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STATICS AND MECHANICS OF MATERIALS, 2 nd Edition

RILEY, STURGES AND MORRIS

Chapter 4

4-1

An aluminum tube with an outside diameter of 1.000 in. will be used to support a 10-kip load. If the axial stress in the member must be limited to 30 ksi T or C, determine the wall thickness required for the tube.

 

SOLUTION

 
 

P

10,000

30,000 psi

 

A

A

A

4

1

22

d

i

10,000

30,000

in.

2

 

d

i

0.75867 in.

1

2 t

 

t

0.1207

 

Ans.

4-2

Three steel bars with 25 15-mm cross sections are welded to a gusset plate as shown in Fig. P4-2. Determine the normal stresses in the bars when the forces shown are being applied to the plate.

 

SOLUTION

 
 

P

40,000

106.7

 

10

6

N/m

2

106.7 MPa

 
 

A

Ans.

 

A

0.025

0.015

P

50,000

6

2

 

B

133.3

10

 

N/m

 

133.3 MPa

Ans.

 

A

0.025

0.015

P

20,000

6

2

 
 

C

53.3

10

N/m

53.3 MPa

Ans.

 

A

0.025

0.015

4-3

Two ¼-in. diameter steel cables A and B are used to support a 220-lb traffic light as shown in Fig. P4-3. Determine the normal stress in each of the cables.

SOLUTION From a free-body diagram of the ring, the equations of equilibrium

F 0:

x

F 0:

 

T

T

B

cos 25

sin 20

T

T

A

cos 20

sin 25

220

0

0

 
F 0: x F 0:   T T B cos 25 sin 20 T T A

y

A

are solved to get

T

B

1.03684 T

A

B

 
 

T A 281.977 lb

T

B

292.365 lb

 

T

A

281.977

 
 

 

Ans.

 

A

A A

2 0.25 4
2
0.25
4

5740 psi

 

T

292.365

 

B

B

5960

psi

 

Ans.

 

A

B

2 0.25 4
2
0.25
4

4-4

A system of steel pipes is loaded and supported as shown in Fig. P4-4. If the normal stress in each pipe must not exceed 150 MPa, determine the cross-sectional areas required for each of the sections.

SOLUTION From free-body diagrams of the pipes, the equations of equilibrium give

F 0:

y

F 0:

y

P

P

A

650

650

850

B

0

0

P

A

P

B

650 kN

1500 kN

 

STATICS AND MECHANICS OF MATERIALS, 2 nd Edition

 

RILEY, STURGES AND MORRIS

F 0:

y

P

C

650

850

650

P A

10

3

1500

0

62

 

2

P

C

3000 kN

 

A

A

A

150

10

6

4333

10

m

4330 mm

 

Ans.

A

P

B

1500

10

3

10,000

10

62

10,000 mm

2

Ans.

 

B

B

150

10

6

m

 
 

A

P

C

3000

10

3

20,000

10

62

20,000 mm

2

Ans.

 

C

C

150

10

6

m

 

4-5

Two 1-in. diameter steel bars are welded to a gusset plate as shown in Fig. P4-5. Determine the normal stresses in the bars when forces F 1 = 550 lb and F 2 = 750 lb are applied to the plate.

 

SOLUTION

 
 

F

1

550

700 psi

 
 

A

 

Ans.

 

A

A

2 1 4
2
1
4

F

750

 

2

B

955

psi

 

Ans.

 

A

B

2 1 4
2
1
4

4-6

Two strips of a plastic material are bonded together as shown in Fig. P4-6. The average shearing stress in the glue must be limited to 950 kPa. What length L of splice plate is needed if the axial load carried by the joint is 50 kN?

SOLUTION From a free-body diagram of the middle plate, the equations of equilibrium

 
SOLUTION From a free-body diagram of the middle plate, the equations of equilibrium  

F 0: 2V 50

x

10

3

0

 

gives

 

V

25

10

3

N

A

 

950

10

3

0.3

L 2

L

2

 

L 0.1754 m 175.4 mm

 

Ans.

