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VOLTAGE SOURCE INVERTER BASED ON MOSFET A Project Report Submitted to the AS TERM WORK
VOLTAGE SOURCE INVERTER
BASED ON MOSFET
A Project Report Submitted to the
AS TERM WORK FOR THE SUBJECT
PROJECT - i
OF SEMESTER VII
OF
B.E. (Power Electronics)
PREPARED BY:
VAIBHAV K.MEHTA
GAURAV D.KUKARVADIYA
DHARMENDRA J.KANJARIA
RAVI T. CHAVADA

POWER ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

GUIDE:

MR.M.V.MAKWANA MR.M.H.AYALANI MR. A.M.HAQUE MR.P.J.MUNJANI MR. S.H.TRIVEDI

POWER ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT L. E. COLLEGE, MORBI SAURASHTRA UNIVERSITY, RAJKOT YEAR 2010

i

POWER ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT L. E. COLLEGE, MORBI LUKHDHIRJI ENGINEERING COLLEGE MORBI -363642 CERTIFICATE
POWER ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
L. E. COLLEGE, MORBI
LUKHDHIRJI ENGINEERING COLLEGE MORBI -363642
CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the project work titled “VOLTAGE SOURCE
INVERTER” is being submitted by
Mr. RAVI T CHAVADA
Mr. DHARMENDRA J KANJARIA
Mr. GAURAV D KUKARVADIYA
Mr. VAIBHAV K MEHTA
09
EXAM NO:
17
EXAM NO:
20
EXAM NO:
21
EXAM NO:
For fulfillment of partial requirements of Semester VII
of the degree Bachelor of Engineering (Power
Electronics) of Saurashtra University for the academic
year 2010.
GUIDED BY:
HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT
MR. M.H. AYALANI
PROF. M.V. MAKVANA
MR. P.J.MUNJANI
MR. A.M.HAQUE
POWER ELECTRONICS
MR. S.H.TRIVEDI
ENGG. DEPTT.
POWER ELECTRONICS
L. E. COLLEGE
ENGINEERING DEPT.

Place: MORBI-2 DATE:

ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We express our deep and sincere thanks to our guide MR.M.V.MAKVANA Head of the Power Electronics Engineering Department, L. E. College, Morbi. Initially he helped us in selecting this project and then guided us throughout the project. He also helped us by taking a lot of pain and sacrificing his personal valuable time in completion of this practical project as well as the project report.

Next, we would like to express our deep gratitude towards Prof.M.H.AYALANI, Mr.A.M.HAQUE, Mr.P.J.MUNJANI, Mr.S.H.TRIVEDI, Mr.V.J.RUPAPARA Lecturer in Power electronics Engineering Department who motivated us at one or another stage of the project work.

We are also thankful to Mr.B.K.DEY, Instructor and Mr.A.K.PARMAR, Laboratory Assistant of Power Electronics Engineering Department who helped permitted us every time when we needed support.

We express our gratitude to the staff members of Power Electronics Engineering Department, who directly or indirectly helped us.

Place: MORBI

Date:

/

/

MEHTA VAIBHAV KUKARVADIYA GAURAV KANJARIA DHARMENDRA CHAVDA RAVI

iii

ABSTRACT

The aim of development of this project is towards providing efficient and compact inverter rated of 300-VA.

The input of inverter may be battery or fuel cell of 12 volt, dc Two batteries of 12 volt are connected in series and 24 volt is obtained and output is 230 volt ac and frequency of 50 Hz.

This inverter can be used in uninterruptible power supply, induction heating and melting furnace etc.

This inverter can also be used in where speed control of induction motor is needed very precisely and in variable-speed ac motor drives and other industrial applications.

By means of inverter design, driver circuit of power switches is made of operational amplifier. With the help of op-amp pulse-width is obtained and this pulse is given to J-K flip-flop and two pulses are taken from Q and Q.

In the design of gate drive circuit preset resistors are used so; frequency of gate signal can be varied up to 1 kHz.

iv

GLOSSARY OF TERMS

AC

- Alternating Current

CRO

- Cathode Ray Oscilloscope

DC

- Direct Current

IC

- Integrated Circuit

MOSFET

- Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor

OP-AMP

- Operational amplifier

v

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGMENT……………………………………………………

III

ABSTRECT…………………………………………………………………

IV

GLOSSARY OF TERMS……………………………………………….…

V

1.

INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………

1

GOAL…………………………………………………………….…… ……….….…….2 Inverter circuit description……………………………………

Inverter circuit configuration…………………………………….……………………… Basic inverter designs………………………………………………………………….….3

……5

3

2

.…………….

Inverter application………………………………………………

2. OBJECTIVE………………………………………………….… …7

Goal……………………………………………………………………………

8

.…… Target specification…………………………………………………………………

8

3. THEORY OF PROJECT…………………………………

……

9

Goal………………………………………………………………………

…….……….10

Power MOSFET…………………………………………………………………………10

17

.…….19

25

Battery…………………………………………………….……….……………

Transformer……………………………………………………………………

……

Instrument transformer……………………………………………………………

…….… RF transformer……………………………………………………………… Use of transformer…………………………………………………………

Pulse transformer…………………………………………………………

27

28

28

29

33

…….

…….Operational amplifier………………………………………………………….

Flip-flop section……………………………………………………………….…….

4. WORKING OF INVERTER………………………………

…36

Goal………………………………………………………………

Basic block diagram of inverter………………………………

…… 37

Flip-flop …………………………………………………………………………………42 Working of a inverter……………………………………………………………………49

Description of the block diagram……………………………………….…….

.………………….37

.…………….……….37

5. DESIGN DETAILS OF INVERTER………………………

51

Goal………………………………………………………………… ……… Design calculation………………………………………………… Design of Control circuit………………………………… Design of power circuit…………………………………

Design of 300 VA inverter transformer with given specification……………………….55

53

52

……… 52

… 52

……

………

…………………

……………… …….……

Circuit diagram of inverter…………………………………………………………… 59

6. TESTING & CALIBRATION…………………………………

60

……………………….61

Testing procedure and calibration……………………………………………………… 61

Goal……………………………………………………………

7. RESULTS……………………………………………………

…63

Goal………………………………………………………………………………………64

Power circuit……………………………………………………… Base drive circuit specification……………………………………

64

………64

…………

….………………

8. TIME & COST ANALYSIS………………………………………65

Goal…………………………………………………………………………………… 66 Time Analysis………………………………………………………………………… 66 Cost Analysis……………………………………………………………………………67

9. CONCLUSION……………………………………………………

68

Goal………………………………………………………………

Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………

……………………69

69

10. FUTURE MODIFICATION………………………

……

Goal………………………………………………………………….………….… As a AC drives/ AC voltage controller…………………

……….………

………

APPENDIX…………………………………………………………………

70

71

71

72

IC 555……………… IC 741…………

IC 74LS73A………………………………………………………………………… 87

……………………………………………………………….73

83

………………………………………………………………

BIBLIOGRAPHY……………………………………………………………90

1.

INTRODUCTION

1. INTRODUCTION

1.1 GOAL

“To explain theme of the project

1.2 INVERTER CIRCUIT DISCRIPTION

A device that converts DC power to AC power at desired output voltage and frequency is called an INVERTER. Some industrial applications of inverters are for adjustable speed ac drives, induction heating, stand by air craft power supplies, UPS (Uninterruptible power supplies) for computers, HVDC transmission lines etc. phase controlled converters , when operated in inverter mode, are called line commuted inverter. But line commuted inverters require at the output terminals an existing ac supply which is used for the commutation. This means that line-commuted inverters can’t function as isolated ac voltage sources or as variable frequency generators with dc power at the input. Therefore, voltage level, frequency and waveform on the ac side of line commuted inverters can not be changed. On the other hand, forced commutated inverters provide an independent ac output voltage of adjustable voltage and adjustable frequency and have therefore much wider applications.

The dc power input to the inverter is obtained from an existing power supply network or from a rotating alternator through a rectifier or a battery, fuel cell, photovoltaic array or magneto hydrodynamic (MHD) generator. The configuration of ac to dc converter and dc to ac converter is called dc link converters.

Inverters can be broadly classified into two types;

a. Voltage source inverter.

b. Current source inverter.

2

In voltage source inverter are made up of using GTOs, power transistor, power mosfet or IGBTs, self commutation with base or gate drives signals is employed for their controlled turn on and turn off.

1.3 INVERTER CIRCUIT CONFIGURATION:

on and turn off.  1.3 INVERTER CIRCUIT CONFIGURATION: Simple power inverter circuit using mosfet and

Simple power inverter circuit using mosfet and battery

1.4 BASIC INVERTER DESIGNS:

In one simple inverter circuit, DC power is connected to a transformer through the center tap of the primary winding. A switch is rapidly switched back and forth to allow current to flow back to the DC source following two alternate paths through one end of the primary winding and then the other. The alternation of the direction of current in the primary winding of the transformer produces alternating current (AC) in the secondary circuit.

The electromechanical version of the switching device includes two stationary contacts and a spring supported moving contact. The spring holds the movable contact against one of the stationary contacts and an electromagnet pulls the movable contact to the opposite stationary contact. The current in the electromagnet is interrupted by the action of the switch so that the switch continually switches rapidly back and forth. This type of electromechanical inverter

3

switch, called a vibrator or buzzer, was once used in vacuum tubes automobile radios. A similar mechanism has been used in door bells, buzzers and tattoo guns.

