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“...A community needs a soul if it is to become a true home for human

beings. You, the people must get it, this soul.” – Pope John Paul II

A message from the late Pope himself. A string of words that signifies an

imagery of how a simple union of an individual man and a woman forms into a

much more complex structure called community. Indeed, words like these clearly

defines what a community is – more than just a group of people, more than just a

pack of common ideas, more than just “men”. It is what we all want to call a

home. Men need a home – not just a mere structure of woods and bricks

compiled together. No, what we need is a place to come back to, a place to rest,

and a place to feel secured and protected. And most importantly, a place to feel

loved. A place where the soul is. And so, it is very clear what community is or

does. Much like a house we eagerly yearn to go home to. The feeling of yearning

to see our own neighborhood, our own group of friends, and our own society

definitely beats the other ungodly stuffs other places present. And nothing, clearly

nothing, defiles that longing.

Duvall defines family as a unity of interacting persons related by ties of

marriage, birth or adoption whose central purpose is to create and maintain a

common culture that promotes the physical, mental and social development of its

members. And from this household forms a mightier group – the community;

wherein individuals strive hard to help each other to live. But what if the

community itself is in pain of just existing? What if the community lost its luster,

its splendid aura of confidence, its determination to survive for many years to

come? What would it become of? That is why COPAR or Community Organizing
Participatory Research exists – to help the community regain confidence and

aptitude to stand up on its own feet again. To regain lost independence.

COPAR, in its right, is a social developmental approach that aims to

transform the apathetic, individualistic and voiceless poor into dynamic,

participatory and politically responsive community. It is also a collective,

participatory, transformative, liberative, sustained and systematic process of

building people’s organizations by mobilizing and enhancing the capabilities and

resources of the people for the resolution of their issues and concerns towards

effecting change in their existing oppressive and exploitative conditions (1994

National Rural Conference). Through this, voiceless individuals that makes – up

the community can again find themselves independent and being able to stand

on equal footing.

To gain better understanding of the program, we were assigned to

conduct the study at one of the purok of Jacinto, Davao. We gathered sufficient

data regarding each of the households that resides within Purok 8’s current

conditions, their immediate and foreseeable problems, their coping mechanisms

regarding those problems, and their relationship with the community of Jacinto

itself. Through step by step process, we were able to deduce a conclusion to how

these things affect the choices they make as well as what these things are able

to contribute to the community. Also, with this newly acquired information we will

be able to formulate strategies that will better assist in giving out effective

interventions and health teachings to the community. Also, we will be able to

have an opportunity to exercise our learned theories from our previous concepts

in regards to better accommodate the community in their goal to independence.

General Objective

After four weeks of exposure at Jacinto Health Center, the group 2 of BSN

4E will be able to apply our leadership and management concept with

knowledge, skills and attitude through the nursing process to the people of

Barangay 31-D.

Specifically, our group aims to:

a. Choose an area suitable for our project;

b. write a courtesy letter addressed to the Barangay Captain of Barangay 31-


c. conduct an ocular survey of the chosen area;

d. select a target population for our project;

e. establish rapport to the target population;

f. formulate a survey tool that is related to the identified community problem;

g. collect data from the target population using the survey tool;

h. site at least 5 community problems;

i. prioritize the community problems;

j. create a community diagnosis from the clients and action plan;

k. arrange schedule with the participants, barangay officials and health

center staff for community presentation;

l. present the community diagnosis with project proposal to the community;

m. implement the proposed project in the community;

n. make an evaluation and documentation about the implemented project;

o. submit the report of all community activities to the clinical instructor,

baranggay officials and health center; and

p. share experiences during the rotation.

The pre entry phase is also known as project site selection. It is the initial

phase of the organizing process where the students looks for communities to

serve or help. This phase is considered the simplest phase in terms of actual

outputs, activities and strategies and time spent for it.

The BSN 4E Group 2 of San Pedro College has done the following for this

stage: selects an area suitable for COPAR, list down our objectives for the whole

rotation, had our courtesy call at the Jacinto Health Center and Barangay Hall Of

Barangay 31-D and met with the barangay hall staff and barangay captain Hon.

Evelina Verde, set the dates of exposure and formulated our survey tool that will

be used in Purok 8-B for this rotation. The conduct of preliminary social analysis

of the community is needed to be able to plan the most effective way of entering

the community.
This is also known as social preparation of the community. It is considered

crucial because the success of later activities depend largely on the community

organizer's extent of integration with the people, the understanding of the events

in the community, and how the group is identified by the people. The activities

done here includes the sensitization of the people on the critical events in their

life, innovating them to share their dreams and ideas on how to manage their

concerns and eventually mobilizing them to take collective action on these. This

phase signals the actual entry or immersion of the community organizer into the


During this phase, the group has done the following: ocular survey of the

chosen area, recognizing the authorities in the area and as well as the residents,

collect data through the use of the survey tool, collate the data gathered, identify

problems from the data collated, prioritization of the problems and stating

community diagnosis.

The appearance, speech, behavior and lifestyle should be in keeping with

those of the community residents without disregard of their being role models

and avoid raising the consciousness of the community residents - adopt a low-

key profile.
Spot Map
• Health Center Sea Wall
• Barangay Hall Sea
Gym Interviewed
• Mosque

Category No. of residents Percentage

(per family)
1-5 years 11 23%
6-10 years 12 25%
11-20 years 7 14%
21-30 years 9 19%
31 and above 9 19%
TOTAL 48 100%

Figure 1
Length of residency refers to the number of years a person is living in the

community. The data gathered there are 11 (23%) respondents who have been

in the community for 1-5 years, 12 (25%) respondents have been there for 6-10

years, 7 (14%) respondents have been in the community for 11-20 years, 9

(19%) respondents have been in the community for 21-30 years and lastly, 9

(19%) respondents have been in the community for 31 years and above. From

the data gathered above it revealed that the majority of the respondents are in

the community for 6-10 years.


Category No. of Residents Percentage

(per family)
Roman Catholic 26 54%
Islam 16 33%
Protestant 6 13%
TOTAL 48 100%

Figure 2

Numbers relating to religion signifies the importance of the culture and

beliefs being utilized. Religion is a great factor in giving health teachings; we can

adjust the interventions to be given to each individual household. There are a

total of 48 respondents we have surveyed and based on this data, it revealed

that Roman Catholics compromises of 26 (54%) respondents, 16 (33%)

respondents are of Islam religion, and 6 (13%) respondents are Protestants.

From this data, we can say that the majority of the respondents practiced Roman

Catholic religion.


Category No. of Residents Percentage

(per family)
1-3 children 27 56%
4-6 children 14 29%
7-9 children 7 15%
10-12 children 0 0%
TOTAL 48 100%

Figure 3

Number of children in the community signifies the number of dependents.

Children have the least protection against diseases because they have little

antibodies developed and they are vulnerable to most diseases especially

communicable ones. Therefore, the tendency of children in big families living in

poverty is to be neglected wherein they are deprived of things that other children

from a more privilege home possess. Responsible parenthood is planning ahead

of time by deciding the appropriate number of children and when to have

children. Thus, by carefully planning a child is given a chance to have a better

future. In the data gathered, we have surveyed at least 48 respondents and 27

(56%) of these respondents’ ages from the range of 1 – 3 years old. 14 (29%) of

these respondents are from 4 – 6 years old, and 7 (15%) of these respondents

ages from 7 – 9 years old. From this data, we can deduce that majority of

children have ages ranging from 1- 3 years old.


Category No. of residents Percentage

Elementary 11 23%
Highschool 28 58%
College Graduate 9 19%
TOTAL 48 100%

Figure 4

Educational attainment depicts the educational competence with the

people living in the community. This is one of the factors which will affect the

deliverance of the health teachings to be given. It is of dire importance for the

part of the mother to be able to at least have knowledge on the basic necessities

of each of her family members so that she can maintain the health status of each
member. In the data above, there are 48 respondents being surveyed. The table

showed that 11 (23%) of these respondents have only reached elementary level.

28 (58%) of these respondents have only attained high school level, and lastly 9

(19%) of them have reached college level.


Category No. of residents Percentage

(per family)
Nuclear 29 60%
Extended 19 40%
TOTAL 48 100%

Figure 5

Family refers to two or more persons who are joined together by bonds of

sharing and emotional closeness and who identify themselves as being part of

the family. Type of family indicates the importance of sharing the responsibilities

between the members of the family. In a nuclear type of family, the

responsibilities only circulates among the primary members of that family while in

the extended type of family, the responsibilities branches from the immediate
members into the other member of the family. In the data showed above, the

number of nuclear type of families in our 48 respondents is 29 (60%) while the

extended type of family consists of 19 (40%) respondents.


