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Chapter 16: The Transatlantic Economy, Trade

Wars, and Colonial Rebellion

October 20, 2007

Two separate but interrelated rivalries existed in Europe in the mid-18th


century: between Austria and Prussia for Central Europe and between Great
Britain and France for commerce and colonies. The wars were long and expen-
sive. Ultimately, Prussia won Central Europe and Great Britain established a
world empire. The expense of these wars led every major European government
after 1763 Peace of Paris to establish new tax policies. These reforms led to the
American Revolution, enlightened absolutism on Continent, continuing nancial
crisis in France, and Spanish reform in America.

1 Periods of European Overseas Empires

Four stages of outside world contact since Renaissance.

1. Discovery, exploration, conquest, and settlement of New World.

(a) Also included penetration of Southeast Asian markets by Portugal


and Netherlands.

(b) Ended by 1700.

2. Mercantile Empires

(a) Rivalry among Spain, France, Great Britain.

naval wars.
(b) Created large navies and resulted in many

(c) These war became linked to Continental wars.


(d) Slavery fundamental in rst two stages.

i. Slave population blacks imported from Africa or born to black

Three centuries
slaves.

ii. of slave trade with West Africa.

iii. Slaves brought their culture.

Native
Americans marginalized.
(e) Atlantic economy and society were European and African.

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(f ) Both British and Spanish colonies declared independence.
(g) Ended during 1820s.

3. New formal empiresdirect European administration of indigenous in


Africa and Asia.

(a) Also included new European settlement: Australia, New Zealand,


South Africa, Algeria.

(b) Based in trade, national honor, Christian missionary, military.

(c) Formally based on free labor , but indigenous still treated harshly.

4. Decolonization (1950+)

5. Huge disproportional impact in 450 years before decolonization.

(a) Treated indigenous as inferior.

(b) Destroy existing culture due to greed, religion, politics. These ac-
tions remain signicant factors in relationship between Europe and
its colonies and U.S. today.

(c) Ships and gunpowder facilitate supremacy.

2 Mercantile Empires

1. Navy and merchant marine key to mercantile empiresempires for prot,


not settlement.

2. Spain controlled mainland South America (except Brazil, Dutch Guiana).

(a) Controlled Florida in North America.

(b) Control Central America, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Trinidad, eastern His-
paniola (Dominican Republic).

3. British controlled North Atlantic seaboard, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland,


Bermuda, Jamaica, Barbados. Trading posts on Indian subcontinent.

4. French controlled St. Lawrence River valley, Ohio and Mississippi River
valleys. Western Hispaniola (Haiti), Guadeloupe, Martinique, posts on
India and West Africa.

5. India seemed to be huge potential European market and source of spice


and calico.

6. Dutch control Suriname (Dutch Guiana), Cope Colony (South Africa), Sri
Lanka, Bengal.

(a) Most importantly, controlled Javan trade.

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(b) Opened these markets in 1600s.

(c) Huge empire disproportionate to wealth, importance, and size of


United Netherlands.

(d) Daring sailors and technological innovations facilitate.

2.1 Mercantilist Goals


1. Mercantilism invented by later critics and opponents.

2. Regarded gold and silver as ultimate measure of wealth.

3. Assumed scarcity and limits, zero-sum game. Only modest growth possi-
ble. Predated industrial/agricultural revolution.

4. Both home and colonists see colony as inferior partner.

(a) Exclusive trade.

(b) Governments use navigation laws, taris, bounties to prohibit trade


with other monarchs.

(c) National monopoly.


5. Messy in practice; by 18th century, mercantilist assumptions fallen.

(a) Spain could not produce enough for South America.

(b) Production in British American colonies challenged European indus-


tries.

(c) English colonists could buy sugar more cheaply from French West
Indies.

(d) Everybody hoped to break others' monopoly.

(e) Golden age of smugglers. Governments could not control subjects'


actions.

2.2 French-British Rivalry


1. Settlers coveted St. Lawrence River valley, upper New England, Ohio
River valley.

2. Conict over fur trade, shing, alliance with Natives.

3. Heart of rivalry in West Indies.


(a) Jewels of empire: tobacco, cotton, indigo, coee, sugar.
(b) Unlimited demand for sugar; for a time, unlimited riches to planta-
tion owner.

(c) Slavery essential for prot.

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4. India

(a) Traded through charter companies (legal monopolies).

(b) English East India Company, French Compagnie des Indes.

