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Question 4
Reference to the Context Poem 1

The lines given for explanation are an extract from the poem entitled The Man of
Life Upright, written by Thomas Campion.
About the poet
Thomas Campion was a poet who led English poetry and music to supreme heights. H
e used the normal forms of simultaneous verses with spectacular skill and modest
y. The most admirable pieces of his poetry are those sonnets, which he set to hi
s own music.
About the Poem
The Man of Life Upright is a sermonic piece of writing that sheds lights on the
prominent visages of the character of a person who leads a life of honour, nobil
ity and righteousness. He possesses a pure heart clear from sinful thoughts and
wicked ideas. He never deviates from the path of honesty and never falls prey to
the false pride. He is self-sufficient and does not fall into the trap of decep
tive hopes. He is courageous and confident enough to encounter all the miseries.
The man of life upright --------- Or thought of vanity
In this stanza the poet says that an upright man leads an honourable and honest
life. His mind is free from evil thoughts and his heart is free from ill-feeling
s and false hopes. He is an humble person and has no thought of vanity. He has p
eace of mind and peace of heart. He is not a discontented person because
Discontent is the want of self-reliance; it is infirmity of will.
- Emerson
An upright man never lacks in self-reliance. Therefore, he leads a bappy and con
tented life. His life is simple because he is not an ambitious person. That is w
hy he leads a pious life and never thinks of committing crimes and sins.
In other words the poet wants to convince us that honesty is the best policy and
if we want to lead a pleasant and contented life, we must not deviate from the
path of honesty. No doubt honesty gives us real and spiritual pleasure.
The man whose silent days --------- Nor sorrow discontent:
An honest man leads a peaceful and contented life and does not harm anyone. He i
s not an ambitious person. Therefore, he does not cherish false hopes and that i
s why false hopes can t deceive him. As he has got no high expectation in life, so
sorrow and grief cannot discontent or dishearten him. He does not give pain to
others; he does not torture and agonize others. He remains happy because of the
fact that he leads a life free from dishonest deeds and free from sins.
In other words, the poet wants to convince us that we must not cherish false hop
es and must not torture others if we want to spend a peaceful, contented and car
e-free life.
The man needs neither towers--------From thunder s violence
An upright man leads a pious life. So, he is not afraid of anyone. Honesty makes
a person bold and courageous. That is why he neither needs any fortress or any
armour to defend him. He does not feel the need of secret vaults to protect hims
elf from any kind of danger. Thus an honest man leads a carefree and peaceful li
In other words, the poet wants to say that if we follow the path of honesty, we
need not to be afraid of any one because of honesty is the best weapon which can
provide us protection against all kinds of evils.
He only can behold -------------- And terrors of skies
In these lines, the poet says that only an upright man can face the difficulties
and hardships of life, boldly and courageously. It is rightly said:
An honest man possesses a stout heart.
He is not afraid of anyone and is prepared to face all kinds of dangers. He can
face the horrors and terrors of the skies fearlessly because of the fact that su
ch a person is not afraid of death. Fear of death makes a person coward and he c
annot face any one and he cannot tackle any difficult situation with confidence.
In this thought-provoking stanza the poet wants to say that honesty makes a pers
on brave and bold. He has peace of mind and peace of heart. Therefore, he can de
liberate and plan to tackle any difficult situation. He does not tremble and shi
ver in the face of hardships and clematis. No doubt honesty gives spiritual conf
idence and strength to an honest and upright man. So, for the attainment of spir
itual confidence and strength it is imperative that we must follow the path of h
Thus, scorning all the cares ----------------- His wisdom heavenly things,
An honest man is spiritually happy. So, he hates all those cares and worries whi
ch the fate or fortune brings. Difficulties and hardships there in the life of a
n honest man but he does not care as he believes that these difficulties and har
dships will come to an end with the passage of time. He bears the troubles and m
isfortunes patiently. He looks upon the heaven for guidance help. He makes the h
eaven his book and learns the lesson of wisdom from heavenly things. Thus an hon
est man spend his time in useful activities.
In other words the poet wants to convince us that only an hones man can adopt a
positive and optimistic attitude towards life. As he possesses spiritual confide
nce and strength. He knows that cares and worries are the parts of life and one
must not be disappointed and disheartened by them. Beyond any shadow of doubt th
e life of an honest man is enviable and we must endeavour to lead an honest life
Good thoughts his only friends -------- And quite pilgrimage.