Category No. of residents Percentage

Freshly Cooked 18 38%

Carenderia and/ or 4 8%
canned goods
Mixed 26 54%
TOTAL 48 100%

Figure 6
Preparing of foods indicates the hygienic practices of the family. Food is

the primary necessity of all living things. Food sanitation should ensure primarily

the consumption of safe and wholesome food and thereby protect individuals

from acquiring illnesses and at the same time promote the health and wellbeing.

The data gathered from 48 respondents revealed that most of them prefer mixed

type of food preparation, that is to say, the combination of freshly cooked foods
with either carenderia prepared food and/or with canned goods. Mixed types of

preparation are being practiced by 26 (54%) respondents and 18 (38%) of them

uses freshly cooked preparations. And lastly, 4 (8%) of them buy from

carenderias or eat canned foods.


Category No. of residents Percentage

Health Center 35 73%

Private 12 25%
Quack Doctor 0 0%
None at all 1 2%
TOTAL 48 100%

Figure 7

Health consultation refers to where a certain person seeks for

consultation. Health is important to each of us. This data will give us an idea if

the community is aware of the presence of health facilities near their area. The
data above shows the number of respondents who seeks consultation in health

centers, private clinics or hospitals, quack doctors and those who don’t seek for

consultation. There are 35 (73%) respondents who seek for consultation in health

centers and 12 (25%) of the respondents look for consultation in private clinic or

private hospitals. There are no respondents who seek consultation in a quack

doctor and 1 (2%) of the respondent doesn’t seek for consultation in the health

facilities mentioned above.


Category No. of residents Percentage

YES 44 92%
NO 4 8%
TOTAL 48 100%

Figure 8

This data is a way of determining their practices in treating illnesses. From

this we will be able to know if they seek consultation and follow prescribed

medication. Self medication is not totally prohibited but still it is advisable to

consult first to a physician before taking in any medication. 44 (92%) out of 48

respondents do practice self – medication and the remaining 4 (8%) do not.


Category No. of residents Percentage

YES 33 69%
NO 15 31%
TOTAL 48 100%

Figure 9
Herbal medication means the usage of herbal plants to medicate oneself.

Nowadays, the DOH or Department of Health approved some of these herbal

plants as an accepted alternative

to other synthetic drugs. Of all the 48 respondents, 33 (69%) of them uses herbal

medicines while 15 (31%) of them do not.


Category No. of residents Percentage

Fully Immunized 38 79%

Incomplete 10 21%
TOTAL 48 100%

Figure 10
Preventing diseases is the key to public health. As we know that

prevention is better than cure, vaccinations prevent disease in the people who

receive them and protect those who come in contact with unvaccinated

individuals’ diseases. It is also the safest tool for saving lives and an integral part

of child’s health since children has low immunity. According to the data above, 38

(79%) respondents had their children fully immunized while 10 (21%) of them

have not yet completed the immunization because of certain factors such as the

child is too young to acquire the prescribed vaccines.


Category No. of residents Percentage

Complete 13 27%
Incomplete 35 73%
TOTAL 48 100%

Figure 11
Immunization for the mother indicates the protection she will acquire that

will shield her from possible sepsis. The vaccine given to mothers is Tetanus

Toxoid vaccine, wherein it will be passed to the neonate from the 2nd to 5th dose

of vaccine thus protecting the neonate from acquiring neonatal tetanus. From the

48 respondents, 35 (73%) of mothers did not complete their immunization while

the other 13 (27%) respondents is able to complete the said immunization.


Category No. of residents Percentage

Breastfeeding 22 46%
Formula Feeding 6 12%
Mixed Feeding 20 42%
TOTAL 48 100%

Figure 12
It is very important for mothers to give their children breast milk for it is

very economical and very good for the baby’s immunity. Breastfeeding has many

physical and psychological benefits for both the mother and the babies. Formula

milk is expensive. The urban poor cannot afford to give their children the proper

nutrition it must need. The data gathered showed that there are 22 (46%)

mothers who preferred to give breast milk and 6 (12%) uses formula milk in

feeding and lastly mixed feeding is usually preferred by 20 (42%) mothers. It is

good that most of the mothers give /have given breast milk to their offspring but

still some mothers does not continue breast feeding up to 2 years, therefore they

should be educated and encouraged to breast fed their child.


Category No. of residents Percentage

Tuberculosis 2 4%
Diarrhea 7 15%
Asthma 4 8%
Pneumonia 2 4%
Hypertension 17 35%
Diabetes Mellitus 3 6%
Dengue 7 15%
Scabies 6 13%
TOTAL 48 100%
Figure 13

Common diseases mentioned above most often afflict the most

vulnerable, the young, and the elderly in the community. They have numerous

economic, psychological, disabling, and disfiguring effects to the afflicted

10 15% 13%
8 8%
6 4% 4% 6%

individuals, families and communities. In this situation, the need for information

about the disease is very vital. 2 (4%) of the respondents have tuberculosis, 7

(15%) respondents have acquired diarrhea, 4 (8%) respondents have acquired

asthma. 2 (4%) respondents have pneumonia, and 17 (35%) have hypertension

as their disease. DM has 3 (6%) respondent, dengue have 7 (15%) respondents,

and lastly scabies have a total of 6(13%) respondents.


Category No. of residents Percentage

YES 45 94%
NO 1 2%
Not applicable 2 4%
TOTAL 48 100%
Figure 14

Pregnancy poses a risk to the life of every woman. Pregnant women may

suffer complications and die. Every woman has to visit the nearest health care

facility for pre – natal care services. This is the only way to guide her in her

pregnancy care to make her prepare fro childbirth. Based on the data collected,

45 (94%) out of 48 respondents have been committed in their pre – natal check –

up while 1 (2%) respondent have stated that she do not do such. The remaining

2 (4%) respondents have not applied such check-up for the latter have not yet

formed a family.


Category No. of residents Percentage

YES 33 69%
NO 14 29%
Not applicable 1 2%
TOTAL 48 100%
Figure 15

Methods Used

Category No. of residents Percentage

Not Applicable 2 4%
Calendar Method 2 4%
Condom 6 13%
Pills 30 63%
Ligation 4 8%
IUD 2 4%
Abstinence 2 4%
TOTAL 48 100%
Figure 16

Family planning means deciding when the right time is to have children,

and what is the appropriate number of children for a couple to have. One good

reason to stress family planning is that it saves the mother and the child’s life.

There are more chances for abortion or miscarriage if the mother continues to

get pregnant beyond 35 years old or if she is in poor health condition prior to and

during pregnancy. Another reason is to provide a better life for their children.

Planned family size enables the parents to send their children to school and

provide them with the material things they need, as well as emotional support

through guidance and love. The data we gathered revealed 33 (68%) among 48

respondents uses family planning and 14 (29%) of them don’t use any family

planning. Only 1 (2%) respondent stated that it is not applicable to them because

they do not have yet formed a family. The most common method used is the

usage of pills wherein 30 (63%) out of 48 respondents found it effective and

convenient. The other 6 (13%) respondents use condom method. 4 (8%)

respondents use ligation method, while IUD users composed of 2 (4%)

respondents. Abstinence method users composed of 2 (4%) respondents and the

other 2 (4%) respondents do not use any of the following contraceptive methods

being mentioned.

Category No. of residents Percentage

Everyday 16 33%
Every other day 14 29%
Every week 18 38%
TOTAL 48 100%

Figure 17

Garbage collection refers to when the garbage are collected. It indicates

how the community is responsible enough to collect their own garbage. In the

data, it shows that the garbage collection usually done on every week on which

18 (38%) respondents testify to it. 14 (29%) respondents indicate that their

garbage is collected every other day and the remaining 16 (33%) respondents

stated that their garbage is collected everyday. If majority of them collects their

garbage every week, greater chance of attracting of pests towards the


Category No. of residents Percentage

YES 12 25%
NO 36 75%
TOTAL 48 100%

Figure 18

Garbage segregation refers to the ability of the individuals to effectively

separate non – biodegradable from biodegradable garbage. It, in turn, will

prevent it from turning into the breeding sites of pests and for easier filtration of

recyclable materials. This is also a good way in creating a clean and sanitary

environment. From the data gathered, it shows that 36 (75%) of the 48

respondents did not practice proper waste segregation and the remaining 12

(25%) respondents do practiced segregating garbage.