These electromechanical inverters explain the source of the term "inverter". Early AC to DC converters combined a synchronous AC motor with a commutator so that the commutator reversed its connections to the AC line exactly twice per cycle. This results in AC-in, DC-out.

If you invert the connections to a converter you put DC in and get AC out. Hence an inverter is an inverted converter.

As they became available, transistors and various other types of semiconductor switches have been incorporated into inverter circuit designs.

1.4.1 MORE ADVANCED DESIGN:

In more advanced inverter designs various techniques are used to improve the quality of the sine wave at the transformer input, rather than relying on the transformer to smooth it. Capacitors and inductors (but not freewheel diode as it is AC) can be used to filter the waveform at the primary of the transformer. Also, it is possible to produce a more sinusoidal wave by having split-rail direct current inputs at two voltages, or positive and negative inputs with a central ground. By connecting the transformer input terminals in sequence between the positive rail and ground, the positive rail and the negative rail, the ground rail and the negative rail, then both to the ground rail, a stepped sinusoid is generated at the transformer input and the current drain on the direct current supply is less choppy. These methods result in an output that is called a "modified-sine wave". Modified-sine inverters may cause some loads, such as motors, to operate less efficiently.

More expensive power inverters use Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) with a high frequency carrier to more closely approximate a sine function. The quality of an inverter is described by its pulse-rating: a 3-pulse is a very simple arrangement, utilising only 3 transistors, whereas a

4

more complex 12-pulse system will give an almost exact sine wave. In remote areas where a utility generated power is subject to significant external, distorting influences such as inductive loads or semiconductor-rectifier loads, a 12-pulse inverter may even offer a better, "cleaner" output than the utility-supplied power grid, and are thus often used in these areas. Inverters with greater pulse ratings do exist.

Simple inverters generate harmonics which affect the quality of power obtained using them.

But PWM inverters eliminate this by means of a sine wave cancellation using the properties

of Fourier series.

1.5 INVERTER APPLICATION:

The following are examples of inverter applications.

DC power source utilization

of inverter applications. DC power source utilization Inverter designed to provide 115 VAC from the 12

Inverter designed to provide 115 VAC from the 12 VDC source provided in an automobile

An inverter allows the 12 volt DC power available in an automobile to supply AC power to

operate equipment that is normally supplied from a mains power source.

5

or just inverters Inverters are also used to provide a source of AC power from solar cell and fuel cell power supplies.

1.5.1 UNINTEREPTABLE POWER SUPPLIES:

One type of uninterruptible power supply uses batteries to store power and an inverter to supply AC power from the batteries when mains power is not available. When mains power is restored, a rectifier is used to supply DC power to recharge the batteries.

1.5.2 INDUCTION HEATING:

Inverters are used to convert low frequency mains AC power to a higher frequency for use in induction heating. To do this, AC power is first rectified to provide DC power. The inverter then changes the DC power to high frequency AC power.

1.5.3 HIGH VOLTAGE DIRECT CURRENT:

With HVDC power transmission, AC power is rectified and high voltage DC power is transmitted to another location. At the receiving location, an inverter in a static inverter plant converts the power back to AC.

A variable frequency drive controls the operating speed of an AC motor by controlling the

frequency and voltage of the power supplied to the motor. An inverter provides the controlled

power. In most cases, the variable frequency drive includes a rectifier so that DC power for the inverter can be provided from mains AC power.

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2.

OBJECTIVE

7

2. OBJECTIVE

2.1

GOAL

“To set target specifications and objectives of the project”

2.2

TARGET SPECIFICATIONS

The target specifications set for this power supply are as under.

Input Source

:

12 V dc

Output

:

230VA

Efficiency

:

> 80%

Switching Frequency

:

50Hz

V PP(RIPPLE)

:

< 5% of V O

8

3.

THEORY OF PROJECT

9

3. THEORY OF PROJECT COMPONENT

3.1 GOAL

“To explain the working of POWER MOSFET as switch and describe the detail

of battery”

3.2 POWER MOSFET

Discrete power MOSFETs employ semiconductor processing techniques that are

similar to those of today's VLSI circuits, although the device geometry, voltage and current

levels are significantly different from the design used in VLSI devices. The metal oxide

semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) is based on the original field-effect transistor

introduced in the 70s. Figure 3.1 shows the device schematic, transfer characteristics and

device symbol for a MOSFET. The invention of the power MOSFET was partly driven by the

limitations of bipolar power junction transistors (BJTs) which, until recently, were the device

of choice in power electronics applications.

were the device of choice in power electronics applications. Figure 0-1 POWER MOSFET (A) SCHEMATIC (B)

Figure 0-1 POWER MOSFET (A) SCHEMATIC (B) TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS (C) SYMBOL

10

Although it is not possible to define absolutely the operating boundaries of a power device, we will loosely refer to the power device as any device that can switch at least 1A. The bipolar power transistor is a current controlled device. A large base drive current as high as one-fifth of the collector current is required to keep the device in the ON state.

Also, higher reverse base drive currents are required to obtain fast turn-off. Despite the very advanced state of manufacturability and lower costs of BJTs, these limitations have made the base drive circuit design more complicated and hence more expensive than the power MOSFET.

Another BJT limitation is that both electrons and holes contribute to conduction. Presence of holes with their higher carrier lifetime causes the switching speed to be several orders of magnitude slower than for a power MOSFET of similar size and voltage rating. Also, BJTs suffer from thermal runaway. Their forward voltage drop decreases with increasing temperature causing diversion of current to a single device when several devices are paralleled. Power MOSFETs, on the other hand, are majority carrier devices with no minority carrier injection. They are superior to the BJTs in high frequency applications where switching power losses are important. Plus, they can withstand simultaneous application of high current and voltage without undergoing destructive failure due to second breakdown. Power MOSFETs can also be paralleled easily because the forward voltage drop increases with increasing temperature, ensuring an even distribution of current among all components.

an even distribution of current among all components. Figure 0-2 CURRENT -VOLTAGE LIMITATIONS OF MOSFET AND

Figure 0-2 CURRENT -VOLTAGE LIMITATIONS OF MOSFET AND BJT

11

However, at high breakdown voltages (>200V) the on-state voltage drop of the power

MOSFET becomes higher than that of a similar size bipolar device with similar voltage

rating. This makes it more attractive to use the bipolar power transistor at the expense of

worse high frequency performance. Figure 3.2 shows the present current-voltage limitations

of power MOSFETs and BJTs. Over time, new materials, structures and processing

techniques are expected to raise these limits.

Figure 3.3 shows schematic diagram and Figure 3.4 shows the physical origin of the

parasitic components in an n-channel power MOSFET. The parasitic JFET appearing

between the two body implants restricts current flow when the depletion widths of the two

adjacent body diodes extend into the drift region with increasing drain voltage. The parasitic

BJT can make the device susceptible to unwanted device turn-on and premature breakdown.

The base resistance RB must be minimized through careful design of the doping and distance

under the source region. There are several parasitic capacitances associated with the power

MOSFET as shown in Figure 3.3.

associated with the power MOSFET as shown in Figure 3.3. Figure 0-3 SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF THE

Figure 0-3 SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM OF THE n- CHANNEL POWER MOSFET AND THE DEVICE SYMBOL

C GS is the capacitance due to the overlap of the source and the channel regions by the

poly silicon gate and is independent of applied voltage. C GD consists of two parts, the first is

the capacitance associated with the overlap of the poly silicon gate and the silicon underneath

in the JFET region. The second part is the capacitance associated with the depletion region

immediately under the gate. C GD is a nonlinear function of voltage. Finally, C DS , the

capacitance associated with the body-drift diode, varies inversely with the square root of the

12

drain-source bias. There are currently two designs of power MOSFETs, usually referred to as the planar and the trench designs. The planar design has already been introduced in the schematic of Figure 3.3. Two variations of the trench power MOSFET are shown Figure 3.5. The trench technology has the advantage of higher cell density but is more difficult to manufacture than the planar device.

cell density but is more difficult to manufacture than the planar device. Figure 0-4 POWER MOSFET

Figure 0-4 POWER MOSFET PARASYTIC COMPONENTS

cell density but is more difficult to manufacture than the planar device. Figure 0-4 POWER MOSFET

13

Figure 0-5 TRENCH MOSFET (A) CURRENT CROWDING IN V-GROOVE TRENCH MOSFET, (B) TRUNCATED V-GROOVE MOSFET

Figure 0-5 TRENCH MOSFET (A) CURRENT CROWDING IN V-GROOVE TRENCH MOSFET, (B) TRUNCATED V-GROOVE MOSFET

Break Down Voltage (BVDSS)

Breakdown voltage, BVDSS, is the voltage at which the reverse-biased body-

drift diode breaks down and significant current starts to flow between the source and

drain by the avalanche multiplication process, while the gate and source are shorted

together. The breakdown characteristics are shown in fig. below.