An honest man looks upon the world as an inn where he has come into the world fo
r a brief sojourn and to spend a life free from sins. His pious and sinless life
is his wealth. He strongly believes that he has come into this world for the ad
oration of God Almighty and to lead a sinless life. He believes that this world
is a Vanity Fair. Therefore, he is never deceived by the glamour of the world an
d he never deviates from the path of honesty, integrity, and righteousness.
In this stanza the poet stresses moral values and has drawn the attention of the
people to the realities of the world. By the describing the qualities of an hon
est man he wants to convince the people that honesty is the best policy and thos
e who are honest and upright have peace of mind and peace of heart. There is no
vacuum in the life an honest man. He has spiritual pleasure, which is the asset
of life.
Question No. 4 - Reference to the Context Poem 2

This stanza has been extracted from the poem entitled Music when Soft Voices Die
, written by Percy Bysshe Shelley.
About the Poet
P.B Shelley is one of the most famous poets of English Literature. He is an idea
list and a dreamer. He exists in the world of ideas and visions which seem to hi
m more practicable and real than the so called realities of this world.
About the Poem
In this short lyric, Shelley expresses his views about beauty, love and separati
on. He says that beauty is immortal and love is unchangeable. It does not change
with the passage of time and with the change of circumstances. It does not die.
Separation does not kill true love.
Music, when soft voices die-------------Live within the sense they quicken.
The poet says that when sweet voices fade away, they echo in our memory. Beautif
ul and mellifluous songs are unforgettable and immortal. Similarly when the swee
t-smelling lovely flowers of violets wither away, their pleasant smell can still
be enjoyed in the memory. Our minds are refreshed when we remember the sweet fr
agrance of violets.
In other words, the poet wants to say that if a thing loses its physical beauty,
it can be revived in the imagination. Thus this short lyric reflects the fundam
ental importance of imagination in human life.
A thing of beauty is joy for ever.
Shelley emphasizes the same idea in these lines containing the depth of meaning
and philosophical approach to love, beauty, separation and imagination. The poet
by giving the example of enchanting music an fragrant violets expresses this id
ea that a beautifule thing never dies. It has everlasting effect on the mind of
a man.
Rose leaves, when the rose is dead------------Love itself shall slumber on.
Shelley believes in the Platonic love, which shuns fulfillment. It is a desire t
hat always remains unsatisfied. In love Shelley must find something ideal, somet
hing ever to aspire after, something ever to look forward to. It is in the expec
tation of fulfillment that his happiness lies. H has expressed the Platonic conc
eption of love in this beautiful stanza.
The poet says that when rose petals wither away, they do not become useless. The
y retain their sweet smell even after withering away. That is why they are used
for decorating the beloved s bed. The poets s beloved has been separated from him. S
he is not with him, but her thoughts are with him and his love will sleep on her
In other words the poet wants to say that it does not matter if the sweet heart
is physically away from him because spiritually she is with him. He is not alone
as in his imagination he finds his beloved very close to him. Separation has sh
arpened love but he is free from mental agony as her sweet thoughts always comfo
rt and soothes him. His love is passionate and profound and it will not change w
ith the passage of time. He cannot forget his beloved and will continue to love
her in his imagination as true love does not die and transcends all barriers and
surmount all obstacles. Absence sharpens love; distances intensifies love but i
magination brings the beloved so close to the lover that distances come to end a
nd the two separated souls are united.

Question No. 4 - Reference to the Context Poem 3
The lines given for explanation are an extract from Samson Agonistes written by
John Milton.
About the Poet
John Milton is regarded as one of the most famous poets of English Literature. H
is masterpiece Paradise Lost, Paradise Regained, Samson Agonistes earned him fam
e and honour. His individual style has a touch of sublimity and majesty which is
quite appropriate to his noble and powerful ideas.
About the Poem
Samson Agonistes is an adaptation of the Greek drama form in blank verse, which
recounts the tragedy of Samson in his blindness beset by enemies. This hero perf
ormed the decisive role in crushing the philistines who were the deadly enemies
of his race. Samson, too got killed in that disaster but his heroic act saved hi
s tribesman from the deadly enemy. By virtue of his glorious deed, his named ear
ned eternity. It is rightly said:
Those who die for their nation live for ever.