(c) Indian trade only marginal, but still tried to make prot.

(d) Some see India as springboard to larger markets: China.

(e) Trading posts called factories, granted by Indian governments.

(f ) Indian states decayed in mid-18th.

i. Joseph Dupleix (1697-1763) (French) and Robert Clive (1725-


1774) encouraged lling power vacuum.

ii. Each company began to take government powers.

5. Dutch maintained monopoly in Indonesia.

3 The Spanish Colonial System

Had rigid laws, but actual practice was informal. Monopoly frequently breached.
Primary purpose until 1750s was to supply Spain with metals.

3.1 Colonial Government


1. Council of the Indies and monarch nominated viceroys of New Spain
(Mexico) and Peru.

2. Viceroys executed laws issued by Council of the Indies.

3. Viceroyalty divided into audiencia (subordinate judicial council). Many


local ocials. Corregidores led municipal councils.

4. Ocers represent patronage. Monarchy usually gave positions to Spanish-


born.

5. Hierarchical; nearly all power ow down.

3.2 Trade Regulations


1. Casa de Contratación (House of Trade) in Seville regulated New World
trade.

(a) Only Cádiz port authorized for Am. trade.

(b) Most inuential institution.

(c) Worked closely with Consulado (Merchant Guild) of Seville.

2. Complicated system maintain monopoly.

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(a) Flota (commerce eet) escorted by warships carry Spanish merchan-
dise to few specic ports (Portobello, Veracruz, Cartagena).

(b) No authorized ports on Pacic.

(c) Loaded with bullion, spent winter in fortied Caribbean ports, sailed
back.

(d) Imperfect but external trade illegal.

(e) Colonists forbidden to directly trade with each other.

3.3 Colonial Reform Under the Spanish Bourbon Monar-


chs
1. Philip 5 1700-1746
(r. ) tried to use French administrative skill to re-
assert monopoly.

(a) Spanish patrol vessels tried to suppress American smuggling.

(b) Led to war with England in 1739 .

(c) Established viceroyalty of New Granada .

(d) Wars exposed vulnerability of Spanish empire.

(e) Defeated in 1763. Convinced that system had to be reformed.

2. Charles 3 (r. 1759-1788)  most important imperial reformer.

(a) Royal ministers instead of councils.

(b) 1765  abolished Seville monopoly; opened ports other than Cádiz.

(c) Opened more South American and Caribbean ports.

(d) Authorized trade between American Spanish ports.

(e) 1776  Viceroyalty of La Plata.

(f ) Introduce intendant system.

(g) Reforms worked to stimulate economy.

3. Reforms brought empire under more direct Spanish control.

(a) Peninsulares enter New World to ll posts.

(b) More merchants went.

(c) Organized to benet Spain; creoles (European descent born in colony)


were second-class. Their resentment would lead to rebellion.

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4 Black African Slavery, The Plantation System,

and the Atlantic Economy

1. Slavery exist in parts of Europe since ancient; little stigma until 1700s.
Mediterranean traditional sole source of slaves.

2. After Ottoman conquest Constantinople in 1453


, no white slaves ex-
ported.

3. Portuguese import African slaves from Canary Islands and West Africa.

4. 16th century +: slave labor became fundamental social and economic.


Africa(ns) drawn inextricably into West.

4.1 The African Presence in the Americas


1. Severe labor shortage; settlers did not want to work, Native Americans
died.

2. Spanish and Portuguese quickly turn to slaves. English colonies more


slowly.

3. Slave markets on West African Coast from Senegambia to Angola.

(a) Political and military conditions and wars in Africa create slave sup-
ply.

(b) Dynamic African societies exercising power relations by enslaving


other Africans.

4. The West Indies, Brazil, and Sugar


1619
(a) Far more slaves into West Indies, Brazil than North America. Over
a century of slavery before Jamestown slaves.

(b) Population equaled or surpassed whites in multi-racial communities.

(c) In Spanish colonies, slavery declined.

(d) Increased in Brazil, Caribbean for sugar and gold mining. Prosperity
and slavery went hand in hand.

i. Early 1700s: 20,000 new slaves / yr.

ii. 1725: 90% Jamaica black slaves.

(e) Low fertility rate of slaves and high death rate.

i. Continuous import needed.

ii. New African arrivals characteristic; brought African culture to


infuse.

