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Job Analysis

Multiple Choice

1. _____ is the procedures through which one determines the duties


associated with positions and the characteristics of people to hire for those
positions.
a. Job description
b. Job specification
c. Job analysis
d. Job context
e. None of the above
(c; easy; p. 112)

2. The information resulting from job analysis is used for writing _____.
a. job descriptions
b. work activities
c. work aids
d. job context
e. performance standards
(a; easy; p. 112)

3. Which of the following types of information can be collected via a job


analysis?
a. work activities
b. human behaviors
c. performance standards
d. job context
e. all of the above
(e; moderate; p. 112)

4. Information regarding job demands such as lifting weights or walking long


distances is included in the information about _____ an HR specialist may collect
during a job analysis.
a. work activities
b. human behaviors
c. machines, tools, equipment, and work aids
d. performance standards
e. job context
(b; moderate; p. 112)

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5. Information regarding how, why, and when a worker performs each
activity is included in the information about _____ an HR specialist may collect
during a job analysis.
a. work activities
b. human behaviors
c. machines, tools, equipment, and work aids
d. performance standards
e. job context
(a; moderate; p. 112)

6. Information regarding the quantity or quality levels for each job duty is
included in the information about _____ an HR specialist may collect during a job
analysis.
a. work activities
b. human behaviors
c. machines, tools, equipment, and work aids
d. performance standards
e. job context
(d; moderate; p. 112)

7. Information regarding job-related knowledge or skills and required


personal attributes is included in the information about _____ an HR specialist
may collect during a job analysis.
a. work activities
b. human behaviors
c. human requirements
d. performance standards
e. job context
(c; moderate; p. 112)

8. Information regarding matters such as physical working conditions and


work schedule is included in the information about _____ an HR specialist may
collect during a job analysis.
a. work activities
b. human behaviors
c. machines, tools, equipment, and work aids
d. performance standards
e. job context
(e; moderate; p. 112)

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9. There are _____ steps in doing a job analysis.
a. three
b. four
c. five
d. six
e. ten
(d; easy; p. 113)

10. Deciding how to use the resulting information is the _____ step in doing a
job analysis.
a. first
b. second
c. third
d. fourth
e. fifth
(a; moderate; p. 113)

11. The first step in conducting a job analysis is _____.


a. deciding how to use the information
b. reviewing relevant background information
c. selecting representative positions
d. collecting data on job activities
e. developing a job description and job specification
(a; moderate; p. 113)

12. Reviewing relevant background information such as organization charts,


process charts, and job descriptions is the _____ step in doing a job analysis.
a. first
b. second
c. third
d. fourth
e. fifth
(b; moderate; p. 113)

13. The second step in conducting a job analysis is _____.


a. deciding how to use the information
b. reviewing relevant background information
c. selecting representative positions
d. collecting data on job activities
e. developing a job description and job specification
(b; moderate; p. 113)

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14. Selecting representative positions to use in the job analysis is the _____
step in the process.
a. first
b. second
c. third
d. fourth
e. fifth
(c; moderate; p. 114)

15. The third step in conducting a job analysis is _____.


a. deciding how to use the information
b. reviewing relevant background information
c. selecting representative positions
d. collecting data on job activities
e. developing a job description and job specification
(c; moderate; p. 114)

16. Collecting data on job activities, required employee behaviors, working


conditions, and human traits and abilities needed to perform the job is the _____
step in the job analysis process.
a. first
b. second
c. third
d. fourth
e. fifth
(d; moderate; p. 114)

17. The fourth step in conducting a job analysis is _____.


a. deciding how to use the information
b. reviewing relevant background information
c. selecting representative positions
d. collecting data on job activities
e. developing a job description and job specification
(d; moderate; p. 114)

18. Verifying the job analysis information with the worker performing the job
and with his or her immediate supervisor is the _____ step in the job analysis
process.
a. first
b. second
c. third
d. fourth
e. fifth
(e; moderate; p. 114)