He patient, but undaunted, where they led him---------None daring to appear anta
The poet tells us in these lines how Samson was brought in the assembly hall as
the enemy had blinded him. A guide led him to the hall. He walked patiently but
heartlessly to the place where the guide led him. Then he was called upon to sho
w the feats of skill. He performed could be done by a blind man. He heaved, pull
ed, drew and broke things with great strength and none have the courage to find
faults with him. He performed everything in such a wonderful way that every body
praised him for his unbelievable strength. His demonstrations were simply unbel
ievable. Nobody dared to appear as his challenger in similar feats of strength.
At length for intermission sake they led him ----------That to the arched roof g
ave main support
Here we are told how Samson reached near the big pillars. At last the show was o
ver and the interval was announced. Samson was led by his guide to the pillars i
n order to give him some recess. Now as the people who stood near him heard Sams
on requested his guide to let him stand against the strong pillars with the both
his hands on them. He told his guide that he wanted to do so simply because he
wanted to have some rest. These pillars give a support to the arched roof where
the nobility of Philistine was sitting.
He unsuspicious led him; which when Samson-----------Or some great matter in his
mind revolved
In these lines we are told that the guide did not feel that there was anything w
rong in. So, the guide accepted his request and let him rest against the pillars
. Now Samson felt the pillars in his arms for Philistines had blinded him. Then
he stood silent for some time, with his head bowed and his eyes fixed on the gro
und. He behaved as if he was going to offer his prayer, or wanted to reach a fin
al decision on some matter on some matter of great importance. It appeared as if
some important matter was revolving in his mind for he is standing seriously wi
th his head bowed and eyes on the ground.
At last, with head erect thus cried aloud--------As with amaze shall strike all
who behold.
The poet tells us in these lines how Samson, addressed the people gathered there
. He raised his head and in a loud voice he told them that till now he had obeye
d them most obediently, showed some feats of strength and had never disobeyed th
eir commands. Now he said, he wanted to show them some feats of strength of his
own accord. These things would amaze all the holder and every body would be amaz
ed who saw it. Actually Samson wanted to take them unawares. Therefore, he told
them in a friendly way that he was going to show them some more wonderful feats
of strength.
This uttered, straining all his nerves, he bowed -------- Upon the heads of all
who sat beneath,
In these lines we are told how Samson pulled down the pillars upon the heads of
his enemies. Samson applied his force to the pillars, which trembled just as mou
ntains do against the fury of winds and water. He shook them in opposite directi
ons, till the roof came down with a thundering noise. Thus, all those lords and
captains who sat under the roof were crushed to death. Of course Samson too died
, but in this way he took a revenge on his enemies. The two heavy pillars who ga
ve support to the whole building were shaken with great force by Samson and afte
r their motion of to and fro they came down. Samson succeeded in achieving his g
oal i.e to crush his enemies for it he use his full strength to pull the pillars
down on the heads of his enemies. He shook the pillars again and again till the
y came down.
Lords, ladies, captains, councellors or priests --------- Pulled down the same d
estruction on himself.
The poet tells us in these lines that among the people who were crushed to death
under the roof were lords, ladies, councellors and priests of the country. The
people had assembled there from far and near to celebrate the feast. As Samson t
oo was among them, he also met the same fate and was crushed to death. But, by s
acrificing his own life, he killed the best people of the enemy nation. The peop
le who killed were choicest nobility not only of this one city but also of all t
he Philistinian cities.
Question No. 4 - Reference to the Context Poem 4
The lines given for explanation are an extract from the poem entitled An Essay o
n Man, written by Alexander Pope.
About the Poet
Alexander Pope occupies a very prominent position in the domain of English Liter
ature. He was a representative poet of the 8th century also known as the Augusti
an age, the age of satire and heroic couplets.
About the Poem
An Essay on Man is a philosophical, didactic, thought-provoking and soul-stirrin
g poem. It was addressed by Pope to Bolingbroke. At the beginning of the poem he
The proper study of mankind is man.
Pope in this poem is not the satirist but a moralist who has chosen his object t
o vindicate the ways of God to man. He thus gives his philosophical reflection o
n the fate and fortune of man, the nature and importance of hope and the cause o
f the restlessness of human soul in this world.
Heaven from all creatures hides the book of Fate ------ Or who could suffer bein
g here below?
In the opening lines of the poem, Pope has presented the benign care and kindnes
s displayed by God s Providence to his creatures by making them ignorant to their
future fate.
He says that God has made his Creatures blind to their future. They know very li
ttle or nothing of what is going to happen to them. They don t know what sorrows o
r sufferings lie in store for them. They know only about their present.