4-7

A coupling is used to connect a 2-in. diameter plastic rod to a 1.5-in. diameter rod, as shown in Fig. P4-7. If the average shearing stress in the adhesive must be limited to 500 psi, determine the minimum lengths L 1 and L 2 required for the joint if the applied axial load P is 8000 lb.

SOLUTION From a free-body diagram of the rod, the equation of equilibrium

 

F 0:

x

V

8000 0

F 0: x V 8000 0

gives

 

V

8000 lb

A

 
 

500

2

L 1

500

1.5

L

2

 

L 1 2.55 in.

 

Ans.

L

2

3.40 in.

Ans.

STATICS AND MECHANICS OF MATERIALS, 2 nd Edition

 

RILEY, STURGES AND MORRIS

4-8

Three plates are joined with a 12-mm diameter pin as shown in Fig. P4-8. Determine the maximum load P that can be transmitted by the joint if

(a)

The maximum normal stress on a cross section at the pin must be limited to 350 MPa.

(b)

The maximum bearing stress between a plate and the pin must be limited to 650 MPa.

(c)

The maximum shearing stress on a cross section of the pin must be limited to 240 MPa.

(d)

The punching shear resistance of the material in the top and bottom plates is 300 MPa.

 

SOLUTION

 
  SOLUTION  

(a)

For the outside plates

 

A

n

 

12

10

180 mm

2

180

10

62

m

 

30

 

P

2

A

n

2 350

For the middle plate

10

66

180

10

126

10

3

N

A

n

 

12

25

2

62

 

25

325 mm

325

10

m

 
 

P

A

n

350

10

66

325

10

113.7

10

3

N

 

Therefore

 

P

max

113.7 kN

 

Ans.

(b)

For the bearing stress on the hole in the middle plate

 
(b) For the bearing stress on the hole in the middle plate  

A

b

dt

12

25

2

62

 

300 mm

300

10

m

 

650

10

663

300

10

195

10

   
 

P

A

b

N

For the outer plates

 

A

b

dt

12

10

120 mm

2

120

10

62

m

 

P

2

A

b

Therefore

2 650

10

66

120

10

156

10

3

N

 

P

max

156 kN

 

Ans.

(c)

For the shearing stress on the cross section of the pin (which is in double shear)

A

s

d

2
2

4

2

12

For the shearing stress on the cross section of the pin (which is in double shear)

4

 
stress on the cross section of the pin (which is in double shear) A s d

P

113.10 mm

2

113.10

10

62

m

2

A

s

2 240

10

6

113.10

10

6

 

54.3

10

3

N

54.3 kN

Ans.

(d)

For the punching shear stress in the outside plates

(d) For the punching shear stress in the outside plates

A

s

P

2

360 mm

Lt

2 18

10

2

360

2

A

s

2 300

62

10

10

6

m

360

10

6

216

10

3

N

216 kN

Ans.

STATICS AND MECHANICS OF MATERIALS, 2 nd Edition

 

RILEY, STURGES AND MORRIS

4-9

A 100-ton hydraulic punch press is used to punch holes in a 0.50-in.-thick steel plate, as illustrated schematically in Fig. P4-9. If the average punching shear resistance of the steel plate is 40 ksi, determine the maximum diameter hole that can be punched.

 

SOLUTION

P

A

s

dt

  SOLUTION P A s dt

40

10

3

d

0.5

100

2000

lb

d

3.18

Ans.

4-10

A body with a mass of 250 kg is supported by five 15-mm diameter cables, as shown in Fig. P4-10. Determine the normal stress in each of the cables.

SOLUTION The tension in cable E is equal to the weight of the hanging body. The normal stress in cable E is then

 

T

E

E

A

250 9.81

2 0.015 4
2
0.015
4

13.88

10

6

N/m

2

13.88 MPa

Ans.

From a free-body diagram of the lower ring, the equations of equilibrium

 
Ans.

Ans.

