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420-422

Wednesday, September 22, 2010


8:57 PM

VII. Galileo Galilei Argues for a Universe of Mathematical Laws


a. Done
b. Galileo popularized the Copernican theory
i. Wanted to understand the language of philosophy; metaphilosphy
c. Rational Regular universe
d. Mathematical relationships with everything
i. Mathematical Arguments seemed irrefutable Get a book stand
VIII. Isaac Newton Discovers the Laws of Gravitation Make cue cards for
a. How did the planets move was a big question. AP EURO

Isaac Newton (1642- 1727) addressed this question


b. The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (1687)
i. Or Principia Mathematica
1) Inertia and Gravity explained how the planets moves
c. Newton was an expert in explaining things with math but he was also an
empiricist in explaining things
IX. Philosophy Responds to Changing Science
a. Scientists were also philosophers- but they were metaphilosphers
X. Nature as Mechanism
a. Mechanism-when a single idea informed the philosophers in different ways.
Explained in mechanical metaphors
Some underestimated God as a watchmaker who made the earth- Deism
b. This caused philosophers to look for symbolic meaning
i. Natural Knowledge
XI. Francis Bacon: The Empirical Theory
a. Bacon (1561 -1626) Renaissance man
i. The father of empiricism - experimentation in science
b. The Advancement of Learning (1605) and Novum Oraganum (1620) and New
Atlantis (1627)
i. All said that the truth was already discovered and needed only to be
explained.
c. Practical view on philo
d. He was all for New Knowledge
i. Bacon said he was the pioneer to new intellectual discovery- arrogance
e. Many believed knowledge lied in the past while bacon was excited about the
future.

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428-438
Wednesday, September 22, 2010
10:54 PM

I. The New Institutions of Expanding Natural Knowledge


1. Genuinely new knowledge was still to be discovered according to them
A. Natural Knowledge
2. Discourse on Method by Descartes- critical of the things people told him
A. Leviathan by Locke- protested the way schools teach
3. Medical facilities wanted new knowledge
4. This lead to the need for sharing information
A. So they got debates,
B. Royal Society of London (1660) and a bunch of other institutions for learning and experimentation.
5. High class citizens were considered reputable sources for witnessing experiments
6. Experiments became a fun thing to do
7. But it also served the goals of gov and economy and military and stuff
A. Projectors were people that marketed their ideas and inventions for profit
8. This was the dawning of the Age of Enlightenment
II. Women in the World of the Scientific Revolution

I. The New Science and Religious Faith


a. Science vs God
II. The Case of Galileo
a. Condemnation of Galileo was a big martyr event
b. Roman Catholics were at a bad point in time. Council of Trent: They wanted to decided what
the religion should be but that was obviously not happening
c. Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina 1616 Galileo's interpretation of the bible
i. The church censored him and Copernicus
d. Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems 1632
i. It described copernicus views in a condescending way to the church
III. Blaise Pascal: Reason and Faith
a. Pascal 1623-1662
i. He compromised dogma and intellectual religion very well in Pensees (Thoughts)
b. He was a Janesist
c. He came up with the argument that there was nothing to lose in living a life with God
IV. The English Approach to Science and Religion
a. Bacon said there were two books of religion, the bible and nature.
i. They both had the same author
ii. Thought that a rational creator of nature must have rational basis in the bible too
b. That later became known as physico- physchology
i. Arguments for god were leading away from just philosophical reasoning
c. The Wisdom of God Manifested in his Works of Creation
i. By John Ray said that god made people to learn and understand and with that they
will make practical use of their knowledge
V. Continuing Superstition
a. Preoccupation with sin, the devil, and death
VI. Witch hunts and Panic Pg437
a. 1400-1700 accusing of witchcraft and wizadry. They were accused of having orgies with the

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a. 1400-1700 accusing of witchcraft and wizadry. They were accused of having orgies with the
devil.
b. Caused by religious divisions
VII. Village origins
a. "cunning folk"
VIII. Influence of the Clergy
a. They believed in magical stuff
b. Church said that its magic was the only good magic
c. Bla
IX. Who were the Witches?
a. Most of them women over forty.
b. Exemplified the divisions of genders.
i. Women healers and herbalists were accused of witchcraft They were set up for that
X. End of the Witch hunts
a. Scientific pov gave an end to the witch hunts
XI. Baroque Art Pg 438

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446-455
Tuesday, September 28, 2010
5:24 PM

Chapter 15
I. Intro
a. Old Regime the economic, social, and political, relationships with the nobles and stuff
b. The regime of hierarchy and stuff
II. Major Features of life in the Old Regime
a. Aristocrats have inherited privileges
b. They ran their own churches
c. Guiled labor force
d. Rural peasantry pay high taxes
III. Maintenance of Tradition
a. Many things were changing List on pg 446
i. Especially the social relationships among classes
b. Economy was "traditional" however.
IV. Hierarchy and privilege
a. The hierarchy became more strict and rigid
b. States were divided into communities
i. No individual rights, only community rights
ii. Rich people lived with eachother and poors likewise
V. The Aristocracy 447
a. They were 1-5% of the population but the wealthiest.
i. They had the most influence- politically
VI. Varieties of Aristocratic Privilege
a. Family=power
VII. British Nobility
a. Great Brit had the best aristocracy
i. In the House of Lords
ii. And House of Commons
VIII. French Nobility
a. Nobles of the sword and nobles of the robe
b. Again divided in those who favour the versailles palace and those who di dnot
i. Hobereaux- provincial nobility
c. French nobles did not have to pay land tax called taille
d. They only had to pay vingtieme which was a land tax
e. Corvees- forced labour on public works
i. Nobility were exempt from this
IX. Eastern European Nobilities
a. Szlachta- polish nobility
i. Exempt from all tax
b. One of them owned 10 million acres of land
c. In prussia Junker nobles were getting really powerful
d. Russia under Peter the Great had the system of the table of ranks
X. Aristocratic resurgence
a. Aristocratic Resurgence- this was a movement by the nobility in protection of their
awesome power
b. They wanted it exclusive so they made it hard to become a noble
c. They tried to use existing governments against the monarchies (parlements)
d. They tried to get more money by cheating on their taxes

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d. They tried to get more money by cheating on their taxes
XI. The Land and Its Tillers
a. Land was the sign of wealth
i. Peasants lived on the land
XII. Peasants and serfs
a. Free serfs and slave servants
i. Bound to particular plot of land
XIII. Obligations of Peasants
a. Landlords were very powerful they were called seigneurs
i. Corvee- forced labour
ii. Laws required the peasants to do service to the lord called robot
b. Being a surf in Russia sucked
i. Barshchina- six days of labour a week
c. Ottoman landlords were called cifts
d. Everyone needed the workforce
XIV. Peasant Rebellions Pg. 450
a. Sometimes monarchs gave landlords land in exchange for stuff they wanted- it pissed of
peasants
XV. Aristocratic Domination of the Countryside: The English Game Laws
a. English legislation of hunting
b. Only landowners could hunt
i. Serfs and people who rented couldn’t because it was thought it would undermine
their work habits
ii. Peasants weren't allowed to have fun
c. Violators were thought as poachers and could be punished for hunting
d. Peasants needed food man!
e. There was a black market for trading animals
f. Bla bla
XVI. Family Structures and the Family Economy
a. Household family was the workforce
i. Family economy- the household family is the workforce
XVII. Households
a. Yes
XVIII. Northwestern Europe
a. Mom dad and some teenagers- only nuclear family lived with each other
b. Kids moved out in their teens
c. neolocalism- moving away from family
d. Servants were not like slaves, just like maids, they were not looked down upon
XIX. Eastern Europe
a. Kids had young parents in europe or something
b. Polish landlords didn’t like let their peasants marry
XX. The Family Economy
a. Household was the basic unit of production and consumption
b. Everyone in the house worked
c. There were artisan families
d. Death of the father was disastrous
e. Since the life expectancy there were lots of second families (step children etc)
XXI. Women and the Family Economy
a. Marriage was economically necessary for a woman
b. Women start their womanly work very early (seven)
c. Artisans taught their kids everything about their trade
i. They needed to save money by having less kids so they practices coitus interruptus-
removal of the penis before ejaculation
d. The women took over the farm when the man left

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d. The women took over the farm when the man left
e. But they had lots of jobs
i. Disabilities SUCKED
XXII. Children and the World of the Family Economy Pg. 454
a. Child bearing was dangerous
i. Diseases
ii. Wet nursing was quite the business
b. Increase in illegitimate births.
c. Poor parents would kill the children
d. Hospitals were formed to take care of these kinds of kids
e. 10% of abandoned children lived to be ten; Poor kids
f. The Kids were put in school to learn to read and stuff

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Hobbes and Locke Presentation notes
Thursday, September 23, 2010
10:12 AM
Locke
Hobbes vs locke Critisized the school in /an essay concerning human understanding
1690- Two treatise of civil government
Hobbes
1588
1631 was the popularization of hobbes

An essay concerning human understanding


Blank slate tabula rasa
Second treaty of government

History of the penepolesioan war by thucydides

Leviathan - men were naturally evil


Man in constant state of war- state of nature
Equal rights led to competition
Men must give up rights to let the monarch rule

Of liberty and necessity

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Rousseau Presentation
Monday, September 27, 2010
9:00 AM

The Social Contract-


Describes relationship between man and society
Since everyone is not born equal we need to make them legally equal.

Rousseau was a deist, tabula rasa guy, and democracy.


Balanced power between people and gov- today's gov.

Monarchy is the best way to govern a large nation.

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Baroque and Classical compare and contrast
Tuesday, September 28, 2010
9:00 AM

Was mozart baroque artist? No he wasn't.

A. Church music/ organs- pomp and ceremony- ornate and intricate


B. baroque was the zeitgeist of the 18th century
C. Baroque was extravagance
D. Bach was super baroque- jimi hendrix of the organ.

Baroque was to praise god and was glittery


Classical was for entertainment- had a climax and resoultion

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514-528
Thursday, September 23, 2010
7:14 PM

I. Deism
a. Enlightened people do not oppose all religion
i. William Robertson (1721-1793)
ii. They wanted intolerance and religion without fanaticism
iii. Reason triumphs- they thought that reason and religion could be combines to form
Deism
b. Christianity not mysterious (1696) one of the first diest works
i. By john Toland
ii. Natural and rational vs supernatural and mystical
iii. Deists believed that god pressed the start button
c. Two main points of deism
i. Belief in god -> because the world is here it must have a creator
ii. Rational morality
d. Deists were humanists in the sense of doing things for the betterment of mankind (morals)
e. They wanted to compete with the christians
f. Deists were strongly anti clerical
II. Toleration
a. Letter Concerning Toleration 1689 by locke
b. Toleration was the primary way to a virtuous life
i. Catholics killed Jean Calas because he was a hugenot. They strangled him in public-
martyr
c. This sparked locke to right Letter Concerning Toleration 1689
d. Gotthold Lessing wrote Nathan the wise which called for greater toleration
III. Radical Enlightenment Criticism of Christianity
a. David Hume 1711-1776 wrote Inquiry into Human Nature 1748
i. It was against miracles because no empirical evidence supported them.
ii. Philosophical Dictionary 1764 by Voltaire
1) Humerously points out the bad parts of the bible.
b. Some were really extreme like Baron Holbach and Offray Mettrie who were materialistic
atheists!
i. Immanual Kant Religion with the Limits of ReasonAlone 1793
IV. Jewish thinkers in the Age of Enlightenment
a. Enlightened people were tolerant but they had negative sentiments to jews
b. Baruch Spinoza- important jewish writer
i. He set the example for secularized judaism
c. Spinoza looked for reason too
d. Ethics Spinoza's most famous work
i. People said that he oversimplified God and was condemned for it
ii. He got excommunicated by his own synagogue!
V. Islam in Enlightenment Thought
a. People were hostile to islam and therefore did not no much about them- ignorance
b. Islam vs Christianity
i. Pensees- By Pascal
1) Portrayed Islam as a pagan bad religion
c. They also ignored Muhammad and all his great works
d. Christians thought islam was to fanatical
i. Bibliotheque Orientale (Oriental Library) and other books showed how little christians
new about islam.
e. Voltaire had a play called fanaticism which showed the bad parts of islam. Al-Qaida

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e. Voltaire had a play called fanaticism which showed the bad parts of islam. Al-Qaida
Christians were just another form of fanaticism.
f. Contrariwise, John Toland argues that Christianity derived from Islam!
g. The Persian Letters (1721)
i. Was a document against European society
1) Thus created the political reasons to rebuke islam
ii. Written by montisque
iii. Spirit of the Laws (1748) also by montisque
h. Turkish Embassy Letters
i. By a woman named Lady Mary Wortley Montagu
ii. She was very positive about islam
i. Rejection of muhammed and quran
VI. The Enlightenment and Society
VII. The Encylcopedia: Freedom and economic improvement
a. Encyclopedia by Dennis Diderot- one of the most important prints of the enlightenment
i. It was just like an encyclopedia I think
b. Actually is it s a cry for religious freedom
c. Wanted to secularize learning
VIII. Beccaria and Reform of Criminal Law
a. Social sciences originated in enlightenment
b. Marquis Cesare Beccaria 1738-1794
i. Philosophe
ii. Published On Crimes and Punishments analyzed crime and punishments and their
effectiveness
IX. The Physiocrats and Economic freedom
a. Physiocrats- people who wanted to reform mercatilist economics in during the
enlightenment
b. They believed the role of government was to protect the property of people
X. Adam Smith on Economic Growth and Social Progress
a. Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations 1776
b. This was anti mercantilist- he wanted free trade
c. He thought that nature's resources were limitless.
d. Adam smith was the creator of Laissez-faire The government has a limited role in trade
e. The Wealth of Nations and the four stage theory
i. Hunters and gatherers
ii. Herding
iii. Agricultural
iv. Commercial
f. Europeans had the highest form which was commercial of course
XI. Political thought of the Philosophes
a. Most of them were against the man
XII. Montisquieu and Spirit of Laws
a. Montisquieu 1689-1755 member of parlement
b. He saw that things needed reforming
c. Spirit of the Laws 1748
i. His thesis that one form of government is not good enough to govern all people and
instead there were many political variables to a custom government
d. He was up for a form of monarchial government
e. Parlement checking monarch
f. He came up with the three branches of government
g. Limiting the monarch's power
XIII. Rousseau: A Radical Critique of Modern Society
a. Rosseau 1712 - 1778
b. He was antisocial and hated the world and society