The poet says that God has done this according to a specific system. For instanc
e, angels being spiritual beings know more than man does, man being superior to
animals knows more than they do and animals being at the bottom of the hierarchy
know nothing about their future.
Poet justifies this policy of the Providence as being kind and beneficial. This
is intended to keep the cycle of life going. Since life on this planet is full o
f sorrows, sufferings, disappointments, disease and death. We would have tried t
o make an end to our life before the fall of the future calamity if we had the s
lightest knowledge of our future.
The poet wants to say that blindness to the future is a blessing kindly given to
by God Almighty and it enables us to face the hard realities of life with undyi
ng courage, hope and determination.
Ignorance of future ills is a more useful thing than knowledge.
- Cicero
Oh blindness to the future! Kindly given ----------- And now a bubble burst, and
now a world.
In these lines the poet tells us how our ignorance to the future becomes a great
blessing. He thinks that we are kept ignorant of our future simply because God
wanted each of us to complete the work fixed for him. Man is ignorant about the
days a head, so that he may complete the cycle of his life according to the wish
es of God. God s knowledge is so wide that the looks at a dying hero as accurately
as he does at a small sparrow. Since God is maker, moulder and creator of this
Universe. He looks at all the creatures equally. In his eyes making no differenc
e between the creatures. He watches the actions of all the human beings, seeing
a sparrow and a hero. He knows about the ruin of a planetary system as well as a
bout the ruin of the smallest particle. It also means that death of small or a g
reat man, the least particle or any other system does not impress God at all. Go
d watches the astronomical systems of the Universe. Even the bursting of a bubbl
e or the ruin of a world, both have equal importance for God. In this stanza, th
e poet gives very good example, to clear the fact that all the things are equal
in the eyes of God whether it is an hero or an ordinary thing like sparrow all h
ave to complete their life cycles as prescribed to them by the Almighty God.
Hope humbly then, with trembling pinion soar --------- But gives that hope to be
thy blessing now.
In these lines, Pope, the moral pedagogue, is preaching the principle of humilit
y and modesty in our life of this world.
Greater are those who show humility.
- Blake
He says that God has very kindly made us blind to our fate and fortune. We don t k
now what sorrows and sufferings and joys and happiness lie ahead in store for us
. Therefore, it is only prudent and wise to live simply with humble hopes and mo
dest desires. We should try to rise but slowly and gradually. We should learn fr
om the bird, which soars, but slowly balancing its wings at every step as though
the bird is afraid of falling down. Similarly, we human beings should always ke
ep death before us. Death teaches us that this world is just like an inn where w
e have come for a brief sojourn. Our life is just like a bubble blown up in the
air. Death reveals to us the secrets of the next world and mystery of life herea
fter. It also teaches us the lesson of parity and equality by treating all livin
g beings alike.
We should also love and pray God for his blessings. God does not tell us what bl
iss he is going to grant us in future, But God has blessed us with hope which is
really a precious gift of God. It is hope which keeps us happy and gives us com
fort and solace when we are in the grip of difficulties and hardships. Thus we c
an say that Hope is our best companion because:
Hope is the best armour against fate.
Hope springs eternal in the human breast ----------- Rests and expatiates in a l
ife to come
Hopes makes future bright.
- Lowell
In these oft quoted lines, the poet presents an altruism about the fate of human
beings that nobody is happy but every body hopes to be happy.
The poet says that instead of telling us about or fate, God gives us hope, which
is really a precious gift of God. He says that hope never deserts human beings.
It remains alive and active in human heart forever. Hope keeps the man happy. H
e forgets the difficulties and hardships of the present and is overjoyed when he
thinks of the future bliss. Rossy picture of the future emerges before his eyes
and he forgets grieves of the present. Alexander Pope wants to say that without
hope man s life would have been meaning less and colourless and would have not st
ruggled ceaselessly and relentlessly for the achievements of his objectives.
About human soul, the poet remarks that it never enjoys a moment of real joy and
peace in this world. It is constantly restless, disturbed and far from its real
and eternal home. The eternal abode of human soul is heaven. It aspires to libe
rate itself from the material cage of human body and go back to its original and
final home. Human soul hopes to live there permantly enjoying peace, comfort, f
reedom and happiness.
Therefore, Pope says that man should lead a pious, virtuous and sinless life and
perform good and noble deeds for a better after death.
Hope, like the gleaming taper s light, adorns and cheers our body.