Category No. of residents Percentage

Bottled Water 2 4%
Tap Water 46 96%
TOTAL 48 100%

Figure 19

Different types of water being used as a drinking water indicate the

possibilities of acquiring water – borne diseases. Insufficient knowledge and

inappropriate practice in the handling of water from the source to the storage

point in the house could contaminate drinking water. People who uses tap water

as drinking water is not exempted from diarrhea disease contraction particularly

those who are served with old worn – out pipes that suck in sewage or flit

through cracks and joints of the pipes. From the data collected 46 (96%) out of

48 respondents uses tap water as their main source of drinking water. The

remaining 2 (4%) respondents used bottled water as their main source of


Category No. of residents Percentage

(per household)

YES 47 98%
NO 1 2%
TOTAL 48 100%

Presenceof Pest


Figure 20

Pests are vectors that contribute to spreading disease in the community

and other areas of the society. Usually presence of it indicates that a certain

house or community is unsanitary and does not practice hygienic techniques. 47

(98%) out of 48 respondents agree that there is indeed presence of pests found

in the area. 1 (2%) respondent have stated that there are no presence of pests.

Category No. of residents Percentage

(per household)
Refrigerator 6 13%
Covered 31 64%
Consumed 11 23%
TOTAL 48 100%

Figure 21

Food is one of the primary necessities. Food storage means safe keeping

of foods, the storage of the food must be at least semi- permanent to hold any

amount of food. If the food is properly stored, then the probability of having food

– borne diseases in increased. In the data mentioned above, 31 (64%) out of 48

respondents have stated that they do cover their food, 11 (23%) of them stated

that they consume all of their food and only 6 (13%) of them uses refrigerator as

food storage


Category No. of residents Percentage

(per household)
Wood 26 54%
Mixed 22 46%
Concrete 0 0%
TOTAL 48 100%

Figure 22

A house is a structure or building that provides cover, refuge, safety and

protection against weather and danger. The sturdiness of a house must be

considered for shelter is one of the basic needs of a human. In the data, 26

(54%) respondents’ uses wood while the remaining 22 (46%) uses mixed type –

a combination of wood and concrete. The majority of houses are made of wood;

therefore, houses in that area are prone to fire accidents and easily destroyed
from natural phenomena such as typhoons and earthquakes so people must be

educated about fire prevention and ways of safeguarding their houses against



Category No. of residents Percentage

(per family)
Electricity 43 90%
Kerosene 4 8%
Candle 1 2%
TOTAL 48 100%

Figure 23
In the data, 43 (90%) respondents are using electricity as their source of

lighting, 4 (8%) out of 48 respondents use kerosene as their source of lighting

and lastly 1 (2%) of the respondents uses candle as a source of light. Electricity

can give the residents the benefit of enjoying the modern life and makes the

residents’ job easy but it also has its negative effect. If it is used incorrectly, it

may cause fire or cause serious electrical injuries. In addition to that, if there are
illegal criss-crossing of the lines, it may cause a short circuit which can be very

harmful to the residents.


Category No. of residents Percentage

(per household)
With Screen 1 2%
Open 47 98%
TOTAL 48 100%

Figure 24

Windows provide both ventilation and protection for the family. Additional

measures such as screening of windows protect the family from diseases spread

by mosquitoes. In the data, 47 (98%) out of 48 respondents do not screen their

windows while the remaining 1 (2%) household does. This indicates that majority

of the households are at risk of acquiring diseases spread by mosquitoes such

as Dengue and Malaria.


Category No. of residents Percentage

YES 28 58%
NO 20 42%
TOTAL 48 100%




58% NO

Figure 25
Smoking is a most common problem and poses significant danger to the health

of the people. The danger is not only to those active smokers, but also to those

who are exposed to second hand smoke. Scientific evidences shows that

smoking is related to at least 40 diseases and 20 types of cancer. Smoking is

also a trigger to asthma and exacerbations and can influence asthma

development. It also carries special risks for pregnant woman and fetus such as
miscarriage and SIDS. In the survey, it revealed that 28 (58%) out of 48

respondents smoke and 20 (42%) do not.


Category No. of residents Percentage

YES 36 75%
NO 12 25%
TOTAL 48 100%

Figure 26

Alcoholism is another major problem that has been receiving considerable

attention. It causes suffering, and dangerous physical and emotional health,

disrupts family relationship and reduces economic effectiveness. 36 (75%) out of

48 respondents agree that they have been drinking and 12 (25%) of them do not.

It indicates that the majority of the people asked are alcohol drinkers, effective

alcohol education program could be a possible solution.


Category No. of residents Percentage

Father 28 58%
Mother 6 13%
Both 10 21%
Others 4 8%
TOTAL 48 100%

Figure 27


Category No. of residents Percentage

(per family)
P500- below 1 2%
P500- P1,000 2 4%
P1,000- P3,000 14 29%
P3,000- P5,000 9 19%
P5,000- P10,000 16 33%
P10,000 and 6 13%
TOTAL 48 100%

Figure 28

Poverty is a major reason for the health problems of our people and

because of this many people tend to do whatever they can to give the needs of

their family and to survive, regardless of the type of job and working hours spent.

This data will tell us who provide the needs in the family. Based on the data

gathered 28 (58%) fathers work to provide the needs of their family, 6 (13%)

mothers provide the needs of the family and 4 (8%) have other member of the

family to provide their needs and lastly 10 (21%) have both mother and father

provide the family’s need.

In terms of salary, 16 (33%) out of 48 households have an income ranging

from P5000 – 10000, 14 (29%) respondents have an income ranging from P1000
– 3000, 9 (19%) respondents have an income ranging from P3000 – 5000,

income ranging from P10000 and above came from 6 (13%) respondents,

income ranging from P500 – 1000 came from 2 (4%) respondents and only 1

(2%) respondent have an income ranging from P500 below.


Category No. of residents Percentage

YES 27 56%
NO 21 44%
TOTAL 48 100%

Figure 29

Health insurance serves as an emergency funding for the family wherein

in such cases of crisis, they will have additional money to be used. In accordance

to the data above, 27 (56%) out of 48 respondents have a health insurance while

21 (44%) do not. For that matter, almost half of the respondents have extra

money to be used on urgent crisis such as immediate hospitalization and


Ranking Community Problem Score

1 Inadequate Knowledge 4 1/3
on Common Illnesses
2 Unhealthy Lifestyle 2 1/3
3 Poor Environment 2 1/3
4 Fire Hazard 2 1/3
5 Threat of Cross infection 2 1/3
from communicable
1. Inadequate Knowledge on Common Illnesses

Criteria Score Weigh Actual Justification

t score
1. Nature of the It is a health threat since
problem 2/3 1 2/3 the people in the
community is aware with
such conditions but was
not able to be familiar with
the correct intervention to
different diseases. Also
their financial one of the
factors for their poor
2. Modifiability of It is highly modifiable since
the problem 2/2 2 2 the people in the
community can acquire
knowledge from the health
teachings of the student
nurses. Moreover the
center is also giving
protection and prevention
to the diseases encounter
by the people in the
3. Preventive It is highly preventive since
potential 3/3 1 1 the health teaching done
by the student nurses can
help them to have
background knowledge to
the diagnosed or un
diagnosed diseases which
the people in the
community are
4. Social It is not seen as a major
Concern 1/2 1 1/2 problem in their community
the people are more on
used to doing self-
medication and the beliefs
they have in treating
common illnesses.
TOTAL 4 1/3
2. Unhealthy Lifestyle

Criteria Score Weigh Actual Justification

t score
1. Nature of the This condition is a health
problem 2/3 1 2/3 threat since this problem is
usually taken for granted.
Most of the people are into
smoking and drinking and
made this as there pass
time. Also parents allow their
children to walk and play
around barefooted.
2.. Modifiability of The problem is averagely
the problem 1/2 2 1 modifiable since the people
around are aware of the
effect of excessive smoking
and drinking and the
different diseases
accountable with their
actions yet they lack the
behavior to correct it.
However the student nurses
can help them minimized the
problems through
suggestions and health
3. Preventive Although health teachings
potential 2/3 1 2/3 can educate the people in
the community, their
behavior, attitude and
response towards the
interventions lowers the
potential to totally eradicate
the problem.
4. Social Concern The people did not recognize
1/2 1 1/2 this as a problem since they
are already used to it and
made it as one of their
leisure times. Most of the
parents don’t care if their
children are wearing their
slippers while playing and
running around.
TOTAL 2 1/3
3. Poor Environmental Condition

Criteria Score Weigh Actual Justification

t score
1. Nature of the The people are aware that
problem 2/3 1 2/3 the existence of having
water contamination is
conducive for having
2. Modifiability of It has a low modifiability
the problem 1/2 2 1 since the health teachings
can help them prevent
having illness such as
boiling water first before
drinking it yet the problems
in their tubing’s also
requires the cooperation of
the water district and the
city hall.
3. Preventive It has an average
potential 2/3 1 2/3 preventive potential since
through interventions
people can be aware of the
health threats it causes.
4. Social The people have not fully
Concern 1/2 1 1/2 recognize the existing risk
of the leaking water pipes
submerged in sewages.
TOTAL 2 1/3