F 0:

x

F 0:

y

give

T

C

T

C

cos60

sin 60

250

T

D

0

9.81

0

 

T

C

2831.90

N

16.03

10

6

C

N/m

2

0.015

2

T C 2831.90 N 16.03 10 6 C N/m 2 0.015 2 4 16.03 MPa

4

16.03 MPa

C

T

D

1415.95

N

8.01

10

6

D

N/m

2

0.015

2

C T D 1415.95 N 8.01 10 6 D N/m 2 0.015 2 4 8.01 MPa

4

8.01 MPa

Ans.

D

Then, from a free-body diagram of the upper ring, the equations of equilibrium

 
D Then, from a free-body diagram of the upper ring, the equations of equilibrium  

F 0: TTT

x

cos30

cos 40

BAC

F 0:

y

give

T

A

TTT

B

AC

sin 30

sin 40

1506.83

N

A

0.015

2

F 0: TTT x cos30 cos 40 BAC F 0: y give T A TTT B

4

cos 60

sin 60

0

0

 

A

8.53

10

6

N/m

2

8.53 MPa

 

Ans.

T

B

2967.85

N

16.79

B

10

6

B

N/m

2

0.015

2

T B 2967.85 N 16.79 B 10 6 B N/m 2 0.015 2 4 16.79 MPa

4

16.79 MPa

Ans.

STATICS AND MECHANICS OF MATERIALS, 2 nd Edition

 

RILEY, STURGES AND MORRIS

4-11

The joint shown in Fig. P4-11 is used in a steel tension member which has a 2 1-in. rectangular cross section. If the allowable normal, bearing, and punching-shearing stresses in the joint are 13.5 ksi, 18.0 ksi, and 6.50 ksi, respectively, determine the maximum load P that can be carried by the joint.

SOLUTION For normal stress at the narrowest section

A

n

0.5

1

0.5 in.

2

 
SOLUTION For normal stress at the narrowest section A n 0.5 1 0.5 in. 2  
 

P

A

n

13.5

10

3

0.5

6750 lb

 

For bearing stress

A

b

2

For bearing stress A b 2 3 8 1 0.75 in.

3 8

1

0.75 in.

2

 

P

A

b

18.0

10

3

0.75

13,500 lb

 

For punching shearing stress

 
 

A

s

P

2

A s P 2 3 8 1 0.75 in. 2 A 6.5 10 3 0.75 4880

3 8

1

0.75 in.

2

A

6.5

10

3

0.75

4880 lb

 
  A s P 2 3 8 1 0.75 in. 2 A 6.5 10 3 0.75

Therefore

s

 

P

max

4880 lb

Ans.

4-12

A vertical shaft is supported by a thrust collar and bearing plate, as shown in Fig. P4-12. Determine the maximum axial load that can be applied to the shaft if the average punching shear stress in the collar and the average bearing stress between the collar and the plate are limited to 75 and 100 MPa, respectively.

SOLUTION For bearing stress between the collar and the plate

 
SOLUTION For bearing stress between the collar and the plate  
 

A

b

0.15

2

0.10

2

6

4 9.8175

4

9.8175

10

32

m

33

P

A

b

100

10

9.8175

10

982

10

N

For punching shearing stress in the collar

 
 

A

s

dL

0.10

0.025

7.854

10

3

m

2

 

P

A

s

75

10

6

7.854

10

33

589

10

N

Therefore

 
 

P

max

589 kN

Ans.

4-13

A device for determining the shearing strength of wood is shown in Fig. P4-13. The dimensions of the wood specimen are 6-in. wide by 8-in. high by 2-in. thick. If a load of 16,800 lb is required to fail the specimen, determine the shearing strength of the wood.

 

SOLUTION

 

V

16,800

1050 psi

 

Ans.

 

A

s

8

2

 

STATICS AND MECHANICS OF MATERIALS, 2 nd Edition

RILEY, STURGES AND MORRIS

4-14

The 75-kg traffic light shown in Fig. P4-14 is supported by three cables of equal diameter. Determine the minimum diameter required if the normal stress in any cable must not exceed 160 MPa.