- Oliver Goldsmith
Question No. 4 - Reference to the Context Poem 5
The lines given for explanation have been extracted from the poem entitled Ulyss
es, composed by Lord Alfred Tennyson.
About the Poet
Lord Alfred Tennyson occupies a very important and prominent position in the dom
ain of English Literature. He is the representative poet of Victorian era. He is
a prolific poet and has composed a number of poems. Tennyson s poetry is rich in
imagery as that of keats but it lacks the romantic fine of Words Worth and Coler
About the Poem
Ulysses is a long, magnificent, symbolical and moral boosting poem. The poem is
written in the dramatic monologues of the powerful blank verse and tells the sto
ry of the most prudent and bravest of the Greek heroes, Ulysses of Homer s Odyssey
. He is the symbol of adventurous spirit, indomitable courage, inexhaustible zea
l; unflinching faith; unshakable determination and unquenchable thirst for knowl
edge. Ulysses wants to set out on a journey of discovery because he believes tha
t it is not too late to find a New World.
Souls that have toil d and wrought ------------ Free haerts, free foreheads you an
d I are old;
Ulysses is addressing his fallow sailors; those brave ones who worked hard and h
ave accomplished treat deeds in the past happily and even beard the hardships of
rough season and sunshine. He further plays attribute on them that, they are fr
ee even with noble souls. Our old ages have stid to keep us away from any long j
ourney to explore thus world or to keep glory up. He is addressing those mariner
s who had all those qualities and he is converging them to join him in his last
journey as they did in the past by giving them the few best example and glories
of their pride.
Old age hath yet his honour and his toil ----------- No unbecoming men that stro
ve with gods.
In these lines we are told how Ulysses inspired his men. He told them that no do
ubt old age brings its labours and honours with it. But we should do something r
emarkable before our death, benefiting great heroes who have often faced gods. H
ere Ulysses refers to old battles between men and gods, as told in the Greek myt
hology. According to Greek legend, Ulysses and his comrades strove with gods dur
ing the war between Greece and Troy, when the Gods themselves took rides in the
contest, and doing Ulysses s heroic journey back to Greece when he had to face gre
at perils because he had angered Poseidon, the God of the Sea. The poet says tha
t, death is power, the spirit of working and efforts come to an end when a man f
aces death, but a man should always do virtues and avoid troubling others. His a
ctions will remain after his death. They will out live him. We should not do any
thing against Gods, but achieve some unusual. This is the honour of old age to f
ace troubles and to yield something great to be remembered after the death.
The light begins to twinkle from the rocks ---------Moans round with many voices
. Come, my friends;
In these lines the poet tells us that although Ulysses and his friends are neari
ng the end of their lives, still for them there is a time to go and to find a Ne
w World. Ulysses tells his friends that the sun of their lives is going to set w
hile the long day is going to an end. The moon is also rising this shows that ni
ght i.e. death is fast approaching. Still there is some time to go out and seek
a New World. He means to say that they should not worry if they have become old.
The poet describes the sight of an evening. The days are losing its light. The m
oon is sailing in the sky. We can hear the sounds of the wave that are striking
against the seashore. Come on my friends. It is never late to discover a New Wor
ld. This is the evening of our lives yet we are in a position to explore a New W
orld to be immortal after our death. The poet creates in sense of self confidenc
e in his men and encouraged them to not to be disappointed to their old evenings
of life, but to yield a New World.
Tis not too late to seek a newer world ----------- Of all the western stars, unt
ill I die.
In these lines, Ulysses urges his companions to come along with him, sit in orde
r in the boat and start the voyage of discovery. He wants to set out on a journe
y of discovery with great confidence because it is his firm believe that it is n
ot too late to find a New World. Therefore he asks his comrades to drive the oar
s with power and might because the sea looks dangerous as the noisy waves are ri
sing ferociously. Ulysses is here conscious of the perils supposed to be created
in the way by the sea God, Poseidon whom they had angered in the Trojan Wars. H
e tries to reassure them that they will overcome all the obstacles since he is d
etermined to sail beyond the Western bank and touch the happy Isle before he die
s. This thing shows that Ulysses is an adventurous person who has unquenchable t
hirst for knowledge and has a passion for discovery.
Through the symbolic character of Ulysses, Tennyson wants to evoke the spirit of
adventure and unsatiable thirst for knowledge. He wants to convince us that eac
h and every minute of life is very vital and one must struggle ceaselessly again
st heavy odds following the motto:
To strieve, to seek, to find, and not to yield.