The breakdown characteristics are shown in fig. below. 3.2.1 ON State Resistance (R D S (

3.2.1 ON State Resistance (R DS(ON) )

Figure

CHARACTERISTICS

POWER MOSFET BREAKDOWN

The on-state resistance of a power MOSFET is made up of several components as

shown in Figure 3.7:

R

DS ON

Rsource

Rch

R

A

R

J

R

D

14

Rsub

Rwcml

Equation - 0-1

Where:

R source = Source diffusion resistance, R ch = Channel resistance,

R A = Accumulation resistance,

R sub = Substrate resistance,

R J = "JFET" component-resistance of the region between the two body regions

R D = Drift region resistance,

the two body regions R D = Drift region resistance, Figure 0-6 INTERNAL RESISTANCE IN A

Figure 0-6 INTERNAL RESISTANCE IN A POWER MOSFET

3.2.2 POWER DISSIPATION

The maximum allowable power dissipation that will raise the die temperature to the

maximum allowable when the case temperature is held at 250C is important. It is give by Pd

where:

Pd

Tjmax

25

R th JC

Equation - 0-2

T jmax = Maximum allowable temperature of the p-n junction in the device (normally

150 0 C or 175 0 C) R thJC = Junction-to-case thermal impedance of the device.

15

3.2.3 DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS

When the MOSFET is used as a switch, its basic function is to control the drain

current by the gate voltage. Figure 3.8(a) shows the transfer characteristics and Figure 3.8(b)

is an equivalent circuit model often used for the analysis of MOSFET switching performance.

The switching performance of a device is determined by the time required to establish

voltage changes across capacitances. R G is the distributed resistance of the gate and is

approximately inversely proportional to active area. L S and L D are source and drain lead

inductances and are around a few tens of NH. Typical values of input (C ISS ), output (C OSS )

and reverse transfer (C RSS ) capacitances given in the data sheets are used by circuit designers

as a starting point in determining circuit component values. The data sheet capacitances are

defined in terms of the equivalent circuit capacitances as:

C ISS = C GS + C GD , C DS shorted,

C RSS = C GD,

and

C OSS = C DS + C GD

S = C G D , and C O S S = C D S +

Figure 0-7 POWER MOSFET (a) TRANSFER CHARACTERISTICS (b) EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT SHOWING COMPONENTS

16

3.3 BATTERY

Basically there are two types of batteries available in the market. Comparisons for this are as under:

PRIMARY CELLS

SECONDARY CELLS

1. This can not be recharged.

1. It can be recharged.

2. One may change the parts of the cell.

2. Plates cannot be changed they are to be thrown out.

3. High internal resistance.

3. Low internal resistance.

4. Light in weight.

4. Heavy in weight.

5. Lesser life.

5. Long life.

6. It can be used for low energy requirements.

6. It can be used for high energy requirements.

Table 0-1

COMPARISON BETWEEN PRIMARY & SECONDARY CELLS

3.3.1 EFFICIENCY OF BATTERY

The efficiency of battery is given by the following equation:

Efficiency =

Output in amp hr.

Input in amp

hr.

Equation 3-3

If percentage efficiency is required then this quantity should be multiplied by 100.

3.3.2 PRECAUTIONS TO BE TAKEN AT THE TIME OF BATTERY CHARGING

The charging voltage and charging current should be set to correct value.

The polarities should be connected in proper and correct manner.

The temperature should be maintained constant.

The time for charging should carefully noted.

The level of electrolyte should be maintained constant.

17

3.3.3 FEATURE OF LEAD ACID CELL

 

FEATURE

 

LEAD ACID CELL

1.

Open circuit e.m.f. when fully charged.

1.

2.2 Volt.

2.

Voltage at discharge condition.

2.

1.8 Volt

3.

Package

3.

Bulky and heavy

4.

Life

4.

Limited, if left unused it gets discharged.

5.

Maintenance

5.

Require periodical maintenance.

6.

Discharge rate

6.

If discharge at high rate the cell gets damaged.

7.

Charging time

7.

The charging rate is limited so it takes long time to charge.

8.

Low temperature operation.

8.

Can not be used below -20° C.

9.

Efficiency

9.

Limited.

10.

Cost per Ah.

10.

Higher.

Table 4-1

FEATURE OF LEAD - ACID CELL

18

3.4 TRANSFORMER:

 3.4 TRANSFORMER: Three-phase pole-mounted step-down transformer. A transformer is an electrical device that transfers

Three-phase pole-mounted step-down transformer.

A transformer is an electrical device that transfers energy from one circuit to another by magnetic coupling with no moving parts. A transformer comprises two or more coupled windings, or a single tapped winding and, in most cases, a magnetic core to concentrate magnetic flux. An alternating current in one winding creates a time-varying magnetic flux in the core, which induces a voltage in the other windings. Transformers are used to convert between high and low voltages, to change impedance, and to provide electrical isolation between circuits.

19

3.4.1 Basic principles

3.4.1.1 Coupling by mutual induction

A simple transformer consists of two electrical conductors called the primary winding and the secondary winding. Energy is coupled between the windings by the time-varying magnetic flux that passes through (links) both primary and secondary windings. When the current in a coil is switched on or off or changed, a voltage is induced in a neighboring coil. The effect, called mutual inductance, is an example of electromagnetic induction.

3.4.1.2 Elementary analysis

of electromagnetic induction. 3.4.1.2 Elementary analysis Practical transformer showing magnetizing flux in the core

Practical transformer showing magnetizing flux in the core

Practical transformer showing magnetizing flux in the core turns, a current will flow in it producing
Practical transformer showing magnetizing flux in the core turns, a current will flow in it producing

turns, a current will

flow in it producing a magneto motive force (MMF). Just as an electromotive force (EMF) drives current around an electric circuit, so MMF tries to drive magnetic flux through a

If a time-varying voltage

is applied to the primary winding of

a time-varying voltage is applied to the primary winding of magnetic circuit . The primary MMF

magnetic circuit. The primary MMF produces a varying magnetic flux in the core, and, with an open circuit secondary winding, induces a back electromotive force (EMF) in

opposition to

the primary winding is proportional to the rate of change of flux:

. In accordance with Faraday's law of induction, the voltage induced across

to the rate of change of flux: . In accordance with Faraday's law of induction ,
to the rate of change of flux: . In accordance with Faraday's law of induction ,

And

to the rate of change of flux: . In accordance with Faraday's law of induction ,

20

Where

v P and v S are the voltages across the primary winding and secondary winding,

N P and N S are the numbers of turns in the primary winding and secondary winding,

dΦ P / dt and dΦ S / dt are the derivatives of the flux with respect to time of the primary and secondary windings.

Saying that the primary and secondary windings are perfectly coupled is equivalent to saying

windings are perfectly coupled is equivalent to saying that . Substituting and solving for the voltages

that

. Substituting and solving for the voltages shows that:

that . Substituting and solving for the voltages shows that: Where  v p and v

Where

v p and v s are voltages across primary and secondary,

N p and N s are the numbers of turns in the primary and secondary, respectively.

Hence in an ideal transformer, the ratio of the primary and secondary voltages is equal to the ratio of the number of turns in their windings, or alternatively, the voltage per turn is the same for both windings. The ratio of the currents in the primary and secondary circuits is inversely proportional to the turn’s ratio. This leads to the most common use of the

Transformer: to convert electrical energy at one voltage to energy at a different voltage by means of windings with different numbers of turns. In a practical transformer, the higher- voltage winding will have more turns, of smaller conductor cross-section, than the lower- voltage windings.

The EMF in the secondary winding, if connected to an electrical circuit, will cause current to flow in the secondary circuit. The MMF produced by current in the secondary opposes the MMF of the primary and so tends to cancel the flux in the core. Since the reduced flux reduces the EMF induced in the primary winding, increased current flows in the primary circuit. The resulting increase in MMF due to the primary current offsets the effect of the

21

opposing secondary M delivered to the secondary winding. Also because of this, the flux density will always stay the same as long as the primary voltage is steady.

For example, suppose a power of 50 watts is supplied to a resistive load from a transformer with a turn’s ratio of 25:2.

P = EI (power = electromotive force × current)

50

W = 2 V × 25 A in the primary circuit if the load is a resistive load. (See note 1)

Now with transformer change:

50

W = 25 V × 2 A in the secondary circuit.

.

50 W = 25 V × 2 A in the secondary circuit. . 3.4.2 Classifications Transformers

3.4.2 Classifications

Transformers are adapted to numerous engineering applications and may be classified in many ways:

By power level (from fraction of a volt-ampere(VA) to over a thousand MVA),

By application (power supply, impedance matching, circuit isolation),

By frequency range (power, audio, radio frequency(RF))

By voltage class (a few volts to about 750 kilovolts)

By cooling type (air cooled, oil filled, fan cooled, water cooled, etc.)

22

By purpose (distribution, rectifier, arc furnace, amplifier output, etc.).

By ratio of the number of turns in the coils

Step-up

The secondary has more turns than the primary.

Step-down

The secondary has fewer turns than the primary.

Isolating

Intended to transform from one voltage to the same voltage. The two coils have approximately equal numbers of turns, although often there is a slight difference in the number of turns, in order to compensate for losses (otherwise the output voltage would be a little less than, rather than the same as, the input voltage).

3.4.3 Circuit symbols

Standard symbols

Transformer with two windings and iron core.

Transformer with two windings and iron core.

Transformer with three windings. The dots show the relative winding configuration of the windings.

Transformer with three windings. The dots show the relative winding configuration of the windings.

Step-down or step-up transformer.The symbol shows which winding has more turns,but does not usually show

Step-down or step-up transformer.The symbol shows which winding has more turns,but does not usually show the exact ratio.