4. Threat of cross infection from a communicable disease

Criteria Score Weigh Actual Justification
t score
1. Nature of the This condition is a threat to
problem 2/3 1 2/3 the people in their area in
view of the fact that their
environment affects this
2. Modifiability of The problem is partially
the problem 1/2 2 1 modifiable. Although
student nurses can
implement something in
regards to health
awareness through health
teachings, factors such the
environment also affects
this problem since the
distances of their houses
are near and they lived
near the sea.
3. Preventive Interventions and health
potential 2/3 1 2/3 teachings will educate
them; however inadequate
physical and financial
resources lessen the
potential to totally
eradicate the problem.
4. Social It is not a recognized
Concern 1/2 1 1/2 problem since people in
the community treat their
experienced illness
through self-medications.
TOTAL 2 1/3

5. Fire Hazard
Criteria Score Weigh Actual Justification
t score
1. Nature of the This condition is a threat for
problem 2/3 1 2/3 the community since the
houses in the community is
close from each other and is
very prone to fire hazards.
Also, they lived near the
shore and high tides affects
the level of their housing,
thus made it elevated from
the ground and usually
having a steep stairs.
2. Modifiability of Although student nurses can
the problem 1/2 2 1 teach the people in the
community with some of the
preventive measures in both
fire and fall hazards such as
careful using candles and
going upstairs and
downstairs, its beyond the
students capacity to
rearrange their housing and
connection of electricity.
3. Preventive It has an average preventive
potential 2/3 1 2/3 potential to avoid such
occurrence since the faulty
wirings and the physical set-
up of the houses appears to
be not modifiable though
there are a lot of
precautionary measures that
can be rendered to the
community such as the
proper disposal of flammable
4. Salience People knew the problem
1/2 1 1/2 but they have not take an
action towards it.

TOTAL 2 1/3
Among the five prioritized problem, what topmost is the problem on

Inadequate knowledge on common illnesses. It includes the manner of

transmission, signs and symptoms, prevention and the appropriate treatment to

be done. It is a health threat since the co-existing problem of having the illness

aggravates because of the misconceptions and some improper management.

Inadequate knowledge of illnesses is a problem that entails other factors

that affects health. Such factors are within the scope of the other prioritized

problem which are the environmental condition, the lifestyle of a person and the

threats of some illnesses in the community which are tuberculosis and the like.

Thus, as we have come up with the top problem, everything within the

community is interrelated. All aspects that affect the health are part of the

implementation to be done.
The organization building phase entails the formation of more formal

structures and the inclusion of more formal procedures of planning,

implementation, and evaluating community-wide activities. It is at this phase

where the organized leaders or groups are being given trainings to develop their

skills and in managing their own concerns. In this stage, the group has planned

for a project proposal, made an action plan, went with our implementation and

did our evaluation for the project.

Project Proposal

A. Project Title:

“Pagbabago Sisimulan KO”

B. Project Proposal:

This project involves the people in the community and most especially the


B1. Health Alert:

• Dengue

• Pneumonia

• Diarrheoa

• Tuberculosis

• Hypertension

B2. Accident Hazard and Garbage Disposal/ Waste

C. Type of Project

1. Vital Signs taking

2. Symposium about Dengue, Pneumonia, Diarrheoa, Tuberculosis,

Hypertension, Lifestyle, accident hazard and garbage disposal/waste

It will provide the community with information and health teachings about

the topics.

The speakers will discuss the certain topics such as:

• Description of the problem

• Etiology

• Signs and symptoms

• Management of the condition

• Preventive measures

D. Location

The project will be conducted at the mini gym of Barangay 31-D,

Boulevard, Davao City. A gym that is nearest to our target area which is the

Purok 8-B, Barangay 31-D, Boulevard, Davao City.

E. Implementing Group

This project will be conducted by the 4th year nursing students of San

Pedro College section E group 2 together with the Jacinto Health Center staff,

barangay officials and also the residents.

F. Estimated Project Cost

Logistics/Materials Budget
BSN community
Counterpart actual

c/o Joanie Tinagan
• Attendance
P 50
• Evaluation
Programs c/o group 3
• Blood Pressure
Apparatus c/o Angelo Roslinda
• Garbage Cellophane
• Materials on c/o BSN4E Group 2
Background c/o Rechie Simbajon
• Table cover
Prizes P 500
- Tokens P 1000
- Give aways
Snacks P 1500
• Bread P 400
• Juice

• LCD c/o Charls Herradura
• Laptop & Arriane Lu

c/o Barangay
• Chairs
c/o Barangay
• Tables
c/o Arriane Lu
• Sound System
c/o Rovianne Uy
c/o Krishna Garillos
c/o Djamela Pecson
and Krishna Garillos
c/o Barangay
• Venue


• Manuscript c/o Rovianne Uy,
• Documentation Joanie Tinagan,
Djamela Pecson and
Paula Maniago
• CD
Total P 3930
G. Participating Agencies

This project will actively participated by the student nurses of San Pedro

College of BSN 4E, Jacinto Health Center staff, local barangay officials of Brgy

31-D, Boulevard Davao City.

H. Beneficiaries

The beneficiaries of the project will be the people residing in our target

purok which is the Purok 8-B and also its neighboring puroks.


General Objective:

Within our three hours of health teaching the residents of bangay 31-D will

gain new learnings about the common diseases encountered in the community

and be aware on how to prevent and manage in many constructive ways.

Specific Objectives:

Specifically, the people in the community will be able to

a. define what is health;

b. familiarize factors that affects health;

c. recognize the common diseases and envronmental hazards in their


d. know the signs and symptoms of the said diseases;

e. identify the managements and preventions of diseases and environmental


J. Project rationale

Health was defined as being “a state of complete physical, mental, and

social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity”. According

to the World Health Organization, the main determinants of health include the

social and economic environment, the physical environment and the person's

individual characteristics and behaviors. Generally, the context in which an

individual lives is of great importance on his life quality and health status. The

social and economic environment are key factors in determining the health status

of individuals given the fact that higher education levels are linked with a higher

standard of life as well as a higher income. Generally, people who finish lower

education are more likely to get no job and therefore high risk to stress by

comparing to individuals with high education levels. The physical environment is

perhaps the most important factor that should be considered when classifying the

health status of an individual.

Dengue fever is a disease caused by one of a number of viruses that are

carried by mosquitoes. These mosquitoes then transmit the virus to humans.

According to government figures 15,061 cases of the disease in the Philippines

were reported in the first six months of the year.

Our Health Secretary said that the increase in the number of dengue

cases may be attributed to the constantly changing climate brought by global

warming as well as congestion in urban areas. Deaths due to dengue rose to 172

compared with 115 for the first half of 2007, (Francisco Duque ,2008)

Dengue fever is a disease caused by one of a number of viruses that are

carried by mosquitoes

Pneumonia is a respiratory disease which often affects children and the

elderly. The cold months in the Philippines will definitely affect these groups

because the air is thin due to the high moisture in the atmosphere.During times

like this, our lungs work harder in order to transport the required oxygen

throughout our entire system to keep our organs functioning well. This is because

during cold months, our bodies get lesser amounts of oxygen

In the Philippines, pneumonia sometimes leads to death because cases of

pneumonia, especially in the barrios, are left untreated either because of

knowledge deficit about the symptoms of pneumonia or lack of money to pursue

treatment. These factors usually aggravate pneumonia and reflects the type of

healthcare a country has. I will update this post in the near future to discuss the

Philippine healthcare system from a researcher’s point of view. I know many

Filipinos are not given proper care particularly those from far-flung localities. That

is the reason why cold weather in the Philippines can has already taken its toll on

the people. Cases of pneumonia and deaths caused by pneumonia might

continue to rise until February due to the cold weather reaching an all-time low of

7.5 degrees Celsius in Baguio City since 1961 (which recorded a 6.3 degrees

Celsius reading on January 18).

Diarrhea, is the condition of having three or more loose or liquid bowel

movements per day. It is a common cause of death in developing countries and

the second most common cause of infant deathsworldwide.the number of

diarrhea cases in the Philippines is almost double the figure for other Asian

countries like Vietnam, Mongolia, Malaysia, Hong Kong, Japan, Laos, Papua

New Guinea, Cambodia and Korea. Statistics likewise showed that the country is

the second largest contributor to diarrhea morbidity in the world, next to China

with 593,372 deaths based on the 2000 census conducted by the group. The

same survey also revealed that between 10 to 20 percent or 1.5 million children

under the age of five suffer from diarrhea at one time, and attributed the

prevalence of the illness to poor hygiene. Experts note that the incidence of

diarrhea may easily be lowered by 40 percent by having kids wash their hands

with water and soap. Dr. Maria Ricardo,2008

Tuberculosis (TB) has been around for centuries. It was previously called

consumption because it seemed to “consume” its victims from within. It was also

called phthisis by the ancient Greeks. Hippocrates, the Father of Medicine,

identified phthisis as the most widespread disease of his time. Even Egyptian

mummies were found with a strain of TB.