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b. He was antisocial and hated the world and society
i. 1750 Discourse on the Moral Effects of the Arts and Sciences
ii. He believed that inequality was the basis for all problems
c. Rousseau was immaterialist
i. Other philosophes thought that if you enjoy life you get the fruits but he said that the
joys of life could be regarded as materialist.
d. The Social Contract 1762
i. It was about politics
ii. IT was his design for the government
e. "All men are born free, but everywhere they are in chains." - Rousseau
f. Society and community as a whole was more important than the individual
g. He believed that freedom was following laws but only if they were just laws that were set by
the community.
h. Adam smith wanted people to be prosperous and rousseau wanted them to be good.
i. His ideas were radical democracy
XIV. Enlightened critics of European Empires
a. They compared themselves with other nations but ultimately declared themselves better
than other nations
b. Diderot and Kant said that some were bad because of their selfish imperialism to America
and the way they treat the natives there.
c. Bla
d. He wanted their cultures to be respected rather than assimilated.
i. Cultural relativism
e. Cultures were too complicated to be compared
f. New world slavery
XV. Women in the thought and practice of the enlightenment
a. French women especially promoted philosophes
i. They used the celebrity status of the philosophes as a means for advertising their
businesses.
b. Philosophes wante education for women
c. They still believed the sexes were not equal though
d. Women were inferior The Encyclopedia said so and so did the Persian Letters
e. Rousseau was really radical about women; he said we train them to be inferior and stay
subordinate to men
XVI. Rococo and Neoclassical Styles in 18th century art

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530-543
Monday, September 27, 2010
9:06 PM

I. Rococo and Neoclassical Styles in Eighteenth Century Art Pg 530


a. Rococo- light hearted decoration
i. Neoclassicism was the return to Old Regime Renaissance
b. Rich french aristocrats built houses called hotels
i. They were decorated places with cool paintings in them
c. Imperial hall called Kaisarsaal in Bavaria was very rococo.
d. Rococo was elegant and aristocratic. And sexual.
e. The carelessness and freedom of the rococo caused hostility with the Old regime of political
elites
f. Thoughts on the Imitation of the Greek Works in Painting and Sculpture by Wincklelmann
and The history of ancient Art
i. He compared new art to old regime art in these books.
g. The Grand Tour was a movement which brought many artists to Rome
h. Neoclassical art was boring and didn't move.
i. They depicted heroes for moral lessons
j. Some people used paintings to model their feelings against the church or monarch. Jacques
David
k. The philosophes were the subjects of the paintings,
l. Monuments like Pantheon
II. Enlightened Absolutism
a. Philosophes were looking to the already existing monarchies to govern them instead of
monarchies
i. Voltaire wrote History of the Russian Empire under Peter the Great which declared
Peter was born and Russian was formed.
1) Very monarchist
b. Philosophes were not opposed to the monarchy if they could be a part of it somehow.
c. Enlightened absolutism- when the monarch governs with a philosophical basis that is good.
d. Fred II wrote books and criticisms just like a philosopher. What a cool guy
e. There was a certain relationship that the ruler shared with the philosophers
i. They favored ideals that gave them more military power.
III. Frederick the Great of Prussia Pg. 535
a. He was the most enlightened.
i. He didn't leave any social classes out.
IV. Promotion through Merit
a. Fred II said he was the first servant of the state
i. His own ideas were subordinate to the ideas of the state
ii. He said that people had to earn powerful jobs through merit. No more Simony.
b. Nobles got their positions through merit.
c. All the professors liked Fred
d. Nobles had to go to school to be nobles
V. Religious Toleration Pg. 536
a. Fred was super tolerant of all religions. Even Islam
VI. Administrative and Economic Reforms
a. He wanted to streamline the government
b. He imported workers to work for his agriculture.
VII. Joseph II of Austria

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VII. Joseph II of Austria
a. Mysterious man who ate boiled beef and slept on straw
i. He was s cynic who genuinely wanted to improve people's lives.
VIII. Centralization of Authority
IX. Ecclesiastical Policies
a. Joseph II sought ot control the church
b. He was a tolerant catholic I think
c. He combined church and state- church under royal power
X. Economic and Agrarian Reform 537
a. He wanted good economy and got rid of internal tariffs and many infrastructure works to
make money
b. He gave lots of rights to rural farm workers
i. He appealed to them the most
c. He tried to make landowning easier for serfs
XI. Catherine the Great of Russia

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547-557
Wednesday, September 29, 2010
10:52 PM

Chapter 18: The French Revolution

I. Intro
a. 1789- Political turmoil in France
b. Villages were in a bunch of trouble
II. The Crisis of the French Monarchy
a. Government could not impose enough taxes to sustain itself.
III. The Monarchy Seeks New Taxes
a. Seven years war put them in debt
i. France was a rich nation with an impoverished government
1) They couldn't tax the nobles Why?
b. Constant power struggle between parlement and monarch
c. French were thinking of ways to tax the nobles without pissing them
off but it was hard for them.
d. Louis XV hired Rene Maupeou as chancellor
i. He abolished parlemnents
e. Parlements were dominated by aristocracy
f. Monarchy couldn't unite because everyone thought it was sketchy.
i. Louis XV sexual scandals
g. George in Britian was highly regarded
IV. Neckers Report
a. France was in a hole for helping out America in the American
Revolution and now they had to pay for it
i. Jacques Necker 1732-1804 published an economic report that
made the problem seem less bad (Whats the word for that?)
ii. Parallel to Hamilton!
V. Calonne's Reform Plan and the Assembly of the Notables
a. Charlie Alex Calonne- 1734-1802
i. Was the financial planner for france
ii. Wanted to get rid of gabelle (the tax on salt) and reform corvee
iii. New land tax
b. Monarchy wasn’t doing well and needed money.
i. They brought back Necker I think
VI. Deadlock and the Calling of the Estates General
a. Calonne got replaced by Charlie Brienne
i. The economy was bad according to him
ii. Don gratuit- voluntary contribution
b. Parlements wanted their power back
VII. The Revolution of 1789
VIII. The Estates General Becomes the National Assembly
IX. Monarchy vs aristocrats
a. Three main estates in opposition to each other
i. The Clergy
ii. The Nobility
iii. The Third Estate- everyone else
1) Represented by rich middle class
b. Third estate reps everyone. It is nothing. It wants to be something.

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b. Third estate reps everyone. It is nothing. It wants to be something.
X. Debate over Organization and Voting
Others wanted to limit the power of the Because the third estate
XI. third estate smells!
a. Third and second estates had similar interests but were regarded as
separate.
XII. Doubling the Third
a. They eventually decided that the third estate was important so they
strengthened it.
XIII. The Cahiers de Doleances
a. Cahiers de doleances- a list of grievances by the local electors given to
the king- critisized the monarchy
b. Cahiers were a type of nobility I think
XIV. The Third Estate Creates the National Assembly
a. Voting system was bad I guess
XV. The Tennis Court Oath
a. They got locked out of their usual meeting place so they went to an
indoor tennis court
i. The members agreed to sit until France got a constitution
b. Louis XVI was getting frustrated so he called a meeting where they
could all talk
XVI. Fall of the Bastille 552
a. Louis XVI is trying to get power again.
i. Militarily
ii. He wanted to attack the assembly
b. Paris had 600,000 people Is that a lot?
c. Louis was gonna attack paris so they got all the people armed and
prepared.
d. Militia of Paris- called the national guard
i. Gave assistance to Marquis de Lafayette (1757-1834)
ii. Cockade- the new badge
e. Journees- attacks on the bastille
i. Fall of bastille meant the end of the assembly
XVII. The "Great Fear" and the Night of August 4th
a. The great fear was a mass peasant rebellion
i. They burned legal documents
b. Aug 4th, 1789- Emotional event where the aristocracy publically
relinquished their upper class "rights" like hunting rights
c. Louis XIV underestimated the fall of the bastille but it was big
d. Bla
XVIII. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
a. Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen- came before the
Constitution that they would right
b. It declared that all men were born and remain free and equal in rights
i. Natural rights of liberty, property, security, and the resistance
to oppression
ii. Inviolable and sacred right. Mirrored unalieanble rights
c. It was originally for the french government but it spread as inspiration
elsewhere
i. Most important ideas were
1) Popular sovereignty and civil liberties
d. Gender spheres, no women

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d. Gender spheres, no women
e. Bla
XIX. The Parisian Women's March on Versailles
a. Louis hesitated when signing the declaration of rights
i. Led to suspicion
b. National Constituent Assembly moved to Paris
XX. The Reconstruction of France

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Music- baroque and classical
Thursday, September 30, 2010
9:39 AM

Classical The
Baroque 1600-1750 Will lead to
Enlightenment- 18th Romanticism
vs
century
All happening in Vienna

• Climax
• Extravagant • Secular
• Bach • Focus on skill
• Pipe organ • Filler orchestra
• Church and monarchs • Symphonies - three parts
• Pompus • Haydn
• Handel • Delicate
• Vivaldi • Sonata
• Orchestras
• Concerto is three movements
• Piano
• Bourgeois people on it
• Monarchs
○ Enlightened ones
 Catherine

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557-567
Tuesday, October 05, 2010
12:34 PM

I. The Reconstruction of France


a. National Constituent Assembly wanted to reorganize france
i. Anti clericism
II. Political Reorganization
a. Constitution on 1791 established a constitutional monarchy
III. Active and Passive Citizens
a. Indirect elections under the constitution
i. Only men paying annual taxes could participate
b. This power was changing from birth to property
IV. Olympe de Gouges's Declaration of the Rights of Women
a. Olympe de Gouges composed the declaration of the rights of women which was just like the
declaration of the rights of men except the word man was replaced with woman.
V. Departments Replace Provinces
a. Departements! Instead of provinces; had a range of geographical features
i. Further divided into districts, cantons, then communes (where the word community is
derived.)
b. No more torture by courts
VI. Economic Policy
a. Suppression of guilds; METRIC SYSTEM!
VII. Workers' Organizations Forbidden
a. New policies disappointed peasants and urban workers
i. Chaplier Law- banned unions (called workers organizations)
VIII. Confiscation of Church Lands
a. The assembly did not ignore the third estate; they get clerical land -peasants get it.
IX. The Assignats
a. Assembly authorized the assignats- which were government bonds
i. Had something to do with Selling church land
X. The Civil Constitution of the Clergy
a. Ecclesiastical reconstruction
i. Civil Constitution of the Clergy- Transformed Roman Catholic church to a secular
branch of government
b. It turned out to be a bad idea and only half of the church agreed to it.
c. Refractory priests- those oppposed to it
i. They had protests against it.
ii. Pope Pius condemned the civil constitution AND the declaration of the rights of man
1) BAD IDEA
XI. Counterrevolutionary Activity
a. Aristocrats leave France to Dutch I think- called emigres
XII. Fligth to Varnnes
a. Louis and his family fled Paris disguised as servants
b. He got caught and they sent him back
XIII. Declaration of Phillnitz
a. Leopold II, king of prussia issued the Declaration of Phillnitz which stated that he would
protect the royal family in France
XIV. The End of The Monarchy: A Second Revolution
a. Bla
XV. Emergence of the Jacobins
a. Jacobins- Organization of the third estae who wanted a Republic rather than constitutional

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a. Jacobins- Organization of the third estae who wanted a Republic rather than constitutional
monarchy
i. Rousseau kind of guys
b. Factionalism in the Legislative assembly
c. Giroondists- sub category of Jacobins who wanted to declare war on Prussia.
d. They thought it would get them their republic and it made Louis think he was gonna get to
keep his constitutional monarchy
e. Women and the war and stuff
f. The country was like, ef this and made paris its own political force against the prussians
XVI. The Convention and the Role of the Sans culottes
XVII. The September Massacres
a. Paris killed everyone in the jails
b. Paris Communue
i. The Convention Declared france a republic in 1792
1) Turning point! When paris becomes republic
XVIII. Goals of the Sans culottes
a. Sans culottes "Without breeches" because they did not wear the pants that the aristocrats
wore
i. They were working class
b. They wanted bread prices to come down
c. Anti monarch; strong republicans; they wanted direct democracy
XIX. The Policies of the Jacobins
a. Jacobins were republicans who wanted representational governments
XX. Execution of Louis XVI
a. Jocobins brought Louis to trial and they executed him for conspiring against the liberties of
the people
b. After, convention declared war on Grat Britian
XXI. Europe at War With the Revolution
a. No one cared about France until they started becoming offensive
XXII. Edmund Burke Attacks the Revolution
a. Edmund Burke's Reflections on the Revolution in France
i. Against France and predicted France's future problems
b. Thomas Paine The Rights of Man
i. Response to burke in defense of revolutionary principles
XXIII. Suppression of Reform in Britian
a. William Pitt in England is suppressing freedom of speech
XXIV. The Second and Third Partitions of Poland 1793 1759
a. Polish people wanted reforms for a stronger country to prevent a revolutioin I think.
b. Russian Army was quick to attack Poland
c. Bla

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567-576
Tuesday, October 05, 2010
3:32 PM

I. The Reign of Terror


II. War with Europe
a. France invaded Dutch which caused hostilities to pop up all over Europe
b. Protections of national borders
i. Government took a huge role in protecting themselves which impeded on the people (9/11)
ii. Reign of Terror marked a time of super militaary mobilixation of europe.
III. The Republic Defended
a. Committees for fighting
IV. The Committee Of Public Safety
a. Save the revolution from mortal enemies
V. The Levee en Masse
a. A military requisition on the whole populatoin
i. Draft
b. After this the convention established a ceiling on prices
VI. The Republic of Virtue and Robespierre's Justification of Terror
a. Republic of Virtue- Locke's idea of the social contract would replace selfish aritocratic personal
gain and monarchial corruption
b. Maximilien de Robespierre
i. Committee for public safety
ii. Favored republic
c. Seclusion of women; dechristianization of france
VII. Repression of the Society of Revolutionary Republican Women
VIII. De-Christianization
a. They tried to change the calendar for every tenth day to be Sunday. They wanted to change a
church into a temple of reason
b. Deputies sent by the legislation forced churches to close and killing preists and nuns
IX. Revolutionary Tribunals
a. Those who endangered republican virtue were the enemy
b. Guillotine was the instrument of the time
c. Marie Antoinette was of the first victims of the reign of terror
X. The End of the Reign of Terror
XI. Revolutionaries Turn Against Themselves
a. Enrages- extreme sans culottes leaders; I dunno leaders killing leaders I think
XII. Fall of Robespierre
a. He saw that worship of reason was too abstract so he used the Cult of the Supreme being. To
induce morality in citizens
b. He made a speech in convention accusing others of conspiring against him
i. He was arrested
XIII. The Thermidorian Reaction
a. Turning poitn
b. Thermidorian Reaction Was a new revolution
i. Named after the events of 9 thermidor
c. Jacobins were allowed to come back
d. The white terror- execution of former terrorists people involved in reign of terror were killed-
ironic
e. Dress of sans culottes disappeared
f. Women could have a divorce now
XIV. Establishment of the Directory

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XIV. Establishment of the Directory
a. Democratic Constitution of 1793 was abandoned
b. Instead, they had a constitution of the year III- they rejected constitutional monarchy and
democracy
c. Thermidor- political reaction
d. Power by property
e. Thermidor did not undo this
i. Destruction of artistoracy and power to the peasants
XV. Removal of the Sans Culottes from political life
a. This was the most reactionary movement of the thermidors
b. Treaties of Basel
c. Bla bla
d. Bla
XVI. In Perspective
a. French Revolution most important political movement in european history
b. Nobility vs Estates
c. Third estate demanded say in gov
d. Nobility gave up their pompous power
e. De christianization of france; taken land from clergy; Peasant landowners
f. Thousands die in the reign of terror

This Chapter

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582-594
Tuesday, October 05, 2010
3:34 PM