23

Transformer with electrostatic screen, coupling between the windings. which prevents capacitive

Transformer with electrostatic screen, coupling between the windings.

which

prevents

3.4.4 Losses

An ideal transformer would have no losses, and would therefore be 100% efficient. In practice, energy is dissipated due both to the resistance of the windings known as copper loss or I 2 R loss, and to magnetic effects primarily attributable to the core (known as iron loss measured in watts per pound). Transformers are, in general, highly efficient. Large power transformers (over 50 MVA) may attain efficiency as high as 99.75%. Small transformers, such as a plug-in "power brick" used to power small consumer electronics, may be less than 85% efficient.

Transformer losses arise from:

Winding resistance

Current flowing through the windings causes resistive heating of the conductors (I 2 R loss). At higher frequencies, skin effect and proximity effect create additional winding resistance and losses.

Eddy currents

Induced eddy currents circulate within the core, causing resistive heating. Silicon is added to the steel to help in controlling eddy currents. Adding silicon also has the advantage of stopping aging of the electrical steel that was a problem years ago.

Hysteresis losses

Each time the magnetic field is reversed, a small amount of energy is lost to hysteresis within the magnetic core. The amount of hysteresis is a function of the particular core material.

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Magnetostriction

Magnetic flux in the core causes it to physically expand and contract slightly with the alternating magnetic field, an effect known as magnetostriction. This in turn causes losses due to frictional heating in susceptible ferromagnetic cores.

Mechanical losses

In addition to magnetostriction, the alternating magnetic field causes fluctuating electromagnetic forces between the primary and secondary windings. These incite vibrations within nearby metalwork, creating a familiar humming or buzzing noise, and consuming a small amount of power.MF. In this way, the electrical energy fed into the primary winding is

Stray losses

Not all the magnetic field produced by the primary is intercepted by the secondary. A portion of the leakage flux may induce eddy currents within nearby conductive objects, such as the transformer's support structure, and be converted to heat.

3.5 Instrument transformers

3.5.1 Current transformers

 3.5 Instrument transformers 3.5.1 Current transformers Current transformers used in metering equipment for
 3.5 Instrument transformers 3.5.1 Current transformers Current transformers used in metering equipment for

Current transformers used in metering equipment for three-phase 400 ampere electricity supply

25

A current transformer is a type of "instrument transformer" that is designed to provide a

current in its secondary which is accurately proportional to the current flowing in its

primary.

Current transformers are commonly used in metering and protective relaying to facilitate the measurement of large currents and isolation of high voltage systems which would be difficult to measure more directly. Current transformers are often constructed by passing a single primary turn (either an insulated cable or an uninsulated conductor (copper or aluminum are typical in electric utility applications) through a well-insulated toroidal core wrapped with many turns of wire. Current transformers (CTs) are used extensively in the electrical power industry for monitoring of the power grid. The CT is described by its current ratio from primary to secondary. Common secondary’s are 1 or 5 amperes. The secondary winding can

be single ratio or multi ratio, with five taps being common for multi ratio CTs. Typically, the

secondary connection points are labeled as X1, X2 and so on. The multi ratio CTs are typically used for current matching in current differential protective relaying applications.

Often, multiple CTs will be installed as a "stack" for various uses (for example, protection devices and revenue metering may use separate CTs). For a three-stacked CT application, the secondary winding connection points are typically labeled Xn, Yn, Zn.Specially constructed wideband current transformers are also used (usually with an oscilloscope) to measure

waveforms of high frequency or pulsed currents. One type of specially constructed wideband transformer provides a voltage output that is proportional to the measured current. Another type (called a Rogowski coil) requires an external integrator in order to provide a voltage output that is proportional to the measured current. Care must be taken that the secondary of a current transformer is not disconnected from its load while current is flowing in the primary,

as this will produce a dangerously high voltage across the open secondary.

3.5.2 Voltage transformers

Voltage transformers (or potential transformers) are another type of instrument transformer, used for metering and protection in high-voltage circuits. They are designed to present negligible load to the supply being measured and to have a precise voltage ratio to accurately step down high voltages so that metering and protective relay equipment can be operated at a lower potential. Typically the secondary of a voltage transformer is rated for 69

or 120 Volts at rated primary voltage, to match the input ratings of protection relays.

26

The transformer winding high-voltage connection points are typically labelled as H1, H2 (sometimes H0 if it is internally grounded) and X1, X2, and sometimes an X3 tap may be present. Sometimes a second isolated winding (Y1, Y2, Y3) may also be available on the same voltage transformer. The high side (primary) may be connected phase to ground or phase to phase. The low side (secondary) is usually phase to ground.

The terminal identifications (H1, X1, Y1, etc.) are often referred to as polarity. This applies to current transformers as well. At any instant terminals with the same suffix numeral have the same polarity and phase. Correct identification of terminals and wiring is important for proper operation of metering and protection relays.

3.6 Pulse transformers

A pulse transformer is a transformer that is optimized for transmitting rectangular electrical pulses (that is, pulses with fast rise and fall times and a constant amplitude). Small versions called signal types are used in digital logic and telecommunications circuits, often for matching logic drivers to transmission lines. Medium-sized power versions are used in power-control circuits such as camera flash controllers. Larger power versions are used in the electrical power distribution industry to interface low-voltage control circuitry to the high- voltage gates of power semiconductors. Special high voltage pulse transformers are also used to generate high power pulses for radar, particle accelerators, or other pulsed power applications.

To minimize distortion of the pulse shape, a pulse transformer needs to have low values of leakage inductance and distributed capacitance, and a high open-circuit inductance. In power-type pulse transformers, a low coupling capacitance (between the primary and secondary) is important to protect the circuitry on the primary side from high-powered transients created by the load. For the same reason, high insulation resistance and high breakdown voltage are required. A good transient response is necessary to maintain the rectangular pulse shape at the secondary, because a pulse with slow edges would create switching losses in the power semiconductors.

The product of the peak pulse voltage and the duration of the pulse (or more accurately, the voltage-time integral) is often used to characterized pulse transformers. Generally speaking, the larger this product, the larger and more expensive the transformer.

27

3.7 RF transformers (transmission line transformers)

For radio frequency use, transformers are sometimes made from configurations of transmission line, sometimes bifilar or coaxial cable, wound around ferrite or other types of core. This style of transformer gives an extremely wide bandwidth but only a limited number of ratios (such as 1:9, 1:4 or 1:2) can be achieved with this technique. The core material increases the inductance dramatically, thereby raising its Q factor. The cores of such transformers help improve performance at the lower frequency end of the band. RF transformers sometimes used a third coil (called a tickler winding) to inject feedback into an earlier (detector) stage in antique regenerative radio receivers.

3.7.1 Baluns

and

unbalanced circuits. These are sometimes made from configurations of transmission line and

sometimes bifilar or coaxial cable and are similar to transmission line transformers in construction and operation.

Baluns

are

transformers

designed

specifically

to

connect

between

3.8 Uses of transformers

For supplying power from an alternating current power grid to equipment which uses a different voltage.

Electric power transmission over long distances.

Large, specially constructed power transformers are used for electric arc furnaces used in steelmaking.

Rotating transformers are designed so that one winding turns while the other remains stationary. A common use was the video head system as used in VHS and Beta video tape players. These can pass power or radio signals from a stationary mounting to a rotating mechanism, or radar antenna.

Sliding transformers can pass power or signals from a stationary mounting to a moving part such as a machine tool head.

A transformer-like device is used for position measurement. See linear variable differential transformer.

28

Some rotary transformers are used to couple signals between two parts which rotate in relation to each other.

Other rotary transformers are precisely constructed in order to measure distances or angles. Usually they have a single primary and two or more secondaries, and electronic circuits measure the different amplitudes of the currents in the secondaries. See synchro and revolver.

Small transformers are often used internally to couple different stages of radio receivers and audio amplifiers.

Transformers may be used as external accessories for impedance matching; for example to match a microphone to an amplifier.

Balanced-to-unbalanced conversion. A special type of transformer called a balun is used in radio and audio circuits to convert between balanced line circuits and unbalanced transmission lines such as antenna down leads.

3.9 OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER

3.9.1 THEORY

An Op-amp is a direct coupled high gain amplifier usually consisting of one or more differential amplifier and usually followed by level translator and output stage. The output stage is generally push-pull pair.

The op-amp is a versatile device that can be used to amplify dc as well as input signals and was originally designed for computing such mathematical function as addition, subtraction, and multiplication and intigaration.thus name op-amp stamps from its original use for mathematical operations and is abbreviated to op-amp. With the addition of suitable external feedback components, the modern day op-amp can be used for a Varity of application such as ac and dc amplifications, active filters, oscillators, comparators and others.

3.9.2 BASIC BLOCK DIAGRAM OF TYPICAL OP-AMP

29

The input stage is the dual input, balanced output differential amplifier. This stage generally provides

The input stage is the dual input, balanced output differential amplifier. This stage generally provides most of the voltage gain of the amplifier and also establishes the input resistance of the op-amp. The intermediate stage is usually another differential amplifier, which is given by output of the first stage, in most amplifiers the intermediate stage is dual input, unbalanced output. Because direct coupling is used, the dc voltage at the output of the intermediate stage is well above ground potential. Therefore, generally, the level translator circuit is used after the intermediate stage to shift the dc level at the output of intermediate stage downward to zero volts with respect to ground. The final stage is usually the push-pull compliment amplifier output stage. The output stage increases the output voltage swing and raises and the current supplying capability of the op-amp. A well design op-amp also provides low output resisters.