Tho much is taken, much abides, and tho -------------To strive, to seek, to find,
and not to yield.
In these lines, Ulysses says to his comrades that although time has taken away m
any things from them but many things remain with them. They still possess courag
e and hope. They are still very brave.
He says that no doubt, they have lost a great deal of strength and energy but st
ill they have much strength and powers to accomplish heroic deed. Of course they
do not possess that strength and energy which they possessed in the past and us
ed to perform deeds of bravery and accomplish great tasks.
Ulysses wants to say that in spite of being old, exhausted and physically feeble
, they still possess some very remarkable qualities. In old age, a man has exper
ience, knowledge and treasure of wisdom. He says that his mariners can perform m
emorable deed only if they take courage and struggle jointly.
Lighter is the task when many share the toil.
- Homer
He says that they have strong hearts and high aims. There is unity of thought an
d action among them. Temperamentally they are one. So, they must struggle relent
lessly and ceaselessly to discover a New World, to gain fresh knowledge and expe
rience and not to acknowledge defeat. Some one has rightly said:
Defeat should never be a source of discouragement, but rather a fresh stimulus.
Through the symbolic character of Ulysses Tennyson wants to inspire the old, wea
k and exhausted people who can accomplish some great task even in old age. Actio
n is life and inaction is death. So, one must continue his struggle against heav
y odds till the last breath of life.
Question No. 4 - Reference to the Context Poem 6
The lines given for explanation have been extracted from the poem entitled Endym
ion, composed by John Keats.
About the Poet
John Keats is one of the finest English poets. In spite of living only for twent
y-six years, he contributed a lot to English Poetry. His poems are spirited and
lively. His personal life was a tale of sorrow and bereavement, but his keen obs
ervant eye made him an admirer of nature, which is fully reflected in his poems.
About the Poem
Endymion is poem of great beauty. In this poem John Keats has expressed his conc
eption of beauty and has given a unique definition of beauty. According to Class
ical Mythology Endymion was a beautiful youth with whom moon Goddess fell in lov
e and on whom she induced a perpetual sleep in order to kiss him without his kno
A thing of beauty is a joy forever --------------- Full of sweet dreams, and hea
lth, and quiet breating
Beauty is a divine gift.
- J. Seigell
In these oft-quoted famous opening lines of the poem, Keats is giving vent to hi
s views on the concept of beauty and its influence on human life. He believes th
at an object of rare and real beauty communicates to human soul the message of l
asting joy and eternal relief. Beauty is immortal like truth; it never dies and
fades. The charm of a lovely object is unaffected by time. This charm goes on in
creasing with the flight of time.
The poet says that beauty always remains a constant source of peace and joy. It
has a refreshing, soothing and healthy impact on human life. It will keep a quie
t and shady place for us and induce a sound sleep keeps us healthy and enables u
s to breathe freely.
The poet wants to say that life is full of pains and sufferings; still we cling
to it because of the compensations offered to us in some form of beauty. Thus th
e presence of beautiful objects around us is an eternal source of comfort and ha
Beauty is truth, truth beauty, that is all,
Ye know on earth, and all ye need to know.
Therefore, on every marrow, we are wreathing -------- Some shape of beauty moves
away the pall
Beauty moves away the pall from our dark spirits.
In these lines, Keats gives vent to his strong romantic faith that a real and ra
re objects of beauty have the power to make us forget our sorrows and griefs as
they take us away from the world of bitter realities into the world of imaginati
Therefore, Keats says that an every day we wreathe a flowery band in order to jo
in ourselves with the earth, which is an unattractive and unhappy place. In his
famous novel Thomas Hardy, an eminent Victorian novelist and poet says that this
world is a Blighted Star meaning that this world is full of difficulties, hards
hips, troubles and griefs. Man can never be happy in this problem-plagued World.
John Keats expresses the same ideas but with a difference. And it is beauty, wh
ich makes all the difference.
According to Keats the world is an unattractive, place full of griefs and troubl
es. There is shortage of men and women of good character and noble thoughts. Dar
kness is prevailing every where. So, life is full of sorrow, disappointment and
disease. But in spite of all this, some shape of beauty, whether in nature, huma
n history or literature removes the darkness from the world. Beauty dispels dark
ness, beauty makes us happy; beauty gives us courage to bear the difficulties an
d hardships of life and take interest in the world.