Chapter 19 The Age of Napoleon and the Triumph of Romanticism

I. Intro
a. Frnch wanted stability
i. General Napoleon would fix that
b. Napoleon consolidated power and had an empire
c. Romanticism spread during Napoleon
II. The Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte
a. He was the threat to existing directory
b. Coup d'etat to prevent the republic from dying 1797
c. Napoleon was born poor; he was in favor of the revolution and a jacobin
III. Early Military Victories
a. He beat Austrians
i. Treaty of Campo Formio- declared his victory over austria
b. He had a unique strategy to attack britian through mediterranean
c. This was the first assault on the ottoman empire
IV. Constitution of the Year VIII
a. What is the Third estate? Abbe Sieyes wanted a government based on "confidence from
below, power from above"
b. This caused a division in power however and made it easier for Napoleon
V. The Consilate in France
a. Consulate ended the revolution in France
i. Everyone was happy with the results of the revolution
VI. Suppressinf Foreign Enemies and Domestic Opinion
a. Bonaparte made peace with france's enemies to calm the people
b. He also fixed domestic instability made peace
c. He was very suppressive to opposition however.
d. He used the law in his favor; very machiavellian
VII. Concordant with the Roman Catholic Church
a. Napoleons armies were very anti church
i. They drove pope pius into exile
b. Church gave up claims to property
c. Organic Articles of 1802- gave state supreme power
i. Clergy had to take oath to the state
VIII. Napoleonic Code
a. Napoleon was granted complete power by a plebiscite in 1802
i. Napoleonic Code or Civil code of 1804- his reform of french law
b. Safeguarded property and kept the idea that you weren't born into power
c. Primogeniture was abolished
i. Workers have less rights
ii. No women rights
iii. Divorce difficult
IX. Establishing a Dynasty
a. (1804) Napoleon wanted to make a dynasty so he did
b. Ha, Napoleon crowned himself.
X. Napoleon's Empire 1804-1814

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X. Napoleon's Empire 1804-1814
a. He would go on to conquer most of Europe
b. Nationalism was his tool which made people want to be in his army
XI. Conquering and Empire
a. Peace of Amiens 1802 was a truce between France and great Britian
b. He Retook control of Haiti
XII. British Naval Supremecy
a. Britian declared war on France in 1803 because Napoleon wouldn't cooperate
b. Battle of Trafalgar- Britian beats spanish and France navvy combined
XIII. Napoleonic Victories in Central Europe
Napoleon was good at fighting on land; he defeated austrians What were austrians
a. from italy and was declared king of italt doing at italy?
b. He also gained control in Germany
c. Prussia screwed up their nuetrality and went to war with france and of course lost
XIV. Treaty of Tilsit
a. Prussia could not sustain damage and tsar Alex I decided to negotiate a surrender
b. Satellite states
c. Napoleon gave his step son italy and his brothers other parts of europe. Napoleon family
ruled europe.
XV. The Continental System
a. Napoleon's biggest goal was to beat Brits
b. Britian was doing well evonomically
XVI. European Response to the Empire
a. Napoleonic code spread wherever he went- getting rid of hereditary and social distinctions
and no serfdom
XVII. German Nationalism and Prussian Reform
a. He had unified germany for the first time
b. Through nationalism
c. Germans said to resist Napoleon for the sake of German nationalism
d. Prussia was the only one not to fall under Napoleon nationalism
e. Prussian reform under Baron vom Stein
f. He broke junker monopoly and serfdom
g. Prussians abolished military torture
h. This allowed prussia to regain its former power
XVIII. The Wars of Liberation
XIX. Spain
a. Spain social roots to france nationalism resistance
b. Lower class were the ones to resist napoleon
XX. Austria
a. They renewed their war in 1809
b. Bla
XXI. The Invasion of Russia
a. Napoleon's marriage alliances failed
b. The Russians were a big threat that he needed to suppress them
i. Grand Army of Napoleon
c. Napoleon got beat by the russians!
d. Russians burned his stuff so he was out.
XXII. European Coalition
a. He licked his wounds and everyone had second thoughts about fighting him again.
b. His armies were tired and not confident
c. He was tired too but he managed to win some war anyway.
XXIII. The Congress of Vienna and the European Setlement

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Mini quiz

1. Committee for public safety


2. No more family power Law of suspects Suspend the habeus corpus
3. De christianization- when they get rid of all the churches and consolidate
church and state
Robespierre Robespierre makes the mistake of forgetting to
4. promotes reign of name the corrupt people in the assembly so they
terror kill him

AP EURO Page 25
Napoleonic Domestic Policy Presentation
Wednesday, October 06, 2010
8:17 AM

• Napoleon born in Italy


• Went to French military school
• Napoleon was 27 when he took over french army
• He took the role of pope in knighting himself
• Recognized catholics and protestants in france- tolerant guy
• Meritocracy
• Central bank in 1800 Bank of France Bourgeoisie love him sans culotte don’t.

• Concordant of 1801- super religious toleration- to make up for civil constitution of clergy

• Lycee system of education


○ Open to everyone (merit)
○ First public school
• Napoleon invents legion of honour
○ Badges purple hearts etc

AP EURO Page 26
Class notes on Napoleon
Thursday, October 07, 2010
9:58 AM

• Archeology is bling bling of the time. Rosetta stone


○ Creates National identity
• Admiral Nelson beats him twice
○ Trafalgar
○ Admiral Nelson publishes Napoleon's cheating letter

• Napoleon declares himself first consul of triumvirate and did away with assembly

AP EURO Page 27
Neo-classical Art
Thursday, October 07, 2010
10:06 AM

1. Political art
a. Art of the enlightenment
b. Reverting to greco Roman values
c. Order civic duty
2. Beethoven's third symphony is the last neoclassical music
3. Napoleon's tomb is an example of neoclassical architecture
a. Pantheon also
b. And everything in the washington mall
c. Secular values

4. Treaty of Tilsit.
5. Know about his wices
6. The Spanish Ulcer

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German Volk Presentation
Thursday, October 07, 2010
10:29 AM

I. What influenc germany


a. Preserving the german identity
b. What is the fatherland
c. Scandanavia, angle saxon/celtic, church all influence germans
II. Volk tradition
a. Lieder, Richard Wagner
b. German cinderella
c. Neuschwanstein castle- cinderella disney castle
d. Johann Gottfried Herder and Fichte- fathers of german nationalism

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594-611
Saturday, October 09, 2010
1:08 PM

I. The Congress of Vienna and the European Settlement


a. Robert Stewart was quick to take over Napoleon after he finished
i. Brought the signing of the treaty of Chaumont (1814)
1) This gave France back to Bourbans
ii. Britian, Austria, Russia, and Prussia all allies.
II. Territorial Adjustments
a. Congress of Vienna 1814
i. It was the four powers all thinking about how to keep france from controlling all of
europe.
b. They also prevented france from expanding any more.
c. Bla
III. The Hundred Days and the Quadruple Alliance
a. Napoleon returned to France and promised liberal constitution
b. Alexander was getting in the way.
c. The quad alliance was to keep peace and to suppress Framce
d. Framework of stability as opposed to punishing france
e. France accepted the treaty- monarch and state treaty
f. All anyone wanted was peace.
IV. The Romantic Movement
a. Romanticism- a reaction against the enlightenment
i. Revival of Christianity
ii. Folklore, fairy tales, medieval time literature.
iii. We are the music makers, we are the dreamers of dreams.
V. Romantic Questioning of the Supremacy of Reason
a. Sturm und Drang- "storm and stress"
i. Germans reject french rationalism
VI. Rousseau and Education
a. Roussuea liked parts of the enlightenment
b. Emilie (1762)- said that man could learn to live an uncorrupt life
i. It talks about how children should be able to grow up free from influence and learn
from their mistakes.
c. He advocated an education that was unobstrusive of the child's own will.
VII. Kant and Reason
a. Immanuel Kant
i. Wrote The Critique of Pure Reason 1781
ii. And the Critique of Practical Reason 1788
iii. Subjective character of human knowledge
iv. Something aboout man's sensory experience and preception
b. Pure reason in a noumenal world; practical reason
i. Categorical imperative- all human beings possess an innate sence of moral duty
c. Kantian philosophy- intuition
VIII. Romantic Literature
a. The word romantic was used to describe a sentimental piece of literature during
neoclaccisim
b. Lectures on Dramatic Art and Literature
c. Peak romanticism in germany
IX. The English Romantic Writers
a. Poetry was a creative impulse of the mind

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a. Poetry was a creative impulse of the mind
b. Example
X. Wadsworth
a. Will Wadsworth- lyrical Ballads (1798)
b. Childhood was the peak of creative imagination
i. The Prelude 1850
XI. Lord Byron
a. Rebel of romatics
i. Very skeptical
XII. The German Romantic Writers
a. William Lovell- first romantic novel
i. The rage in Placid Lake
XIII. Schlegel
a. Fred Schlegel wrote Lucinde 1799
i. Argued that women were not just sex and cleaning machines
XIV. Goethe
a. Johann Wolfgang van goethe greatest germne writer
i. The sorrows of young werther 1774
1) Love story
b. Faust 1808
i. long dramatic poem
ii. Guy sells his soul to the devil for knowledge
c. In the end he devotes himself to the betterment of mankind
XV. Romantic Art
a. Medieval life in romantic art
i. Postcard perfect nature scenes
XVI. The Cult of the Middle Ages and Neo Gothicism
a. John Constable
b. Idealization of rural life
c. Castle of Neuschwanstein
i. Best neogothic structure
XVII. Nature and the Sublime
a. They wanted to portray sublime nature- postcard perfect
b. Nature overwhelms man
c. Joe Mallord Will Turner
i. Rain, Steam, and speed
1) No detail but lots of movement
d. Bla
XVIII. Religion in the Romantic Period
a. Romantics derived religion from the inner emotions of mankind.
XIX. Methodism
XX. Originated in the mid eighteenth century.
a. Leader was John Wesley
b. He had a group called the Holy Club.
c. They practiced in towns of western england
d. Methodism stresses inward heartfelt religion
e. Emotional experience
XXI. New Directions in Continental Religion
i. Thermidorian Reaction
a. The Genius of Christianity 1802
i. The bible of the romatics
b. God was in nature
c. Friedrich Schleimacher
i. Speeched on religion to its Cultured Despisers

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i. Speeched on religion to its Cultured Despisers
ii. He believed religion was a way to explain the infinite in a finite world in all cultures
XXII. Romantic Views of Nationalism and History
a. Glorification of individual people and cultures
XXIII. Herder and Culture
a. Johann Herder was a leader of Germans who copied texts of different cultures
b. Herder advocated the revival of German folk culture
XXIV. Hegel and History
a. Georg Hegel
b. He believed that ideas arrived in evolutionary fashion
i. First the Theses- an idea or supposition
ii. Challenged by an antithesis- opposing the thesis
iii. Concluded with a synthesis- a combination of the theses.
c. Each stage in history was crucial to the advancement to the next.
XXV. Islam, the middle east, and Romanticism
a. Bla
b. Necessary conflict between christianity and islam
c. Bla
d. The Thousand and One Nights
i. Arabian Nights
e. Historical force being wasted for fillings
f. Thomas Carlyle historian; On heroes and hero worship
g. Napoleon reshaped islam the most
i. Egyptian expediition
XXVI. In Perspective
a. Romanticism brought up nationalism which was a major force of the nineteenth century
i. Cultural nationalism turned into a political creed
b. France showed their muscles today

THIS CHAPTER

AP EURO Page 32
456-465
Saturday, October 09, 2010
5:56 PM

Agricultural Revolution- innovations in farm production


I. New Crops and New Methods
a. Growing population creates a demand for this
b. Jethro Tull- first to endorse experience for farming
c. Charles Turnip Townsend- how to cultivate sandy soil
d. Robert Bakewell- he knew about getting the most out of animals
II. Enclosures Replaces Open Field Method
a. They used the animals on the three field system for fertilizaion
b. Enclosures were taken from the common land- pissed people off
who wanted to cultivate all the land
c. The enclosures made more food I guess.
d. But they did not make a labor force for the industrial revolution
III. Limited improvements in Eastern Europe
a. Enclosures were restricted to protect the people
b. Prussia, austria, poland and russia did not innovate
Look up things to do
IV. Expansion of the Population in Chicago fro
a. Population boom, no plagues to even it out Monday
b. Statistics
c. Hygiene, less wars, less death rates all elements for disaster
d. Food supply up
e. Bla
V. The Inndustrial Revolution of the Eighteenth Century
a. Industrial Revolution- sustaining of economic growth in europe
b. More things being made needs more workers- cycle
c. Implcatoins for future society
VI. A Revolution in Consumption
a. Consumers
b. Supply of stuff was created by the demand for homegoods
c. Josiah Wedgwood charges rich people a lot for porcelain and middle
calss less.
d. Institutionalization of the process- new stufff is better than old.
e. All members of society were aware of the luxurious
f. Critics because of christian wthics
VII. Industrial Leadership of Great Britian
a. Great britian started the industrai lrevolution
b. Consumer revolution expanding the demand for consumer goods
c. Britian was also the largest free trade nation
i. And they had lots of coal
d. And they had a mobile social hierarchy
VIII. New Methods of Textile
a. Textile was key to industrialization
b. This allowed for the industrailization to reach rural areas. (farming
cotton)
c. Domestic- the putting out
i. System of textile production They wove stuff into finished
products. Or something
d. This also produced a family economy
IX. The Spinning Jenny
a. The had all the suppplies but they couldn't make thread fast enough

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a. The had all the suppplies but they couldn't make thread fast enough
b. James Hargreaves invented the spinning Jenny
X. The Water Frame
a. Richard Awkright invented the water frame which was a water
powered spinning jenny which allowed to use in in the factories
i. Also allowd to pruduction of clothes of pure cotton
b. Edmund Cartwright invented the power loom
XI. The Steam Engine
a. The steam engine was the main driving force of industrialization
b. Thomas Newcomen invented the first practical engine
c. James Watthe made a better engine
d. Watt didn’t release his patent rights for a while so they couldn’t use
it
XII. Iron Production
a. Iron is the building block of the industrialization
b. The only thing I need to know about this is the Bessemer process
XIII. The Impact of Agricultural and Industrial Revolutions on Working Women
a. Women became useless because of the industrialization
b. Women becane farmers instead
c. They couldn't earn money anymore
d. They became at home spinners
e. Many became domestic servants
f. Wakefield
g. This defamation of women workers

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615-624
Tuesday, October 19, 2010
5:18 PM

