPU keeps on checking each peripheral device in sequence to ascertain if
it requires any service from the CPU. If any such service request is noticed, the CPU
serves the request and then goes on to the next device in sequence.
• After all the peripheral device are scanned as above the CPU again starts from first
device.
• This type of system operation results in the reduction of processing speed because
most of the CPU time is consumed in polling the peripheral devices.
• In the interrupt driven method, the CPU performs the main processing task till it is
interrupted by a service requesting peripheral device.
• The net processing speed of these type of systems is high because the CPU serves the
peripheral only if it receives the interrupt request.
• If more than one interrupt requests are received at a time, all the requesting peripherals
are served one by one on priority basis.
• This method of interfacing may require additional hardware if number of peripherals to
be interfaced is more than the interrupt pins available with the CPU.
Interrupt Sequence in an 8086 System
• The Interrupt sequence in an 8086-8259A system is described as follows:
1. One or more IR lines are raised high that set corresponding IRR bits.
2. 8259A resolves priority and sends an INT signal to CPU.
3. The CPU acknowledge with INTA pulse.
4. Upon receiving an INTA signal from the CPU, the highest priority ISR bit is set
and the corresponding IRR bit is reset. The 8259A does not drive data during this
period.
5. The 8086 will initiate a second INTA pulse. During this period 8259A releases an
8-bit pointer on to a data bus from where it is read by the CPU.
6. This completes the interrupt cycle. The ISR bit is reset at the end of the second
INTA pulse if automatic end of interrupt (AEOI) mode is programmed. Otherwise
ISR bit remains set until an appropriate EOI command is issued at the end of
interrupt subroutine.
Command Words of 8259A
• The command words of 8259A are classified in two groups
1. Initialization command words (ICW) and
2. Operation command words (OCW).
• Initialization Command Words (ICW): Before it starts functioning, the 8259A must be
initialized by writing two to four command words into the respective command word
registers. These are called as initialized command words.
• If A0 = 0 and D4 = 1, the control word is recognized as ICW1. It contains the control
bits for edge/level triggered mode, single/cascade mode, call address interval and whether
ICW4 is required or not.
• If A0=1, the control word is recognized as ICW2. The ICW2 stores details regarding
interrupt vector addresses. The initialisation sequence of 8259A is described in form
of a flow chart in fig 3 below.
• The bit functions of the ICW1 and ICW2 are self explanatory as shown in figure
below.
• Once ICW1 is loaded, the following initialization procedure is carried out
internally.
a. The edge sense circuit is reset, i.e. by default 8259A interrupts are edge
sensitive.
b. IMR is cleared.
c. IR7 input is assigned the lowest priority.
d. Slave mode address is set to 7.
e. Special mask mode is cleared and status read is set to IRR.
f. If IC4 = 0, all the functions of ICW4 are set to zero. Master/Slave bit in ICW4
is
used in the buffered mode only.
g. In an 8085 based system A15-A8 of the interrupt vector address are the
respective
bits of ICW2.
h. In 8086 based system A15-A11 of the interrupt vector address are inserted in
place of T7 – T3 respectively and the remaining three bits A8, A9, A10 are
selected depending upon the interrupt level, i.e. from 000 to 111 for IR0 to IR7.
i. ICW1 and ICW2 are compulsory command words in initialization sequence of
8259A as is evident from fig, while ICW3 and ICW4 are optional. The ICW3 is
read only when there are more than one 8259A in the system, cascading is used
(SNGL=0 ).
j. The SNGL bit in ICW1 indicates whether the 8259A in the cascade mode or
not.
The ICW3 loads an 8-bit slave register. It detailed functions are as follows.
k. In master mode [ SP = 1 or in buffer mode M/S = 1 in ICW4], the 8-bit slave
register will be set bit-wise to 1 for each slave in the system as in fig 5.
l. The requesting slave will then release the second byte of a CALL sequence. In
slave mode [ SP=0 or if BUF =1 and M/S = 0 in ICW4] bits D2 to D0 identify the
slave, i.e. 000 to 111 for slave 1 to slave 8. The slave compares the cascade
inputs with these bits and if they are equal, the second byte of the CALL sequence
is released by it on the data bus.
• Operation Command Words: Once 8259A is initialized using the previously discussed
command words for initialisation, it is ready for its normal function, i.e. for accepting
the interrupts but 8259A has its own way of handling the received interrupts called as
modes of operation. These modes of operations can be selected by programming, i.e.
writing three internal registers called as operation command words.
• In the three operation command words OCW1, OCW2 and OCW3 every bit
corresponds to some operational feature of the mode selected, except for a few bits
those are either 1 or 0. The three operation command words are shown in Fig. with
the bit selection details.
• OCW1 is used to mask the masked and if it is 0 the request is enabled. In OCW2 the
three bits, R, SL and EOI control the end of interrupt, the rotate mode and their
combinations as shown in fig below.
• The three bits L2, L1 and L0 in OCW2 determine the interrupt level to be selected for
operation, if SL bit is active i.e. 1.
• The details of OCW2 are shown in fig.
• In operation command word 3 (OCW3), if the ESMM bit, i.e. enable special mask
mode bit is set to 1, the SMM bit is neglected. If the SMM bit, i.e. special mask mode.
When ESMM bit is 0 the SMM bit is neglected. If the SMM bit. i.e. special mask mode
bit is 1, the 8259A will enter special mask mode provided ESMM=1.
• If ESMM=1 and SMM=0, the 8259A will return to the normal mask mode. The details
of bits of OCW3 are given in fig along with their bit definitions.
8259A

• If we are working with an 8086, we have a problem here


because the 8086 has only two interrupt inputs, NMI and
INTR.
• If we save NMI for a power failure interrupt, this leaves
only one interrupt for all the other applications. For
applications where we have interrupts from multiple
source, we use an external device called a priority
interrupt controller ( PIC ) to the interrupt signals into a
single interrupt input on the processor.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9b/V1/2004 1


Architecture and Signal Descriptions of
8259A (cont..)
• The architectural block diagram of 8259A is shown in fig1.
The functional explication of each block is given in the
following text in brief.
• Interrupt Request Register (RR): The interrupts at IRQ
input lines are handled by Interrupt Request internally. IRR
stores all the interrupt request in it in order to serve them
one by one on the priority basis.
• In-Service Register (ISR): This stores all the interrupt
requests those are being served, i.e. ISR keeps a track of
the requests being served.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9b/V1/2004 2


INTA INT

D0-D7 Control Logic


Data Bus
Buffer

Bus
RD Read/
WR Write IR0
Interrupt
A0 Logic IN Service Priority Request IR1
Register Resolver Register
CS ISR IRR
CAS0 IR7
Cascade
CAS1 Buffer/
CAS2 Comparator
Interrupt Mask Register
SP / EN IMR

Internal Bus
Fig:1 8259A Block Diagram

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9b/V1/2004 3


Architecture and Signal Descriptions of
8259A (cont..)
• Priority Resolver : This unit determines the priorities of
the interrupt requests appearing simultaneously. The
highest priority is selected and stored into the
corresponding bit of ISR during INTA pulse. The IR0 has
the highest priority while the IR7 has the lowest one,
normally in fixed priority mode. The priorities however
may be altered by programming the 8259A in rotating
priority mode.
• Interrupt Mask Register (IMR) : This register stores the
bits required to mask the interrupt inputs. IMR operates on
IRR at the direction of the Priority Resolver.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9b/V1/2004 4