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19. The fifth step in conducting a job analysis is _____.
a. deciding how to use the information
b. reviewing relevant background information
c. verifying the job analysis information
d. collecting data on job activities
e. developing a job description and job specification
(c; moderate; p. 114)

20. Developing a job description and job specification is the _____ step in the
job analysis process.
a. second
b. third
c. fourth
d. fifth
e. sixth
(e; moderate; p. 114)

21. The final step in conducting a job analysis is _____.


a. deciding how to use the information
b. reviewing relevant background information
c. selecting representative positions
d. collecting data on job activities
e. developing a job description and job specification
(e; moderate; p. 114)

22. A(n) _____ shows the flow of inputs to and outputs from the job being
analyzed.
a. organization chart
b. process chart
c. value chain
d. job preview
e. job description
(b; moderate; p. 114)

23. Which term refers to a written statement that describes the activities and
responsibilities of the job?
a. job specification
b. job analysis
c. job report
d. job description
e. job context
(d; moderate; p. 114)

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24. A _____ summarizes the personal qualities, traits, skills, and background
required for getting the job done.
a. job specification
b. job analysis
c. job report
d. job description
e. job context
(a; moderate; p. 112)

25. Which of the following is included in the job specifications?


a. personal qualities
b. traits
c. skills
d. required background
e. all of the above
(e; easy; p. 114)

26. Which of the following methods is used to gather job analysis data?
a. interviews
b. questionnaires
c. observation
d. all of the above
e. none of the above
(d; moderate; p. 115)

27. Who is interviewed by managers collecting job analysis data?


a. individual employees
b. groups of employees with the same job
c. supervisors who know the job
d. all of the above
e. none of the above
(d; moderate; p. 115)

28. Which of the following is not an advantage of using interviews to collect


job analysis data?
a. it is simple to use
b. some information may be exaggerated or minimized
c. it is quick to collect information
d. it can identify uncommon, but important activities
e. it can be used to explain need for job analysis
(b; moderate; p. 115)

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29. Interviews often include questions about _____.
a. supervisory responsibilities
b. job duties
c. education
d. experience
e. all of the above
(e; easy; p. 116)

30. In addition to identifying the specific duties associated with a job, a job
analysis should also seek to identify the _____.
a. length of time an employee has held the position
b. order of importance
c. frequency of occurrence
d. all of the above
e. b and c only
(e; difficult; p. 117)

31. For which of the following jobs is direct observation not recommended to
collect data used in a job analysis?
a. assembly-line worker
b. accounting clerk
c. engineer
d. receptionist
e. salesperson
(c; difficult; p. 117)

32. A _____ is the time it takes to complete a job.


a. job specification
b. work cycle
c. work week
d. shift
e. none of the above
(b; moderate; p. 117)

33. The average cycle time is a(n) _____.


a. minute
b. hour
c. day
d. week
e. it depends on the specific job
(e; easy; p. 117)

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34. When a worker changes what he or she would normally do because they
are being watched, _____ has occurred.
a. proactivity
b. reactivity
c. cycling
d. diverting
e. none of the above
(b; moderate; p. 117)

35. Which two data collection methods are frequently used together?
a. direct observation and interviewing
b. questionnaires and direct observation
c. interviewing and questionnaires
d. diaries and interviewing
e. most are used individually
(a; difficult; p. 117)

36. Jane records every activity she participates in at work along with time in a
log. This approach to data collection for job analysis is based on _____.
a. diaries
b. interviews
c. direct observation
d. questionnaires
e. supervisor verification
(a; easy; p. 117)

37. Which of the following is considered a qualitative approach to job


analysis?
a. position analysis questionnaire
b. interviews
c. Department of Labor approach
d. functional job analysis
e. all are qualitative approaches
(b; difficult; p. 117)

38. Which of the following is considered a quantitative approach to job


analysis?
a. interviews
b. diaries
c. Department of Labor Procedure
d. direct observation
e. questionnaires
(c; difficult; p. 117)