Chapter 20 The Conservative Order and the Challenges


of Reform (1815-1832)
I. Intro
a. Conservative forces ruled after the congress of vienna
i. They wanted to keep monarchies and aristocracy
ii. They were against he nationalists
iii. Liberals were the moderates I suppose
b. Conservatives were successful everywhere but latin America
II. The Challenges of Nationalism and Liberalism
a. The age of the isms
i. Conservatism
ii. Liberalism
iii. Nationalism
iv. Communism
v. Socialism
vi. Republicanism
III. The Emergence of Nationalism
a. Nationalism- most powerful political ideology in europe
i. The assumption that people are joined together through culture,
language, customs, etc (united)
IV. Opposition to the Vienna Settlement
a. Nationalists protested multi national states
b. They believed in popular sovereignty
V. Creating Nations
a. Nationalists created nations
i. They were a group on their own of historians
b. Language was also a big topic. Which one to settle as universal
c. The fixation of language was a big corner stone for the foundation of
nationalism
i. Same language in schoolas and work and stuff
VI. Meaning of Nationhood
VII. Early Nineteenth Century Political Liberalism
a. Liberal- one that challenged the social, political, or religious values of
the time
VIII. Political Goals
a. They got their ideas from the enlighenment
i. Declaration of rights of man and citizen
b. Ministers responsible rather than a monarch
c. Cabinet ministers were responsible to the monarch though
d. Liberals were often educated and upper
e. They wanted more politicla participation but not a democracy yet
f. Divisiaon of classes!
IX. Economic Goals
a. Different social classes had different economic goals
b. Liberals wanted free trade and everyone to use their own skills
c. Specific things were different from place to place
i. Napoleonic code; principles of 1789
d. German speaking europe was changing

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d. German speaking europe was changing
e. They wanted power over the monarchy and stuff
X. Relationship of Nationalism to Liberalism
a. Nationalism was not really linked to liberalism, it was opposed to
liberalism
b. They were similar but not identical
XI. Conservative Government: The Domestic Political Order
a. Conservatives had the domestic influence
XII. Conservative Outlooks
a. Conservatism- included monarchies, aristrocracies, and chrches
b. Edmund Burke and Hegel were conservatives
c. Churches only liked movemnets towards their own revivalas
d. Conservatives saw everyone as the enemy
e. Wartime and belligerent governments
XIII. Liberalism and Nationalism Resisted in Austria and the Germanies
a. Metternich epitomized conservatism
XIV. Dynastic Integrity of the Habsburg Empire
a. Austrians could not accept the new political forces
b. They wanted to protect the empire and to do this they had to suppress
the liberalism and nationalism stuff
XV. Defeat of Prussian Reform
a. Willaim III made a new council of state which gave something of a Metternich is
constitutional government machivellian.
b. He made them into reform suppressing governments I think Machivellianism is known
XVI. Student Nationalism and the Carlsbad Decrees as realists
a. After 1815 they gave constitiutions everywhere but they were all
stipulated by the monarch
b. Universities made clubs that advocated a more enlgihtened way
c. 1817 one in Jena where a bunch of people all sang and danced and
protested and stuff
d. Burschendaft movement
ALT- what conservatives
Carlsbad Nationalistic frats for independent Carl Sand was want
Decrees- germany; they were the leaders of a martyr for
e. dissolved the germanic states for nationalism. Aristocracy
burschedaft independence; nationliast liberal Land
and romantic Throne

Carlsbad decrees- Similar to the six acts


Censorship; network of secret police Ottoman empire face same problem
as the other thing; "sick man"

AP EURO Page 36
624-636
Thursday, October 21, 2010
5:00 PM

I. Postwar Repression in Great Britian


a. 1819-20 were conservatives!
II. Lord Liverpool's Ministry and Popular Unrest
a. Tory ministry sought to protect the aristocracy; corn law in 1815 was to maintain high price
for the corn
Combination Acts - 1799
b. They wanted the reform of parliament
c. Political Registrar by William Cobbett
d. They needed to suppress this so they enacted the coercion acts in 1817
III. Peterloo and the Six Acts
a. In 1819 a meeting in Saint peter's fields for the formers and stuff
i. A massacre occurred when some soldiers attacked
ii. Parliament passed six acts after
1) No right to assemble
2) Fines for sedition and libel
3) Speed trials for political agitators
4) Newpaper taxes
5) No military training
6) Search and seizure is allowed
b. Cato street conspiracy- when they tried to blow up the cabinet
IV. Bourbon Restoration in France
a. Louis XVIII assumed monarch of france in absence of napoleon
i. Under the charter
V. The Charter
a. Hereditary monarchy and bicam legislature
b. Chamber of peers and house of lords
i. Charter gave back the declaration of rights of man and citizen
VI. Ultra royalism
a. Royalists wanted revenge against the monarch
b. They murdered some guys
c. Liberals were being suppressed
VII. The Conservative National Order
a. Congress of Vienna had Russia, Austria, Prussia and Brits
i. They met with eachother to discuss the problems of Europe
ii. Concert Of Europe- the arrangemnet that sought to solve the mutual foreign policy
issues in europe
iii. Its main goal was to maintain peace
b. The Congress System
i. Congress system- mutual cooperation
ii. France was readmitted into good standing
iii. Tsar Alex I suggested the quad alliance
VIII. Spanish Revolution of 1820
a. Ferdinand VII os spain said he would be a just ruler but lied and was tyrannical so his
soldiers rebelled on him
b. Italians were cool.
c. Protocol of Trappau- governments could intervene in revolutions
IX. The Conservative National Order
a. Congress of Vienna had Russia, Austria, Prussia and Brits

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a. Congress of Vienna had Russia, Austria, Prussia and Brits
i. They met with eachother to discuss the problems of Europe
ii. Concert Of Europe- the arrangemnet that sought to solve the mutual foreign
policy issues in europe
iii. Its main goal was to maintain peace
b. The Congress System
i. Congress system- mutual cooperation
ii. France was readmitted into good standing
4+-Tsar Alex I suggested the quad alliance
a. -742*1ong great powers was prevented
b. The brits and stuff were more interested in trade for the latin american places
X. Revolt Against Ottoman Rule in the Balkans
XI. The Greek Revolution of 1821
a. Greek revolution was important because it had many writers backing it up.
b. The eastern question: what should the euro powers do about the ottomans incompetance.
c. They were interested in their land for economics
d. Eventually britian france and russia recognized greece as no threat and left them alone.
XII. Serbian Independence
a. Kara George led guerilla attacks against the ottomans for independence
b. In 1830 ottoman sultan declares servian independent
c. Russia stepped in to protect them.
XIII. The Wars of Independence in Latin America
a. Latin American countries wanted to get independence too
i. Everyone was leaving control of the countries
XIV. Revolution in Haiti
a. In 1804 haiti is independent- this showed that slaves have the ability to overthrow their
masters
b. Haiti was where slavery was brutal
c. In 1791 full throttle slave rebellion- lots of blood
d. Overture was the leader and he became something of a monarch of haiti
e. This was the first slave rebellion- precedent
XV. Wars of Independence on the South American Continent
a. Creole revolutions were more common than slave ones
XVI. Creole Discontent
a. Creole wantes free trade in north america
b. Peninsulares were the white people in spain. They were jealous of them because they got
more provilege
c. Creoles were enlightened
i. The last straw was when napoleon made his brother king of spain
d. They feared reform in mama country would economically effect them
i. Juntas- political committees
XVII. San Martin in Rio de la Plata
a. There were liberating left and right
b. Jose San Martin was the leader of the rio dela plata forces- he became the protector of
peru.
XVIII. Simon Bolivar's Liberation of Venezuala
a. He was the liberator of the north
i. Ivic war in venezuala
ii. Llaneras- venezuelan cowboys
b. San martin believed in monarchy and bolivar was republics. This is division
XIX. Independence in New Spain
a. Miguel Hidalgo- called for rebellion of native americans
b. This united conservative groups in mexicao creole and spanish.
XX. Brazilian independence

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XX. Brazilian independence
a. Came simply; expanding of brazil trade and the made it a kingdom so it wouldn’t be just a
colony anymore.
i. Dom Pedro or something
b. Bla

AP EURO Page 39
636-642
Monday, October 25, 2010
8:48 PM

I. The Conservative Order Shaken in Europe


a. Conservatism triumphed everywhere but Greek revolution and Latim aMerica
II. Russia: The Decembrist Revolt of 1825
a. Tsar Alex I
III. Unrest in the Army
a. People were exposed to enlightenment and made secret societies to revolt against Alex's
suppression
i. The Southern Society- Pestel
i. Republic and no serfdom
ii. Northern society
i. More moderate
IV. Dynastic Crisis
a. Alex died unexpectedly and his brother became heir.
b. Nicholas was his brother; Constantine was the brother of Alex who wa supposed to be tsar
but Nick ended up tsar
c. People rebelled nick and wanted constatntine
d. This was decembrist revolt; it failed.
V. The Autocracy of Nicholas I
a. He knew change was necessary but he didn’t want to abolish serfdom because the nobles
woul get pissed at him
i. So he decided not to change anything
VI. Official Nationality
a. In replace of reform
i. "orthodoxy, autocracy, and nationalism."
ii. Church basis of mprality
iii. Autocracy gave tsar all power
iv. They saw it all as normal because of nationalism
VII. Revolt and Repression in Poland
a. Nicolas gave power to his power; together they broke constitutions
b. Insurrection is warsawtsar repressed the revolt
i. Issued Organic Statute declaring poland a part of the russian empire
VIII. Revolution in France
a. New king Charles X is divine right ruler
IX. The Reactionary Policies of Charles X
a. Middle class bond holders lost money because of something he did
b. In 1827 liberals got mad enough to petition him to be less conservativce
X. The July Revolution
a. Liberals won some election againts charles
i. French got a colony in north africa
ii. Chalres issues Four Ordinances which was a coup de'etat
i. Restricted freedom of speech
ii. No more chamber of deputies
iii. Wealthiest could only do franchise
iv. New elections
b. Liberal news papers got started agaisnt him anyway
c. Moderates and liberals overthrew the government
XI. Monarchy under Louis Philippe
a. July Monarchy the new regime under the liberals
i. Tri colour flag

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i. Tri colour flag
b. Socially conservative movement however
c. No sympathy for lower class
d. They also liked controlling algiers in africa
i. Many moved there
XII. Belgium Becomes Independent 1830
a. Belgium also wanted to be independent like france
b. Provisional government of property owners to suppress insurrection
c. Russia preoccupied with polish revolt
d. Lord Palmerston told london to recognixe belgium as independent
e. Belgium and serbia got independence in 1839
XIII. The Great Reform Bill in Britain 1832
a. House of commons wants to reform parliament in 1830
i. Great Reform Bill
XIV. Political and Economic Reform
a. No country could do anything without upsettting britain economically
b. Accomodation of something
XV. Catholic Emancipation Act
a. England wanted to maintain a relationship with ireland
b. Protestant noncomformists
c. Catholic emancipation
i. To preserve connection with ireland
XVI. Legislation Change
a. Whigs wanted reforms
i. Jouse of commons defeated the bill
b. The Great Reform Bill expanded sixe of enlgish electorate
c. Changes the voting requirements
d. It was s uccess
e. It gave some more people representation and it prevented a revolution
XVII. In Perspective
a. Via Congress system the Vienna settlement was conclucded without war
i. Decembrist revolt failed
ii. Only real reform was in Latin america
i. Wars of indeoendence
iii. Inroads to conservative executive order
b. Comercia reasons they favoured latim america

This Chapter

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Chapter 21 Economic Advance and Social Unrest (1830-1850)


I. Intro
a. Rest of Europe was catching up with industrialization.
b. People were wary and aware and afraid of the trade cycle of recession and golden periods
II. Toward an Industrial Society
a. New technology and food supply and such alllowed for social mobillity
i. Latin America wars allowed us to step in and take advantage for trade
ii. British textile was worlwide industry; lucrative
b. Other nations like germany, france, and belgium were catching up with the era of steam
engines.
c. Called the continent.
III. Population and Migration
a. Population of Europe is increasing rapidly
i. Eastern europe remained rural however.
b. Population increases put lots of stress on cities
i. Disease, conditions, garbage etc
c. It was not better in rural areas because of enclosures
d. The ability to migrate was different in different parts of Europe
e. The potato famine in Ireland put stress on the people
IV. Railways
a. 1830s and 1840s was a time of RR building; all over europe
b. This allowed people to move around a lot more.
c. RR were the embodiment of the industrial era
V. The Labor Force
a. Large variety
i. Factory workers, craftspeople, servants, peddlers etc
ii. Laboring poor- ones who worked for poverty wages
b. The textile industry was the most stable
VI. The Emergence of a Wage-Labor Force
a. Proletarianization - the emergence of a paid working class
b. Workers had to submit to factory discipline that was unpopular
c. Factory workers in textile industries made good working because the ones at home couldn't
keep up with the power looms
d. The machines that replaced workers gave way for new jobs like fixing the machine
e. A euro town had a group of artisans working for a master.
f. Life was harder for artisans because there was less use for them
g. Confection- when shoes and stuff are sold in standard sizes instead of customzed for the
customer so they can sell more faster to keep up with the compeition of the machines
h. This made a division of labor- assembly line kind of thing- job specialization
VII. Working Class Political Action: The Example of British Chartism
a. How cant he artisans protect their economic interests?
b. Chartism was the answer. (1836) William Lovett- London's Working Men Association
i. They wanted six parts in their charter for workers
1) Universal male suffrage
2) Annual election of the House of Commons
3) Secret ballot
4) Equal electoral districts
5) No more property qualifications for members of the house of commons

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5) No more property qualifications for members of the house of commons
6) And the payment to members of the house of commons
c. Charists gave it to parliament but they said no
i. They had a newspaper called the northern star.
ii. Chartism failed
d. Chartism was the first movement of the working class
VIII. Family Structures and the Industrial Revolution
a. Industrialization did not affect peasant families
b. Bla
IX. The Family in the early Factory System
a. Machines did not destroy the working class family
b. Home and economic life were the same for children learning to work in home; this
prepared kids for working in the factories as adults
c. Women and children came to factories to serve as attendants to watch over machines
d. Fathers got paid more so they could send their kids to school
X. Concern for Child Labour
a. Parents could not discipline kids at the factory
i. English Factory Act 1833- said that nine and under could not be employed and that
they had to get education for two hours a day and limited the amount tof time they
could work
b. This caused the adults want to try and get better working conditions for themselves too.
XI. Changing Economic Role for the Family
a. The family was botht eh unit of production and the unit of consumption
b. Chhildren were moving farther away from home because wages could be sent long
distances or something.
XII. Women in the Early Industrial Revolution
a. Families lived on the wages of the mail spouse
XIII. Opportunities and Exploitation in Employment
a. Women were in all stages of production
XIV. Women in Factories
a. Unmarried women worked in factories
i. This was incentive to get married
b. Single, young , or widows; They didn't like hiring women because they got pregnant
XV. Work on the Land and in the Home
a. Working on the land was the norm for women though- half of them did
i. They all got low wages and low skills
b. Sometimes they became prostitutes because they wanted money
i. The factory bosses gave them raises for having sex with them
XVI. Changing Expectations in the Working- Class Marriage
a. Moving to cities gave women more opportunities to marry and succeed
i. Marrying meant that the women left the workforce to be with their husbands
b. Domestic service was the most likely profession
c. Life was different for women in the cities
d. Marriage was becoming less of an economic partnership because the husband made the
money
e. Women worked their ass off at home
XVII. Problems of Crime and Order