3.9.3 SQUAREWAVE GENERATOR:

In contrast to sine wave oscillators, squqre wave outputs are generated when the op- amp is forced to operate in the saturated region. That is output of op-amp is forced to swing repetively between positive saturation +Vsat and negative saturation Ve, resulting in square wave output. One such circuit is shown in fig (a.).This square wave generator is also called a free-running or astable multivibartor, depended on whether the differential voltage Vid is negative or positive respectively.

3.9.4 TRIANGULAR WAVE GENERATOR:

The output waveform of the integrator is triangular if its input is a square wave. This means that a triangular wave generator can be formed by simply connecting an integrator to

30

the square wave generator of fig (a.)The circuit is shown in fig (b.).This circuit requires a dual op-amp, two capacitor, and at least five resistors. The frequencies of square and triangular wave are the same. for fixed resistors R1, R2 and c values, the frequency of the square wave and triangular wave depends on resistance R.as R is increased or decreased, frequency of the triangular wave will decrease or increase, respectively. Although the amplitude of the square wave is constant; the amplitude of the triangular wave decreases with an increase I its frequency, and vice-versa.

3.9.5 COMPARATOR:

Fig shows an op-amp as a comparator. A fixed reference voltage Vref of 1 volt is applied to (-) input. Because of this arrangement, the circuit is called the non-inverting comparator. When Vm is less than Vref, the output Vo is at input. On the other hand, when Vm is greater than Vref, the (+) input becomes positive with respect to (-) input, and Vo goes to + Vsat. Thus Vo changes from one saturation level to another whenever Vin =Vref, as shown in fig(c.).In short, the comparator is a type of analog to digital converter. At any time the Vo waveform shows whether Vin is greater or less than Vref.the comparator is some time also called voltage-level detector because, for a desired value of Vref, the voltage of the Vin can be detected. The diodes D1 and D2 protect the op-amp from the damage due to excessive input voltage Vin.

3.9.6 ADDER:

Whenever we are needed to add two different voltages, it can be obtained by the adder circuit. This adder circuit is also called summing amplifier. In this configuration op-amp can be used in both configurations as inverting and non inverting. One terminal is grounded as shown in fig (d.).Different inputs are in given to another terminal. If input voltage sources and resistors are connected to the no inverting terminal as shown in fig (d.), here formula given below is used calculate the addition of the voltage. Vo= (Va+Vb+Vc)/3

31

3.9.7 Operational amplifier implementation:

Today Schmitt triggers are typically built around operational amplifiers, connected to have positive feedback instead of the usual negative feedback. The reference voltage levels can be adjusted by controlling the resistances of R 1 and R 2 :

by controlling the resistances of R 1 and R 2 : Figure 0-8 OP-AMP AS COMPARATOR

Figure 0-8 OP-AMP AS COMPARATOR

An op-amp comparator simply gives out the highest voltage it can, +V S when the positive input is at a higher voltage than the negative, and then switches to the lowest out put voltage it can, −V S , when the positive input drops below the negative.For instance, if the Schmitt Trigger is currently in the high state, the output will be at the positive power supply rail (+V S ). V + is then a voltage divider between V in and +V S . The comparator is comparing V + to ground. V in R 2 must be equal to −V S R 1 for V + to equal zero, so V in must drop below (R 1 /R 2 )V S to get the output to switch. At this 0point, the output becomes −V S , and the threshold becomes +(R 1 /R 2 )V S to switch back to high.

32

So this circuit creates a switching band centered around zero, with trigger levels ±(R 1
So this circuit creates a switching band centered around zero, with trigger levels ±(R 1

So this circuit creates a switching band centered around zero, with trigger levels ±(R 1 /R 2 )V S . The input voltage must rise above the top of the band, and then below the bottom of the band, for the output to switch on and then back off. If R 1 is zero or R 2 is infinity (an open circuit), the band collapses to zero width, and it behaves as a standard comparator. The output characteristic is shown in the picture on the right. The value of the threshold T is given by (R 1 /R 2 )V S and the maximum value of the output M is the power supply rail.

3.10 FLIP-FLOP SECTION

Sequential circuits are made of combinational circuits and memory elements. The most important memory element is the flip-flop, which is made of an assembly of logic gates. Even though logic gate by itself no storage capability, several logic gates can be connected together in ways that permit information to be stored. There are several different gate arrangements’ are use to construct flip-flop in a wide variety of ways.

A flip-flop, known more formally as a bistable multivibrator, has two stable states. it can remain in either of the states indefinately.its states can be changed by applying the proper triggering signal.

Flip-flop has two outputs; labelled Q and Q.we can used any of this output. But generally Q is used. There is a different type of flip-flop as given below.

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S-R flip-flop

D-flip-flop

J-K flip-flop

T flip-flop

Here we are described below about J-K flip-flop. The J-K flip-flop is a very versatile and also the most widely used. The J and K designation for the synchronous control inputs have no known significance. The functioning of the J-K flip-flop is identical to that of the S-R flip-flop, except that it has no invalid state like that of the S-R flip-flop. The logic symbol and truth table for a positive edge-triggered J-K flip-flop are shown in fig.

a positive edge-triggered J-K flip-flop are shown in fig. Logic symbol J K Q comments 0

Logic symbol

J

K

Q

comments

0

0

Qo

No change

0

1

0

Reset

1

0

1

Set

1

1

Qo

Toggle

Positive edge triggered J-K flip-flop (truth table)

When J=0, K=0, no change of state takes place even if a clock pulse is applied.

When J=0,K=1,the flip-flop resets at the positive-going edge of the clock pulse

When J=1, K=0, the flip-flop sets at the positive-going edge of the clock pulse.

When J=1, K=1, the flip-flop toggels, i.e.goes to the opposite state.

34

A T flip-flop has a single control input, labelled T for toggle. When T is HIGH, the flip- flop toggles on every new clock-pulse, When T is LOW, the flip-flop remains in whatever state it was before. Although T flip-flop are not widely available commercially, it is easy to convert a J-K flip-flop to the functional equivalent of a T flip-flop by just connecting J and K together and labeling the common connection as T.Thus ,when T=0,we have J=K=0,and there is no change. The logic symbol and truth table of a T flip-flop are shown in below fig.

and truth table of a T flip-flop are shown in below fig. Logic symbol T Q

Logic symbol

T

Q

0

Qo

1

Qo

Truth table

We are using this flip-flop in this project to make half frequency of main source frequency from adder in control circuit.so,by this flip-flop we get 50Hz frequency pulse from the output and also we get two toggle pulse from Q and Q.To use this configuration of flip- flop we are using IC7473 in this project. Our square wave pulse we are given as clock pulse and 5V given to T, and by the Q and Q we are getting square pulse.

35

4.

WORKING OF INVERTER

36

4. WORKING OF SINGLE PHASE INVERTER

4.1 GOAL

“To explain the operation of single phase inverter”.

4.2 BASIC BLOCK DIAGRAM OF INVERTER:

BATTERY REGULATOR OSCILLATOR DIVIDER OUTPUT CIRCUIT LOW L.E.D POWER TRANSFORMER BATTERY AMPLIFIER INDICATOR
BATTERY
REGULATOR
OSCILLATOR
DIVIDER
OUTPUT
CIRCUIT
LOW
L.E.D
POWER
TRANSFORMER
BATTERY
AMPLIFIER
INDICATOR

4.3 DESCRIPTION OF THE BLOCK DIAGRAM:

4.3.1 REGULATOR SECTION:-

The positive voltage regulator IC7805 has only three terminals as showen in figure.Its output voltage is +5V constant.

The positive voltage regulator IC7805 has only three terminals as showen in figure.Its output voltage is

37

4.3.2 OSCILLATOR SECTION (IC 555):-

If we rearrange the circuit slightly so that what the trigger and threshold input are controlled by the capacitor voltage, We can cause the IC555 to trigger it self repeatedly. In this case, we need two resistor in the capacitor charging path so that one of them can also be in the capacitor discharge path. This gives us the circuit shown as a below.

discharge path. This gives us the circuit shown as a below. In this mode, initial pulse

In this mode, initial pulse when power is first applied is a bit longer than the o ther, having a duration of

t 1 = 1.1(R a+ R b )*C

However, from then on the capacitor alternately charges and diacharges between the two comparator threshold voltage. When charging C starts at (1/3)V cc and charges towards V cc . However it is interrupted exactly halfway there, at (2/3)V cc. Therefore the charging time, t 2 = 0.693(R a +R b )*C

38

When the capacitor voltage reaches (2/3)v cc , the discharge transistor is enabled (pin.7) And this point in the circuit becomes grounded. Capacitor C now discharges through R b alone. Starting at (2/3)V cc , it discharge towards ground, but again is interrupted halfway there, at (1/3)V cc the discharging time. t 2 = 0.693R b *C

The total period of the pulse train is t 1 + t 2 = 0.693 (R a+ R b )*C The output frequency of this circuit is the inverse of the period,

frequency of this circuit is the inverse of the period, Note that the duty cycle of

Note that the duty cycle of IC 555 timer circuit in astable mode cannot reach 50% , On time must always be longer than Off time , because R a must have a resistance value greater than zero to prevent the discharge transistor from directly shorting V cc to ground. Such an action would immediately destroy the 555 IC.