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39. What form of data collection involves recording work activities in a log?
a. interviews
b. diaries
c. direct observation
d. questionnaires
e. none of the above
(b; easy; p. 117)

40. Which of the following is not one of the basic activities included in a
position analysis questionnaire?
a. performing skilled activities
b. being physically active
c. operating equipment
d. processing information
e. all are included in a position analysis questionnaire
(e; moderate; p. 122)

41. The _____ assigns a quantitative score to each job based on its decision-
making, skilled activity, physical activity, equipment operation, and information-
processing characteristics.
a. Department of Labor Procedure
b. position analysis questionnaire
c. functional job analysis
d. log approach
e. all of the above
(b; moderate; p. 122)

42. Which quantitative job analysis technique can be conducted online?


a. position analysis questionnaire
b. Department of Labor Procedure
c. functional job analysis
d. all of the above
e. none of the above
(a; difficult; p. 122)

43. Which of the following is included in a functional job analysis?


a. the extent to which specific instructions are necessary to perform
the task
b. the extent to which reasoning and judgment are required to
perform the task
c. the mathematical ability required to perform the task
d. the verbal and language facilities required to perform the task
e. all of the above
(e; moderate; p. 124)

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44. Most job descriptions contain sections that cover _____.
a. job summary
b. standards of performance
c. working conditions
d. all of the above
e. none of the above
(d; easy; p. 125)

45. One uses information from the _____ to write a job specification.
a. job summary
b. job identification
c. job description
d. standards for performance
e. job advertisement
(c; moderate; p. 125)

46. What type of information is contained in the job identification section of a


job description?
a. job title
b. job summary
c. relationships statement
d. major functions or activities
e. all of the above
(a; difficult; p. 128)

47. FLSA status is located in the _____ section of a job description.


a. job summary
b. job identification
c. relationships
d. responsibilities and duties
e. none of the above
(b; moderate; p. 128)

48. The _____ classifies all workers into one of 23 major groups of jobs.
a. Department of Labor Procedure
b. Job analysis
c. Standard Occupational Classification
d. Federal Professions Classification System
e. None of the above
(c; easy; p. 129)

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49. Under the _____, the individual must have the requisite skills, educational
background, and experience to perform the job’s essential functions.
a. SOC
b. DOL
c. ADA
d. FCC
e. SIC
(c; moderate; p. 130)

50. Which section of a job description should define the limits of the
jobholder’s authority, direct supervision of other personnel, and budgetary
limitations?
a. job identification
b. job summary
c. relationships
d. responsibilities and duties
e. pay levels
(d; moderate; p. 129)

51. When is an employer required to make a “reasonable accommodation” for


a disabled individual?
a. any time a disabled individual applies for a position
b. employers are only encouraged to make reasonable accommodations
c. when a disabled individual has the necessary skills, education, and
experience to perform the job, but can’t because of the job’s current
structure
d. when it would present an undue hardship
e. when the job function is essential
(c; moderate; p. 130)

52. Job duties that employees must be able to perform, with or without
reasonable accommodation, are called _____.
a. essential job functions
b. job requirements
c. primary job activities
d. work activities
e. all of the above
(a; easy; p. 130)

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53. The job specification takes the job description and answers the question,
_____?
a. What human traits and experience are required to do this job well
b. When will the supervisor be completely satisfied with a worker’s
work
c. What are the four main activities making up this job
d. How many other employees are available to perform job functions
e. What are the performance standards for the job
(a; difficult; p. 132)

54. When filling jobs with untrained people, the job specifications may
include _____.
a. quality of training
b. length of previous service
c. previous job performance
d. physical traits
e. all of the above
(d; moderate; p. 132)

55. Which of the following work behaviors is considered “generic” or


important to all jobs?
a. industriousness
b. intelligence
c. experience
d. morality
e. motivation
(a; moderate; p. 133)