In the Philippines now, in a so-called era of peace, three years after

Phillpqlne liberation, tuberculosis still kills at the rate of four persons every hour

around the clock. Due to the ravages of tuberculosis alone, the government

looses one and a half billion dollars every year. It is the prime health and socio-

economic problem in the Philippines; has been so for decades. The prewar
tuberculosis death rate among Filipinos was 230per 100,000 nearly six times as

high as the 1945 rate for the United States. The Philippine death rate is certainly

higher now. Whereas there are at least 500,000 cases of tuberculosis among the

18,000,000 population today, there are not more than a total of 1,200 institutional

beds now available throughout the Philippines for this disease.

Hypertension is a chronic medical condition in which the blood pressure in

the arteries is elevated. It is the opposite of hypotension. Persistent hypertension

is one of the risk factors for strokes,heart attacks, heart failure and arterial

aneurysm, and is a leading cause of chronic kidney failure. Moderate elevation of

arterial blood pressure leads to shortened life expectancy. Both dietary and

lifestyle changes as well as medicines can improve blood pressure control and

decrease the risk of associated health complications. Carretero OA, Oparil S


Fire Prevention Month reminds us all that though the discovery of fire was

one of man’s earliest technological discoveries, it has since claimed countless

lives, destroyed properties and dilapidated spirits.

Here in Laoag City, about a month ago, a portion of the city commercial district

was burned to the ground. The area consumed by fire included 4 or 5 business

establishments and damages reached millions of pesos. This scenario is not new

in Manila. News on TV alone proves that fire accidents are always devastating.

Whatever is the cause of fire (i.e., faulty wiring system, gas leak, accidental

burning, bombing, etc.), means to prevent fire will always come in handy

especially in homes and business establishments.

Cleanliness is the absence of dirt, including dust, stains,

bad smells and garbage.Purposes of cleanliness include health, beauty, absence

of offensive odor, avoidance of shame, and to avoid the spreading of dirt and

contaminants to oneself and others. In the case of glass objects such as

windows or windshields, the purpose can also be transparency. Washing is one

way of achieving cleanliness, usually with water and often some kind

of soap or detergent. In more recent times, since the germ theory of disease, it

has also come to mean an absence of germs and other hazardous materials.

However, dirt may play a useful role in our immune systems.

We, a part of the health workers and students of San Pedro College

having Community Organizing Participatory Action Research seen the need of

the residence for health teachings and reminders for the conditions identified

above to be prevented and be manage. This project to be performed is

beneficials to the residents of our target area but also its neighboring puroks.

This lecturetter will give the residents the ideas and knowledge on how to handle

and lowers the risk of having such conditions.

Nursing Department

Community Organizing Participatory Action Research


Date : August 10, 2010


7:oo- 8:00 AM To check BP taking and Group 3

attendance and Attendance
BP of our
8: OO-8:10 AM To give ask for Prayer Joanie Faith
the Lords Tinagan and an
guidance for Islamic member of
the days the audience
To give tribute Singing of the
8:10-8:15 AM to our National
forefathers Anthem

To introduce Introduction of Arriane Jenelyn Lu,

8:15-8:20 AM the group the Hosts, the Ann Jellie Laureta,
Group , and the and Charles Don
Clinical Herradura
To welcome the
8:20-8:25 AM students and Opening Barangay Captain
the members of Remarks Hon. Evelina Verde
the community
Inspirational Public Health Nurse
8:25-8:30 AM To inspire Message Marjorie Lauriano,
everyone RN
To acquaint Arriane Jenelyn Lu,
8:30-8:35 AM everyone with Introduction of Ann Jellie Laureta,
the theme of the theme and Charles don
the activity Herradura
To give the Francis Adrian
8:35-8:45 AM community a Health talk # 1 Ladores and
general Djamela Pecson
overview on
To give the Charles Don
8:45-9:00 AM community a Health talk # 2 Heradura and Jonna
general Emily Peñas
overview on
Health threats
To give the
community a Rechie Mark
9: OO-9:15 AM general Health Talk # 3 Simbajon and
overview on Rovianne Uy
To provide
entertainment Intermission Selected Student
9:15-9:20 AM and a venue for number Nurses
showcasing of
To teach the
9:20-9:30 AM community Health Talk # 4 Paula Gene
about lifestyle Maniage and
and its impact Althea Pahuyo
Hosts: Program Committee:
Ann Jellie Laureta
Ma. Tiffany Hawil
Arriane Jenely Lu
Charls Don Herradura
Charls Don Herradura
Ann Jellie Laureta

Arriane Lu
Food/Logistics Committee:
Djamela Pecson
Krishna Leen Garillos

Francis Adrian Ladores

Physical Set-up Committee:
Angelo Roslinda
Paula Gene Maniago
Joanie Faith Tinagan
Althea Pahuyo

Jonna Emily Penas

Rechie Mark Simbajon

Rovianne Uy

Communication Letter to the Barangay Captain

August 3, 2010
Hon. Evelina Verde
Barangay Captain
Barangay 31-D
Davao City

Dear Ma’am;


We the BSN 4E of San Pedro College is having the rotation of Community

Organizing Participatory Action Research (COPAR) as part of our related
learning experience. Part of our duty is the implementation of activities and
programs for the community based on our surveys and interviews.

With this regard, we would like to inform your good office that on August 10, 2010
we will be having our implementation day with the theme “Pagbabago Simulan
Mo”. It would be a simple program with lectures on health, environment and
sanitation. Likewise, we would like to invite you for the closing remarks as a part
of our program. It would be our honor and pleasure to have your presence. In
addition, we would like to borrow chairs and tables for the activity and ask
permission for the use of electricity for our sound system.

Thank you and God Bless us all!

Respectfully yours,

Joanie Faith Tinagan, St.N.

Group Leader
BSN 4E Group 2

Noted by:

Marjorie Lauriano, RN
Public Health Nurse

Leah Francisco, RN, MN

Clinical Instructor



Dengue fever is an acute febrile diseases which occur in the tropics, can

be life-threatening, and are caused by four closely related virus serotypes of the

genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae. It is also known as breakbone fever, since it

can be extremely painful.Each serotype is sufficiently different that there is no

cross-protection and epidemics caused by multiple serotypes (hyperendemicity)

can occur. Dengue is transmitted to humans by the Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti

or more rarely the Aedes albopictus mosquito, both of which feed exclusively

during daylight hours.

Signs and symptoms

The disease manifests as fever of sudden onset associated with

headache, muscle and joint pains (myalgias and arthralgias—severe pain that

gives it the nickname break-bone fever or bonecrusher disease), distinctive retro-

orbital pain, and rash. The classic dengue rash is a generalised maculopapular

rash with islands of sparing. A hemorrhagic rash of characteristically bright red

pinpoint spots, known as petechiae can occur later during the illness and is

associated with thrombocytopenia. It usually appears first on the lower limbs and

the chest; in some patients, it spreads to cover most of the body. There may also

be severe retro-orbital pain, (a pain from behind the eyes that is distinctive to

Dengue infections), and gastritis with some combination of associated abdominal

pain, nausea, vomiting coffee-grounds-like congealed blood, or diarrhea. Some

cases develop much milder symptoms which can be misdiagnosed as influenza

or other viral infection when no rash or retro-orbital pain is present. Febrile

travelers from tropical areas may transmit dengue inadvertently to previously

Dengue free populations of Aedes (Stegomyia) Aegypti mosquitoes, having not

been properly diagnosed for Dengue. Patients only transmit Dengue when they

are febrile and bitten by Aedes (Stegomyia) Aegypti mosquitoes, or (much more

unusually) via blood products. The classic dengue fever lasts about two to seven

days, with a smaller peak of fever at the trailing end of the disease (the so-called

"biphasic pattern"). Clinically, the platelet count will drop until after the patient's

temperature is normal. Cases of DHF also show higher fever, variable

hemorrhagic phenomena including bleeding from the eyes,nose,mouth and ear

into the gut, and oozing blood from skin pores, thrombocytopenia, and

hemoconcentration. When Dengue infections proceed to DHF symptoms, DHF

causes vascular leak syndrome which includes fluid in the blood vessels leaking

through the skin and into spaces around the lungs and belly. This fluid loss and

severe bleeding can cause blood pressure to fall, then Dengue Shock Syndrome

(DSS) sets in, which has a high mortality rate.