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4.2 Slavery and the Transatlantic Economy
1. Portuguese and Spanish most involved in slave trade in 16th; Dutch in
17th; England in late 17th and 18th.

2. Triangle trade:

(a) European goods (often gun) traded for slaves in West Africa.

(b) Slaves taken to West Indies; traded for sugar and tropical products;
shipped to Europe.

(c) Also went to New England for sh, rum, and lumber to trade for
sugar in West Indies.

3. Cotton, tobacco, and sugar (and their consumer goods) all depended on
slavery.

4. Political turmoil in African like civil wars in Kingdom of Kongo and in


Gold coast area increased slave supply.

(a) Dispute over succession.

(b) Some captives sold to slave traders at ports.

(c) African leaders conducted slave raids to raise money for weapons.

(d) Wars often deep in interior; still aect development of America.

4.3 The Experience of Slavery


1. Perhaps > 9M slaves  largest forced intercontinental migration in his-
tory.

2. Unspeakably bad passage; cramped, bad food, disease .

3. Always more men → could not preserve traditional extended family. Later,
tried to recreate even though not actual family.

4. Owners preferred old slaves/descendants. Sold for more.

5. New slaves seasoning. Discipline; understand no longer free.

(a) New names.

(b) Learn new skills.

(c) Learn European language (to an extent).

(d) Some apprenticed to older slaves.

(e) Others broken by working of eld gangs.

(f ) Generally, North American owners only bought recently-arrived slaves


seasoned in Indies.

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6. Language and Culture
(a) Plantation isolated; but could visit other slaves on market days.
Thus, recently arrived slaves could sustain their own culture for a
while.

(b) More people spoke African language south of W. Indies. Take over
two generation for European languag.

(c) Language tie → solidarity. Organized nations.

i. Basis for African religious communities.

A. Some stayed Muslim.

B. Organized lay religious brotherhoods that did charity in slave


community.

ii. Elect kings and queens.

1739
iii. Enabled communication during revolts.

A. South Carolina revolt believed to have communicated


through drums → tried to suppress drums.

7. Daily Life
(a) Diered from colonies.

(b) Portugeuse fewest protection.

(c) Spanish church tried to protect, but more concerned about Native.

(d) British and French had slave codes, but more assuring dominance.
Limited protection.

(e) Legislation intended to prevent revolt.


(f ) Corporal punishment permitted.

(g) Forbiddent to gather in large group.

(h) Marriages not recognized by law; children belonged to master of par-


ent.

(i) Hard agricultural labor, poor diet and housing.

(j) Families could be separated.

(k) Today, accepted that life sucked equally for most slaves.

8. Conversion to Christianity
(a) Spanish, French, Portugeuse: Catholic.

(b) English: Protestant (various denomination).

(c) Slaves must accept society and natural hierarchy of master at top.

(d) Organized African religion disappeared.

(e) Some practices survived: belief of nature, cosmos, witchers, conjur-


ers, healers, voodoo.

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crushed non-European values in con-
text of New World economics and society.
(f ) Like Native Americans,

9. European Racial Attitudes


(a) European settler consider blacks savage.

(b) Others look down because they were slaves.

(c) Culture negative connotation of black.

(d) Created unique society dependant on slave labor and racial dierence.
Had not existed before.

(e) Ended:

i. 1794  Slave Revolt of St. Dominique

ii. 1807  British outlaw slave trade

iii. Latin wars of independence

iv. 1863  Emancipation Proclaimation

v. 1888  Brazilian emancipation

(f ) Still have to deal with problems of slavery today.

5 Mid-Eighteenth-Century Wars

1. Unstable relations.

2. Assumed war benecial.

3. Professional armies and navies; rarely aected civilians much. Did not
harm domestically.

4. Conclusion of war simply to recover to ght again.

5. Overseas empires and central Europe overlapped and inuenced each other.

5.1 The War of Jenkin's Ear


1. Spanish took monopoly seriously, patrolled, and searched English ships.

2. 1731  Fight during search; Robert Jenkins's ear cut o. Carried ear
in brandy.

3. 1738  Showed ear repeatedly to Parliament demonstrating atrocity.


Lobbied to get rid of Spanish intervention.

4. Walpole could not resist pressure; 1739 went to war.

1815
5. Inherently minor, but due to circumstances, opened a series of world-wide
wars until .

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5.2 The War of the Austrian Succession (1740-48)
1. Frederick 2 invaded Habsburg Silesia . Upset pragmatic sanction; he
treated Habsburg as just another state rather than dominant power. Up-
set balance of power.