56. All of the following work behaviors are considered “generic” or important
to all jobs except _____.
a. thoroughness
b. attendance
c. experience
d. schedule flexibility
e. industriousness
(c; moderate; p. 133)

57. _____ means assigning workers additional same-level activities, thus


increasing the number of activities they perform.
a. Job rotation
b. Job enrichment
c. Job assignment
d. Job enlargement
e. Job adjustment
(d; easy; p. 138)

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58. _____ means systematically moving workers from one job to another.
a. Job rotation
b. Job enrichment
c. Job assignment
d. Job enlargement
e. Job adjustment
(a; easy; p. 138)

59. ______ means redesigning jobs in a way that increases the opportunities
for the worker to experience feelings of responsibility, achievement, growth, and
recognition.
a. Job rotation
b. Job enrichment
c. Job assignment
d. Job enlargement
e. Job adjustment
(b; easy; p. 138)

60. Who argued that the best way to motivate workers is to build opportunities
for challenge and achievement into their jobs via job enrichment?
a. Adam Smith
b. Frederick Taylor
c. Frederick Herzberg
d. Abraham Maslow
e. Milton Friedman
(c; moderate; p. 138)

61. _____ refers to broadening the responsibilities of the company’s jobs, and
encouraging employees not to limit themselves to what’s on their job descriptions.
a. Job rotation
b. Job enrichment
c. Job assignment
d. Job enlargement
e. Dejobbing
(e; easy; p. 139)

62. Dejobbing can be described as _____.


a. assigning workers additional work at the same level
b. redesigning jobs to increase opportunities for responsibility
c. moving workers from one job to another
d. encouraging employees not to limit themselves to what’s on their
job descriptions
e. focusing workers on highly specialized jobs
(d; moderate; p. 139)

63. Job enrichment can be described as _____.

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a. assigning workers additional work at the same level
b. redesigning jobs to increase opportunities for responsibility
c. moving workers from one job to another
d. encouraging employees not to limit themselves to what’s on their
job descriptions
e. focusing workers on highly specialized jobs
(b; moderate; p. 138)

64. Jack works at a Hilton hotel. Some weeks he works in catering but he also
works in housekeeping, and in reservations periodically. This is an example of
_____.
a. job enlargement
b. job rotation
c. job enrichment
d. dejobbing
e. job specialization
(b; easy; p. 138)

65. The fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to


achieve dramatic improvements in performance is called _____.
a. job redesign
b. reengineering
c. process engineering
d. job enlargement
e. outsourcing
(b; easy; p. 139)

66. Describing the job in terms of the measurable, observable, and behavioral
competencies necessary for good job performance is called a _____.
a. competency-based job analysis
b. Department of Labor Procedure
c. functional job analysis
d. SOC classification system
e. none of the above
(a; easy; p. 140)

67. Competency analysis focuses on _____.


a. what is accomplished
b. how work is accomplished
c. when work is accomplished
d. who accomplishes the work
e. where the work is accomplished
(b; difficult; p. 140)

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68. Traditional job analysis focuses on _____.
a. what is accomplished
b. how work is accomplished
c. when work is accomplished
d. who accomplishes the work
e. where the work is accomplished
(a; difficult; p. 141)

69. Job competencies are always _____.


a. measurable
b. observable
c. based on goals
d. both a and b
e. all of the above
(d; easy; p. 141)

70. When a supervisor bases an employee’s training, appraisals, and rewards


on the skills and competences he or she needs to achieve his or her goals, the
supervisor is using _____.
a. competency analysis
b. traditional analysis
c. performance management
d. functional systems management
e. none of the above
(c; moderate; p. 141)