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I. Problems of Crime and Order


a. Social order was threatening to go bad; they though it would interfere with liberty
i. This was because everyone was moving to the cities which caused an increase in crime
b. Definition of criminal activity was different- nuance
II. New Police Forces
a. Police and prison reform; they were actually getting a police force
b. They started makingu7 public works stuff- police, street cleaning, garbage truck etc
c. The first police were called bobbies.
d. Police were considered protectors and sometimes with suspicion
III. Prison Reform
a. Prison ships- hulks; there was no separaition by demographic or by seriousness of crime.
b. Transportation was the worst sentence you could get. It was alternative to capital
punishment. They dumped all the criminals in Australia
c. John Howard and Elizabeth Fry were prison reformers to make them nicer
d. Experiments on prisons
i. Auburn system- separated at night and they could talk during the day
ii. Philadelphia system- separation all the time
e. Pentonville system did not allow ANY interaction. They wore masks when they went outside.
The would eventually mentally collapse
f. Isolation was common theme
g. Sometimes it didn’t work so they sent them to Devil's Island never to return
h. This showed the concern for peace and order
IV. Classical Economics
a. There was a division between laize faire (Adma smith)people and mercantile people
V. Malthus on Population
a. Thomas Malthus-Nothing could be done to improve the condition of the working class
i. Essay on the Principle of Population (1798)
1) He said that population would eventually outstrip the food supply
ii. The industrial revolution was bad because it made more people
VI. Ricardo on Wages
a. Principles on Wages 1817
i. He said we should lower wages so that there will be less kids
VII. Government Policies Based on Classical Economics
a. The July Monarchy- public works projects
b. German made the Zollverein in 1834
i. It was a free trade union
c. Utilitarianism
i. Jeremy Bentham
ii. Fragment on Government
1) Explained utility
a) Greatest happiness for the greatest number
d. 1834 The poor law passed by house of commons
i. "War on poverty"
e. Repeal of Corn Laws in 1846
f. Needed to feed the people
VIII. Early Socialism
a. Communism was the new thing in europe
b. They liked industrialism but not free market

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b. They liked industrialism but not free market
IX. Utopian Socialism
a. Utopian socialists
i. Had visionary ideas built on a capitalistic framework
X. Saint Simonianism
a. Henry Simon- writer
i. Father of technocracy
ii. Redistribution of wealth
b. Advocated sexuality outside marriage
XI. Owenism
a. Robert Owen
b. Environmentalist- if people were put in the right environment, they would become better.
c. He made a nice little town that followed his ideology- pleasantville
d. He failed
XII. Fourierism
a. Charlie Fourier- opposite of owen
b. Phalanxes- communities where people could work and fuck freely
c. It never caught on
XIII. Anarchism
a. Anarchists rejected both industry and government
b. Pierre Proudhon- What is Property?
i. Attacked banks. He wanted poor to participate too
XIV. Marxism
a. Marxism- the biggest socialist movement
b. It spread all over europe; demanded reform
c. Karl Marx
XV. Partnership with the Engels
a. Marx met Engels who published the condition of the workin class in England
i. The Communist Manifesto
1) Outright abolition of private property
XVI. Sources of Marx's Ideas
a. Got most of his stuff from Hegelianism
b. The fate of the proletariat
XVII. Revolution Through Class Conflict
a. He said that the formation of social classes in economics would cause a revolution
inevitably.
b. "class conflict"
i. Industrailization was killing the proletariat
ii. Proletariat revolution
c. Proletarianization of the working class.

END

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Tuesday, October 26, 2010
5:51 PM

I. 1848: Year of Revolutions


a. This year was a year of liberal revolutions
b. Caused by famine?
c. They pushed their stuff through representation
d. Nationalism was a large factor to the revolutions too
e. The results were profound
i. Conservatives prevailed
II. France: The Second Republic and Louis Napoleon
a. These revolutions started in paris
i. The working class were hungry poor and mad so they naturally got on to the idea
III. The National Assembly and Paris Workers
a. Louis Blanc demanded representation in cabinet
i. Alphonse de Lamartine was the leader of a provisional government?
b. New election resulted in moderates and conservatives ruling over
c. Artisans and government soldiers clashed
IV. Emergence of Louis Napoleon Incumbents always win the elections
a. The nephew of the big napoleon became the president of the conservatives
b. He was called little napoleon and was the first to assume power through instability in
europe.
c. People supported his actions
V. Frenchwoman in 1848
a. Feminist time!
i. There were clubs; Vesuvians claimed women were going to erupt like a volcano
b. The Women's Voice was a woman newspaper
c. They claimed that women were central to society and therefor they needed to be respected
d. They were defeated however. Of course
e. They wanted to organize working women- Jeanne Deroin was a leader who was arrested for
it and shipped to algiers
VI. The Hapsburg Empire: Nationalism Resisted
a. They were vulnerable to revolution
VII. The Vienna Uprising
a. Kossuth called for the independence of Hugary
b. Ten days later some students pushed a revolution
c. The hapsburgs feared a serf uprising the most
VIII. The Magyar Revolt
a. They were liberls supported by nobles- magyars
b. Separate hungarian state
i. Annex transylvania
ii. Count Joseph Jellachic
IX. Czech Nationalism
a. Czech nationalist wanted an autonomous slavic state
i. Congress of slavs
ii. Federation of slavic states in europe
iii. Pan Slavism- tool to gain support of nationalist minorities
b. Insurrection in Prague
X. Rebellion in Northern Italy
a. Austria held its position in northern italy; bla
b. The imperial gov decided to reasert through francis joseph

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b. The imperial gov decided to reasert through francis joseph
c. Magyar's last attempt at revolt; The enemies were so divided that they were able to succeed
XI. Italy: Republicanism Defeated
a. Defeat of peidmont was a big fail for italian revolutionaies
i. Pope Pius IX led people to nationalism
b. Unite italy under repub government
c. In 1849 renewal of war against austria
i. French wanted to prevent unified south state
d. Pius IX renounced his liberalism and became a conservative
XII. Germany: Liberalism Frustrated
a. Major revo in prussia
XIII. Revolution in Prussia
a. Fred Will IV didn't wan to attack rioters in berlin
b. They were panicking so they decided to write a constitution
c. Fred will made an assembly of liberals but the real assembly ignored it
d. People voted according to classes
XIV. The Frankfurt Parliament
a. In 1848- a bunch of german states get together to revise the german confederation papers
i. They wanted to write a liberal paper
b. They brought soldiers to suppress readical insurrections
c. Large german solution: grossduetsch
d. And the small German solution" kleindeustch
e. The first one favored Austria included in germany and the second excluded it
f. They finished the constitution but Fred Will IV rejected it because he said that he ruled by
divine right
g. The liberals proved themselves to be losers
XV. In Perspective
a. Lots of social change
i. Industrial economy
ii. RRs
iii. Consumer goods
iv. Urbanization
v. The urban working class
b. Political strife in 1848
i. Nationalists were more hard headed
c. European middle class was no longer revolutionary afer 1848 Why?
i. They were more concerned of protecting their property from socialists
d. Conservatism has changed
i. They wanted to remain dominant over europe

This Chaper

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1:47 PM

Chapter 22 The Age of Nation States


Revolutions of 1848 were a triumph for conservatives
Habspurg empire accepted constiutional monarchy
Hungary had emancipated serfs
I. The Crimean War 1853-1856
a. Russia wanted control over ottomans
i. Russians claimed to have religious control over them but the ottomans said that ehy
had control overthemselves
b. Russians saw the ottomans in decline and wanted to capitalizxe on it
c. France and britain war on russia because of alliance with ottomans
d. This was crimean war
II. Peace Settlement and Long Term Results
a. Treaty of Paris 1856
i. Russian surrenders land at the mouth of the danube
b. Concert of Europe is gone
c. Less focus on vienna settlement
III. Reforms in the Ottoman Empire
a. Tanzimat era 1839- 1876 was the time for change in the ottoman empire
i. Religious Equality
b. 1856 muslins get more rights; schools and stuff
c. Wanted loyalty of Christians
d. Ottomans couldn't get political strength
e. Exemplified in Balkan wars
i. They needed infrastructure
ii. They tried to get a parliament but the sultan said no
iii. Reformers called the young Turks
f. Secularization of government
IV. Italian Unification
a. They wanted to unite
V. Romntic Republicans
a. Romantic republicanism
i. Carbonari- charcoal burners; the most famous group
b. Mazzini was a leader of it; he was nationalist
c. And Garibaldi
i. Led insurrections
d. Moderates were scared of these extremists
e. They ended up with constitutional monarchy.
VI. Cavour's Policy
a. Piedmont? Buffer states?
i. Victor Emmanuel I; the new monarch of something
b. Cavour was an enlightened nationalist; and a monarcchist
c. He liked free trade
i. He started a Nationalist Society
VII. French Sympathies
a. Cavour brought italy into politics
b. Cavour and Napoleon III agreed to make war on italy so that they could get austria
VIII. War with Austria
a. Piedmont mobilized on Austrians and won

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a. Piedmont mobilized on Austrians and won
b. Bla
IX. Garibaldi's Campaign
a. Carvour wanted unification still
i. He prevented a republican italy
X. The New Italian State
a. Victor Emmanuel II 1861 king of italy
i. Joining the north and south was hard because they were both very different
b. Conservative constitutional monarch had two houses a senate and a chamber of deputies
i. Not a vigorous parliament
c. Venetia and rome should be added
i. Papacy stayed in vatican and didn't like the rest of italy
d. Italia irredenta- unredeemed italy
XI. German Unification

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I. German Unification
a. German unification was the single most important political development in europe
i. Germany was conservative
b. Two strongest countries were austria and prussia
i. Zollverein- tariff union
c. Fred will IV went insane in 1858
i. Brother will assumed power
1) He was nationalist reactionary
II. Bismarck
a. Otto von Bismarck was a jukner noble
i. German unification
ii. Reactionary
b. He eventually mellowed to a conservative
i. He wanted industrialized prussia and germany
c. He became prime minister in 1862
i. He was offensive conservative
ii. It was about tax spending
III. The Danish War 1864
a. Language prevented unification
b. Mix of german and danes
c. Bismarck defeated danish and it helped his image
IV. The Austro-Prussian War 1866
a. Austro prussian conflict was common
i. Bismarck told prussians to be obnoxious to austrians
ii. Seven Weeks War
b. Treaty of Prague ended the war- favorable to austrians
V. The North German Confederation
a. In 1867 prussia annexes hannover
i. Anti austrian
ii. Legislature of two houses
1) Federal council- bundesrat
2) Reishstag - lower house
b. Bismarck great conservative chancellor
i. Reichstag had little power
1) It represented people more democraticvally
c. Liberalism vs unification
i. Bismarck unification was winning
ii. And he won in the end too
d. The Franco-Prussian War and the German Empire 1870 1871
e. Bismarck got imperialist and wanted to add to germany
f. They would accomplish it via spain
i. Benedetti was the french amassador
g. French declared war against bismarck germany
h. German empire was proclaimed in the house of mirrors at versailles
i. It was the hot new powerful country
j. Germany and italy were unified niw
VI. France: From liberal Empire to Third Republic
a. Year of division of liberal and authoritarian is 1860
i. Because of Napoleon III I. Communards
b. Nap;oleon made freeer debate treaty with brits a. Barricades.
c. Napoleon was losing control of diplomacy with italy II. Burning of the Tuileres palace
d. The Second Empire ended with the Battle of Sedan. 1870 a. This was a symbol of ancien regime which
e. Caused republic in paris and government of national defense is created they wanna burn

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b. Nap;oleon made freeer debate treaty with brits a. Barricades.
c. Napoleon was losing control of diplomacy with italy II. Burning of the Tuileres palace
d. The Second Empire ended with the Battle of Sedan. 1870 a. This was a symbol of ancien regime which
e. Caused republic in paris and government of national defense is created they wanna burn
VII. The Paris Commune b. Communards took over education
a. Division in paris provinces c. Massacre was the end of journee
i. Adolphe Thiers- negotiated settlement with prussia
b. New government called the paris commune in response to betrayal of monarch
i. Caused insurrection of government- troops killed a bunch of inhabitants
c. Proletariat government was suppressed by french bourgeois
i. More anarchy than marx's class conflict
VIII. The Third Republic
a. Republic formed in the national assembly
i. They kept the tri colour flag
b. Indemnities got paid and prussians left
i. McMahon got elected for president of france to restore monarchy, universal male suffrage and
indirectrly votes senated
c. He resigned though
d. The third republic was strong it survived bad leaders
IX. The Dreyfus Affair
a. This was the greatest drama of the 3rd republic.
b. Guy called dreyfus was committing treason with germany He was a captain
i. The evidence against him was forged
c. They dropped charges the it was really controversial
Everyone said he was guilty. Like michael jackson Emile Zola defended him- J'Accuse
d.
He got convicted but then pardoned Too late because it led to antisemitism- social darwinism
X. The Habsburg Empire
a. Was a threat to europe
b. Habsburg places stayed middle ages sty;e
c. Vienna government abolished internal tariffs in the empire
d. Austria refused to suport russia
XI. Formation of the Dual Monarchy
a. Francis Joseph in 1860 issued the Octovber Diploma which created federation amond states ofj the empire
b. Then the february patent which set up a different governemnt; magyars wouldn’t cooperate with this
governemtn
c. Ausgleich or compromise of 1867 transformed habsburg empire into dual monarchy known as austria -
hungary
d. Francis joseph was king of hungary
XII. Unrest of Nationalities
a. Compromise of 1867 brought two legit rulers Antisemitism
b. National groups
i. Favored a policy of trialism Zionist movement- Der Judenstaat (The Jewish State)
ii. Francis joseph accepted this 1896
c. Czech nationalism increased
d. Magyars exercised political supremecy Ferry laws secular education
e. Nationalism became stronger
i. Source of political instability
f. Some wanted a new german empire
g. Nationalist unrest in the habsburg empire is super important even to world history
i. It affected germany russia austria and ottomans Wspu women
Chalking-write in chalk
XIII. Russia: Emancipation and Revolutionary Stirrings
Chaining- chain yourself to something and
a. Russia was changing a lot
protest
XIV. Reforms of Alex II
a. Russia defeat in crimean war
Oxford streetd
i. They reconsidered domestic polict
Daily sketch emily davidson- martyr- there
XV. Aboliton of serfdom
is footage! Lots went ot her funeral
a. The cultural gap was most evident in serfdom

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a. Russia defeat in crimean war
Oxford streetd
i. They reconsidered domestic polict
Daily sketch emily davidson- martyr- there
XV. Aboliton of serfdom
is footage! Lots went ot her funeral
a. The cultural gap was most evident in serfdom
i. Alex wanted to abolish serfdom Why? WWI stops everyone from getting what
b. Because serfdom was economically inefficient they want
i. Morally wrong too
ii. Nobility didn’t want to end it but he did anyway in 1861
c. It was a lose though because freedom meant no land for the free serfs
d. They still were waiting for real emancipatoin
i. You can't just declare someone free, you have to let them exercise it.
XVI. Reform of Local Government and the Judicial System
a. Landlords became the governors of places
i. This wouldn’t do so he introduced new forms of fair trials and studd

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I. Military reform
a. They reformed the army so that serfs served in them I think
II. Repression in Poland
a. Poland was treated as a russian province
b. Alex's reforms only affected russia so poland got no benefits from it.
III. Revolutionaries
a. Alexander Herzen published the news paper THE BELL it was about reform
i. They started the movement called populism
ii. The wanted a communal life
iii. Their society was called Land of Freedom
b. They wanted to go and appeal to the peasants to organize an uprising
c. They were terrorists!
d. They split into two groups
i. The People's will- wanted to over throw autocracy
ii. I dunno what the other group was
e. Alexander III made it worse Slavophile; reactionary
IV. Great Britain: Toward Democracy
a. Britain was the confident liberal state
V. The Second Reform Act 1867
a. Reform league by john bright agitated parliament action
b. Conservative ministry by ben disraeli
c. Gave votes to any more people
d. He wanted to embrace democracy
i. He was conservatife
ii. Gladstone became prime minister thoguh which was bad because he sucked
VI. Gladstone's Great ministry 1868-1874
a. Birth of british liberalsim
b. Education act of 1870
i. This was the first time government took an active role in education
ii. Through funding
VII. Disraeli in Office 1874- 1880
a. Disraeli became prime minister after him and he changed stuff
b. Disraeli was conservative and gladstone was liberal
c. He wasn't very good at his job though
d. Bla
VIII. The Irish Question
a. Home rule: irish control of local government
b. Gladstone came back by the way.
i. And he disestablished the church of ireland
ii. He gave compensation to farmers that got kicked off their land
iii. Irish land league
iv. Land was the biggest issue for ireland
c. Parnell organized a house of commons party that votes bloc
d. Home rule issued the split liberal party
IX. In Perspective
a. Political systems had been drawn out now. They solved the problems that europe had.
Nation states. Citizens were the main factor for a governments' success. Nationalism was
unity.