 Recognition of the disease

 Isolation of the patient

 Case finding and reporting

 Health education

 Eliminate vector and breading sites

 Spraying of insecticides


 Close monitoring of vital signs

 Increase oral fluid intake

 Platelet transfusion

 Paracetamol


An infection of one or both lungs usually caused by bacteria, viruses or


How people catches pneumonia:

1. Sneeze of the infected person

2. Bacteria or viruses usually present in the mouth, throat or nose enter

the lungs

Signs and Symptoms of Pneumonia

1. Initially symptoms of cold ( Sneezing, sore throat, cough)

2. High Fever

3. Shaking Chills

4. Shortness of breath

5. Cyanosis
How to diagnosed Pneumonia

1. Chest X-ray

2. Sputum Samples

3. A Blood Test

4. Bronchoscopy


Is increase in the frequency of bowel movements.

Causes of Diarrhea

1. Indigestion

2. Ingestion of pathogens

Prevention of diarrhea

1. Cooking of food properly

2. Boiling of water before drinking


Usual problem when it comes to diarrhea


Oral Rehydration Solution which contains glucose and electrolytes .

Home made ORS Formulation

1 glass place 1 pinch of salt and 1 tbsp of Sugar

1 Liter place 1 tbsp of salt and 8 tbsp of sugar


Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease in which the body is not able to

correctly process glucose for cell energy due to either an insufficient amount of

the hormone insulin or a physical resistance to the insulin the body does

produce. Without proper treatment through medication and/or lifestyle changes,

the high blood glucose (or blood sugar) levels caused by diabetes can cause

long-term damage to organ systems throughout the body.

Symptoms of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes include:

• excessive thirst

• frequent urination

• weight loss

• increased appetite

• unexplained fatigue

• slow healing cuts, bruises, and wounds

• frequent or lingering infections (e.g., urinary tract infection)

• mood swings and irritability

• blurred vision

• headache

• high blood pressure

• dry and itchy skin

• tingling, numbness, or burning in hands or feet

Fasting Plasma Glucose Test

Blood is drawn from a vein in the child's arm following an eight-hour fast

(i.e., no food or drink), usually in the morning before breakfast. The red blood

cells are separated from the sample and the amount of glucose is measured in

the remaining plasma. A fasting plasma glucose level of 126 mg/dl (7.0 mmol/l)

or higher indicates diabetes (with a confirming retest on a subsequent day).


• Insulin treatment and oral anti diabetic drugs

Nutritional Concerns

Because dietary carbohydrates are the primary source of glucose for the

body (the other source being the liver), it is very important that children with

diabetes learn to read labels and be aware of the amount of carbohydrates in the

foods they eat. Children and their parents are usually advised to consult a

registered deititian (RD) to create an individualized, easy to manage food plan

that fits their family's health and lifestyle needs. A well-balanced, nutritious diet

provides approximately 50 to 60 percent of calories from carbohydrates,

approximately 10 to 20 percent of calories from protein, and less than 30 percent

of calories from fat. The number of calories required depends on age, weight,

and activity level. An RD can also teach the family how to use either the dietary

exchange lists or carbohydrate counting system to monitor food intake.

Each food exchange contains a known amount of calories in the form of

protein, fat, or carbohydrate. A patient's diet plan will consist of a certain number

of exchanges from each food category (meat or protein, fruits, breads and

starches, vegetables, and fats) to be eaten at meal times and as snacks. Patients
have flexibility in choosing which foods they eat as long as they stick with the

number of exchanges prescribed by their RD based on their caloric


Carbohydrate counting involves totaling the grams of carbohydrates in the

foods your child eats to ensure the child does not exceed her goal for the day. In

the simple-carb counting method, one carbohydrate choice or unit equals 15

grams of carbohydrates (which is equivalent to one starch or fruit exchange in

the exchange method). The number of carb choices allowed daily is based on

caloric requirements.

Children with type 1 diabetes who use fast-acting insulin before meals

may find that carb counting gives them tighter control of their blood glucose

levels, since they can compute the number of insulin units based on both their

carbohydrate intake (called the carbohydrate to insulin ratio) and before-meal

blood glucose readings.

Dietary changes and moderate exercise are usually the first treatments

implemented in type 2 diabetes. Weight loss may be an important goal in helping

overweight children and adolescents control their blood sugar levels. Exercise

helps keep blood glucose levels down and has other health benefits, as well.


What Causes Hypertension?

• Getting little or no exercise

• Poor diet

• Obesity
• Older age

• Genetics

What is the normal Blood Pressure?

• < 120 / 80 mmhg (Normal)

• 120-139 / 80 -89 mmhg (Prehypertension)

• > 140 / 90 mmhg (Hyperttensive)

What is the treatment of high blood pressure?

• Losing weight

• Quitting smoking

• Eating healthy diet

• Reducing amount of salt in the diet

• Regular exercise

• Limiting alcohol drinking

How do I know If I have High Blood pressure?

• If your blood pressure is extremely high, you may have unusually strong

headaches, chest pain, and heart failure (especially difficulty of breathing

and poor exercise tolerance).

• If having any of these symptoms , seek treatment immediately


• Most common and poses significant danger to the health of most people.

• Related to at least 40 diseases and 20 types of cancers (e.g

oropharyngeal, esopharyngeal, laryngeal, and anal)

• Carries special risks for pregnant women (e.g miscarriages and SIDS)
How smoking causes harm?

- Dose related that is:

• Number of cigarettes smoked

• Duration of smoking

• Age started

• Pattern of inhaling

Harmful substances found on Tobacco:

Tobacco – contains more than 4000 chemicals, 43 of which are proven to be


 Tar – deposited in the lungs, which in turns paralyzes the cleaning

mechanisms (cilia) and damages the air sacs (alveoli). Responsible for

many of the cancers and diseases of the lungs

 Nicotine – an addicting substance as well as one of the main factors that

causes the release of epinephrine and norepinephrine. Used in insecticide

 Carbon Monoxide – produce hypoxia and reduces the O2 carrying

capacity of the blood because it competes with oxygen and has a greater

affinity to hemoglobin. Found in exhaust fumes.

 Acetone – used in nail polish remover.

 Acetic Acid – used in vinegar. Concentrated acetic acid is corrosive and

must, therefore, be handled with appropriate care, since it can cause skin

burns, permanent eye damage, and irritation to the mucous membranes.

Dilute acetic acid, in the form of vinegar, is harmless. However, ingestion

of stronger solutions is dangerous to human and animal life.

 Arsenic – used to make rat poison.

 Butane – used in cigarette lighter fluid. Causes euphoria, drowsiness and

cardiac arrhythmias

 Cadmium – used in rechargeable batteries.

 Formaldehyde – used to preserve dead bodies.

 Hexamine – used in lighter fluid

 Hydrogen cyanide – used in gas chambers

 Methane – used liked gasoline.

 Naphthalene – used to make moth balls.

 Nitrobenzene – used in gasoline additive.

 Nitrous oxide – used in disinfectant.

 DDT/Dieldrin – used in insecticide.

 Ethanol – alcohol.

 Stearic acid – used in candle wax.

 Toluene – used as industrial solvent.

 Vinyl chloride – used to make PVC* pipes. *plastic*

What happens to your body when you stop smoking?

Within 20 minutes: Within2 – ½ weeks:

• Blood pressure normalizes • Lung function improves by 30%

• Pulse rate normalizes • Risk of heart attack significantly

• Body temp. of hands and feet reduces

normalizes • Circulation will continue to

Within 8 hours: Within 1 – 9 mos:

• Carbon monoxide level in the • Incidence of coughing, sinus

body normalizes congestion, fatigue, shortness of

breath decreases

• O2 level in the body normalizes

• Cilia (hair – like structures) in the

lungs regrows, increasing the

ability to handle mucus, clean

start the lungs reduce infections

• Body’s overall energy level

Within 24 hours:

• Heart attack chances decreases

Within 48 hours: After 5 years:

• Nerve endings regrow • Cancer chances greatly

• Blood circulation improves on decreases

hands and feet • Risk of heart disease is

• Ability to taste and smell significantly reduced

changes dramatically
Within 72 hours: After 10 years:

• Breathing is easier • Lung cancer chances are kept to

• Lung capacity starts to increase minimum

• Pre – cancerous cells are


• Chances of other cigarette –

related cancers are decreased


Series of 2002



Be it ordained by the Sangguniang Panlungsod of the City of Davao, in

session assembled that:

SECTION 1. TITLE. – Be it ordained that this Ordinance shall be known



SECTION 2. COVERAGE. – It shall be unlawful for any person to smoke

or allow smoking in a public utility vehicle, government-owned vehicle or any

other means of public transport for passengers, accommodation and

entertainment establishment, public building, public place, as defined in Section 3