 

SOLUTION

 

T

T

AA

T

T

BB

485

i

jk

222 485
222
485

685

i

jk

222 685
222
685

0.39036

TTT

A

A

A

i

0.78072

jk

0.48795

0.53666

TTT

B

B

B

i

0.71554

jk

0.44721

T

T

CC

8

j

5

k

2 2 8 5
2
2
8
5

0.84800

TT

C

C

jk

0.53000

The equations of equilibrium

 

give

F 0:

x

F 0:

y

F 0:

z

0.48795

0.39036

0.71554

T

A

0

0

0

0.53666

0.84800

T

B

0.78072

0.44721

TTT

ABC

0.53000

75

9.81

TTT

ABC

T

A

T

A

T

B

T

C

Therefore

1.37478 T

B

N

452.353

329.037

694.103

N

N

160

160

160

10

10

10

6

6

6

d

2

A

2

B

d

d

2

C

694.103 N N 160 160 160 10 10 10 6 6 6 d 2 A 2

4

694.103 N N 160 160 160 10 10 10 6 6 6 d 2 A 2

4

694.103 N N 160 160 160 10 10 10 6 6 6 d 2 A 2

4

T

C

2.10950 T

B

d

A 0.00190 m

d

d

B 0.00162 m

C 0.00235 m

 

d

min

2.35 mm

 

Ans.

4-15

A 1000-lb load is securely fastened to a hoisting rope as shown in Fig. P4-15. The force in the weightless

flexible cable does not change as it passes around the small frictionless pulley at support C. The sag distance d is 4 ft. Cables AB and BC have the same diameter. The normal stresses in these cables must not exceed 24 ksi, and the shearing stress in pin A (double shear) must not exceed 12 ksi. Determine

(a)

The minimum diameter of cables AB and BC.

 

(b)

The minimum diameter of the pin at A .

 

SOLUTION

1

4

10

1

23.578

9.16515 ft

  SOLUTION 1 4 10 1 23.578 9.16515 ft

1

sin

 

a

10cos

b 30 a 20.83485 ft

 

2

tan

1

4

b

10.868

Then, from a free-body diagram of the ring, the equations of equilibrium

F 0:

x

F 0:

y

give

P sin

P cos

T

2

A

T

2

A

sin

1

cos

1000

1

0

0

P sin P cos T 2 A T 2 A sin 1 cos 1000 1 0

STATICS AND MECHANICS OF MATERIALS, 2 nd Edition

 

RILEY, STURGES AND MORRIS

 

T

A

1.07152 P

 

P

1620.35 lb

 

T A 1736.24 lb

 

(a)

For the normal stress in the cables

P

1620.35 lb

24

10

3

d

2

BC

For the normal stress in the cables P 1620.35 lb 24 10 3 d 2 BC

4

 

d

T

BC

A

0.293 in.

1736.24

lb

24

10

3

d

2

AB

10 3 d 2 AB 4

4

Ans.

d

AB

0.304 in.

 

Ans.

(b)

For the pin at A , which is in double shear,

T

A

1736.24

lb

12

10

3

2

d

2

p

For the pin at A , which is in double shear, T A 1736.24 lb 12

4

 

d

p

0.304 in.

 

Ans.

4-16

A flat steel bar 100 mm wide by 25 mm thick has axial loads applied with 40 mm-diameter pins in double shear at points A , B , C, and D as shown in Fig. P4-16. Determine

(a)

The axial stress in the bar on a cross section at pin B .

 

(b)

The average bearing stress on the bar at pin B .

 

(c)

The shearing stress on the pin at A .

 
 

SOLUTION

 

(a)

For axial stress in the bar

 

P

350

10

3

233

10

6

N/m

2

233 MPa

Ans.

n

A

0.06

0.025

 

 

n

(b)

For bearing stress at the pin

 

P

250

10

3

250

10

6

N/m

2

250 MPa

Ans.