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unity.
b. Labor is the next big problem

THIS CHAPTER

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9:39 PM

Chapter 23 The Building of European Supremacy: Society and Politics to World


War I
I. Intro
a. Europe was becoming more productive.
i. Age of the car plane and bike refridge telephone, radio typewriter light bulb
ii. Gold standard
b. Labor force into trade unions
i. Political parties
ii. Nation states
c. Europe became on foreign resources
II. Population Trends and Migration
a. Population was growing
b. Migration too with the RRs
i. This made opportunity more available
III. The Second Industrial Revolution
a. Growth of german industry
IV. New Industries
a. Expansion of the third quarter
i. New industries was the second industrial revoltion
b. Henry Bessemer and the Bessemer process
i. Steal was cheap in large qts
c. Chemical industry; oil
d. Electrician application to manufacturing was also very important.
e. Henry Ford and his car was appealable to everyone
i. And the assembly line
V. Economic Difficulties
a. Smooth economic growth
b. New farmind industries in latin america
i. Refrigerated ships
c. Bank failures!
i. Rate of capital investment slowed
ii. Unemployment
iii. Led to trade unions
d. Consumer goods and demands
i. For people that lived in cities
VI. The Middle Classes in Ascendancy
a. Age of the middle class described the time before the WWI
VII. Social Distinctions Within the Middle Classes
a. Middle class was more diverse
b. Few but more families gained wealth
c. Professions were becoming overcrowded
VIII. Late Nineteenth Century
a. Europe was becoming more urbanized
b. Migrants to the cities were generally poor
IX. The Redesign of Cities
a. The city planners divided cities by job so that all the business were organized with eachother
X. The New Paris
a. This change was most prominent in paris
i. The city was very crowded
b. Napoleon III wanted to redesign paris
i. Wide vistas
c. All these public works projects also made jobs on Paris
d. In 1889 the eiffel tower was born!
i. And sacred heart cathedral
XI. Development of Suburbs
a. Commercail development and slum disappearnce Haussman's city
b. This resulted in suburbs being built around cities Hausman builds parks
c. Expansion of RRs subways; home and work were being connected Rich people live in the city and poor lives in the suburbs
XII. Urban Sanitation La bom marche was a department store
a. This was an increasing concern Chicago art institute has the best impressionist paintings
XIII. Impact of Cholera Potter Palmera
a. Poop was everywhere All the leaders in chicago were protestant who hated catholics
b. Edwin Chadwick- Report on the Sanitary condition of labouring population Bertha- patron of art
i. About the grossness of urbanization
XIV. New Water and Sewer systems French stuff
a. New water systems were constructed slowly Boulanger affair- he is selling medals of merit
i. Sewer system in paris was cool by haussman Panama canal scandal- Ferdinand de lesseps- he finished the suez canal
XV. Expanded Government Involvement in Public Health He lied about how much his company was in debt

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i. About the grossness of urbanization
XIV. New Water and Sewer systems French stuff
a. New water systems were constructed slowly Boulanger affair- he is selling medals of merit
i. Sewer system in paris was cool by haussman Panama canal scandal- Ferdinand de lesseps- he finished the suez canal
XV. Expanded Government Involvement in Public Health He lied about how much his company was in debt
a. Public Health Act of 1848
i. Melun Act of 1851 z
ii. These werwe building inspectors stuff and styff
b. Louis Pasteur and pasteurization!
XVI. Housing Reform and Middle Class Values
a. Dwelling of the poor sucked
i. a whole block of people shared the same toilet
b. Housing reform was how you solved this
c. Jules Simon led the way
i. To provide everyone with adequate housing
d. Philanthropy helped out with the cause
e. Housing was a political issue for migration to the cities
f. Providing houses with all the workers was the goal
XVII. Varieties of Late Nineteenth Century Women's Experiences

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I. Varieties of Late Nineteenth Century Women's Experiences


a. Social rank was your life women were low
II. Women's Social Disabilities
a. Property rights, family law, and education were the big three parts that women were challenged in
III. Women and Property
a. Married women could not own property
i. Legal identities were that of the man's
ii. The male owned her stuff
b. They wanted reform of women's property rights
i. In 1882 they got the Married Women's Property Act
IV. Family Law
a. Women were required by code to give the man the obedience
i. Divorece was difficult; court of matrimonial causes
ii. Adultey and abuse was the only reason for divorce
iii. Husbans had supreme control of the children but the delegated it to women
iv. Contraception and abortion are illegal.
V. Educational Barriers
a. More illiterate women than men.
b. Universities were for men
i. Some cool women got into unis though
c. There was no public option for education
d. Gender roles and stuff
e. Elementary school teaching was womens work
f. Some women in gov positions like civil servatns like teaching spread birht control and stuff
g. The reason some women didn't support the movement because they were so used to the way things were.
VI. New Employment Patterns for Women
a. Expansion of jobs was good for womem
VII. Availability of New Jobs
a. Telco was run by women, they were operators doing boring jobs
b. Low level skills and no training
c. They got low wages though
VIII. Withdrawl from the Labour Force
IX. Working Class Women
a. Putting out system of manufacturing
i. They manufactureer would by the material and put it out for tailoring
b. It was a good women because it made lots of jobs
c. Womens wages merely supplemented the mens wages
X. Poverty and Prostitution
a. Economic instability was normal THUS
b. Prostitution
i. It was legalized in some places
c. Women were generally of course young and as they got older they stopped. Duh.
d. They were from pooor families and had little skills
XI. Women of the Middle Class
a. Women wanted to participate in consumerism Dogs are a big thing
XII. The Cult of Domesticity They are tokens of class
a. Middle class women tried not to work Breeding
b. Home was different froma life of business Purebreeding is important
c. Women directly helped their husbands businesses
d. Home was the center of virtue and life and children and stuff The bowler or derby hat
e. Women directed the household Petitie class
XIII. Religious and Charitable Activities
XIV. Sexuality and Family Size
a. Middle class had fun sex in marriage I think
b. Small family size in france birthrate in france dropped; because they wanted to use the money for
consumerism!
XV. The Rise of Political Feminism
a. They were afraid to give the vote to women in fear that they might win
XVI. Obstacles to Achieving Equality
a. Women reluctant to support feminists; some objected to the tacticts and some didn’t feel the reason to
b. Mary Wollstonecraft wrote the Vindication of the rights of Woman
i. John Stuart Mill and Harriet Taylor
1) The Subjection of Women

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1) The Subjection of Women
c. Socialist criticism; unorthodox opinions about sex and stuff
d. Therefore they couldn't get big reforms
XVII. Votes for Women in Britain
a. Millicent Fawcett led the moderate National ?untion of Women's suffrage societies
b. Emmeline Pankhurst- radical reformer
i. Women's Social and Political Union
ii. They were called the suffragettes
1) They wanted to extend the vote to women
XVIII. Political Feminism on the Continent
a. It was different in france
b. France has the less radical reformation
c. And britain had the radical womens reform
XIX. Jewish Emancipation
a. From a ghetto world
XX. Differing Degrees of Citizenship
a. Joseph the II issued a decree that put the jews in the same law as the christians
b. Government undermines jewish life
XXI. Broadened Opportunities
XXII. Labor, Socialism, and Politics to World War I

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I. Labor, Socialism, and Politics to World War I


a. Industrial expanion challenged the labour forde
b. They stopped rioting
II. Trade Unionism
a. They formed unions by job class
b. Skilled workers were for the unions
i. Improvemnent of working conditions is what they wanted
ii. Keep wages in line with inflation
III. Democracy and Political Parties
a. GB did second voting reform act
i. Unoversal male suffrage in switzland
ii. Spain too
iii. Belgium,
iv. Everywhere!
b. This brought political parties too I think
i. Property holder voters
c. Support of new voters or something
d. Socialism VS nationalism
e. Legacy of Karl Marx!
i. Bolshevik revolution
IV. Karl Marx and the First International
a. He predicted the disintegration of capitalism
b. In 1864 the International Working Men's Association
i. Called the first international
ii. Had all political types
c. The rise and suppression of the paris commune
d. Single most something
V. Great Britain: Fabianism and Easly Welfare Programs
a. "new unionism"
i. It united everyone
ii. Keir Hardie- first independent working man to be in parliament
b. Fabian Society- 1884 was GB most influential socialist group
i. Fabius Maximus HG wells George bernard schall
c. Conservative party got split bla
d. Funding these parties brought liberals in or something
VI. France: "Opportunism" Rejected"
a. Jean Jaures led the French socialists
i. Believed that socialists should cooperate with the middle class
b. Second international in 1889
i. The socialists.
ii. They endorsed opportunism-
c. Anarchist France was uninterested
i. Main labor union was Travail
Syndicalism- Georgees Sorel in the Reflections on the Syndicates and something
ii. Violence in 1908 united
VII. Germany: Social Democrats and Revisionism
a. German Social Democratic Party SDP

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a. German Social Democratic Party SDP
b. Came from labor unrest by Ferdinand Lasalle
VIII. Bismarck's Repression of the SPD
a. Assassination attempt on William I
b. It failed to get germans
IX. The Erfurt Program
a. Reichstag
b. Kark Kasutsy- the program declared doom of capitalism and the need for socialism
X. The Debate over Revisionism
XI. Russia: Industrial Development and the Birth of Bolshevism
a. Russia was facing new prolems modern problems
XII. Witte's Progeam for Industrial Growth
XIII. Nicholas II and Alex III wanted russia to industrialize
a. Witte was the leader of this industrial process
i. Prime minister of communications
b. He favored heavy industry like RRs
Some thought that capitalists were getting too much profit
c. Bla
d. Kulaks- prosperous peasant farmers
e. Zemstovs- those who participated in local councils for a liberal party
XIV. Lenin's Early Thought and Career
a. Duma- carrot he dissolves it
XV. In perspective
a. There was the division of the upper urban class and the middle suburban class
b. Socialism and labour unions
i. They wanted socialism integrated in governemnt
c. Women were demanding stuff for the first itme in history

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Chapter 24 The Birth of Modern European Thought


I. The New Reading Republic
a. For the first time everyone was reading
II. Advances in Primary Education
a. Literacy was improving- literacy rate across all europe
b. New primary education of reading writing and maths
c. Education meant better jobs
III. Reading Material for the Mass Audience
a. This opened a new market for print
i. Cheap mass circulation for newspapers
ii. Everyone had a viewpoint
b. Pronography? What?
c. Popularization of knowledge
IV. Science at Midcentury
a. Voltaire, mechanics- rational world explained in numbers
i. Wiliam Whewell invented the word scientist
V. Comte, Posivitism, and the Prestige of Science
a. French philosopher Auguste Comte invented posivitism- it was a philosophical idea of
human intellect through science
b. Physical science and metascience
i. He is the father of sociology
c. Association of science and technology
VI. Darwin's Theory of Natural Selection
a. On the Origin of Species
i. Newton of biology
ii. Natural selection, how species evolved over time
b. Darwin and malthus both believed in population being too large
c. Survival of the fittest= natural selection
d. Gregor mendel and his genetics and peas
i. And mutations
e. Eyes were not made ot see god but to defend against predators
f. Descent of Man applied natural selection to people to make social darwinism
g. It was controversial
VII. Science and ethics- Social Darwinism
a. Survival of the fttest predated Darwin
b. Herbert Spencer thought of it too
i. Social darwinism
c. Huxley was opposed to this thinking bla bla
VIII. Christianity and the Church under Siege

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I. Christianity and the Church Under Siege


a. People were leaving the church for rationality
i. Liberals were attacking the influence of the church
ii. They still got support from devoted people
II. Intellectual Skepticism
a. Questioned the church's historical credibility, scientific accuracy
and morality
i. Contradictions in the bible
III. History
David Strauss in 1835 History becomes a scientific endeavor
published the Life of rather than stories of the past.
a. Jesus Methodology; the bible has become a
study of history since then
i. He questioned whether the bible was accurate about Jesus
ii. He called Jesus a myth
b. Julius Wellhausen in germany
i. Ernst Renan in France And Matthew Arnold in GB
ii. All of those guys said that the bible was written with politics
in mind
IV. Science
a. They said that science was what you should believe
i. William Paley wrote Natural Theology in 1802
ii. Charles Lyell said that the earth was older than they thought
through the use of geology
1) He explained the miracles of god through the rocks
V. Morality
a. They questioned the morality of God in the old testament who
would kill people and was cruel and stuff
b. Friedrich Nietzsche- said that christianity praised weakness
i. War and courage have accomplished more than loving thy
neighbor
c. Christianity lost its respectiblity
i. No one wanted to join the clergy
VI. Conflict Between Church and State
a. Liberals didn't like the dogma and the political privileges you get
from being high in the church
i. Education was the big issue
ii. They used to get an education through churches
VII. Great Britain
a. GB- the Education Act of 1870
i. Gave state supported schools
ii. They were built in areas where church school sucked
iii. Education Act of 1902
1) Made the government provide state support for
religious and non religious schools
2) They also put standards on the education
VIII. France
a. Brit was calm and france was radical