(e) hereunder, enclosed public place, or in any enclosed area outside of ones

private residence, private place of works, cars owned by the government or duly

designated smoking areas, within the jurisdiction of Davao City;


A.) Smoking refers to the lighting and/or puffing of any lighted cigarette,

cigar, tobacco or any other kind, form or type. Possession of any lighted
cigarette, cigar, tobacco and the like within the prohibited areas for

smoking shall constitute a prima facie evidence as an act of smoking

prohibited under this Ordinance;

B.) Public Utility Vehicle Refers to Public Utility Jeepneys (PUJs), Public

Utility Buses (PUBs), taxis, tricycles and other public utility vehicles used

in the transport of passengers;

C.) Accommodation & Entertainment Establishment refer to restaurants,

fast foods, eateries, hotels, motels, lodges, inns, boarding houses, disco

houses, videoke bars, resto bars, and movie houses, or any other place

with pleasant environment and atmosphere conducive to comfort, healthful

relaxation and rest, offering foods, sleeping accommodation and

recreation facilities to the public for a fee;

D.) Public Building refers to any of the following:

1.) A building structure owned by the government or owned by a

private person but used, rented or occupied by the government or

any of its instrumentalities;

2.) Any building or structure used, or controlled exclusively for public

purposes by any department or branch of government, local

government unit or barangay without references to the ownership

of the building.

E.) Public Place refers to gasoline stations, bank, malls, town squares,

terminals, shopping/business arcades, schools, churches, hospitals,

cinema houses, gymnasiums, funerals parlors, barber shops, and other

similar places where people usually congregate either to while away their

time or to listen or attend concerts, rallies, program such as, but not

limited to, Rizal Park, Freedom Park, Magsaysay Park, Osmeña Park, and

the like;

F.) Designated Smoking Room refers to a delineated room inside the

accommodation establishment, or public place or enclosed public place,

which is totally enclosed where a person is allowed to smoke without violating

this Ordinance.

Any duly designated room/ area in accommodation and entertainment

establishments whether tourism accredited or not, within the territorial

jurisdiction of Davao City as hereinabove defined, provided, the following

conditions are met;

1.) If the accommodation and entertainment establishment is air-


it must establish and designate a smoking room which shall not be

more than ¼ of the total accommodation area of the establishment,

that is air-conditioned and equipped with an exhaust fan and totally

enclosed on all

A.) Manager incase of a company, corporation, or association or

the owner/ proprietor or operator in case of single

proprietorship, of accommodation and entertainment

establishments, whether tourism-accredited or not, who

knowingly allows, abets or tolerates and/ or fails to warn,

advise or report violators of this Ordinance to any policeman

or nearest station within three (3) hours of the violation;

SECTION 6. The City Health Office and City Engineer’s Office are tasked

to inspect and certify the appropriateness of the designated smoking areas

provided by accommodation establishments whether tourism-accredited or

not, taking into consideration the purpose of the law which is to protect non-

smokers from the pernicious effects of tabacco smoke;

Sixty (60) days after affectively of this Ordinance, the City

Health Office in coordination with the Office of the Business Bureau

shall conduct an ocular inspection of all non-accredited tourism

establishments in Davao City to determine compliance with the

requirements of this Ordinance.

For tourism-accredited accommodation and entertainment

establishments, the ocular inspection shall be conducted by the City

Health Office in coordination with the City Tourism Office and the Office

of the Business Bureau.

A period of sixty (60) days shall be given to the management of the

accommodation and entertainment establishment to comply with the

requirements of this Ordinance. Non-compliance with the requirements set

forth in this section shall be a ground for cancellation of the business permit

by the Office of the Business Bureau.

SECTION 7. Violators of this Ordinance shall be subject to a fine of not

less than Php 500.00 nor more than Php 2,000.00 or imprisonment of not less

that one (1) month nor more than six (6) months or both, at the discretion of

the Court, except for Paragraphs 2 & 3 hereunder.

1.) In case of establishment which do not opt to declare their

establishment as totally free from smoking but fails to provide

the appropriate designated smoking areas as certified by the

City Health Office and City Engineer’s Office within the 60-day

period specified in Section 6 hereof, their business permit may

be revoked;

2.) In case where there is failure to warn or advised would-be

violators of this Ordinance, or failure to report violators as

required in Section 5 (c ) hereof or smoking is allowed, abetted

or tolerated in establishment in violation of this Ordinance, a

penalty shall be imposed upon the President or Manager in

case of corporations, partnerships or associations, or the owner,

proprietor or operator in case of single proprietorship, whether

tourism-accredited or not as follows:

First Offense PhP 300.00 or 1 month imprisonment or

both at the discretion of the court

Second Offense PhP 500.00 2 month imprisonment or

both at the discretion of the court

Third and subsequent offenses PhP 1,000.00 or 4 moths

imprisonment or both at the discretion of

the court

3.) For drivers/ passengers of Public Utility Vehicles (PUVs)

Fisrt Offense PhP 100.00 or 1 month imprisonment or

both at the discretion of the court

Second Offense PhP 300.00 or 2 months imprisonment

or both at the discretion of the court

Third Offense PhP 500.00 or 3 months imprisonment

or both at the discretion of the court

4.) Three (3) violation of this Ordinance shall be ground for

cancellation the establishment’s business permit

SECTION 8. POSTING OF BILLBOARD: The City Engineer’s Office

is hereby tasked to put billboards in a conspicuous place in the City to

notify the public of the restrictions, sanctions and penalties provided in the


SECTION 9. The Philippine National Police (PNP) is tasked with the

proper and vigorous implementation of this Ordinance.

SECTION 10. SEPARABILITY CLAUSE. If, for any reason or

reasons, any parts or provision of this ordinance shall declared

unconstitutional or invalid, other parts or provisions thereof not affected

shall continue to be in full force and effect.

SECTION 11. REPEALING CLAUSE. All existing Anti-Smoking

Ordinance are hereby repealed.

SECTION 12. EFFECTIVITY CLAUSE. The Ordinance shall take

effect sixty (60) days after its approval and publication in a newspaper of

local circulation consistent with the provision of the Local Government

Code, as amended.

ENACTED, July 30, 2002 by a unanimous vote of all the Members of

the Sangguniang Panlungsod.



• frequent alcohol drinking

• if drunk, driving, operation of machineries or any activity that needs mental

comprehension is contraindicated.








• Control tha amount of alcohol taken

• If invited into a drinking spree, saying “NO” is advised

• It is best to stop dringking alcoholic drinks



Sedentary lifestyle?

• Lifestyle that has little or no exercise practiced.

Diseases that could be acquired:

• Cardiovascular problems

• Diabetes

• Obesity

• Cancer

• Hypertension

• Osteoporosis

Be Active!

• Physical activity

1. growing plants

2. doing household chores

• Exercise

1. walking
2. jogging


Cleanliness is very important in any place, whether it's a public place,

business establishment etc. To keep a particular area clean there should be a

proper waste disposal to keep harmful litter away from the people. Proper waste

disposal should be done even inside your house, especially to those places

where your little kids usually stay, run, play around and sleep, for kids have more

vulnerable immune system than ours. Keeping all your areas at home clean can

keep your family away from any forms of health risks.

Proper waste disposal minimizes the spread of infections and reduces the

risk of accidental injury to staff, clients, visitors, and the local community and it

helps provide an aesthetically pleasing atmosphere. It also reduces odors and

reduces the likelihood of contamination of the soil or groundwater with chemicals

or microorganisms. Proper waste disposal is of great importance to both rural

and urban areas. Not doing this may bring us to danger in many ways and surely

everybody knows this. Time and again, people are always being educated about

the importance of waste disposal but then this process should not stop because

every now and then, people forget.

A. Biodegradable and Non-biodegradable

Biodegradable means that natural processes can break down the material

into their natural components. Whereas, non-biodegradable materials would not

be affected by natural processes that would break the material down. Plastic

usually is non-biodegradable, because there are very few natural processes that

could break the plastic down into smaller elements, whereas something like

wood, will rot and decay and be recycled back into the soil.

Biodegradable wastes decompose into soil.

• Kitchen food scraps

• Garden waste

• Paper and egg shells

• Human and animal waste

• cardboard boxes

Non-biodegradable wastes take a long time or never to decompose.

• metal cans

• bottles

• toxic chemicals

• plastic products

• metal scraps

B. The Importance Of Waste Segregation

The food we eat, the air we breathe and the water we drink are all

polluted. It seems that there is no place on earth that is safe to dwell in. Nobody

is to blame in man's present predicament but man himself. People had been

taught on the proper disposal of trash yet they continue to do their own
convenient way. The polluted environment has caused many diseases and some

even resulted to death.