One interesting and very useful feature of the 555 timer in either mode is that the timing interval for either charge or discharge is independent of the supply voltage V cc, This is because the same V cc is used both as the charging voltage and as the basic of the reference voltage for the two comperators insige the IC 555. Thus, the timing equations above depend only on the values for R and C in either operating mode.

4.3.2.1 SQUARE WAVE:-

Here we are using a 12V DC as an input source, which is given to the square wave generator. In this generator op-amp based square wave generator is used. Output of this stage is square wave. Its frequency is set on 100Hz by the varying the feedback resistor of op-amp. This output is given to the next stage of triangular wave generator.

39

4.3.2.2 TRIANGULAR WAVE : Output of previous stage is square wave and by this triangular

4.3.2.2 TRIANGULAR WAVE :

Output of previous stage is square wave and by this triangular wave generator, square is converted to triangular wave. In this stage op-amp is used. And it works as an integrator in the generator Frequency of this triangular wave is also same means 100Hz.this triangular wave is given to the next stage means comparator.

wave is also same means 100Hz.this triangular wave is given to the next stage means comparator.

4.3.3 COMPARATOR:

40

This stage is compare the triangular wave of 100Hz with +12V and -12V DC and then it will gives square wave in pulse position Frequency of this stage wave also being same of 100Hz.here we can see that triangular wave is converted to pulsed square wave. And it is given to the next stage means adder circuit.

wave. And it is given to the next stage means adder circuit. 4.3.4 ADDER: Pulsed square

4.3.4 ADDER:

Pulsed square wave is given to the adder circuit. It will add the DC level whatever we add with it. Here we are add 12V DC with square wave and so, it will be pulsating DC, which is present on above the 0 reference line. So output of this stage is given to the flip-flop.

be pulsating DC, which is present on above the 0 reference line. So output of this

41

4.4 FLIP-FLOP:

Basically switching circuit may be combinational switching circuit or sequential switching circuits. The switching circuits considered so far have been combinational switching circuits. Combinational switching circuits are those whose output levels at any instant of time are dependent only on the level present at that time. Any prior input level conditions have no effect on the present output because combinational logic circu it have no memory. On the other hand, sequential switching circuits are those whose output levels at any instant of time are dependent not only levels present at the at that time, but also on the prior level input level conditions. It means that sequential switching circuits have memory. Sequential circuits are thus made of combinational circuit in memory elements.

The most important memory element is the flip-flop, which is made up of an assembly of logic gates. Even though a logic gates is itself has no storage capability, several logic can be connected together in ways that permit information to be stored. There are several different gate arrangement that are used to construct flip-flop in wide variety of ways. Each type of flip-flop has special features or characteristics necessary for particular application

INPUT

FF

Q

Q

special features or characteristics necessary for particular application INPUT FF Q Q NORMAL OUTPUT INVERTED OUTPUT
special features or characteristics necessary for particular application INPUT FF Q Q NORMAL OUTPUT INVERTED OUTPUT

NORMALhas special features or characteristics necessary for particular application INPUT FF Q Q OUTPUT INVERTED OUTPUT

OUTPUT

special features or characteristics necessary for particular application INPUT FF Q Q NORMAL OUTPUT INVERTED OUTPUT
special features or characteristics necessary for particular application INPUT FF Q Q NORMAL OUTPUT INVERTED OUTPUT
special features or characteristics necessary for particular application INPUT FF Q Q NORMAL OUTPUT INVERTED OUTPUT

INVERTED OUTPUTflip-flop has special features or characteristics necessary for particular application INPUT FF Q Q NORMAL OUTPUT

special features or characteristics necessary for particular application INPUT FF Q Q NORMAL OUTPUT INVERTED OUTPUT

42

The flip-flop has two output labeled Q and Q . Actually any letter can be used to represent the output. But Q is the most often used. The Q output is the normal output of the

flip-flop and Q is the inverted output. The state of flip-flop is always refers to the state of the normal output Q.

4.4.1. EDGE TRIGGERED FLIP-FLOP:-

There are the basic three types of edge triggered flip-flops:

(1) S-R FLIP-FLOP (2) J-K FLIP-FLOP (3) D FLIP-FLOP

4.4.1.1 J-K FLIP-FLOP:-

Here we are described below about J-K flip-flop. The J-K flip-flop is a very versatile and also the most widely used. The J and K designation for the synchronous control inputs have no known significance. The functioning of the J-K flip-flop is identical to that of the S-R flip-flop, except that it has no invalid state like that of the S-R flip-flop. The logic symbol and truth table for a positive edge-triggered J-K flip-flop are shown in fig.

a positive edge-triggered J-K flip-flop are shown in fig. Logic symbol J K Q comments 0

Logic symbol

J

K

Q

comments

0

0

Qo

No change

43

0

1

0

Reset

1

0

1

Set

1

1

Qo

Toggle

Positive edge triggered J-K flip-flop (truth table)

When J=0, K=0, no change of state takes place even if a clock pulse is applied.

When J=0,K=1,the flip-flop resets at the positive-going edge of the clock pulse

When J=1, K=0, the flip-flop sets at the positive-going edge of the clock pulse.

When J=1, K=1, the flip-flop toggels, i.e.goes to the opposite state.

A T flip-flop has a single control input, labelled T for toggle. When T is HIGH, the flip- flop toggles on every new clock-pulse, When T is LOW, the flip-flop remains in whatever state it was before. Although T flip-flop are not widely available commercially, it is easy to convert a J-K flip-flop to the functional equivalent of a T flip-flop by just connecting J and K together and labeling the common connection as T.Thus ,when T=0,we have J=K=0,and there is no change. The logic symbol and truth table of a T flip-flop are shown in below fig.

symbol and truth table of a T flip-flop are shown in below fig. Logic symbol T

Logic symbol

T

Q

0

Qo

1

Qo

Truth table

44

We are using this flip-flop in this project to make half frequency of main source frequency from adder in control circuit.so,by this flip-flop we get 50Hz frequency pulse from the output and also we get two toggle pulse from Q and Q.To use this configuration of flip- flop we are using IC7473 in this project. Our square wave pulse we are given as clock pulse and 5V given to T, and by the Q and Q we are getting square pulse.

4.4.2. FLIP-FLOP OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS:-

Flip-flop operating characteristics are as below:-

(1) PROPOGATIONAL DELAY:-

The output of a flip-flop will not changed state immediately after the application of the clock signal or asynchronous inputs. The time interval between the time of application of the triggering edge or asynchronous Inputs and the time at which the output actually makes a transition is called the propagation delay time of the flip-flop.

(2) SET-UP TIME :-

The setup time is the minimum time for which two control levels need to bemention constant on the input terminal of the input terminal of the flip-flop, prior to the arrival of the triggering edge of the clock pulse, in order to unable the flip-flop to respond reliably.

(3) Hold time:-

The hold time (t h ) is the minimum time for which the control signal needs to be maintained constant at the input terminals of the flip-flop, after the arrival of the triggering edge of the clock pulse, in order to unable the flip-flop to respond reliably.

(4) MAXIMUM CLOCK FREQUENCY:-

The maximum clock frequency (f max ) is the highest frequency at which a flip-flop can be reliably triggered. If the clock frequency is above this maximum, the flip-flop will be

45

unable to response quickly enough and its operation will be unreliable. The f max limit will vary from one flip to another.

(5) PULSE WIDTHS:-

The manufacture usually specified the minimum pulse width for the clock and asynchronous inputs. For the clock signals, the minimum high time t w (H) and the minimum low time t w (L) are specified and for asynchronous inputs, i.r PRESETS and CLEAR, the minimum active state time is specified.

(6) CLOCK TRANSITION TIMES:-

For reliable triggering, the clock waveform transition time (rise and fall times) should be kept very short. If the clock signal takes too long to make the transition from one level to the other, the flip-flop may either erratically or not trigger at all.

(7) POWER DISSIPATION:-

The power dissipation of the flip-flop is the total power consumption of the device. It is equal to the product of the supply voltage (V cc ) and the current (I cc ) drawn from the supply by it.

P = V cc ×I cc

The power dissipation of the flip-flop is usually in mW. If a digital system has N flip-flop and if each flip-flop dissipates P mW of power, the total power requirement P tot is

P tot = N×V CC ×I CC = (N×P)mW

(8) CLOCK SKEW AND TIME RACE:-

The clock signal which is applied simultaneous to all flip-flops in synchronous system may undergo varying degrees of delay caused by wiring between components, and arrive the CLK inputs of different flip-flop at different times. This delay is called clock skew.

4.4.3 APPLICATIONS OF FLIP-FLOPS:-

There are large number of application of flip-flops. Some of basic application are as below:

46

1. Parallel data storage

2. Serial data storage

3. Transfer of data

4. Serial to parallel conversion

5. Parallel to serial conversion

6. Counting

7. Frequency division

4.4.4 FREQUENCY DIVISION:-

6. Counting 7. Frequency division 4.4.4 FREQUENCY DIVISION:- Output of square wave is given to this

Output of square wave is given to this stage and it will generate 0 levels and 1 level pulse. But it will make frequency half of the source frequency means it will generate 50Hz frequency pulse. Here output of flip-flop is Q and Q.So, it will give two toggle output pulses. And in this configuration T flip-flop is generally used. Though T flip-flop is not present in the market, there is a J-K flip-flop is used with sorted the both the input. Pulse of the previous stage is given as clock pulse and as an input of T is 5V DC is given. And then it will generate 50Hz pulse. This type of both the pulse is given to the delay circuit.