In these thought-provoking lines Keats describes the realities of the world but
at the same time he does not forget beauty which makes a person forgetful of his
griefs and worries. Not doubt beauty removes the pall from our dark spirits.
And such too is the grandeur of the dooms ---------- Pouring unto us from the he
aven s brink.
In these concluding lines, Keats gives vent to his strong romantic faith that re
al objects of beauty, whether in nature, human history or literature, have the p
ower to make us forget our sorrows and griefs as they take us away from the worl
d of bitter realities into the world of imagination.
He refers to various shapes of beauty, which please us and make us forgetful of
our griefs and worries. He says that the grand deaths and the splendid destinies
we have imagined for the brave heroes of history are also beautiful because the
y too inspire us to deeds of nobility and fortitude. Similarly, works of art and
literature created over centuries are also a thing of beauty. All lovely trails
which we have read or heard and beautiful objects of art are permanent source o
f endless joy. These tales give us great pleasure and we forget the depressions
and agonies of life. Thus all these visions of beauty are like an endless founta
in which gives an immortal drink to our thirsty souls.
In the concluding lines, Keats says that beauty is something unearthly. It is be
ing showered upon mankind from the heaven like a Divine blessing.
Beauty is a conopy for the suffering souls.
- Trolope


Question No. 4 - Reference to the Context Poem 7
The lines given for explanation have been extracted from the poem entitled Say N
ot the Struggle Naught Availeth, composed by Arthur Hugh Clough.
About the Poet
He is a great poet but known and admired more for his friendship with a greater
poet and educationist, Mathew Arnold and for his support to Florence Nightingale
About the Poem
This poem teaches the moral lesson of inflicting courage, ceaseless struggle and
sunny optimism of hope and aspiration. The poet through various images conveys
a great message that without struggle, man cannot accomplish anything really gre
at in this world. Struggle is the key to success in human life. It is rightly sa
All honour to those who try.
If hopes were dupes, fears may be liars ------------And, but for you, possesses
the field.
In the lines given for elucidation the poet emphasizes the fact that hope and fe
ar are part of human nature. Hope and apprehension are equally reasonable and ho
pe is more likely to be beneficial we should keep the ray of hope lit in our hea
rts, and at the same time trying to achieve our goal. Only such positive approac
h can help us in conquering the enemy and changing the things for betterment. Th
e poet uses the symbol of the battlefield by referring to two kinds of soldiers.
Those who are chicken hearted are easily overcome with fear, on the contrary, t
hose soldiers who are filled with courage and boldness are determined to fight t
ill the last drop of their blood, eventually makes them accomplish their mission
Question No. 4 - Reference to the Context Poem 8
The lines given for explanation have been extracted from the poem Seven Ages of
Man, composed by William Shakespeare. Seven Ages of Man is a speech chosen from
one of William s Shakespeare s comedies As You Like It.
About the poet
William Shakespeare was an English dramatist and poet, considered to be the grea
test of all writers. Shakespeare was not only a writer and poet, but also an act
or who devoted his life to the theatre.
About the Poem
This poem is one of the best known passages from Shakespeare s work. This speech i
s delivered by Amiens in act III, scene VIII of the play As You Like It. Amiens
is one of the group of noblemen leading a life of exile with Dukes in the forest
of Arden.
And all the men and women merely players ----------- His act being seven ages. A
t first the infant.
In the opinion of the poet man s life on earth is like a big drama, in which men a
nd women play their parts before their death. Man has to play many parts before
their death Man has to play many parts and his life has been divided into seven
This world is just like a stage of a theatre. All persons being players are give
n different roles. Every individual plays a definite role during his life, which
normally consists of seven parts or acts.
In order to make his meaning clear, he makes a comparison of life with the stage
. The first stage of a man is being an infant i.e. when he enters in this world
and makes his exist in this stage of world as a baby.
Mewling and puking in the nurse arms --------- Sighing like furnace, with a woeful
Shakespeare says that each human being performs seven parts in this small drama
on the stage of the world. He makes his entry as a baby who is fully dependent u
pon others. This stage ends when the infant grows into a school child. Shakespea
re describes him as a boy having a face fresh like morning, with his bag hanging
on his side, walking appropriately to school. In the beginning he does not like
going to school but gradually his thinking changes. When time passes onwards th
e schoolboy transformed into a youngster. He is not an adult yet and due to lack
of maturity, he indulges in infatuations.