2. Maria Theresa Preserves the Habsburg Empire


(a) Did not retake Silesia but preserved Habsburg power.

(b) Granted privileges to nobility to win support.

i. Recognized Hungary as most important.

ii. Promise Magyar nobility local autonomy.

(c) Preserved state but at cost to central monarchy.

(d) Hungary would continue to be troubled. Weak monarchy → had to


promise Hungary concessions.

3. France Draws Great Britain into the War


(a) France united Jenkins Ear and Austrian Succession.

(b) Aggressive nobles pressue Cardinal Fleury (1653-1743) to scrap British


attack and support Prussia against Austria, traditional French en-
emy.

(c) Fateful decision.


i. Aiding Prussia helped new, powerful German state. Could and
would later threaten France.

ii. Brought Britain into continental war; they wanted to make sure
Netherlands were Austrian, not French.

(d) 1744  France supported Spain against Britain in New World.

(e) French military badly divided. Lost colonies to Britain to focus on


war with Austria.

(f ) 1748  Aix-la-Chapelle  war end stalemate. Prussia keep Sile-


sia, Spain continued to let Britain sell slaves in Spanish colonies.
Peace in Europe.

5.3 The Diplomatic Revolution of 1756

French and Indian War (1755).


1. France and England informally ght over Ohio River valley. Led to

2. George 2 (r. 1727-1760) thought French might attack Hanover in


response to American conict.

3. Jan 1756 Convention of Westminster


 with Prussia; defensive al-
liance to prevent foreign troops entering Germany states.

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(a) Geroge 2 feared French.

(b) Frederick 2 feared alliance of Russia and Austria.

4. May 1756  France and Austria sign defensive alliance.

(a) Unthinkable before.

(b) France agreed because Frederick had not consulted with French min-
isters before allying with Britain.

5.4 The Seven Years' War (1756-1763)


1. Frederick the Great Opens Hostilities
(a) Aug. 1756 invaded Saxony. Considered this preemptive against con-
spiracy but create the alliance that he feared.

(b) 1757  France, Austria, Sweden, Russia, smaller German states


ally to destroy Prussia.

the Great two


factors
(c) Leadership (known as Frederick after this war) and
saved Prussia:

1762 
i. Britain gave substantial money.

Peter 3
ii. Elizabeth of Russia (r 1741-62) died. Successor Tsar
(killed in same year) admired Frederick and immediately
peace.

(d) 1763  Treaty of Hubertusburg ended war with no border


change. Prussia clearly powerful.

William Pitt's (the Elder, 1708-78) Strategy for Winning North


America
2.

(a) Gave tons of money to Frederick the Great.

(b) German conict diverted French from colony. Won America on


plains of Germany.

(c) Wanted all of America east of Mississippi.

(d) Sent over 40,000 English and colonial troops; highest ever for colo-
nial war.

(e) Cooperated with coloniesrealized they could defeat French.

(f ) French could not direct similar resources.

i. Corrupt administration.

ii. Military and political leadership in Canada divided.

1759 Plains of Abraham.


iii. Could not suciently supply forces.

iv.  French were defeated on

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(g) Also captured French West Indies. French trade fell by 80% from
1755-60.

(h) Defeated France's India of 1757 Battle of Plassey.


(i) Never had any European power experience such world-wide victory.

3. The Treaty of Paris in 1763


(a) Less victorious than battleeld.

(b) Pitt no longer in oce; replaced by Earl of Bute.

(c) Britain get Canada, Ohio River Valley, eastern half of Mississippi
River valley.

(d) Some Indian colonies returned; Guadeloupe and Martinique returned.

4. IMPACTS
(a) 10,000s soldiers and sailors died in major battles across globe.

(b) Prussia took Silesia and turned Holy Roman Empire empty, at great
sacrice.

(c) Habsburg power depedent on Hungary.

(d) France no longer great power.

(e) Spanish Empire intact, but British still wanted its markets.

Britain became world power until


(f ) British East India compay power over decaying states. Organized

WWII.
new territories in New World.

(g) Domestic Crises

i. France desperate for reform.

ii. Everybody had to increase revenue.

6 The American Revolution and Europe

Evolved from revenue-collection problems common to all powers in Seven-Years'


War. French support of colonies worsened French debt.