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a. Brit was calm and france was radical
i. Falloux Law in 1850
1) Priests gave the education in public schools
ii. Jules Ferry- series of educational laws in 1878
1) Replaces priests with real teachers
iii. Public schools expanded
iv. In 1905 Napoleon Concordant was ended and church and
state were separated
IX. Germany and the Kulturkampf
a. Bismarck suppressed the catholics despite them being guaranteed
stuff in the constitution
b. May Laws of 1873 applied to prussia
i. Required priests to pass state tests- only the ones in
germany
c. Kulturkampf Bismarck's. Cultural struggle War agaisnt spd
i. It was the greatest failure. It failed Bismarck is repressing the
X. Areas of Religious Revival socialists
a. 1870s catholic revival in ireland
b. They had one last revival but it failed because they ran out of
money
XI. The Roman Catholic Church and the Modern World
a. The Papacy was resiliant
i. Pope Pius IX vanished in 1848 to escape turmoil in rome
ii. He was preparing a counterstrike
1) He wrote the Syllabus of Errors in 1864
a) It put the catholic church against science,
philosophy and politics
b. 1869 the first vatican council
i. The council declared the papal infaliability when speaking of
faith and morals
c. Leo XIII looked to thomas acquinas for faith and reason
i. He was the successor of pius IX
d. Rerum Novarum
i. He defended private property, religious education, and
religious control of the marriage laws. And workers
rights.Corporate groups
e. His successor pius X wanted to resist liberals and return to
devotion
i. He required priests to swear oath against modernism
XII. Islam and Late Nineteenth Century Europan Thought
a. Islam was given the same analysis as the bible?
i. It was something that arose out of culture
ii. Renan and max Weber dismissed it as being unscientifically
supportable
iii. Al Afghani said otherwise, he defended islam
b. White authors thought they were better than arabs
c. Missionaires blamed islmas on everything bad- economic and
slavery and suppressing women
i. They didn't get many converts because abjuring islam was
punishable by death
d. Some wanted to combine modern thought and islam
i. They were called the salafi
e. Mahadist rejected the wwestern modern movement atogether
XIII. Toward a Twentieth Century Frame of Mind

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XIII. Toward a Twentieth Century Frame of Mind

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X Rays and Radiation


• Wilhelm Roentgen published his paper on the discovery of xrays
• Henri Becquerel discovered that uraniam emits the energy
○ The causes of radiation
Theories of Quantum Energy, Relativity, and Uncertainty
• Max Planck- quantum theory of energy- energy is a discrete quantities or packets rather than a
solid stream
• Einstein said that time and space exist together on the same contimuum- this was relativity
• Werner Heisenburg- subatomic particles are ambiguous
• Science was affecting daily life

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I. Literature: Realism and Naturalism


a. Realist and naturalist movement in writing
i. Scientific objectivity and observation to their
b. Charles Dickins portrayed the negative of industrial society
c. Imaginative writing
d. They portrayed humans as humans with feelings
II. Flaubert and Zola
a. Gustave Flaubert Madame Bovary 1857
i. About a woman's search for a husband in a grey world • Bloomsberg group in
b. Emilie Zola epitomized realism england challenged modern
i. He applied science to people- psychology economics
c. He analyzed alcoholism, prostitution, adultry, and labor unrest • John Kemanes- intellectual
III. Isben and Shaw father of the new deal- first
a. Henrik Isben brought realism to domestic life outwardly homosexual, so
i. A Doll's House was oscar wilde; critisized
1) A man cannot tolerate his wifes independence versailles treaty
b. Bernard Shaw- against romanticism and false respectibility
i. Mrs. Warren's Profession dealt with prostitution
ii. Love and law is what he wrote about
c. Realists wanted to portray the real world in their writing
IV. Modernism in Literatur
a. Modernism!
i. Critical of morality and society
ii. The aesthetic and the beautiful
b. Virginia and Leonard Woolf
i. Challenged values of victorian culture
ii. Eminent Victorians 1918
iii. Keynesian Economics challenged the economci theory of
something
c. Virginia woolfs novels were the best
d. Marcel Proust- modernist
i. In search of Time Past
1) Stream of consciousness that allowed him to explore
his memories.
2) He would think of something and then he would let
his mind wander to the next thought and the nex
thought and so on
e. Modernism flourished after WWI
V. The Coming of Modern Art
a. Transflomation of paitning
VI. Impressionism
a. Depictions of modern life
i. Visual experience rather than realism
b. Edouard Manet and claude monet Pissaro and Renoir and degas
were all impressionist painters
c. There were avariety of sites in the paintings scenes
d. About the bar painting
e. More about that painting
VII. Post impressionism

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VII. Post impressionism
a. Postimpressionistsform and structure in their paintings
b. Pointillism- small dots to the canvas
i. Georges Seurat invented it in france
c. About the violisn and the palette
d. Cubist painters
VIII. Friedrich Nietzshe and the Revolt Against Reason
a. Questioning rational thinking to the human situation
b. The Birth of Tradegy
c. Thus Spake Zarathustra
i. Critisized democracy and christianity
d. Overman embodied heroism
e. Beyond Good and Evil and the Geneology of Morals
i. These sought the psychological sources of judgement
f. The human situation? Nothing but change is consistent
IX. The Birth of Psychoanalysis James ussher-
a. Probe beneath the appearance original creationist
X. Development of Freud's Early Theories Measured the age
a. Freud was from Vienna of the planet
i. He studies with Martin Charcot who used hypnosis
ii. Studies in Hysteria
b. He allowed patients to talk freely about themselves instead of
hypnotising them
c. He called humans very sexual creatures from birth
XI. Frued's Concern with Dreams
a. He believed the irrational dream had some scientific meat to it.
i. Dreams are the disguised fulfillment of suppressed wish.
ii. The Interpretation of Dreams
XII. Frued's Later Thought
XIII. Divisions in the Psychoanalytic Movement
a. Freud had followers that questioned him
i. Carl Jung questioned his sex theory
b. Jung said that man inherits memories
i. Modern Man in Search of a Soul
c. Psychoanalytic movement
XIV. Retreat from Rationalism in Politics
a. Some thought that when people were given what they want and
were happy they woul dact rationally
XV. Weber
a. Max Weber rationalism was the major development of human
history
b. Bureaucratization. Basic feature of modern social life
i. This opposed socialism
c. His essay the protestant ethic and the spirit of capitalism
XVI. Theorists of Collective Behaviour
a. Lebon explored the behaviour of crowds and mobs
i. Reflections on violence
ii. He said that people are led collectively rather than
idividually

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I. Racism
a. Sacrifice the individual to the group
i. RACISM created by nationalism
ii. Aryans were the original people with the origianal sanskrit languate and stuff
b. Debates over slavery
i. Racial science supported racism!
II. Gobineau
a. Essay Inequality of the Human Races
i. First publication on race
b. Survival of the fittest was applied to nations
III. Chamberlain
a. Foundations of the Nineteenth Century
i. Through genetics society could be improved
ii. Biological determinism
b. He was anti semetic- jews were evil
IV. Late Century Nationalism
V. Antisemitism and the Birth of Zionism
a. Jews were associated with money and banks
VI. Anti Semetic Politics
a. Karl Lueger- christian socialist party
i. Dreyfus affair made people hate jews
VII. Herzl's Response
a. Herzl believed the Jews were in trouble
i. He wrote The Jewish State 1896
i. Called for the jewish to get their own state where they could pursue their interests
ii. Liberalism plus socialism
VIII. Women and Modern Thought
a. They arose with all the radical thinking (Darwin)
IX. Antifeminism in Late Century Thought
a. People had mother stereotype of women
b. Some criticized them for being too emotional and thus irrational
c. People thought that women were worse than men. Even Darwin who wrote it in his scientific
writings
d. Scientific societies excluded women
i. Huxley believed this- he claimed to have scientific evidence for the inferiority of women
ii. Darwin repeated his ideas in The Descent of Man
e. Freud saw women as mothers only
f. Karen Horney and Melanie Klein were two of the few female psychoanalysts
i. They tried to challenge the men's psychology view on women
g. People believed that women could never be equal but they still could have rights
X. New Directions in Feminism
a. Women saw their problems as being a variety of things
i. Organizations concentrated on getting the vote for women
XI. Sexual Morality and the Family
a. Challenging laws of male dominance and family and prostitution
b. 1864 women had english prostitutes had Contagious Disease acts
i. The police could detain anyone they suspected of being infected.
ii. The laws were to protect the men, not the women
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c. The women were mad because the true cause of prostituition was poor working conditions
d. The laws put women's bodies under the control of men
e. Josephine Butler led the Ladies Antional Associateion for the Repeal of the Contagious Disease
acts in 1869
i. They won in 1883
ii. The groups made progress but did not win win
f. Women were challenging the idea of marriage
i. Women wanted maternity leaves
ii. And rethinking sexual morality
iii. The Century of the Child and the Renaissance of Motherhood exalted women for being
mothers and demanded rights
g. Wider sexual freedom; contraception; Marie Stopes
XII. Women Defining Their Own Lives
a. They wanted to advance their own endeavors; through education and stuff
b. They were active in socialists circles
c. Virginia Woolf's A Room of One's Own
i. It said the women writers should live on their own and with their own income and
independent
ii. Womenism was sometimes associated with socialism and radicalism
XIII. In Perspective
a. Science revolutionized the idea of nature; the atom was being explored; evolutionary biology;
science could be basis for morality; christianity was being tested
b. Nietzshe and Freur questioned human beings in all and whether they were rational or not; all of
the ideas challenged the enlightment
c. Racial theorists thought they were better than others
d. Women wanted equality

This Chapter

hegel

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Chapter 25 The Age of Western Imperialism


I. Intro
a. New Imperialism- what this new time period is called
b. Imperialism- expanding a nations authority by land gain or
economic and political hegemony over other nations
II. The Close of the Age of Early Modern Colonization
a. Everyone is setting up colonies
b. Spanish in california and the brits in the atlantic
c. French lost North america to brits
i. Owning caribbean was a trade off
ii. Napoleon sold the louisiana purchase
d. Collapse of spain portugal and france as a colonial power
e. Slavery was gone and there was no more slave trade
i. It was the chief institution of trade but not anymore
f. Catholics wanted to convert the people in the new places like the
caribbean and they had missions there
III. The Age of British Imperial Dominance
a. They were the single most powerful force
i. They were global
ii. It expandd its influence through Imperialism of Free Trade
IV. The Imperialism of Free Trade
a. Adam smith said that economies would benefit from abandoning
the idea of mercantilism for the concept of free trade
i. He had the idea that free trade could grow infinitely on itself
b. Britain was the workshop of the world
i. They were able to manufacture more than they could
consume which led to self sufficiency and they could sell
stuff
c. Free trade led to war- Opium Wars of brits and china
i. Brits wanted chinese stuff but chinese didn’t want brit stuff
so they tried to sell them opium from india but the chinese
didn’t want the people to get addicted
d. Brits went to war with china to force them to have free trade
i. They gained control of hong kong
ii. They got an alliance with france
V. British Settler Colonies
a. Captain James Cook
b. The brits were waiting for these colonies to setup their own
government
VI. India-- The Jewel in the Crown of the British Empire
a. Brits established themselves as the ruler of india which gave them
military power throughout Asia and economic power
b. It was divide and conquer in india
c. The muhgals were still ruling but they were a sick man
d. They flexed their muscles via the british east india company
e. Brits thought they were helping indians rather than taking them
over with economic imperialism
i. Brits banned sati in india which was women burning

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i. Brits banned sati in india which was women burning
themselves
f. sepoy rebellion- withint the indian army
g. The brits used pig and cow greanades against the indians
h. 1858 brits were back in control
i. Government of India Act in 1858
i. Transferred power from beic to brit crown
ii. They wanted to bring more civilization to india
Hindus- Indian National Congress wanted In 1885. founded in
j. to lead their own indian bombay
Swarjay "Independence"
k. Muslims had the Muslim league in 1887
VII. The " New Imperialism" 1870-1914
a. Other people were imperialiszing too.
i. US, Japan had industries which allowed them to move
forward
ii. empires spread with speed
iii. Empires were needed for "power"
iv. All of this was the spirit of the new imperialism
b. Why was it new?
i. Because there were new forms of power
ii. Protectorates and spheres of influence
iii. A protectorate was when an official went to a foreign place
to assume power there.
iv. Spheres of influence when thye receive special commercail
or legal priviledges
c. Brit had direct control of france and a protectorate in egypt
d. Newly united germany or something
e. Something about culture being raised on the ladder o civilization
i. Focusing on Africa
f. There were few people involved in the new imperialism
VIII. Motives for the New Imperialism
a. Debate over the west and non west world
b. Most say new imperialism was due to economics
i. Imperialism: A study 1902 Hobson
ii. His thesis is that nations overproduced and had a surplus
and then they wanted the government to expand their
markets giving birth to the new imperialsim
iii. To broaden the channle for flow of their surplus
c. Lenin- Imperialism: The Highest Stage of Capitalism
i. Imperialism is the monopoly stage of capitalism
d. New imperialism was a plethora of small actions
e. They were looking for markets; they invested in other people's
colonies
f. Nuance
g. Civilizing mission- Other nations had a duty to bring "civilized life"
to third world nations
h. Nuance for the next six paragraphs. About the reasons for the new
imperialism

1. Dreyfus
2. Hobson or lenin bn

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2. Hobson or lenin bn
3. Herbert spencer social darwim applied it to social
4. Light colour wisps
5. Monet
6. Aesthetic ?

Realism
Realistic!
Realizing the concepts
Daumier
Third class carriage- poking fun at the class- writer: zola
Doumier- louis phillipe- and guizot
Gargantua- feeding louis phillipe gold
Courbet- the sower Northern renaissance

Millet- the gleaners

Impressionism
• Monet is first- says that a painting needs to be done at one moment
• Japanese influence in impressionist arrrrt
• Monet Ager st lazare
• Rouen cathedral
• Bertha Palmer- patroness lived in the gold coast
• Degas L'absinth- japanese paitings- put people off center
• Mary Casatt- the cup of tea- women beimg moms

Post impressionsim 1870s-1900


• Scientific base
• Expressionisnt and romantic
○ Van gohg
○ gaugain
• Potatoe eaters
• Gaugain traveled to south pacific- polynesians

SCIENCE

• Complimentary colours
• New perspective- using colour- newtonian physics
• Geometric shapes

• Seurat- A Sunday on la grand jatte


• Toulouse lautrec- adverts
○ At the Moulin Rouge

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BEIC 1600-1857
Friday, November 19, 2010
8:14 AM

• Muhgal empire in india


• India is very diverse- religion
• They had a monopoly on cotton textiles
• Brits want to control indian ocean- tea
• Sir robert Clive
○ Battle of plassey 1757
• Sir william hastings

• British need to start the opium wars to get trading in china


• 1877 queen victoria becomes empress of india
○ Disraeli is something
○ Prince albert died so she always wears black
 He is a real liberal
• Thuggers is the origin of the word thug
○ Thugs were mauraders in india
• Bal Gangahar Tilak
• Nehru- first independent presidnet of india- friend og ghando
• Muslim League
• Mohammed Ali Jinnah
• He says he wants to be independent from britaain after pakistan says they want to.
• The great exhibition
• The crystal Palace- the biggest greenhouse
○ In three months sixmillion people visit

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Wednesday, November 17, 2010
9:50 PM

I. The Partition of Africa


a. Scramble for Africa
i. Maximize control of raw materials
ii. Divide and conquer
b. Bla
II. Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco and Libya
a. France had few colonies in Africa
i. France moved to sahara
b. France was protectorate over tunisia
i. Puppet monarchs
c. Italy got Libya
d. Algeria is really important to france
e. Vietnam and algeria after WWI
f. Algeria cuases the end of the fourth republic Charles Degal
III. Egypt and British Stategic Concern about the Upper Nile
a. Egypt was the richest in africa- controlled by ottomansfarmers
plant cash crops
i. American civil war cut off cotton to brit and fra
b. Suez canal in 1869
c. Khedives
d. Bla
e. Politial and military control was purpose for Brits in egypt and
control of suez canal
i. Led to egyptian nationalism
f. Nile was key to business in africa
g. Both fra and brit wanted north nile
i. But fra and brit made up anyway
IV. West Africa
a. Fra had too much sahara africa to get egypt
b. Sierra Leone: For freed slaves
i. Gold Coast
ii. Nigeria was most populous
iii. Nrits annex port of lagos 1861
V. The Belgian Congo
a. Acquisition of the belgium congo
i. Great wealth comes with it
b. Belgium had not interest in coloinies
i. Henry Morton Stanley
1) Undertook the expedition to the congo
c. Leopold's goal in congo was not social but economicJoseph
Conrad- Heart of Darkness- against the horrors in the congo
d. Media was against leopold in congo
VI. German Empire in Africa
a. Bismarck didn’t want colonies at first but then got them just
to get better diplomatically with europe
b. Berlin Conference in 1884- sought to settle the easter
question
i. Formal partition of africa. That is what it was!