True/ False

71. Job analysis produces information used for writing job descriptions and
job specifications. (T; easy; p. 112)
72. The information gathered during a job analysis is primarily used for listing
what jobs entail and what kind of people to hire for the job. (T; easy; p. 112)
73. A process chart shows the organization-wide division of work, how the
job in question relates to other jobs, and where the job fits in the overall
organization. (F; moderate; p. 114)
74. Conducting the job analysis is the sole responsibility of the HR specialist.
(F; moderate; p. 112)
75. The interview is the most widely used method for identifying job duties
and responsibilities. (T; easy; p. 116)
76. Job analysis is often a prelude to changing a job’s pay rate. (T; moderate;
p. 115)
77. Interviews used for job analysis typically follow an unstructured format.
(F; easy; p. 115)
78. After completing an interview, the data should be verified with the
worker’s immediate supervisor. (T; moderate; p. 116)
79. Observation as a data collection method in a job analysis is most

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appropriate for jobs entailing a lot of mental activity. (F; easy; p. 117)
80. Employers may provide employees pocket dictating machines and pagers
to record activities at random times of the work day. (T; moderate; p. 117)
81. Qualitative approaches are more appropriate than quantitative approaches
when one seeks to compare jobs for pay purposes. (F; moderate; p. 117)
82. No significant differences exist between the functional job analysis
method and the DOL method. (F; moderate; p. 123)
83. The Department of Labor Procedure identifies performance standards and
training requirements for a job. (F; difficult; p. 123)
84. There is no standard format for writing a job description. (T; moderate; p.
125)
85. The FLSA status section of a job description permits quick identification
of a job as exempt or nonexempt from overtime and minimum wage provisions.
(T; moderate; p. 128)
86. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) requires that organizations
have job descriptions that list the essential functions of the jobs. (F; difficult; p.
130)
87. The statistical analysis method for job specifications is more defensible
than the judgmental approach because equal rights legislation forbids using traits
that can’t distinguish between high and low job performers. (T; moderate; p. 132)
88. The early work of Frederick Taylor supports the recent trend of dejobbing.
(F; difficult; p. 138)
89. Job enlargement refers to redesigning jobs in a way that increases
responsibility and achievement. (F; moderate; p. 138)
90. Job rotation is another term for dejobbing. (F; easy; p. 138)
91. Boundaryless organizations use teams and other mechanisms to make
boundaries more permeable. (T; moderate; p. 139)
92. In reengineered situations, workers tend to become collectively
responsible for overall results rather than being individually responsible for just
their own tasks. (T; difficult; p. 139)
93. Job analysis experts are concerned that in high performance work
environments in which employers need workers to seamlessly move from job to
job and exercise self-control, job descriptions based on lists of job-specific duties
may actually inhibit the flexible behavior companies need. (T; moderate; p. 140)
94. Organizations define competencies in the same way. (F; moderate; p. 140)
95. Functional-based job analysis means describing the job in terms of the
measurable, observable, behavioral competencies that an employee doing that job
must exhibit to do the job well. (F; difficult; p. 140)
96. Competency-based job analysis is more job-focused than traditional job
analysis. (F; difficult; p. 140)
97. Competency analysis focuses on how the worker meets the job’s
objectives or actually accomplishes the work. (T; moderate; p. 140)
98. Performance management means basing employee training, appraisals,
and rewards on the skills and competencies he or she needs to achieve his or her
goals. (T; moderate; p. 141)
99. A job’s required competencies might include general competencies,

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leadership competencies, and technical competencies. (T; moderate; p. 141)
100. Employee attitude is at the heart of a company’s performance management
process. (F; moderate; p. 141)

Essay/ Short Answer

101. Explain how job analysis provides information useful in recruitment and
selection, compensation, and performance appraisal. (moderate; p. 112)

Answer: Job analysis provides information for recruitment and selection


by laying out what the job entails and what human characteristics are
required to perform these activities. This information helps management
decide what sort of people to recruit and hire. Job analysis information is
also crucial for estimating the value of each job and its appropriate
compensation. A performance appraisal compares each employee’s actual
performance with his or her performance standards. Managers use job
analysis to determine the job’s specific activities and performance
standards.