Architecture and Signal Descriptions of
8259A (cont..)
• Interrupt Control Logic: This block manages the
interrupt and interrupt acknowledge signals to be sent to
the CPU for serving one of the eight interrupt requests.
This also accepts the interrupt acknowledge (INTA) signal
from CPU that causes the 8259A to release vector address
on to the data bus.
• Data Bus Buffer : This tristate bidirectional buffer
interfaces internal 8259A bus to the microprocessor system
data bus. Control words, status and vector information pass
through data buffer during read or write operations.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9b/V1/2004 5


Architecture and Signal Descriptions of
8259A (cont..)
• Read/Write Control Logic: This circuit accepts and
decodes commands from the CPU. This block also allows
the status of the 8259A to be transferred on to the data bus.
• Cascade Buffer/Comparator: This block stores and
compares the ID’s all the 8259A used in system. The three
I/O pins CASO-2 are outputs when the 8259A is used as a
master. The same pins act as inputs when the 8259A is in
slave mode. The 8259A in master mode sends the ID of the
interrupting slave device on these lines. The slave thus
selected, will send its preprogrammed vector address on
the data bus during the next INTA pulse.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9b/V1/2004 6


CS 1 28 Vcc
WR 2 27 A0
RD 3 26 INTA
D7 4 25 IR7
D6 5 24 IR6
D5 6 23 IR5
D4 7 22 IR4
D3 8 8259A 21 IR3
D2 9 20 IR2
D1 10 19 IR1
D0 11 18 IR0
CAS0 12 17 INT
CAS1 13 16 SP / EN
GND 14 15 CAS2

Fig : 8259 Pin Diagram

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9b/V1/2004 7


Architecture and Signal Descriptions of
8259A (cont..)
• CS: This is an active-low chip select signal for enabling
RD and WR operations of 8259A. INTA function is
independent of CS.
• WR : This pin is an active-low write enable input to
8259A. This enables it to accept command words from
CPU.
• RD : This is an active-low read enable input to 8259A. A
low on this line enables 8259A to release status onto the
data bus of CPU.
• D0-D7 : These pins from a bidirectional data bus that
carries 8-bit data either to control word or from status word
registers. This also carries interrupt vector information.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9b/V1/2004 8


Architecture and Signal Descriptions of
8259A (cont..)
• CAS0 – CAS2 Cascade Lines : A signal 8259A provides
eight vectored interrupts. If more interrupts are required,
the 8259A is used in cascade mode. In cascade mode, a
master 8259A along with eight slaves 8259A can provide
upto 64 vectored interrupt lines. These three lines act as
select lines for addressing the slave 8259A.
• PS/EN : This pin is a dual purpose pin. When the chip is
used in buffered mode, it can be used as buffered enable to
control buffer transreceivers. If this is not used in buffered
mode then the pin is used as input to designate whether the
chip is used as a master (SP =1) or slave (EN = 0).

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9b/V1/2004 9


Architecture and Signal Descriptions of
8259A (cont..)
• INT : This pin goes high whenever a valid interrupt
request is asserted. This is used to interrupt the CPU and is
connected to the interrupt input of CPU.
• IR0 – IR7 (Interrupt requests) :These pins act as inputs to
accept interrupt request to the CPU. In edge triggered
mode, an interrupt service is requested by raising an IR pin
from a low to a high state and holding it high until it is
acknowledged, and just by latching it to high level, if used
in level triggered mode.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9b/V1/2004 10


Architecture and Signal Descriptions of
8259A (cont..)
• INTA ( Interrupt acknowledge ): This pin is an input
used to strobe-in 8259A interrupt vector data on to the data
bus. In conjunction with CS, WR and RD pins, this selects
the different operations like, writing command words,
reading status word, etc.
• The device 8259A can be interfaced with any CPU using
either polling or interrupt. In polling, the CPU keeps on
checking each peripheral device in sequence to ascertain if
it requires any service from the CPU. If any such service
request is noticed, the CPU serves the request and then
goes on to the next device in sequence.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9b/V1/2004 11


Architecture and Signal Descriptions of
8259A (cont..)
• After all the peripheral device are scanned as above the
CPU again starts from first device.
• This type of system operation results in the reduction of
processing speed because most of the CPU time is
consumed in polling the peripheral devices.
• In the interrupt driven method, the CPU performs the main
processing task till it is interrupted by a service requesting
peripheral device.
• The net processing speed of these type of systems is high
because the CPU serves the peripheral only if it receives
the interrupt request.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9b/V1/2004 12


Architecture and Signal Descriptions of
8259A.
• If more than one interrupt requests are received at a time,
all the requesting peripherals are served one by one on
priority basis.
• This method of interfacing may require additional
hardware if number of peripherals to be interfaced is more
than the interrupt pins available with the CPU.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9b/V1/2004 13


Interrupt Sequence in an 8086 system
(cont..)
• The Interrupt sequence in an 8086-8259A system is
described as follows:
1. One or more IR lines are raised high that set
corresponding IRR bits.
2. 8259A resolves priority and sends an INT signal to CPU.
3. The CPU acknowledge with INTA pulse.
4. Upon receiving an INTA signal from the CPU, the
highest priority ISR bit is set and the corresponding IRR
bit is reset. The 8259A does not drive data during this
period.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9b/V1/2004 14


Interrupt Sequence in an 8086 system.

5. The 8086 will initiate a second INTA pulse. During this


period 8259A releases an 8-bit pointer on to a data bus
from where it is read by the CPU.
6. This completes the interrupt cycle. The ISR bit is reset at
the end of the second INTA pulse if automatic end of
interrupt (AEOI) mode is programmed. Otherwise ISR
bit remains set until an appropriate EOI command is
issued at the end of interrupt subroutine.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9b/V1/2004 15


Command Words of 8259A (cont..)

• The command words of 8259A are classified in two


groups
1. Initialization command words (ICW) and
2. Operation command words (OCW).
• Initialization Command Words (ICW): Before it starts
functioning, the 8259A must be initialized by writing
two to four command words into the respective
command word registers. These are called as initialized
command words.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9b/V1/2004 16


Command Words of 8259A (cont..)

• If A0 = 0 and D4 = 1, the control word is recognized as


ICW1. It contains the control bits for edge/level triggered
mode, single/cascade mode, call address interval and
whether ICW4 is required or not.
• If A0=1, the control word is recognized as ICW2. The
ICW2 stores details regarding interrupt vector addresses.
The initialisation sequence of 8259A is described in form
of a flow chart in fig 3 below.
• The bit functions of the ICW1 and ICW2 are self
explanatory as shown in fig below.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9b/V1/2004 17


ICW1

ICW2

NO (SINGLE =1) A A : IN CASCADE MODE ?