   

b

A

b

0.04

0.025

 

(c)

For shearing stress on the pin (which is in double shear)

 

V

350

10

3

139.3

10

6

N/m

2

139.3 MPa

Ans.

2 A

s

2 2 0.04 4
2
2
0.04
4
 

4-17

Two flower pots are supported with steel wires of equal diameter. Pot A weighs 10 lb and pot B weighs 8 lb. Determine the minimum required diameter of the wires if the normal stress in the wires must not exceed 18 ksi.

SOLUTION From a free-body diagram of the upper ring

 

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

(a) (b) (c) (d)

F 0:

x

F 0:

y

T

CD

cos 45

T

BC

cos

0

T

CD

sin 45

T

BC

sin

8

0

From a free-body diagram for the lower ring

F 0:

x

F 0:

y

T

AB

T

BC

cos

T

AB

T

BC

sin

cos 45

10

sin 45

0

0

Adding equations (a) and (c) gives

T

CD

cos 45

T

AB

cos 45

0

STATICS AND MECHANICS OF MATERIALS, 2 nd Edition

 

RILEY, STURGES AND MORRIS

T

CD

T

AB

Then adding Eqs. (b) and (d) gives

 
T CD T AB Then adding Eqs. (b) and (d) gives  

T

CD

T

CD

sin 45

T

AB

T

AB

sin 45

12.7279 lb

Now Eqs. (b) and (a) can be written

18 lb

T

BC

sin

1.0000

 

(e)

T

BC

cos

9.0000

(f)

Dividing Eq. (e) by Eq. (f) gives

 

tan

tan 1 9

1 9

 

6.340

 

T

BC

9.0554 lb

 

P

12.7279

2 d 4
2
d
4

18

10

3

psi

 

max

A

d

0.0300

 

Ans.

4-18

A steel pipe will be used to support a 40-kN load. If the wall thickness of the pipe is 10 percent of the pipe’s outside diameter d o , calculate and plot the normal stress in the pipe as a function of the diameter d o , (20 mm d o 75 mm). If the axial stress in the pipe must be limited to 250 MPa, what is the smallest size standard steel pipe (see Appendix A) that could be used.

SOLUTION

 

dd

io

P

2 0.1 d

o

0.8 d

10

3

40

o

141, 471.06 N/m

2

dd io P 2 0.1 d o 0.8 d 10 3 40 o 141, 471.06 N

A

2 2 2 d d 4 d o i o
2
2
2
d
d
4
d
o
i
o

For standard steel pipe,

P

40

10

3

250

10

6

N/m

2

A

A

A

160

10

62

m

160 mm

2

 

d

13 mm

 

Ans.

 

4-19

An aluminum tube with an outside diameter d o will be used to support a 10-kip load. If the axial stress in the tube must be limited to 30 ksi T or C, calculate and plot the required wall thickness t as a function of d o , (0.75 in. d o 4 in.). What diameter would be required for a solid aluminum shaft?

SOLUTION

 
 

P

10,000

   
  P 10,000    

30,000 psi

A

2 2 d d 4 o i
2
2
d
d
4
o
i

d

2 d 0.42441
2
d
0.42441

io

dt 2

o

t

d

o

2 d 0.42441 o
2
d
0.42441
o
 
 

2

For a solid aluminum shaft

 
 