6.1 Resistance to the Imperial Search for Revenue


1. Two imperial problems after 1763 Treaty of Paris:

(a) Cost of maintaining empirecould not maintain alone. Colonies pay


because they're beneciaries.

(b) New territory to organizeSt. Lawrence to Mississippiget rid of


French and Native.

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2. 1764  Sugar Act  rigorous collection of lower tax. Smugglers tried
in Admiralty court w/o jury.

3. 1765  Stamp Act  legal docs, newspapers, etc.

4. 1765  Stamp Act Congress  protest; fear if colonial government ex-


ternally funded, colonists would lose control.

(a) Inuenced by Sons of Liberty.

(b) Refused to import British goods.

5. 1766  Repeal stamp act; Declaratory Act still held power to legislate
colonies.

6. Pattern:

(a) Parliament approve legislation.

(b) American resist w/ reasoned argument.

(c) Parliament repeal; start over.

(d) With each clash, less reconcilable. Americans think more liberty.

6.2 The Crisis and Independence


1. 1767  Charles Townshend  colonial import laws.

2. Sent customs agents and troops to protect.

3. 1770  Boston Massacre  5 citizen killed.

4. Repealed except one on tea.

5. 1774  Lord North pass what known as Intolerable Acts.


(a) Close Boston.

(b) Reorganize Massachusetts.

(c) Allowed quartering.

(d) Remove trials of customs ocers.

6. Quebec Act  Quebec include Ohio River Valley.

1774  First Continental Congress


1775.
7.  couldn't reconcile. Battles of
Lexington, Concord

8. 1775  Second Continental Congress  still seek reconciliation, but


too much tension; began to lead colonies.

(a) George III declare rebellion.

(b) Paine's Common Sense convince public.

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(c) Organize colonial army, navy.

9. Apr. 1776  Open American ports.

10. 1781  End American Revolution; Washington defeat Lord Cornwallis


at Yorktown.

(a) 1778  Ben Franklin persuade French to support.

(b) 1779  Spanish join against Brit.

11. 1783 Treaty of Paris  13 colonies free.

6.3 American Political Ideals


1. Look to English Revolution of 1688; similar to rebellion against Stuart.

2. Justify aristocratic rebellion to support popular revolution.

3. Whig ideals, derived from Locke.

4. Commonwealthmean  British political writers, intellectually rooted in


radical Puritan revolution.

(a) John Trenchard (1662-1723)

(b) Thomas Gordon (d. 1750)  Cato's Letters criticize Walpole 


corrupt and undermined liberty.

(c) Parli tax simply nance corruption.

(d) Standing army part of tyranny.

(e) In Britain, ignored because public thought they were freest people in
world.

(f ) Picked up in colonies  accepted en face.

6.4 Events in Great Britain


1. George III believed he should have his own ministers and royal manage-
ment of Parli.

(a) Appointed Earl of Bute rst minister.

(b) Ignore Whigs that ran country since 1715  sought aid of politicians
Parli hated.

(c) Lord North rst minister from 1770-82.

(d) Whig families claimed George III trying to impose tyranny.

(e) George III try to restore royal inuence, but not really tyrant.

2. The Challenge of John Wilkes 1763 ( )

14
(a) Wilkes criticize Lord North's peace negotiations with France.

(b) Arrested under general warrant; released by privilege of Parli plea.

(c) Courts rule general warrant illegal.

(d) House of Commons rule libel.

1768
(e) Wilkes ed and outlawed, but enjoyed popular support.

(f )  Returned, re-elected to Parliament. Commons refused to


seat (under inuence of George's friends). Elected three more times;
Parli ignored after 4th.

1774.
(g) Popular and aristocratic support.

(h) Finally seated in

(i) Colonists see as King being arbitrary tyrant.

3. Movement for Parliamentary Reform


(a) British home subjects not directly represented anymore than colonists.

(b) Wilkes and Colonists protest same things  large, self-elected aris-
tocratic body; popular support.

(c) Revolution orderly; outside regular framework.

(d) Parliamentary reform towards end of Revolution.

4. Yorkshire Association Movement


1778:
(a) End of 1770s: British resent mismanagement of war.

(b) Christopher Wyvil  property owners (freeholders)  mod-


erate changes to corrupt system.

(c) Popular attempt to establish extra-legal institution to reform gov-


ernment.

(d) Failed during 1780s because members not willing to appeal to public.

(e) Provided experience. Many younger members promoted reform after


1815.