YES (SINGLE =0)


ICW3

NO (IC4 =0)
B B : IS ICW4 NEEDED ?
YES (IC4 = 1)
ICW4

Ready to Accept
Interrupt Request
Fig 3: Initialisation Sequence of 8259A

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9b/V1/2004 18


A0 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0

0 A7 A6 A5 1 LTIM ADI SNGL IC4

A7-A5 of Interrupt ICW1 1 = ICW4 Needed


vector address MCs 0 = No ICW4 Needed
80/85 mode only
1 – Single
1 – Level Triggered
0 - Cascaded
0 – Edge Triggered
Call Address Interval
ICW2 1 – Interval of 4 bytes
0 – Interval of 8 bytes.
A0 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0

1 T7 T6 T5 T4 T3 A10 A9 A8

• T7 – T3 are A3 – A0 of interrupt address


• A10 – A9, A8 – Selected according to interrupt request level.
They are not the address lines of Microprocessor
• A0 =1 selects ICW2
Fig 4 : Instruction Command Words ICW1 and ICW2
M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9b/V1/2004 19
Command Words of 8259A (cont..)
• Once ICW1 is loaded, the following initialization
procedure is carried out internally.
a. The edge sense circuit is reset, i.e. by default 8259A
interrupts are edge sensitive.
b. IMR is cleared.
c. IR7 input is assigned the lowest priority.
d. Slave mode address is set to 7.
e. Special mask mode is cleared and status read is set to
IRR.
f. If IC4 = 0, all the functions of ICW4 are set to zero.
Master/Slave bit in ICW4 is used in the buffered mode
only.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9b/V1/2004 20


Command Words of 8259A (cont..)

• In an 8085 based system A15-A8 of the interrupt vector


address are the respective bits of ICW2.
• In 8086 based system A15-A11 of the interrupt vector
address are inserted in place of T7 – T3 respectively and the
remaining three bits A8, A9, A10 are selected depending
upon the interrupt level, i.e. from 000 to 111 for IR0 to IR7.
• ICW1 and ICW2 are compulsory command words in
initialization sequence of 8259A as is evident from fig,
while ICW3 and ICW4 are optional. The ICW3 is read only
when there are more than one 8259A in the system,
cascading is used ( SNGL=0 ).

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9b/V1/2004 21


Command Words of 8259A (cont..)
• The SNGL bit in ICW1 indicates whether the 8259A in the
cascade mode or not. The ICW3 loads an 8-bit slave
register. It detailed functions are as follows.
• In master mode [ SP = 1 or in buffer mode M/S = 1 in
ICW4], the 8-bit slave register will be set bit-wise to 1 for
each slave in the system as in fig 5.
• The requesting slave will then release the second byte of a
CALL sequence. In slave mode [ SP=0 or if BUF =1 and
M/S = 0 in ICW4] bits D2 to D0 identify the slave, i.e. 000
to 111 for slave 1 to slave 8. The slave compares the
cascade inputs with these bits and if they are equal, the
second byte of the CALL sequence is released by it on the
data bus.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9b/V1/2004 22


Master mode ICW3
A0 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0

1 S7 S6 S5 S4 S3 S2 S1 S0

Sn = 1-IRn Input has a slave


= 0 – IRn Input does not have a slave

Slave mode ICW3


A0 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0

1 0 0 0 0 0 ID2 ID1 ID0

D2D1D0 – 000 to 111 for IR0 to IR7 or slave 1 to slave 8


ICW4
A0 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0

1 0 0 0 SFNM BUF M/S AEOI µPM

Fig : ICW3 in Master and Slave Mode, ICW4 Bit Functions

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9b/V1/2004 23


Command Words of 8259A (cont..)

• ICW4: The use of this command word depends on the IC4


bit of ICW1. If IC4=1, IC4 is used, otherwise it is neglected.
The bit functions of ICW4 are described as follow:
• SFNM: If BUF = 1, the buffered mode is selected. In the
buffered mode, SP/EN acts as enable output and the
master/slave is determined using the M/S bit of ICW4.
• M/S: If M/S = 1, 8259A is a master. If M/S =0, 8259A is
slave. If BUF = 0, M/S is to be neglected.
• AEOI: If AEOI = 1, the automatic end of interrupt mode is
selected.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9b/V1/2004 24


Command Words of 8259A (cont..)

• µPM : If the µPM bit is 0, the Mcs-85 system operation is


selected and if µPM=1, 8086/88 operation is selected.
• Operation Command Words: Once 8259A is initialized
using the previously discussed command words for
initialisation, it is ready for its normal function, i.e. for
accepting the interrupts but 8259A has its own way of
handling the received interrupts called as modes of
operation. These modes of operations can be selected by
programming, i.e. writing three internal registers called as
operation command words.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9b/V1/2004 25


Command Words of 8259A (cont..)

• In the three operation command words OCW1, OCW2 and


OCW3 every bit corresponds to some operational feature of
the mode selected, except for a few bits those are either 1
or 0. The three operation command words are shown in fig
with the bit selection details.
• OCW1 is used to mask the masked and if it is 0 the request
is enabled. In OCW2 the three bits, R, SL and EOI control
the end of interrupt, the rotate mode and their
combinations as shown in fig below.
• The three bits L2, L1 and L0 in OCW2 determine the
interrupt level to be selected for operation, if SL bit is
active i.e. 1.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9b/V1/2004 26


Command Words of 8259A (cont..)

• The details of OCW2 are shown in fig.


• In operation command word 3 (OCW3), if the ESMM bit,
i.e. enable special mask mode bit is set to 1, the SMM bit
is neglected. If the SMM bit, i.e. special mask mode. When
ESMM bit is 0 the SMM bit is neglected. If the SMM bit.
i.e. special mask mode bit is 1, the 8259A will enter
special mask mode provided ESMM=1.
• If ESMM=1 and SMM=0, the 8259A will return to the
normal mask mode. The details of bits of OCW3 are given
in fig along with their bit definitions.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9b/V1/2004 27


A0 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0

1 M7 M6 M5 M4 M3 M2 M1 M0

1 – Mask Set
0 – Mask Reset
Fig (a) : OCW1

A0 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0

0 0 ESMM SMM 0 1 P RR RIS

Fig (b) : OCW3

0 0 1 – Poll 0 0 No Action
No Action
0 1 Command 0 1
Reset Special 1 0 Read IRR on
1 0 0 – No Poll
Mask next RD pulse
Set Special 1 1 Command 1 1
Read IRR on
Mask
next RD pulse
Fig : Operation Command Words

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9b/V1/2004 28


Fig (c) :OCW2
A0 D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0

1 R SL EOI 0 0 L2 L1 L0

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1
0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1
0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1

END OF
0 0 1 NON-SPECIFIC EOI COMMAND
INTERRUPT 1
0 1 SPECIFIC EOI COMMAND
1 0 1 ROTATE ON NON-SPECIFIC EOI MODE (SET)
AUTOMATIC 1 0
0 ROTATE IN AUTOMATIC EOI MODE (SET)
ROTATION 0 0 0 ROTATE IN AUTOMATIC EOI (CLEAR)
SPECIFIC 1 1 1 ROTATE ON SPECIFIC EOI COMMAND
ROTATION 1 1 0 SET PRIORITY COMMAND*
0 1 0 NO OPERATION
* - In this Mode L0 – L2 are used

Fig : Operation Command Word


M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9b/V1/2004 29
Operating Modes of 8259 (cont..)

• The different modes of operation of 8259A can be


programmed by setting or resting the appropriate bits of
the ICW or OCW as discussed previously. The different
modes of operation of 8259A are explained in the
following.
• Fully Nested Mode : This is the default mode of operation
of 8259A. IR0 has the highest priority and IR7 has the
lowest one. When interrupt request are noticed, the highest
priority request amongst them is determined and the vector
is placed on the data bus. The corresponding bit of ISR is
set and remains set till the microprocessor issues an EOI
command just before returning from the service routine or
the AEOI bit is set.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9b/V1/2004 30


Operating Modes of 8259 (cont..)