102. List the steps in conducting a job analysis. (moderate; p. 113-114)

Answer: There are six steps in doing a job analysis. Step 1 is to decide
how one will use the information. Step 2 is to review relevant background
information such as organization charts, process charts, and job
descriptions. Step 3 is to select representative positions. Step 4 is to
analyze the job by collecting data on job activities, required employee
behaviors, working conditions, and human traits and abilities needed to
perform the job. Step 5 is to verify the job analysis information with the
worker performing the job and with his or her immediate supervisor. Step
6 is to develop a job description and job specification.

103. Explain how a job analysis typically involves a joint effort by an HR


specialist, the worker, and the worker’s supervisor. (moderate; p. 115)

Answer: The HR specialist might observe and analyze the job and then
develop a job description and specification. The supervisor and worker
may fill out questionnaires listing the subordinate’s activities. The
supervisor and worker may then review and verify the job analyst’s
conclusions regarding the job’s activities and duties.

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104. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using interviews to collect
job analysis data? (moderate; p. 115)

Answer: Interviews are relatively simple and quick way to collect data.
Skilled interviewers can gather information that might otherwise go
undiscovered. Some activities might occur only occasionally or be more
informal in nature. Interviews can discover these types of activities. The
interview also offers an opportunity to explain the need for a job analysis.
The biggest drawback is the chance for information to be distorted either
to outright falsification or honest misunderstanding.

105. Explain the advantage of using a position analysis questionnaire to analyze


a job. (difficult; p. 118)

Answer: The advantage of the PAQ is that it provides a quantitative score


or profile of any job in terms of how that job rates on five basic activities:
1) having decision-making/ communication/ social responsibilities, 2)
performing skilled activities, 3) being physically active, 4) operating
vehicles/ equipment, and 5) processing information. Its real strength is in
classifying jobs. Jobs can then be compared quantitatively.

106. Describe the procedure used by the Department of Labor for job analysis.
(difficult; p. 123)

Answer: A set of basic activities called worker functions describes what a


worker can do with respect to data, people, and things. Each worker
function gets an importance level. Then the highest combination would be
used to identify the job, since this is the highest level that a job incumbent
would be expected to attain. The job ends up with a numerical score. One
can group jobs with similar scores together.

107. How is a functional job analysis different from the Department of Labor
Procedure? (moderate; p. 124)

Answer: A functional job analysis is similar to the DOL method, but


differs in two ways. First, functional job analysis rates the job not just on
data, people, and things, but also on four more dimensions: the extent to
which specific instructions are necessary to perform the task; the extent to
which reasoning and judgment are required to perform the task; the
mathematical ability required to perform the task; and the verbal and
language facilities required to perform the task. Second, functional job
analysis also identifies performance standards and training requirements.

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108. When is a job function essential? (moderate; p. 130)

Answer: A job function is essential when it is the reason the position


exists or when the function is so specialized that the firm hired the person
doing the job for his or her expertise or ability to perform that particular
function. Essential job functions are the job duties that employees must be
able to perform.

109. What job-related behaviors are considered generic and important to all
jobs? (moderate; p. 130)

Answer: Regardless of the job, the following work behaviors are


important to all jobs: industriousness, thoroughness, schedule flexibility,
attendance, off-task behavior (reverse), unruliness (reverse), theft
(reverse), and drug misuse (reverse).

110. What are the five steps for establishing job specifications based on
statistical analysis? (difficult; p. 134)

Answer: Step 1: Analyze the job and decide how to measure job
performance. Step 2: Select personal traits like finger dexterity that you
believe should predict successful performance. Step 3: Test candidates for
these traits. Step 4: Measure these candidates’ subsequent job
performance. Step 5: Statistically analyze the relationship between the
human trait and job performance.

111. Explain the difference between job enlargement and job enrichment.
(easy; p. 138)

Answer: Job enlargement means assigning workers additional same-level


activities to increase the number of activities they perform. Job enrichment
means redesigning jobs in a way that increases the opportunities for the
worker to experience feelings of responsibility, achievement, growth, and
recognition.

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