47

4.4.5 OUTPUT OF INVERTER CIRCUIT:

4.4.5 OUTPUT OF INVERTER CIRCUIT: Pulse with proper delay is given to the inverter circuit. in

Pulse with proper delay is given to the inverter circuit. in this part mosfet is used with its snubber circuit. MOSFET is a switching device, which converted delayed pulse into AC waveform. through it will not pure but it will be square type sinewave.snubber circuit is used for the over current protection. It will save the circuit from the dangerous ara.output of this stage is AC waveform but it will be low voltage output so, it is required to step-up the voltage, to run the home appliances load. And also current will be decrease, but power output we will make by drain-source voltage.so, this output given to the transformer.

4.4.6 TRANSFORMER:

Low voltage output is coming from the inverter circuit is step-up by the step-up transformer. so, required voltage and current (power) is getting by the transformer. Which gives 50Hz frequency.

48

4.5 WORKING OF INVERTER :

Every inverter works on the same basic principle. When we switch ON the inverter, DC supply of battery is applied to the PCB of inverter. From PCB to pulses having 180 phase shift are generated, which reaches 12-0-12 volt winding of inverter transformer. By transformer action in secondary winding 230volt ac supply is generated and which is supplied to O/P circuit. There are many method of producing series of pulse with 180 phase shift. One of the easiest circuit is describe as under.

4.5.1 WORKING OF CHANGE OVER CIRCUIT:-

In this inverter relay is on (when current flows in relay coil) when AC mains supplies

is ON and inverter is OFF. In this circuit, 5 pole relay and 12-0-12 volt transformer are used. Phase of main supply is connected to NO 2 terminal of relay and 12-0-12 volt transformer primary. Neutral of main supply is connected with 2 nd terminal of primary winding of 12-0-

12 volt transformer which is connected to N terminal of the output circuit and common

terminal of inverter/charger transformer. P2 and P3 terminal of relay are connected with

phase of o/p circuit.

4.5.2 FOLLOWING FUNCTIONS ARE CARRIED OUT WHEN ac SUPPLY IS GIVEN TO MAIN LEAD OF INVERTER:-

(1) Main supply 220/(12-0-12) volt reaches primary of transformer and in secondary

generates 12-0-12 volt AC. Full wave rectifier and filter capacitor converts this supply into

12 volt DC supply which flows current in a relay coil. With this all pole gets attached to NO

terminal. 220/(12-0-12) volt transformer is used only to give current to the relay coil. (2)The relation of NC1, NC2 and NC3 does not reach to the dc supply inverter switch because of the breaking of poles, due to this inverter does not work and AC supply not reach on NC3.

(3) The phase present on NO2 of AC main supply reaches at two places.

49

(a) From P2 ,o/p reaches circuit with which the bulbs,etc connected with circuit

works on mains Ac supply.

(b) From P2 to P3, then P3 to NO3 and from NO3 the phase of AC main supply

reaches winding of loss (low) volt of inverter transformer wih which the current starts flowing in the primary coil and 12-0-12 volt AC is generated in the secondary winding. (4) With the help of diodes on the secondary winding battery gets charged.

4.5.3 WHEN AC MAINS SUPPLY IS OFF (GONE), THEN THE FOLLOWING FUNCTIONS TAKES PLACE AS UNDER:-

1) Primary of 220/12 volt transformer does not get AC supply. With this 12 volt relay coil does not get DC supply and relay will gets OFF.

2)

The relation of poles of relay gets connected with the NC terminal.

3)

DC supply of battery passing from P1 connected with NC1 reaches the inverter switch and when inverter switch becomes on, at that time inverter reached PCB.

4) The pulses generated from inverter circuit on reaching 12-0-12 volt winding of

5)

inverter transformer continuously produces direction charging current in it, with which 230 volt AC is obtained on tapping ,joined with NC3. Due to the connection of P3 with NC3, the AC supply generated from inverter reaches

6)

o/p circuit and when mains AC supply is OFF (gone) at that time also fan, bulb, etc are working. Due to the opening of NC2, the supply of inverter reaching on P2 has no effect.

7) Due to the opening of NO1, the switch made of NC1 and P1 works as pole1 way switch. When mains supply is gone (OFF) at that time this switch gets ON. 8) Due to the opening of NC2, the switch made of P2 and NO2 also works as 1 pole 1 way switch. When mains supply comes at that time, this switch gets ON. 9) The switch made NC3-P3-NO3 works as 1 pole 2 way switch. The output circuit connected with P3 either gets the mains AC supply or the AC supply generated from inverter.

50

5.

DESIGN DETAILS OF INVERTER

51

5. DESIGN DETAILS OF INVERTER 5.1 GOAL

“To compute and decide various component values.”

5.2 DESIGN CALCULATIONS

Design calculations have been divided into following sections

1)

Design of control circuit

2)

Design of power circuit

3)

Transformer

5.3 DESIGN OF CONTROL CIRCUIT:-

RA 5 3 CON OUT 2 7 TRIG DIS 6 THRES 4 RST LM555C BATTERY
RA
5
3
CON
OUT
2
7
TRIG
DIS
6
THRES
4
RST
LM555C
BATTERY
RB
C4
C3
7 TRIG DIS 6 THRES 4 RST LM555C BATTERY RB C4 C3 CALCULATION FOR FREQUENCY:- Ra

CALCULATION FOR FREQUENCY:-

Ra = 10KΩ

F

= 1/T Hz

= 1/T Hz

=

*10 3

=

100 Hz

52

F

= 100 Hz

C

= 0.1 µF

F =

F = 100 Hz C = 0.1 µF F = 100 = Hence, R b =

100 =

F = 100 Hz C = 0.1 µF F = 100 = Hence, R b =

Hence, R b = 67.5 KΩ

TIME DELAY SECTION:-

T = R * C = 1k * 0.1 uf = 0.1 ms

CALCULATION FOR LOAD RESISTANCE:-

Vo= Io * R L

230 = 1.3 * R L

R L = 177Ω

5.4 DESIGN OF POWER CIRCUIT:-

53

R14 R13 Q1 R12 R11 Q2
R14
R13
Q1
R12
R11
Q2

M1

M1 M2 M3

M2

M1 M2 M3

M3

IRFZ44N

IRFZ44N

IRFZ44N

R11 Q2 M1 M2 M3 IRFZ44N IRFZ44N IRFZ44N T1 230V AC 50Hz OUTPUT TRANSFORMER R5 C7
R11 Q2 M1 M2 M3 IRFZ44N IRFZ44N IRFZ44N T1 230V AC 50Hz OUTPUT TRANSFORMER R5 C7
R11 Q2 M1 M2 M3 IRFZ44N IRFZ44N IRFZ44N T1 230V AC 50Hz OUTPUT TRANSFORMER R5 C7
R11 Q2 M1 M2 M3 IRFZ44N IRFZ44N IRFZ44N T1 230V AC 50Hz OUTPUT TRANSFORMER R5 C7
T1 230V AC 50Hz OUTPUT
T1
230V AC
50Hz
OUTPUT

TRANSFORMER

IRFZ44N IRFZ44N T1 230V AC 50Hz OUTPUT TRANSFORMER R5 C7 RESISTOR M4 M5 M6 IRFZ44N IRFZ44N

R5

C7

RESISTOR

M4 M5 M6 IRFZ44N IRFZ44N IRFZ44N R5 C7
M4
M5
M6
IRFZ44N
IRFZ44N
IRFZ44N
R5
C7

RESISTOR

M4 M5 M6 IRFZ44N IRFZ44N IRFZ44N R5 C7 RESISTOR We Know that for Transformer Efficiency is

We Know that for Transformer Efficiency is 80%, So

η =
η
=

80 = 300/ V*I

I = 300/24*0.8

I = 15.62A

I max = 22.22A I min = 12.22A

Now, P =V*I

P

= 15.62*12

P

= 187.5 VA

Now, V ds = 12 V V dsmin = 12-5 = 7V V dsmax = 12+5 = 17V

I g =

I g =

187.5 VA Now, V d s = 12 V V d s m i n =
187.5 VA Now, V d s = 12 V V d s m i n =

54

= 0.07mA

We are using

IRFZ44N MOSFET

for our power circuit which operates

at 55V & 49A of current and it has resistant of 0.22Ω .

Design of a snubber circuit :-

Cs = 0.1

μF

Rs = 1/ 3fCs

= 66 KΩ

5.5 DESIGN OF 300 VA INVERTER TRANSFORMER WITH GIVEN SPECIFICATION

PRIMARY

:

SECONDARY:

10.8 0 10.8 V, 46.30A, 50 Hz 0 230 - 270 V, 1.3A, 50Hz

5.5.1 DESIGNING PROCEDURE

The procedure for designing a transformer is as follows:

STEP 1:

Firstly the total output power is calculated by using the following relation:

P0 = V0 * I0

= 230 * 1.3

= 300

= 300 watt

Where, Po is total output power of the transformer in watts.