• If the ISR ( in service ) bit is set, all the same or lower


priority interrupts are inhibited but higher levels will
generate an interrupt, that will be acknowledge only if the
microprocessor interrupt enable flag IF is set. The
priorities can afterwards be changed by programming the
rotating priority modes.
• End of Interrupt (EOI) : The ISR bit can be reset either
with AEOI bit of ICW1 or by EOI command, issued before
returning from the interrupt service routine. There are two
types of EOI commands specific and non-specific. When
8259A is operated in the modes that preserve fully nested
structure, it can determine which ISR bit is to be reset on
EOI.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9b/V1/2004 31


Operating Modes of 8259 (cont..)
• When non-specific EOI command is issued to 8259A it
will be automatically reset the highest ISR bit out of those
already set.
• When a mode that may disturb the fully nested structure is
used, the 8259A is no longer able to determine the last
level acknowledged. In this case a specific EOI command
is issued to reset a particular ISR bit. An ISR bit that is
masked by the corresponding IMR bit, will not be cleared
by non-specific EOI of 8259A, if it is in special mask
mode.
• Automatic Rotation : This is used in the applications
where all the interrupting devices are of equal priority.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9b/V1/2004 32


Operating Modes of 8259 (cont..)

• In this mode, an interrupt request IR level receives priority


after it is served while the next device to be served gets the
highest priority in sequence. Once all the device are served
like this, the first device again receives highest priority.
• Automatic EOI Mode : Till AEOI=1 in ICW4, the 8259A
operates in AEOI mode. In this mode, the 8259A performs
a non-specific EOI operation at the trailing edge of the last
INTA pulse automatically. This mode should be used only
when a nested multilevel interrupt structure is not required
with a single 8259A.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9b/V1/2004 33


Operating Modes of 8259 (cont..)

• Specific Rotation : In this mode a bottom priority level


can be selected, using L2, L1 and L0 in OCW2 and R=1,
SL=1, EOI=0.
• The selected bottom priority fixes other priorities. If IR5 is
selected as a bottom priority, then IR5 will have least
priority and IR4 will have a next higher priority. Thus IR6
will have the highest priority.
• These priorities can be changed during an EOI command
by programming the rotate on specific EOI command in
OCW2.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9b/V1/2004 34


Operating Modes of 8259 (cont..)

• Specific Mask Mode: In specific mask mode, when a


mask bit is set in OCW1, it inhibits further interrupts at that
level and enables interrupt from other levels, which are not
masked.
• Edge and Level Triggered Mode : This mode decides
whether the interrupt should be edge triggered or level
triggered. If bit LTIM of ICW1 =0 they are edge triggered,
otherwise the interrupts are level triggered.
• Reading 8259 Status : The status of the internal registers
of 8259A can be read using this mode. The OCW3 is used
to read IRR and ISR while OCW1 is used to read IMR.
Reading is possible only in no polled mode.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9b/V1/2004 35


Operating Modes of 8259 (cont..)

• Poll Command : In polled mode of operation, the INT


output of 8259A is neglected, though it functions normally,
by not connecting INT output or by masking INT input of
the microprocessor. The poll mode is entered by setting
P=1 in OCW3.
• The 8259A is polled by using software execution by
microprocessor instead of the requests on INT input. The
8259A treats the next RD pulse to the 8259A as an
interrupt acknowledge. An appropriate ISR bit is set, if
there is a request. The priority level is read and a data word
is placed on to data bus, after RD is activated. A poll
command may give more than 64 priority levels.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9b/V1/2004 36


D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0

1 x x x x w2 w1 w0

Binary code of
If = 1, there is an interrupt highest priority
level
Fig : Data Word of 8259

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9b/V1/2004 37


Operating Modes of 8259 (cont..)

• Special Fully Nested Mode : This mode is used in more


complicated system, where cascading is used and the
priority has to be programmed in the master using ICW4.
this is somewhat similar to the normal nested mode.
• In this mode, when an interrupt request from a certain
slave is in service, this slave can further send request to the
master, if the requesting device connected to the slave has
higher priority than the one being currently served. In this
mode, the master interrupt the CPU only when the
interrupting device has a higher or the same priority than
the one current being served. In normal mode, other
requests than the one being served are masked out.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9b/V1/2004 38


Operating Modes of 8259 (cont..)

• When entering the interrupt service routine the software


has to check whether this is the only request from the
slave. This is done by sending a non-specific EOI can be
sent to the master, otherwise no EOI should be sent. This
mode is important, since in the absence of this mode, the
slave would interrupt the master only once and hence the
priorities of the slave inputs would have been disturbed.
• Buffered Mode: When the 83259A is used in the systems
where bus driving buffers are used on data buses. The
problem of enabling the buffers exists. The 8259A sends
buffer enable signal on SP/ EN pin, whenever data is
placed on the bus.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9b/V1/2004 39


Operating Modes of 8259 (cont..)

• Cascade Mode : The 8259A can be connected in a system


containing one master and eight slaves (maximum) to
handle upto 64 priority levels. The master controls the
slaves using CAS0-CAS2 which act as chip select inputs
(encoded) for slaves.
• In this mode, the slave INT outputs are connected with
master IR inputs. When a slave request line is activated
and acknowledged, the master will enable the slave to
release the vector address during second pulse of INTA
sequence.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9b/V1/2004 40


Operating Modes of 8259 (cont..)

• The cascade lines are normally low and contain slave


address codes from the trailing edge of the first INTA
pulse to the trailing edge of the second INTA pulse. Each
8259A in the system must be separately initialized and
programmed to work in different modes. The EOI
command must be issued twice, one for master and the
other for the slave.
• A separate address decoder is used to activate the chip
select line of each 8259A.
• Following Fig shows the details of the circuit connections
of 8259A in cascade scheme.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9b/V1/2004 41


ADDRESS BUS

A1 A1
A1
CONTROL BUS

DATA BUS
INT

CAS0-CAS2
INTA
A0

CS A0 D0-D7 INTA CS A0 D0-D7 INTA CS D0-D7


SP/EN Master SP/EN Slave 0 Slave 7
M7 M6 M5 M4 M3 M2 M1 M0 IR7 IR0 IR7 IR0
Vcc INT
INT
Fig : 8259A in Cascade Mode

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9b/V1/2004 42


KEYBOARD/DISPLAY INTERFACE (8279)