STATICS AND MECHANICS OF MATERIALS, 2 nd Edition RILEY, STURGES AND MORRIS P 10,000 30,000
STATICS AND MECHANICS OF MATERIALS, 2 nd Edition
RILEY, STURGES AND MORRIS
P
10,000
30,000 psi
2
A
d
4
d
0.65
Ans.
4-20
The steel pipe column shown in Fig. P4-20 a has an outside diameter of 150 mm and a wall thickness of 15
mm. The load imposed on the column by the timber beam is 150 kN. If the bearing stress between the
circular steel bearing plate and the timber beam is not to exceed 3.25 MPa, determine the minimum diameter
bearing plate that must be used between the column and the beam. Assume that the bearing stress is
uniformly distributed over the surface of the plate.
If the bearing plate is not rigid, the stress between the bearing plate and the timber beam will not be
uniform. If the stress varies as shown in Fig. P4-20 b (a uniform value of max above the column and
decreasing linearly to max /5 at the outside edge r p of the bearing plate), calculate and plot max versus the
radius r p of the bearing plate (75 mm r p 500 mm). Now what minimum diameter bearing plate must be
used if the bearing stress must not exceed 3.25 MPa? What is the percent decrease in max for a 400 mm-
diameter bearing plate compared with a 150 mm-diameter bearing plate? For a 600 mm-diameter bearing
plate compared with a 150 mm-diameter bearing plate?
SOLUTION
For uniform stress over a rigid bearing plate
3
P
150
10
6
2
3.25
10
N/m
2
A
d
4
d
0.242 m 242 mm
Ans.
For the non-rigid bearing plate
cr c
1
2
max
where the constants c 1 and c 2 are chosen such that
1 c
0.075
c
1
2
0.2 cr
c
1
p
2
Therefore,
0.8
c
1 0.075 r
p
0.8 0.075
c
1
2
0.075 r
p
Integrating the stress to get the axial force
F
dA
gives
0.075
3
p
150
10
2
r dr
r
c r
c
2
r dr
max
max
1
2
0
0.075
3
2
23
0.075
r
2
0.075
r
0.075
p
p
2
c
c
max
1
2
2
33
22

STATICS AND MECHANICS OF MATERIALS, 2 nd Edition

 

RILEY, STURGES AND MORRIS

 

150

10

3

2

 

 

N/m

 
 

max

2

0.075

23

r

p

0.075

3

r

p

2

0.075

2

 

2

c

1

33

c

2

6

22

2

 

When

r

p

0.075 m

max

8.49

10

N/m

 

8.49 MPa

 

Ans.

When

r

p

0.2 m

max

1.976 MPa (a 76.7% decrease)

Ans.

When

r

p

0.3 m

max

0.965 MPa (an 88.6% decrease)

Ans.

4-21

The tie rod shown in Fig. P4-21 a has a diameter of 1.50 in and is used to resist the lateral pressure against the walls of a grain bin. The force imposed on the wall by the rod is 18,000 lb. If the bearing stress between the washer and the wall must not exceed 400 psi, determine the minimum diameter washer that must be used between the head of the bolt and the grain bin wall. Assume that the bearing stress is uniformly distributed over the surface of the washer. If the washer is not rigid, the stress between the washer and the wall will not be uniform. If the stress varies as shown in Fig. P4-21 b (a uniform value of max under the 2.4-in.-diameter restraining nut and decreasing as 1/r to the outside edge r w of the washer), calculate and plot max versus the radius r w of the washer (1 in. r w 8 in.). Now what minimum diameter washer must be used if the bearing stress must not exceed 400 psi? What is the percent decrease in max for an 8-in.-diameter washer compared with a 4-in.- diameter washer? For a 12-in.-diameter washer compared with an 8-in.-diameter washer?

SOLUTION For uniform stress over a rigid washer

 
 

P

18

10

3

 

400 psi

 

A

2 2 d 1.5 4
2
2
d
1.5
4
 
 

d 7.72

 

Ans.

   
 

For the non-rigid washer

 
For the non-rigid washer  
 

1.2

max

 

r

Integrating the stress to get the axial force

 
 

F dA

 

gives

 

18

3

10

1.2

0.75

2

max

r dr

r

w

1.2

1.2

r

max

2

r dr

 

max

max

0.87750

1.2

2

r

w

0.75

2

2.4

1.2

2.4

r

w

18

10

3

1.2

 

 

psi

 

max

0.87750

2.4

r

w

1.2

   

When

max

400 psi

d 2 r

w

13.61 in.

Ans.

When

d

2

r

w

2.4 in.

max

6529 psi

 

When

d

2

r

w

8 in.

max

754

psi

an 88.5% decrease

 

Ans.

When

d

2

r

w

12 in.

max

462

psi

a 38.7% decrease

Ans.