(f ) Parliament passed some resolutions, but not much substantial.

5. 1783  Lord North ally with Charles James Fox, critic of monarch.

(a) 1783  King appoint William Pitt the Younger to manage House of
Commons

(b) 1784  Pitt construct King-phallic monarchy.

1780s
(c) Tried a reform in 1785; failed and he gave up reforming.

(d)  Reassert monarchy control. Temporary; mental illness re-


quired regency which weakened royal power.

increase.
(e) Great cost. Popular sovereignty; colonies lost.

(f ) Economically ne. Trade after independence

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6.5 Broader Impact of the American Revolution
1. Establish title less non-hereditary government based on documents based
on popular consent and sovereignty.

2. 1760-70: Colonists see selves as preserve English liberty against tyranny.

3. 1770s: reject monarchy; form republic.

4. White males equal before law.

5. Genuinely radical movement. Other people began to question traditional


European government.

7 In Perspective

During sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, mercantile empires were established


to gain wealth for the home country. African slaves were drawn into plantations,
infusing culture with African culture. Colonial wars became entangled with con-
tinental wars, resulting in world-wide mid-century wars. Britain, France, and
Spain fought for dominance in New World; France and Britain also fought for
India but Britain beat France. Spain held their territory. Britain used con-
tinental wars to divert French attention, thus winning colonial wars. Prussia
emerged powerful in 1763, Austria weaker, and France in huge debt. The wars
depleted everybody, so the British tried to tax their colonies to raise funds, lead-
ing to revolution. The French aided the colonists, but were already in deep debt;
the monarch and nobility soon clashed, bringing the French revolution. Spain
began administering its empires more eciently with the Bourbon monarchs,

Mid-18th-century wars
increasing revolutionary discontent. Prussia, Austria, and Russia pursued ac-

brought most major political developments in the next half century.


tivist government known as Enlightened Absolutism.

A Visitors Describe the Portobello Fair

Portobello is ordinarily sparsely populated (tiempo muerto ) but each year during
the fair, it becomes one of the most populous places. A tent is erected from
the ship's sales. Mules drag gold and silver to unload; the authors say nobody
steals or loses the bullion. The harbor then lls with many other vessels to
distribute goods elsewhere. The Spanish ships also facilitate trade from the
fellow American port of Carthagena. The merchants of Peru, deputies and
commodore of ship announce price.
Cacao, quinquina, Jesuit's bark, Vicuña wool, bezoar stones are sold. The
system is inecient because such a large amount of goods are sold centrally and
trade between American ports can only take place through Spanish ships, once
a year. Chatas and bongos, vessels that carry the goods away from the port
to colonial settlement, can easily be used for smuggling since the Spanish ships
soon leave, leaving no guard.

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B Buccaneers Prowl the High Seas

A ne line existed between self-serving buccaneers and privateers operating


for European governments. There is a careful code of conduct among pirates
themselves but they treated others harshly. Poor farmers and shermen were
robbed and virtually enslaved.
Sometimes pirates plunder Spanish corrales places where about thousand
hogs were kept. Demand hobs from farmer; threaten to hang. When a ship
is captured, captain decides to keep it if it is better. The old ship is burned.
Stu robbed from ships must be split equally. Each pirate must swear oath on
Bible; if they breach, they are banished. Prisoners are to be set on shore ASAP,
except a few for slaves for 2-3 years. Often land on islands and set marauding
expeditions. Catch poor shermen for slaves for their families for 4-5 years.

C A Slave Trader Describes the Atlantic Passage

Left with 480 men, 220 women; had to promise to return next year with English
goods. Great disease; 320 died, so they lost a lot of money. Blacks survived
smallpox but did not survived white ux. Sick people got as much water as
they wanted and some oil to annoint wounds. They claim to have taken great
care to feed and house the slaves, yet consider their conditions when they walk
through a parcel of creatures nastier than swine, and after all our expectations
to be defeated by their mortality . . .  Carrying slaves is lthy, dicult task;
when they die, life really sucks for you.
Average 78 × 16. Shackles prevented suicide. 609 slaves could be carried
on ship designed for 450.

D Major Cathwright Calls for the Reform of Par-

liament

1777  more citizens be allowed to vote. Parliament fundamentally corrupt;


must go to bottom. Annual elections and common representation, not via royal
favor. 5,723 elect 254 out of 513 representatives, derived from royal favor.
Flagrant injustice, strip citizen's right to vote.

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