• Intel’s 8279 is a general purpose keyboard display controller that simultaneously drives
the display of a system and interfaces a keyboard with the CPU, leaving it free for its
routine task.
Architecture and Signal Descriptions of 8279
• The keyboard display controller chip 8279 provides:
a) a set of four scan lines and eight return lines for interfacing keyboards
b) A set of eight output lines for interfacing display.
• Fig shows the functional block diagram of 8279 followed by its brief description.
• I/O Control and Data Buffers : The I/O control section controls the flow of data to/
from the 8279. The data buffers interface the external bus of the system with internal
bus of 8279.
• The I/O section is enabled only if CS is low. The pins A0, RD and WR select the
command, status or data read/write operations carried out by the CPU with 8279.
• Control and Timing Register and Timing Control : These registers store the
keyboard and display modes and other operating conditions programmed by CPU.
The registers are written with A0=1 and WR=0. The Timing and control unit controls
the basic timings for the operation of the circuit. Scan counter divide down the operating
frequency of 8279 to derive scan keyboard and scan display frequencies.
• Scan Counter : The scan counter has two modes to scan the key matrix and refresh
the display. In the encoded mode, the counter provides binary count that is to be
externally decoded to provide the scan lines for keyboard and display (Four externally
decoded scan lines may drive upto 16 displays). In the decode scan mode, the counter
internally decodes the least significant 2 bits and provides a decoded 1 out of 4 scan on
SL0-SL3( Four internally decoded scan lines may drive upto 4 displays). The keyboard
and display both are in the same mode at a time.
• Return Buffers and Keyboard Debounce and Control: This section for a key
closure row wise. If a key closer is detected, the keyboard debounce unit debounces
the key entry (i.e. wait for 10 ms). After the debounce period, if thekey continues to
be detected. The code of key is directly transferred to the sensor RAM along with
SHIFT and CONTROL key status.
• FIFO/Sensor RAM and Status Logic: In keyboard or strobed input mode, this block
acts as 8-byte first-in-first-out (FIFO) RAM. Each key code of the pressed key is
entered in the order of the entry and in the mean time read by the CPU, till the RAM
become empty.
• The status logic generates an interrupt after each FIFO read operation till the FIFO is
empty. In scanned sensor matrix mode, this unit acts as sensor RAM. Each row of the
sensor RAM is loaded with the status of the corresponding row of sensors in the
matrix. If a sensor changes its state, the IRQ line goes high to interrupt the CPU.
• Display Address Registers and Display RAM : The display address register holds
the address of the word currently being written or read by the CPU to or from the
display RAM. The contents of the registers are automatically updated by 8279 to
accept the next data entry by CPU.
• The signal discription of each of the pins of 8279 as follows :
• DB0-DB7 : These are bidirectional data bus lines. The data and command words
to and from the CPU are transferred on these lines.
• CLK : This is a clock input used to generate internal timing required by 8279.
• RESET : This pin is used to reset 8279. A high on this line reset 8279. After
resetting 8279, its in sixteen 8-bit display, left entry encoded scan, 2-key lock out
mode. The clock prescaler is set to 31.
• CS : Chip Select – A low on this line enables 8279 for normal read or write
operations. Other wise, this pin should remain high.
• A0 : A high on this line indicates the transfer of a command or status
information .A low on this line indicates the transfer of data. This is used to select
one of the internal registers of 8279.
• RD, WR ( Input/Output ) READ/WRITE – These input pins enable the data
buffers to receive or send data over the data bus.
• IRQ : This interrupt output lines goes high when there is a data in the FIFO
sensor RAM. The interrupt lines goes low with each FIFO RAM read operation
but if the FIFO RAM further contains any key-code entry to be read by the CPU,
this pin again
goes high to generate an interrupt to the CPU.
• Vss, Vcc : These are the ground and power supply lines for the circuit.
• SL0-SL3-Scan Lines : These lines are used to scan the key board matrix and
display digits. These lines can be programmed as encoded or decoded, using the
mode control register.
• RL0 - RL7 - Return Lines : These are the input lines which are connected to one
terminal of keys, while the other terminal of the keys are connected to the
decoded scan lines. These are normally high, but pulled low when a key is
pressed.
• SHIFT : The status of the shift input lines is stored along with each key code in
FIFO, in scanned keyboard mode. It is pulled up internally to keep it high, till it is
pulled low with a key closure.
• BD – Blank Display : This output pin is used to blank the display during digit
switching or by a blanking closure.
• OUT A0 – OUT A3 and OUT B0 – OUT B3 – These are the output ports for
two 16*4 or 16*8 internal display refresh registers. The data from these lines is
synchronized with the scan lines to scan the display and keyboard. The two 4-bit
ports may also as one 8-bit port.
• CNTL/STB- CONTROL/STROBED I/P Mode : In keyboard mode, this lines is
used as a control input and stored in FIFO on a key closure. The line is a strobed lines
that enters the data into FIFO RAM, in strobed input mode. It has an interrupt pull up.
Modes of Operation of 8279
• The modes of operation of 8279 are as follows :
1. Input (Keyboard) modes.
2. Output (Display) modes.
• Input ( Keyboard ) Modes : 8279 provides three input modes. These modes are as
follows:
1. Scanned Keyboard Mode : This mode allows a key matrix to be interfaced
using either encoded or decoded scans. In encoded scan, an 8*8 keyboard or in
decoded scan, a 4*8 keyboard can be interfaced. The code of key pressed with
SHIFT and CONTROL status is stored into the FIFO RAM.
2. Scanned Sensor Matrix : In this mode, a sensor array can be interfaced with
8279 using either encoded or decoded scans. With encoded scan 8*8 sensor
matrix or with decoded scan 4*8 sensor matrix can be interfaced. The sensor
codes are stored in the CPU addressable sensor RAM.
3. Strobed input: In this mode, if the control lines goes low, the data on return lines,
is stored in the FIFO byte by byte.
• Output (Display) Modes : 8279 provides two output modes for selecting the display
options. These are discussed briefly.
1. Display Scan : In this mode 8279 provides 8 or 16 character multiplexed displays
those can be organized as dual 4- bit or single 8-bit display units.
2. Display Entry : ( right entry or left entry mode ) 8279 allows options for data
entry on the displays. The display data is entered for display either from the right
side or from the left side.
Keyboard Modes
i. Scanned Keyboard mode with 2 Key Lockout : In this mode of operation, when a
key is pressed, a debounce logic comes into operation. During the next two scans,
other keys are checked for closure and if no other key is pressed the first pressed key
is identified.
• The key code of the identified key is entered into the FIFO with SHIFT and
CNTL status, provided the FIFO is not full, i.e. it has at least one byte free. If the
FIFO does not have any free byte, naturally the key data will not be entered and
the error flag is set.The lines is pulled down with a key closer.
• If FIFO has at least one byte free, the above code is entered into it and the 8279
generates an interrupt on IRQ line to the CPU to inform about the previous key
closures. If another key is found closed during the first key, the keycode is entered
in FIFO.
• If the first pressed key is released before the others, the first will be ignored. A
key code is entered to FIFO only once for each valid depression, independent of
other keys pressed along with it, or released before it.
• If two keys are pressed within a debounce cycle (simultaneously ), no key is
recognized till one of them remains closed and the other is released. The last key,
that remains depressed is considered as single valid key depression.
ii. Scanned Keyboard with N-Key Rollover : In this mode, each key depression is
treated independently. When a key is pressed, the debounce circuit waits for 2 keyboards
scans and then checks whether the key is still depressed. If it is still depressed, the
code is entered in FIFO RAM.
Any number of keys can be pressed simultaneously and recognized in the order, the
keyboard scan recorded them. All the codes of such keys are entered into FIFO.
In this mode, the first pressed key need not be released before the second is pressed.
All the keys are sensed in the order of their depression, rather in the order the keyboard
scan senses them, and independent of the order of their release.
iii. Scanned Keyboard Special Error Mode : This mode is valid only under the NKey
rollover mode. This mode is programmed using end interrupt / error mode set command.
If during a single debounce period ( two keyboard scans ) two keys are found pressed,
this is considered a simultaneous depression and an error flag is set.
• This flag, if set, prevents further writing in FIFO but allows the generation of
further interrupts to the CPU for FIFO read. The error flag can be read by
reading the FIFO status word. The error Flag is set by sending normal clear
command with CF = 1.
iv. Sensor Matrix Mode : In the sensor matrix mode, the debounce logic is inhibited.
The 8-byte FIFO RAM now acts as 8 * 8 bit memory matrix. The status of the sensor
switch matrix is fed directly to sensor RAM matrix. Thus the sensor RAM bits contains
the row-wise and column wise status of the sensors in the sensor matrix.
• The IRQ line goes high, if any change in sensor value is detected at the end of a
sensor matrix scan or the sensor RAM has a previous entry to be read by the
CPU.
The IRQ line is reset by the first data read operation, if AI = 0, otherwise, by
issuing the end interrupt command. AI is a bit in read sensor RAM word.
Display Modes
• There are various options of data display. For example, the command number of
characters can be 8 or 16, with each character organised as single 8-bit or dual 4-bit
codes. Similarly there are two display formats.
• The first one is known as left entry mode or type writer mode, since in a type writer
the first character typed appears at the left-most position, while the subsequent
characters appear successively to the right of the first one. The other display format
is known as right entry mode, or calculator mode, since in a calculator the first character
entered appears at the rightmost position and this character is shifted one position left
when the next characters is entered.
• Thus all the previously entered characters are shifted left by one position when a new
characters is entered.
i. Left Entry Mode : In the left entry mode, the data is entered from left side of
the display unit. Address 0 of the display RAM contains the leftmost display
characters and address 15 of the RAM contains the right most display characters.
It is just like writing in our address is automatically updated with successive
reads or writes. The first entry is displayed on the leftmost display and the sixteenth
entry on the rightmost display. The seventeenth entry is again displayed at the
leftmost display position.
ii. Right Entry Mode : In this right entry mode, the first entry to be displayed is
entered on the rightmost display. The next entry is also placed in the right most
display but after the previous display is shifted left by one display position. The
leftmost characters is shifted out of that display at the seventeenth entry and is
lost, i.e. it is pushed out of the display RAM.
8279
• While studying 8255, we have explained the use of 8255 in
interfacing keyboards and displays with 8086. The
disadvantages of this method of interfacing keyboard and
display with 8086 is that the processor has to refresh the
display and check the status of the keyboard periodically
using polling technique. Thus a considerable amount of
CPU time is wasted, reducing the system operating speed.
• Intel’s 8279 is a general purpose keyboard display
controller that simultaneously drives the display of a
system and interfaces a keyboard with the CPU, leaving it
free for its routine task.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9c/V1/2004 1