55

Vo is the total output voltage in volts.

Io is the output current in amperes.

STEP 2:

Now considering the efficiency of the transformer be 95%, we have to calculate the total input power by using the following relation,

Where,

N

Pi

= Po/Pi

= Po / 95%

= 500 / 95%

= 52.6%

N

P0 is the output power of the transformer.

Pi is the input power of the transformer.

is the efficiency of the transformer.

STEP 3:

Now the third step is to calculate the area of cross section of the core. area of cross section of the core is calculated by using the relation.

A

= Fm/Bm

= 0.00232/1

= 2.32*10^-3mm^2

The

Where Fm=core flux and Bm = magnetic flux density. Here we have to add 10% of the core area in calculated core area for safety margin of bobbin.

56

STEP 4:

After calculating the area of core we have to find out an appropriate size of former (bobbin) for the core by looking in the Table 2. The Table 2 consists of the sizes of former available in the market.

The former to be used is 7 no. 2” inches i.e. the area is [2” * 5/2”].

STEP 5:

Now the wire gauge is selected for the primary and the secondary windings of the transformer. As we know the input and output current so by using the Table-1 we can find the appropriate wire gauge for the primary and the secondary.

STEP 6:

Now the number of turns for the two windings is being calculated. For this, first we have to find ratio of turns/volts for 300VA transformer. So, turn/volt for 300VA transformer is 2.0.Magnetic flux density for primary winding is assumed 1.0Wb/m^2 and for secondary winding it is assumed 2.03Wb/m^2.

STEP 7:

For primary winding use bifilar winding because it is more efficient than the random winding. For this take two 13 gauge wire and 21 turns of these wires on bobbin parallel.

The turns required for 230 volt tapping Ts = 1.05*Vs*2 = 1.05*230*2

57

= 483 turns

So, turns required for secondary is 483. Turns required for primary Tp = Vp*Te

=

10.8*2

=21.8

~22

So, turns required for primary is22.

Where Tp and Ts are the total number of turns for the primary and the secondary windings respectively and Vi, Vo is the input and output voltages of the transformer. Also we have to add 10% of the primary and secondary turns in the calculated primary and secondary turns for the primary and secondary voltage regulation respectively. So, we have Primary has total 22 turns bifilar winding with 13 SWG and secondary has total 483 turns with 22 SWG. The bobbin used is 7 no. 2” inches.

Thus the complete design for a given ratings of transformer is worked-out by using the above procedure. After the designing of the transformer the winding is done on bobbin by a hard grinder setup machine or BNC machine. Between primary and secondary winding an insulated paper is kept for proper insulation. After the winding of the coils the laminations are fitted in alternate order and finally the clamp is fitted and the transformer is dipped in the liquid varnish and then it is allowed to dry for about 12 hours and thus the transformer is manufactured.

58

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF INVERTER:-

R1 LM7805 1 2 VIN VOUT R6 RESISTOR R5 3 GND R2 C5 C1 C2
R1
LM7805
1
2
VIN
VOUT
R6
RESISTOR
R5
3
GND
R2
C5
C1
C2
RA
Q1
74LS73
14
12
J
Q
T1
5
1
D4
R3
M1
M2
M3
CON
OUT
CLK
C6
2
7 3
230VAC
TRIG
DIS
6
3
13
IRFZ44N
IRFZ44N
IRFZ44N
50Hz
THRES
K
Q
4
RST
OUTPUT
CAPACITOR NON-POL
LM555C
D5
R4
R5
C7
TRANSFORMER
RB
Q2
BATTERY
M4
M5
M6
C3
IRFZ44N
IRFZ44N
IRFZ44N
2
C4
LC
2
1
R6
C8
2
1
0

59

6

TESTING & CALIBRATION

60

6 .TESTING & CALIBRATION

6.1 GOAL

“To give details of testing procedure”

6.2 TESTING PROCEDURE AND CALIBRATION

As in any technical project, it is necessary to test the work carried out. Here also we carried out various tests on our project. Testing needed to test performance of the power supply was carried out during assembling of the circuit. We assembled the circuit in section- by-section manner, tested the individual section and if required the section component values were modified depending upon requirements. The overall testing and calibration was divided into various steps.

1)

1)

Testing of Regulator section.

2)

Testing of Oscillator section.

3)

Testing of J-K flip flop.

4)

Testing of Time delay section.

TESTING OF REGULATOR SECTION:

Apply 12 v dc at pin no. 1 and get output on pin no. 3

5 v dc.

ON Apply +12 v dc at pin no 7 And -12 v dc at pin no.4.Get output on pin no. 6 of 12dc at 100 Hz frequency.

2) TESTING OF OSCILLATOR SECTION:

Apply 5

frequency.

v

dc

at pin

no.

8

and

get output on

61

pin

no.

3

3

v

dc at

100

Hz

3)

TESTING OF J-K FLIP FLOP:

Apply 5V, 100 Hz frequency signal at pin no. 4 and get output on pin no. 12 and 13 at 50 Hz frequency with 180 degree phase shift.

4)

TESTING OF TIME DELAY SECTION:

Apply 50 Hz frequency signal on delay circuit and the delay between two circuits is obtained.

62

7.

RESULTS

63

7.

RESULTS

7.1

GOAL

“To give obtained results of the project”

7.2

POWER CIRCUIT:-

Table 2 POWER CIRCUIT

 

Input voltage (battery voltage)

24 volt

 

Input current

 
 

Output voltage

230 v a.c

 

Output current

 
 

Output frequency

50Hz

 

Output power

300watt

7.3

BASE DRIVE CIRCUIT SPECIFICATION

Table 3

BASE DRIVE SECTION SPECIFICATION

Input voltage

12 v dc

Output voltage

4 v,50Hz

64

8.

TIME & COST

ANALYSIS

65

8. TIME & COST ANALYSIS

8.1 GOAL

“To give time and cost analysis of the project”

8.2 TIME ANALYSIS

TABLE 0-1 TIME ANALYSIS

SR.

 

TIME

NO.

REQUIRED

(IN WEEKS)

1

Study of various options for project

1

2

Selection of project

1

3

Study of fundamental theory

1

4

Selection of topology

1

5

Preparation of basic schematic according to the control IC 741, IC 74LS73,IC 7805

1

8

Design of overall circuitry and component selection

1

9

Purchasing components

1

10

Testing of individual sections (on Bread Board) and making necessary modifications

1

11

Integrated testing of the project (on Bread Board) and making necessary modifications

1

12

Designing of PCB

1

13

Making of PCB

1

14

Assembling and testing of the project on final PCB

1

15

Writing Project report

1

16

Computerization of the report ( including figures)

1

 

Total Time Required in Weeks

16

66

8.3 COST ANALYSIS

TABLE 0-2

COST ANALYSIS

SR.

 

COST

NO.

WORK / COMPONENT

Rs.

1

POWER MOSFET IRF Z44N,

180

2

POWER TRANSFORMER CORE, WINDING WIRE AND LABOUR CHARGES FOR WINDING

1200

3

DIODES & LEDS

20

4

RESISTORS 0.5 WATT,OTHER,PRESET RESISTOR

35

5

BATTERY

300

6

CONTROL IC 741, IC74LS73, IC 7805,

50

7

CAPACITORS

25

8

GENERAL PURPOSE PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD

200

9

POWER TRANSISTOR BD139 & 2N2222

45

10

RELAY

75

11

PROJECT REPORT DATA ENTRY, PRINTING , XEROXING AND BINDING CHARGES

500

 

TOTAL COST OF THE PROJECT

2630

67

9.

CONCLUSION

68

9. CONCLUSION

9.1 GOAL

“To conclude the work carried out.”

9.2 CONCLUSION

From the project work, following points can be concluded.

1. The INVERTER works successfully under operating voltage range 0 V AC to 230V AC at full load.

2. It fulfils all the requirements for its application.

3. The output ripple voltage on each output measured is 0.5 V which is less than desired

0.6V.

4. Through such SINGLE PHASE INVERTER, we can get output of desired

69

frequency.

10.

FUTURE

MODIFICATIONS

70

10. FUTURE MODIFICATIONS

10.1 GOAL

This inverter is a general purpose module, which can be modified in many ways for different applications to get desired output. This modification may be functional or physical. Some of the modifications, which can be made in existing module for different application, are discussed here.

10.2 AS A.C DRIVES / A.C VOLTAGE CONTROLLER:-

A.C Voltage controllers are the devices which are used to control the speed of the a.c motor by controlling supply voltage, supply frequency or both the supply voltage and frequency. In our module we can control the frequency of the output by simply controlling the frequency of the firing pulses.

71

APPENDIX

72

73

73

74

74

75

75

76

76

77

77

78

78

79

79

80

80

81

81

82

82

83

83

84

84

85

85

86

86

87

87

88

88

89

89

BIBLIOGRAPHY

90

POWER ELECTRONICS

LINEAR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS

SEMICONDUCTOR DATA-BOOK

LOGIC DATA-BOOK

ANALOG AND DIGITAL

- M.H.RASHID

- P.S.BHIMRA

- NED MOHAN

- GAIKWAD

- INTERNET

- NATIONAL SEMICONDUCTOR

- ANAND KUMAR CIRCUITS

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