Made to his mistress eyebrow; then a soldier ---------- Even in the cannon s mouth;
and then, the justice,
As a lover the man composes poems about the eyebrows of his lover, and then came
the fourth stage of his life, in which man makes his appearance on this World s s
tage as a soldier. He utters wrong oath and develops a beard like that of a leop
ard. He becomes mad after vain and transitory fame. He becomes wild and haughty
and readily picks up quarrels with anybody. He becomes a young soldier ready to
fight and defend his country. He fights with a spirit of competition. He is read
y to sacrifice his life for his country. Being a young man, he looses temper ver
y quickly. He is even ready to face the canons he is a brave soldier. So he is s
eeking bubble reputation. In the next role of his life the man becomes an agent
of doing justice.
Question No. 4 - Reference to the Context Poem 9
The lines given for explanation have been extracted from the poem entitled The S
olitary Reaper, composed by William Words Worth.
About the Poet
Williams Words Worth is a poet who has developed his own immensely valuable theo
ries concerning poetry. This is the reason why he possesses a unique and artific
ial style. His work shows his life long love for natural beauty, which gives hi
the title Poet of Nature.
About the Poem
This poem relates to an incident, which deeply inspired the poet when he was wal
king alone through the barren hills of Scotland. He was fascinated by the sweet
voice of a girl, who was singing a song in her native language.
Behold her, single in the field ---------------- Is overflowing with the sound
In the above lines, which are the opening lines of the poem, the poet discloses
one event of his personal experience. He tells us how enchanted he felt to see a
mountain girl reaping and singing all alone in the field. He asks his companion
to stop and see the young girl working alone in the field. The poet asks his co
mpanion either to stop or to pass silently, without disturbing the lovely reaper
The poet was profoundly fascinated by the bewitching melody and her voice left a
n everlasting and indelible impression on the mind of the poet. He invites his r
eaders to listen to that melodious voice. The poet found the voice of the girl s
cattered all over the deep valley. The deep valley is filled to overflowing with
the rich straw of the music.
No Nightingale did ever chaunt ------------- Among the farthest Hebrides.
In these lines, poet says that the musical notes of the young singer are symmetr
ical to the thrilling songs of the Nightingale and the Cuckoo. They were far swe
eter than the humming of birds and impressed the heart deeply. The sweet melody
appeals to the tired travelers of the Arabian Desert, who need relaxation after
a long and monotonous journey. The voice leaves a deeper impact than the song su
ng by the Cuckoo birds. It gives more than just breaking the serenity and tranqu
ility of the lonely seas.
In these lines the poet makes the competition of Solitary Reaper to the sweetest
songs of Nightingale and Cuckoo birds simply to express his liking for her love
ly song. The song echoes in the whole valley. He impressed the poet deeply. He t
herefore, compares her voice with that of sweet birds. It has magnificent effect
on the poet. It is flight of his imagination.
Will no one tell me what she sings? ------------- That has been, and may be agai
In these lines the poet tells us what song the lonely girl is singing. First of
all, he thinks that perhaps it is some sad song, concerning some unhappy events
as wars etc, which happened long ago. Or, the poet thinks, the highland girl is
singing a song about some ordinary matter of daily life. It may be some natural
sorrow, loss or pain, which has happened in the past, or is likely to be happeni
ng in the future.
In this stanza the poet puts a question whether any body could tell him as to wh
at this girl was singing. The poet is going to make some guess work in this conn
ection. It is also appearing that she was singing a song as if making a complain
t to some body or is pointing towards something very old or a battle that happen
ed in the past. It may also be common day affair. The poet is ignorant of the th
eme of the song because she was singing in unknown language. So he does not unde
rstand that song.
Whate er the theme, the Maiden sang --------- Long after It was hear no more.
In these lines the poet tells us how he felt when he left the place. He tells us
that although he could not understand the actual subject matter of the lovely g
irl s sweet song, it seemed to have no ending. At this time she kept on bending ov
er her sickle. The poet listens to her song for quite a long time At last he was
overjoyed. Then he climbed over the hill. But as he went away he could still dr
aw pleasure form the memory of the song, which he had heard from the lovely reap
er. The poet tells us that for a long time afterwards he remembered that song an
d enjoyed it in imagination.
In this closing stanza of poem, the poet says that the song sung by this unmarri
ed young girl was sung in such a strain manner as it should never end. He says t
hat he could not forget it with the passage of time. It flashes before his eyes
and refreshes him even when he had left the place and could hear her voice no mo
re, the haunting melody of the Highland girl still filled his heart.