Architecture and Signal Descriptions of
8279 (cont..)
• The keyboard display controller chip 8279 provides:
a) a set of four scan lines and eight return lines for
interfacing keyboards
b) A set of eight output lines for interfacing display.
• Fig shows the functional block diagram of 8279
followed by its brief description.
• I/O Control and Data Buffers : The I/O control section
controls the flow of data to/from the 8279. The data
buffers interface the external bus of the system with
internal bus of 8279.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9c/V1/2004 2


Architecture and Signal Descriptions of
8279 (cont..)
• The I/O section is enabled only if CS is low. The pins A0,
RD and WR select the command, status or data read/write
operations carried out by the CPU with 8279.
• Control and Timing Register and Timing Control :
These registers store the keyboard and display modes and
other operating conditions programmed by CPU. The
registers are written with A0=1 and WR=0. The Timing
and control unit controls the basic timings for the operation
of the circuit. Scan counter divide down the operating
frequency of 8279 to derive scan keyboard and scan
display frequencies.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9c/V1/2004 3


Architecture and Signal Descriptions of
8279 (cont..)
• Scan Counter : The scan counter has two modes to scan
the key matrix and refresh the display. In the encoded
mode, the counter provides binary count that is to be
externally decoded to provide the scan lines for keyboard
and display (Four externally decoded scan lines may drive
upto 16 displays). In the decode scan mode, the counter
internally decodes the least significant 2 bits and provides
a decoded 1 out of 4 scan on SL0-SL3( Four internally
decoded scan lines may drive upto 4 displays). The
keyboard and display both are in the same mode at a time.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9c/V1/2004 4


Architecture and Signal Descriptions of
8279 (cont..)
• Return Buffers and Keyboard Debounce and Control:
This section for a key closure row wise. If a key closer is
detected, the keyboard debounce unit debounces the key
entry (i.e. wait for 10 ms). After the debounce period, if
the key continues to be detected. The code of key is
directly transferred to the sensor RAM along with SHIFT
and CONTROL key status.
• FIFO/Sensor RAM and Status Logic: In keyboard or
strobed input mode, this block acts as 8-byte first-in-first-
out (FIFO) RAM. Each key code of the pressed key is
entered in the order of the entry and in the mean time read
by the CPU, till the RAM become empty.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9c/V1/2004 5


Architecture and Signal Descriptions of
8279 (cont..)
• The status logic generates an interrupt after each FIFO read
operation till the FIFO is empty. In scanned sensor matrix
mode, this unit acts as sensor RAM. Each row of the
sensor RAM is loaded with the status of the corresponding
row of sensors in the matrix. If a sensor changes its state,
the IRQ line goes high to interrupt the CPU.
• Display Address Registers and Display RAM : The
display address register holds the address of the word
currently being written or read by the CPU to or from the
display RAM. The contents of the registers are
automatically updated by 8279 to accept the next data
entry by CPU.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9c/V1/2004 6


DB0-DB7 RD WR CS A0

DATA I/O FIFO/SENSOR


BUFFERS CONTROL RAM STATUS

INTERNAL 8 BIT DATA BUS

RESET
CLK KEYBOARD
DISPLAY 16*8 CONTROL 8*8 FIFO/ DEBOUNCE
ADDRESS DISPLAY AND SENSOR AND
REGISTERS RAM TIMING RAM CONTROL
REGISTERS

TIMING
AND
DISPLAY CONTROL SCAN Return
REGISTERS UNIT COUNTER
SHIFT
OUT A0-A3 BD SL0 – SL3 RL0 – RL7 CNTL/
OUT B0-B3 STB
8279 Internal Architecture
M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9c/V1/2004 7
RL2 1 40 Vcc
RL3 2 39 RL1
CLK 3 38 RL0
IRQ 4 37 CNTL/STB
RL4 5 36 SHIFT
RL5 6 35 SL3
RL6 7 34 SL2
RL7 8 33 SL1
RESET 9 32 SL0
8279
RD 10 31 OUT B0
WR 11 30 OUT B1
DB0 12 29 OUT B2
DB1 13 28 OUT B3
DB2 14 27 OUT A0
DB3 15 26 OUT A1
DB4 16 25 OUT A2
DB5 17 24 OUT A3
DB6 18 23 BD
DB7 19 22 CS
Vss 20 21 A0

8279 Pin Configuration


M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9c/V1/2004 8
Vcc

IRQ RL0-7 8

8 DB0 – DB7 SHIFT KRY DATA

CNTL/
STB
RD
CPU WR 8279 SL0-3 4
INTERFACE SCAN
CS
OUT A0-A3 4
A0
DISPLAY
RESET OUT B0 – B3 4 DATA

CLK BD

Vss
M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9c/V1/2004 9
Architecture and Signal Descriptions of
8279 (cont..)
• The signal discription of each of the pins of 8279 as
follows :
• DB0-DB7 : These are bidirectional data bus lines. The data
and command words to and from the CPU are transferred
on these lines.
• CLK : This is a clock input used to generate internal
timing required by 8279.
• RESET : This pin is used to reset 8279. A high on this line
reset 8279. After resetting 8279, its in sixteen 8-bit display,
left entry encoded scan, 2-key lock out mode. The clock
prescaler is set to 31.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9c/V1/2004 10