Biodegradable waste consists of organic waste. These are the kitchen

garbage, the vegetables, fruits, flowers, leaves and paper. Biodegradability is

associated with materials that can be decomposed into non-toxic by-products. It

has to be an organic substance. These need to be broken down by

microorganism to become compost and be useable by plants. Any biodegradable

item that ends in a landfill instead of being converted into compost can be worst.

Non-biodegradable wastes are those that do not decay. This type can be

further classified into three sub classes - the recyclable waste, toxic waste and

soiled. Recyclable wastes consist of plastics, paper, glass, metals and many

others. The toxic wastes, which are the most harmful to man, consist of

medicines, paints, spray cans, bulbs, chemicals, fertilizer and pesticide

containers. Used batteries fall under this category. The soiled wastes are hospital

wastes that includes blood soiled clothes and other clothes soiled by other body

fluids. The toxic and the soiled trash must be disposed of properly and under

guidance. These are most harmful to men.

Man should know how to segregate his trash into these classifications

otherwise their health will be placed in extreme jeopardy. The government had

already given the colors of trash cans where each type of garbage is classified

into. If man persists to do his wrongful garbage disposal, pollution will continue

If man wants to live healthy and health hazard free, he should start abiding

by the rules on waste segregation. One recommended solution to this is to color

code the plastic garbage bags - green for biodegradable, yellow for infectious or

toxic wastes and black for non-biodegradable.

B. Recycling

Recycling involves processing used, unwanted materials (waste) into new

products to prevent waste of potentially useful materials, reduce the consumption

of fresh raw materials, reduce energy usage, reduce air pollution

(from incineration) and water pollution (from landfilling) by reducing the need for

"conventional" waste disposal, and lower greenhouse gas emissions as

compared to virgin production. Recycling is a key component of modern waste

reduction and is the third component of the "Reduce, Reuse, Recycle" waste

C. Importance of Recycling

Saving Resources

A pretty commonsense argument in favor of recycling. It is always good to

reuse metal items as the metal reserves may be depleting. Even the metal object

which you think is woefully useless and rusted, can be revamped and resold, and

you can hardly tell the difference. The importance of recycling paper, like I said,

is that it can help save our forests.

Saving Energy

Confused? Recycling materials not only saves resources, but can also

help save energy. When we throw out something we have labeled useless, we

throw out a processed product. Suppose you have a rusty, broken door knob.

There was obviously some time, energy and people involved in the process that

made processed metal and turned it into a doorknob. By simply recycling it or

make some basic fixes to it, we save all the energy that would have been

consumed in the process of making it. Same with plastic items. A lot of energy

can be saved by simply reusing the plastic items.

Reduce Pollution

How does recycling affect the environment? Simple. Let me take an

example to elucidate the importance of recycling plastic. Now say everyone

decides not to recycle plastic. Then the plastic-making factories will be running
full steam ahead. And by steam I mean smoke. If the production increases,

the air pollution too will increase. And the factories that have not invested in a

pro-environment waste disposal system will ruin our atmosphere. These who

have liquid waste emissions without a waste water treatment system, will

cause water pollution. Hence indirect as it may seem, if recycling helps cut down

our production, it will help reduce emissions as well. Read on for more

about plastic recycling.

Other Benefits

Well I said before that food cannot be recycled, but the excreta can.

Biomass can be used to produce energy as well as fertilizers. Think of all the

money you'll save on fertilizers if you just had a simply collect the biomass

somehow and put it to good use!



Nursing Department
Community Organizing Participatory Active Research



Importante ba ang tama nga paglabay sa mga
Is proper garbge disposal important?
Regular na ba nimong limpyuhan and palibot sa
inyung balay sugod karon?
Are you going to clean tehsurroundings of your house
starting today?
Importante ba ang regular nga konsultasyon sa
Is it important to have regular check up with your
Dapat ba nga iyabu ang mga naga pundo nga tubig
sa mga drum ug ligid?
Is it right to avoid stagnant water on drums and tires?
Ang lamok ba nga hinungdan sa dengue kay makita
sa tibuok lungsod sa Davao?
Is the Dengue carrier can be found all over the city of
Makatakod ba ang sakit nga TB?
Is TB communicable?
Dapat pa ba kita pagpalabi ug kaon sa mga pagkaon
nga puno ug taba ug mamantikaon?
Is it right to indulge yourself into fatty and oily foods?
Mas nindut ba nga kung ang mga tao sa sulod sa
usa ka baranggay kay dili manigarilyo ug dili mag
Is’nt it nice if the people in a barangay does not engage
in smoking ang drinking?
Pwede ba muinom ug ORS ang tao nga gi
Does a person with diartrhea could take ORS?
Pagkahuman ani nga aktibidad, mas hatagan ba
nimo ug importansya ang imong panglawas?
After this activity, are you going to cherish the things
through body wellness?

In the phase out, this is where the objectives of the group were already

attained. The organizers withdraw from self-reliant groups who will now continue

to implement the cycle of direction setting, organizing, planning, implementation,

and review for the benefit of the community members. This is also when we give

our recommendations for the community and finishes our documentation for the

COPAR rotation.

1. Importante ba ang tama nga paglabay sa mga basura?

(Is proper garbage disposal important?)

Category No. of residents Percentage

YES 35 97%
NO 1 3%
TOTAL 36 100%
tama nga paglabay sa basura


Figure 30

2. Regular na ba nimong limpyuhan ang palibot sa inyong balay sugod karon?

(Are you going to clean the surroundings of your house starting today?)

Category No. of residents Percentage

YES 36 100%
NO 0 0%
TOTAL 36 100%
Regular na paglimpyo sa balay


Figure 31

3. Importante ba ang regular nga konsultasyon sa doctor?

(Is it important to have a regular check up with your doctor?)

Category No. of residents Percentage

YES 35 97%
NO 1 3%
TOTAL 36 100%
regular na kosultasyon sa doctor


Figure 32

4. Dapat ba nga iyabo ang mga nagapundo nga tubig sa mga drum ug ligid?

(Is is right to dispose stagnant water on drums and tires?)

Category No. of residents Percentage

YES 31 86%
NO 5 14%
TOTAL 36 100%
pagyabosa nagapundona tubigsa drumo



Figure 33

5. Ang lamok ba nga hinungdan sa dengue kay Makita sa tibuok lungsod sa


(Can the dengue carrier be found all over Davao City?)

Category No. of residents Percentage

YES 32 89%
NO 4 11%
TOTAL 36 100%
makitaba sa tibuok davao ang
hinungdanansa dengue?




Figure 34

6. Makatakod ba ang sakit na TB?

(Is TB communicable?)

Category No. of residents Percentage

YES 35 97%
NO 1 3%
TOTAL 36 100%
makatakodbaangsakitna dengue?




Figure 35

7. Dapat pa ba kita magpalabi ug kaon sa mga pagkaon nga puno ug taba ug


(Is it right to eat too much fatty and oily foods?)

Category No. of residents Percentage

YES 9 25%
NO 27 75%
TOTAL 36 100%
magpalabi sa pagkaon ugtaba ugmantikaonna



Figure 36

8. Mas nindot ba nga kung ang mga tao sa sulod sa usa ka barangay kay dili

manigarilyo ug dili maginom?

(Would it be nice if the people in a certain barangay do not engage in

smoking and drinking?)

Category No. of residents Percentage

YES 35 97%
NO 1 3%
TOTAL 36 100%
nosmokingand drinking



Figure 37

9. Pwede ba muinom ug ORS ang tao na gikalibanga?

(Can a person with diarrhea take ORS?)

Category No. of residents Percentage

YES 35 97%
NO 1 3%
TOTAL 36 100%
pwedeba makainomugORS



Figure 38

10. Pagkahuman ani nga aktibidad, mas hatagan ba nimo ug importansya ang

imong panglawas?

(After our program, would you give more importance to your health?)

Category No. of residents Percentage

YES 36 100%
NO 0 0%
TOTAL 36 100%
mashatagan ugimportansyaangpanglawas

100% YES

Through our evaluation, it showed that an average of 93.5 % of our

audience have learned things with regard to the promotion of health. This could

help them prevent acquisition of disease and alleviating condition that are

already present not only to our clients but as well as their family and neighbors.
The program that the group conducted for the participants may help in the

promotion of health all thoughout the community. Thus, the group recommends

for further evaluation in the community such as case finding for communicable

diseases as we encountered residents in the barangay that looks very thin and ill

but doesn’t pay visit in the health center or any doctor and there were number of

residents who also have undergone thoracentesis. Environmental issues are also

included as constant “bayanihan” may be held to promote cleanliness of the

surroundings in Purok 8-B.