Architecture and Signal Descriptions of
8279 (cont..)
• CS : Chip Select – A low on this line enables 8279 for
normal read or write operations. Other wise, this pin
should remain high.
• A0 : A high on this line indicates the transfer of a
command or status information. A low on this line
indicates the transfer of data. This is used to select one of
the internal registers of 8279.
• RD, WR ( Input/Output ) READ/WRITE – These input
pins enable the data buffers to receive or send data over the
data bus.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9c/V1/2004 11


Architecture and Signal Descriptions of
8279 (cont..)
• IRQ : This interrupt output lines goes high when there is a
data in the FIFO sensor RAM. The interrupt lines goes low
with each FIFO RAM read operation but if the FIFO RAM
further contains any key-code entry to be read by the CPU,
this pin again goes high to generate an interrupt to the
CPU.
• Vss, Vcc : These are the ground and power supply lines for
the circuit.
• SL0-SL3-Scan Lines : These lines are used to scan the key
board matrix and display digits. These lines can be
programmed as encoded or decoded, using the mode
control register.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9c/V1/2004 12


Architecture and Signal Descriptions of
8279 (cont..)
• RL0 - RL7 - Return Lines : These are the input lines
which are connected to one terminal of keys, while the
other terminal of the keys are connected to the decoded
scan lines. These are normally high, but pulled low when a
key is pressed.
• SHIFT : The status of the shift input lines is stored along
with each key code in FIFO, in scanned keyboard mode. It
is pulled up internally to keep it high, till it is pulled low
with a key closure.
• BD – Blank Display : This output pin is used to blank the
display during digit switching or by a blanking closure.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9c/V1/2004 13


Architecture and Signal Descriptions of
8279
• OUT A0 – OUT A3 and OUT B0 – OUT B3 – These are
the output ports for two 16*4 or 16*8 internal display
refresh registers. The data from these lines is synchronized
with the scan lines to scan the display and keyboard. The
two 4-bit ports may also as one 8-bit port.
• CNTL/STB- CONTROL/STROBED I/P Mode : In
keyboard mode, this lines is used as a control input and
stored in FIFO on a key closure. The line is a strobed lines
that enters the data into FIFO RAM, in strobed input mode.
It has an interrupt pull up. The lines is pulled down with a
key closer.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9c/V1/2004 14


Modes of Operation of 8279 (cont..)

• The modes of operation of 8279 are as follows :


1. Input (Keyboard) modes.
2. Output (Display) modes.
• Input ( Keyboard ) Modes : 8279 provides three input
modes. These modes are as follows:
1. Scanned Keyboard Mode : This mode allows a key
matrix to be interfaced using either encoded or decoded
scans. In encoded scan, an 8*8 keyboard or in decoded
scan, a 4*8 keyboard can be interfaced. The code of key
pressed with SHIFT and CONTROL status is stored into
the FIFO RAM.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9c/V1/2004 15


Modes of Operation of 8279 (cont..)

2. Scanned Sensor Matrix : In this mode, a sensor array


can be interfaced with 8279 using either encoded or
decoded scans. With encoded scan 8*8 sensor matrix or
with decoded scan 4*8 sensor matrix can be interfaced.
The sensor codes are stored in the CPU addressable
sensor RAM.
3. Strobed input: In this mode, if the control lines goes
low, the data on return lines, is stored in the FIFO byte
by byte.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9c/V1/2004 16


Modes of Operation of 8279

• Output (Display) Modes : 8279 provides two output


modes for selecting the display options. These are
discussed briefly.
1. Display Scan : In this mode 8279 provides 8 or 16
character multiplexed displays those can be organized as
dual 4- bit or single 8-bit display units.
2. Display Entry : ( right entry or left entry mode ) 8279
allows options for data entry on the displays. The display
data is entered for display either from the right side or
from the left side.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9c/V1/2004 17


Keyboard Modes (cont..)

i. Scanned Keyboard mode with 2 Key Lockout : In


this mode of operation, when a key is pressed, a
debounce logic comes into operation. During the next
two scans, other keys are checked for closure and if no
other key is pressed the first pressed key is identified.
• The key code of the identified key is entered into the
FIFO with SHIFT and CNTL status, provided the
FIFO is not full, i.e. it has at least one byte free. If the
FIFO does not have any free byte, naturally the key
data will not be entered and the error flag is set.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9c/V1/2004 18


Keyboard Modes (cont..)

• If FIFO has at least one byte free, the above code is


entered into it and the 8279 generates an interrupt on IRQ
line to the CPU to inform about the previous key closures.
If another key is found closed during the first key, the
keycode is entered in FIFO.
• If the first pressed key is released before the others, the
first will be ignored. A key code is entered to FIFO only
once for each valid depression, independent of other keys
pressed along with it, or released before it.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9c/V1/2004 19


Keyboard Modes (cont..)

• If two keys are pressed within a debounce cycle


(simultaneously ), no key is recognized till one of them
remains closed and the other is released. The last key,
that remains depressed is considered as single valid
key depression.
ii. Scanned Keyboard with N-Key Rollover : In this
mode, each key depression is treated independently.
When a key is pressed, the debounce circuit waits for 2
keyboards scans and then checks whether the key is
still depressed. If it is still depressed, the code is
entered in FIFO RAM.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9c/V1/2004 20


Keyboard Modes (cont..)

• Any number of keys can be pressed simultaneously


and recognized in the order, the keyboard scan
recorded them. All the codes of such keys are entered
into FIFO.
• In this mode, the first pressed key need not be released
before the second is pressed. All the keys are sensed in
the order of their depression, rather in the order the
keyboard scan senses them, and independent of the
order of their release.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9c/V1/2004 21


Keyboard Modes (cont..)
iii. Scanned Keyboard Special Error Mode : This mode
is valid only under the N-Key rollover mode. This
mode is programmed using end interrupt / error mode
set command. If during a single debounce period ( two
keyboard scans ) two keys are found pressed , this is
considered a simultaneous depression and an error flag
is set.
• This flag, if set, prevents further writing in FIFO but
allows the generation of further interrupts to the CPU
for FIFO read. The error flag can be read by reading
the FIFO status word. The error Flag is set by sending
normal clear command with CF = 1.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9c/V1/2004 22


Keyboard Modes.
iv. Sensor Matrix Mode : In the sensor matrix mode, the
debounce logic is inhibited. The 8-byte FIFO RAM
now acts as 8 * 8 bit memory matrix. The status of the
sensor switch matrix is fed directly to sensor RAM
matrix. Thus the sensor RAM bits contains the row-
wise and column wise status of the sensors in the
sensor matrix.
• The IRQ line goes high, if any change in sensor value
is detected at the end of a sensor matrix scan or the
sensor RAM has a previous entry to be read by the
CPU. The IRQ line is reset by the first data read
operation, if AI = 0, otherwise, by issuing the end
interrupt command. AI is a bit in read sensor RAM
word.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9c/V1/2004 23


Display Modes (cont..)
• There are various options of data display. For example, the
command number of characters can be 8 or 16, with each
character organised as single 8-bit or dual 4-bit codes.
Similarly there are two display formats.
• The first one is known as left entry mode or type writer
mode, since in a type writer the first character typed
appears at the left-most position, while the subsequent
characters appear successively to the right of the first one.
The other display format is known as right entry mode, or
calculator mode, since in a calculator the first character
entered appears at the rightmost position and this character
is shifted one position left when the next characters is
entered.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9c/V1/2004 24


Display Modes (cont..)
• Thus all the previously entered characters are shifted left
by one position when a new characters is entered.
i. Left Entry Mode : In the left entry mode, the data is
entered from left side of the display unit. Address 0 of
the display RAM contains the leftmost display
characters and address 15 of the RAM contains the right
most display characters. It is just like writing in our
address is automatically updated with successive reads
or writes. The first entry is displayed on the leftmost
display and the sixteenth entry on the rightmost display.
The seventeenth entry is again displayed at the leftmost
display position.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9c/V1/2004 25


Display Modes

ii. Right Entry Mode : In this right entry mode, the first
entry to be displayed is entered on the rightmost display.
The next entry is also placed in the right most display
but after the previous display is shifted left by one
display position. The leftmost characters is shifted out of
that display at the seventeenth entry and is lost, i.e. it is
pushed out of the display RAM.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9c/V1/2004 26


Command Words of 8279 (cont..)

• All the command words or status words are written or


read with A0 = 1 and CS = 0 to or from 8279. This
section describes the various command available in
8279.
a) Keyboard Display Mode Set – The format of the
command word to select different modes of operation of
8279 is given below with its bit definitions.
D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 A0
0 0 D D D K K K 1

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9c/V1/2004 27


D D Display modes
0 0 Eight 8-bit character Left entry
0 1 Sixteen 8-bit character left entry

1 0 Eight 8-bit character Right entry


1 1 Sixteen 8-bit character Right entry

K K K Keyboard modes

0 0 0 Encoded Scan, 2 key lockout ( Default after reset )


0 0 1 Decoded Scan, 2 key lockout
0 1 0 Encoded Scan, N- key Roll over
0 1 1 Decoded Scan, N- key Roll over
1 0 0 Encode Scan, N- key Roll over
1 0 1 Decoded Scan, N- key Roll over
1 1 0 Strobed Input Encoded Scan
1 1 1 Strobed Input Decoded Scan

Fig:
M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9c/V1/2004 28
Command Words of 8279 (cont..)

b) Programmable clock : The clock for operation of 8279


is obtained by dividing the external clock input signal by
a programmable constant called prescaler.
• PPPPP is a 5-bit binary constant. The input frequency is
divided by a decimal constant ranging from 2 to 31,
decided by the bits of an internal prescaler, PPPPP.

D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 A0
0 0 1 P P P P P 1

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9c/V1/2004 29


Command Words of 8279 (cont..)

c) Read FIFO / Sensor RAM : The format of this


command is given below.
• This word is written to set up 8279 for reading FIFO/
sensor RAM. In scanned keyboard mode, AI and AAA
bits are of no use. The 8279 will automatically drive data
bus for each subsequent read, in the same sequence, in
which the data was entered.
• In sensor matrix mode, the bits AAA select one of the 8
rows of RAM. If AI flag is set, each successive read will
be from the subsequent RAM location.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9c/V1/2004 30


D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 A0
0 1 0 AI X A A A 1

X – don’t care
AI – Auto Increment Flag
AAA – Address pointer to 8 bit FIFO RAM

Fig

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9c/V1/2004 31


Command Words of 8279 (cont..)

d) Read Display RAM : This command enables a


programmer to read the display RAM data. The CPU
writes this command word to 8279 to prepare it for
display RAM read operation. AI is auto increment flag
and AAAA, the 4-bit address points to the 16-byte
display RAM that is to be read. If AI=1, the address will
be automatically, incremented after each read or write to
the Display RAM. The same address counter is used for
reading and writing.
D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 A0
0 1 1 AI A A A A 1

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9c/V1/2004 32


Command Words of 8279 (cont..)

e) Write Display RAM :

AI – Auto increment Flag.


AAAA – 4 bit address for 16-bit display RAM to be
written.

D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 A0
1 0 0 AI A A A A 1

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9c/V1/2004 33


Command Words of 8279 (cont..)
f) Display Write Inhibit/Blanking : The IW ( inhibit
write flag ) bits are used to mask the individual nibble
as shown in the below command word. The output lines
are divided into two nibbles ( OUTA0 – OUTA3 ) and (
OUTB0 – OUTB3 ), those can be masked by setting the
corresponding IW bit to 1.
• Once a nibble is masked by setting the corresponding
IW bit to 1, the entry to display RAM does not affect the
nibble even though it may change the unmasked nibble.
The blank display bit flags (BL) are used for blanking A
and B nibbles.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9c/V1/2004 34


Command Words of 8279 (cont..)
• Here D0, D2 corresponds to OUTB0 – OUTB3 while D1
and D3 corresponds to OUTA0-OUTA3 for blanking and
masking.
• If the user wants to clear the display, blank (BL) bits are
available for each nibble as shown in format. Both BL bits
will have to be cleared for blanking both the nibbles.

D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 A0
1 0 1 X IW IW BL BL 1

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9c/V1/2004 35


Command Words of 8279 (cont..)
g) Clear Display RAM : The CD2, CD1, CD0 is a
selectable blanking code to clear all the rows of the
display RAM as given below. The characters A and B
represents the output nibbles.
• CD2 must be 1 for enabling the clear display command.
If CD2 = 0, the clear display command is invoked by
setting CA=1 and maintaining CD1, CD0 bits exactly
same as above. If CF=1, FIFO status is cleared and IRQ
line is pulled down.
• Also the sensor RAM pointer is set to row 0. if CA=1,
this combines the effect of CD and CF bits. Here, CA
represents Clear All and CF as Clear FIFO RAM.

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9c/V1/2004 36


D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 A0
1 1 0 CD2 CD1 CD0 CF CA 1

CD2 CD1 CD0


1 0 X
1 1 0
1 1 1
All zeros ( x don’t care ) AB=00
A3-A0 =2 (0010) and B3-B0=00 (0000)
All ones (AB =FF), i.e. clear RAM
Fig
M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9c/V1/2004 37
Command Words of 8279 (cont..)

h) End Interrupt / Error mode Set : For the sensor matrix


mode, this command lowers the IRQ line and enables
further writing into the RAM. Otherwise, if a change in
sensor value is detected, IRQ goes high that inhibits
writing in the sensor RAM.
• For N-Key roll over mode, if the E bit is programmed to
be ‘1’, the 8279 operates in special Error mode. Details
of this mode are described in scanned keyboard special
error mode. X- don’t care.
D7 D6 D5 D4 D3 D2 D1 D0 A0
1 1 1 E X X X X 1

M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9c/V1/2004 38


INT2 Shift Key board
INTR 8259
Control matrix
Interru
pt Return 8 columns
controll lines 8 rows
er 8

AD0-AD15 8282 (3) A0L-A19L 5V


RL0- VDD 3-8 decoder
A16-A19 Address
INT 7
Vss
latch 0V 3
8086 S0-3
Data bus 8 Scan 4
D0-7
lines 4-16 decoder
IOR 8279
A1L-A3L Address IOW
decoder Reset BD Blank 16
CS display
A0L A0
CLK B0-3 A0-3 Address
RD 4 Display
WR character
PCLK data
(from 8284) 4

Fig
M. Krishna Kumar MM/M3/LU9c/V1/2004 39