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i. Formal partition of africa. That is what it was!
c. German imperialism sucked
VII. Genocide in South West Africa
a. Germans and their damn genocide. They did it in africa
Herereos were targeted by They eliminated most of their
b. germans population
VIII. Southern Africa
a. Cape town- south africa attracted settlers
b. Great Treck- moving north and east of the cape
c. Gold was discovered in transvaal and so people rushed
i. Cecil Rhodes
ii. In order to suppress Boers Brits put them in
concentration camps
d. European minorit over the african majority
i. To protect the white authority they passed apartheid
which was separateness that segregated Africa
IX. Russian Expansion in Mainland Asia

Video Notes
• He did things with them
• Debeers would get ninety percent of diamonds
• He has to convince everyone to buy diamonds
• RR from capetown to cairo
• The blacks used to have the vote but they took it away
• Permanent, reliable, workforce
• Matabele- majority tribe- machivellian
• The jamison trade
• Maxim gun- the first time it would be used inmatabelle (top
secret weapon)
• Rhodes becomes prime minister of capetown
• Gold was discovered in the transvaal
• Rhodes resigned from prime minister- not allowed
• Diamond jubilee- sixty years on the throne
○ She owned one fifth of the population
• The boer war and the spanish american war
• Germany is funding the blank
• The boer army had a big war
• The boer revert to guerilla warfare
• Industrial war and then guerilla
• World's first concentration camps
• Cholera
• "death caps"

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Sunday, November 21, 2010
1:45 PM

I. Russian Expansion in Mainland Asia


a. The brits had an influence on them?
b. Tsars had control of baltic sea
c. Russia expanded to east
d. Russians ruled over a very diverse population
e. Russian began to refer to the rural russians as foreign; within their own state!
f. Russia expanded to three different areas of asia
i. Transcaucasus
ii. Khazakhstan?
iii. Southern middle asia
II. Western Powers in Asia
III. France in Asia
a. France had interest in indochina; for religion?
b. French missionaries
Soldiers went to vietnam to protect the Reminds me of the american rev and the
i. missionaries brit soldiers
c. Cambodia was a protectorate
IV. The Unites States Actions in Asia and the Pacific
a. Commodore Matthew Perry- led navy to japan to open markets
b. US fought spain because they wanted cuba
c. Protectorate over cuba and annexation of puerto rico
d. The US got Phillipines and Guam from spain- samoa too; they were an imperial country once
they said they wanted hawaii too
V. The Boxer Rebellion
a. Qing dynasty was in collapse and westerners were going to capitalze on it by opening their
markets
b. America wanted some share too.
i. Open Door Policy- allowed all nations to trade with chinese
c. There was a group that resisted them- The Boxers
d. They attacked diplomatic missions of the westerners
e. The westerners won though
VI. Tools of Imperialism
a. Manifest destiny for the westerners
VII. Steamboats
a. Europeans had dominance of the seas
b. Robert Fulton invented the stam boat in 1807
i. Gunboat diplomacy
c. Steam boats were starting to be made out of iron
d. They were good at sailing on rivers. Asian rivers
VIII. Conquest of Tropical Diseases
a. These were a bif obstacle of the westerners
b. Malaria problem- quinine.
c. Quinine pills were their super immortality drug
IX. Firearms
a. Gave the westerners huge advangate
b. Rifles and bullets were esigned to be faster, straighter, fire in moist environments etc
c. The Machine Gun bfg!
d. Bla

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d. Bla
X. The Missionary Factor
a. Evangelicalism
XI. Evangelical Protestant Missionaries
a. Baptist Missionary Society
b. An Inquiry into the Obligations of Christians to use the Means for the conversion of the
heathen 1792
c. German protestants too
XII. Roman Catholic Missionary Advance
a. Roman catholic mission
i. Catholic resurgane in france
ii. Society for the prpagation of Faith
XIII. Tensions Between Missionaries and Imperial Administrators
a. Missionaries were not all imperial
XIV. Missionaries and Indigenous Religions Movements
a. Colonial involvement led to nationlist movements
i. African churches
b. Missionary goals changed a lot
i. Missionary movement led to a lot of publishing of stuff
ii. Pressuring governements
XV. Science and Imperialism
a. Expansion of natural knowledge
i. Captain James cook- went to the south pacific to watch the planet venus
b. Bla
c. Botany Zoology medicine and anthropology
XVI. Botany
a. New lands were being explored anc cultivated
b. Bla
c. They wanted to develop useful plants
d. Kew and the Jardin de Plantesi I nparis- were cool gardens
e. They had scientisits at these gardens
f. Introduce rubber trees to brit- they started to grow their own rubber instead of importing it.
g. Bla
XVII. Zoology
a. Habsburgs in vianna had cool zoos
b. More diverse animals being brought back
c. Galapagos birds
XVIII. Medicine
a. Came out of necessity because of the tropical diserases
b. Heal body and soul
c. Casting out demons
i. Modern medicien wanted funding
ii. Louis Pasteur cure for rabies
d. Yellow fever
e. Medicine was a vehicle for cultural imperialism
XIX. Anthropology
a. Ever since columbues they were studying the natives
b. There werwe societies for anthroopligical
c. Some studied the brain and stuff
d. Anthropology as a social science; anthropologists were ambivalent about colonialism
e. Great anthropology mueaums- Museum of Mankind in paris
XX. In Perspective
a. Europe technology was able to dominate the world
i. Free trade imperialism

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i. Free trade imperialism
ii. The New Imperialism 1870s
iii. Imperialism was a power status
b. Merchants needed markets and missionaries needed sinners
i. They were both in the same place
ii. Army officials looked to colonial wars for rank advancement
c. Bla

This Chapter

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Monday, November 22, 2010
6:40 PM

Chapter 26: Alliances, War and a Troubled Peace


I. Intro
a. Archduke Francis Ferdinand heir to austrian throne was assassinated.
i. This set off a big european war
ii. AKA THE GREAT WAR WWI
b. European international tension
i. US went into isolation; they wanted to stay neutral
c. Much destruction out of WWI
d. There was lots of complicated conflict
II. Emergence of the German Empire and the Alliance Systems (1873-1890)
a. Prussia was rising again with germany
i. Austria was weak
III. Bismarck's Leadership
a. He wanted to avoid more warsd so he said that germany was satisfied; no more imperialism
IV. War in the Balkans
a. Three Emporers League in 1873
i. Brought together Germany Austria and Russia
ii. It failed over some war
b. Russians made it into a damn crisis; exaggeration
c. Ottomans were forced to sue for peace
V. Congress of Berlin
a. With brit and austria and russia to review provisions of San Stefano
b. Bismarck called himself the "honest broker"
i. He wanted to avoif war
c. The congress took away russian colonies
i. Russians got pissed at everyone else
d. Balkans also got annoyed
VI. German Alliances with Russia and Austria
a. Germany allied with Austria Dual Alliance agaisnt eh russians
b. The treaty worked for a while 5 years and it got renewed
c. Bla
d. He thought that russia would never be reactionary enough to do anything
e. Agreement reduced tensions in balkans beween austria and russia
VII. The Triple Alliance
a. Italy wanted colonial expansion
i. Bismarcks policy was a success
ii. Reinsurance treaty in 1887 in which germany and russia were to remain neutral if
attacked
b. William II in german throne
c. He wanted recognition as equals with britain
d. Germany was safe as long as they were in the hands og bismarck
e. Russia, britain and france
VIII. Forgin the Triple Entente (1890-1907)
IX. Franco-Russian Alliance
a. After Bismarck all of his alliances collapsed.
b. He knew that ideological differences would not help
X. Britain and Germany
a. Britain was now back on top

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a. Britain was now back on top
b. Germany became the enemy of brits
c. Germany was jealous of brits navy
d. Germany blocked the brits attempt to do stuff in cape town
e. William II wanted navy too so he started building one
f. But it was doomed to fail
g. Joseph chamberlin made attempts to ally with germany
XI. The Entente Cordiale
a. Brits ended their isolation when they ended alliance with japan
b. Britain had some new relationship with France
XII. The First Moroccan Crisis
a. Germany tested brit and france relationship
b. Germayn flexed their muscles
XIII. British Agreement with Russia
a. Brit became fearful ofgermany's flexing
b. Two front war of france and brit reality
c. Bismarck made alliances to maintain peace but they ended up making it less praceful
XIV. Word War I

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Saturday, November 27, 2010
11:40 PM

I. World War I
II. The Road to War 1908-1914
a. Ottomans controlled balkan
b. They spoke the slavic language
i. They were eager for independence
c. European jackals? What?
d. The Young turks seized the ottomans in 1908
III. The Bosnian Crisis
a. Austria and Russia teamed up against the turkey
b. But they double crossed them
c. Germany was unhapy because they were dependent on the dual alliance
IV. The Second Moroccan Crisis
a. Germans sent a gunboat to morocco to protect german interests but britains got pissed
b. Brits always wanted to remain on top navally
c. Brits thouhg german were making a naval base
V. War in the Balkans
a. 1911 Italy attacked ottomans
b. Second balkan war or something.
c. Austrains wanted to limit serbians
d. Some wanted an all out attack.
e. Bunch of them were embarassed.
f.
g.
Sarajevo and the Outbreak of Was 1914
a. First balkan war
I. The Assassination
a. 19 year old erbian nationalist shot archduke francis ferdinand of austria; he was a memebr
of the cinspiracy grou Union
b. The guy was not popular in austra so no one cared
II. Germany and Austria's Response
a. The murder caused outrage in europe
b. German agreed to attack serbia
i. They gave the austrians a "blank check"
c. Specualtion
d. Bla
e. Russia was recovering and ewould eventually gain back their power
f. German support would deter russia
g. Austrains were slow to react
III. Triple Entente's Response
a. Russians got pissed at austrians
i. They ordred partial mobilization against austria only
b. Mobilization was considered an act of war though
c. France and Brit didn't want war.
i. Some countries had a conference to avoid war
d. If germany attacked france, brit must fight
e. Austrians countyer movilized against russia
i. Germany declared war on Russia- Schlieffen plan
f. This was the beginning of the great war
g. German bullying

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g. German bullying
h. Other cause mihgt be germany's desire to be a big power
i. Brits liked to be isolated
ii. Triple entente
IV. Strategies and Stalemate 1914-1917
a. War came as a release of tension. Deadly new modern warfare
b. Both sides wanted to take an offensive
c. Germany's strategist was schlieffen who wanted to sweep the belgian channel and envelope
the french and crush them.
d. This would violate belgian neutrality.
V. The War in the West
a. French underestimated germans and ov54rer estimated their own
b. Both sides dug trenches and hid in them
c. Assualts were expensice; brits introduced the tank which triumphed over machine guns
VI. The War in the East
a. Russians were beating the austriams
i. Germans were beating russians
b. Both sides wanteed alliesand they got it
i. Italia irredenta - the south tyrol
c. Japan honored alliance with brits and attacked germans; and they did some other stuff.
d. Wisnton Churchhill wanted to get around the alliance system.
e. It was a risky plan of churchill's
VII. America Enters the War
a. Woodrow wilson tried to bring peace but it didn't work
b. America broke diplomacy with germany after they said they would continue submarines
c. Wilson said he wanted to make thw owrld safe for democracy.
VIII. The Russian Revolution

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Saturday, November 27, 2010
11:40 PM

I. The Russian Revolution


a. Unexpected stuff
b. Russsina revolution in 1917
i. Tsar nicholas !! Collapsed in something
c. March Revolution in russia
d. Nicholas was weak and incompetatnt
II. The Provisional Government
a. Strikes and worker protests in saint petersburg
b. Various socilalist groups all around
c. Provisional government remained loyal to russia
III. Lenin and the Bolshviks
a. Bolsheviks were working against the provisional government
b. Lenin hammered about peace, bread, and land.
c. Trotsky let the petrograd soveits
IV. The Communist Disctatorship
a. Provisional gov decreed electionbolsheviks took rusia out of the war
b. Lenin had no chouse but to accpt in the name of peace
c. White russians- opposed the revolution
d. Red russinas- those who supported revolution
V. The End of World War I
a. Germans controlled eastern europe and its resources like food
i. Then the moved on to the west
b. Germany failed at breaking the west
VI. Germany's Last Offensive
a. Germany tried ot give once last effort
b. Fourteen points- proposed by wilson
i. Self determination for natinalities
ii. Open diplomacy
iii. Freedom of the seas
iv. Disamrament
v. Establish of the leagure of nations
VII. The Armistice
a. William II abdicated
i. Democratic party would prevent leninism
b. There was large casualties
c. Bla bla war in retrospect
d. Changes in the colonial world
VIII. The End of the Ottoman Empire
a. WWI was the end of the german austrian and russian empires and the ottoman empire
b. The ottomans started neutral but the young turks made it not neutral
c. Peace treaty signed in paris
i. MANDATES- territories that were legally administered under the auspices of the
league of nations
IX. The Settlement at Paris
a. The victorious people gathered at versaiilles
X. Obstacles the Peacemakers Faced
a. Nationalism was almost a secular religion
b. Wilson's idealism was more pragmatic

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b. Wilson's idealism was more pragmatic
c. Some agreements contradicted others sand thus were not honored
d. Peace without victors
XI. The Peace
a. Paris settlement was five treatise in all
b. Bla
XII. The League of Nations
a. The members vowed diplomacy
XIII. Germany
a. Main territorial issue was the fate of germany
b. Brit and uk allied with germany after the treaty
XIV. The East
XV. Reparations
a. Primarily for the damage that germany did
b. War guilt clause- blamed germany for everything
XVI. World War I and Colonial Empires
a. Changes to colonial world
XVII. Redistribution of Colonies into Mandates
a. Eventual dismemberment od the german empire
b. Covenant of leagure of nations established mandates
XVIII. Colonial Participation
a. Colonials had a role in the WWI
b. Years after the war were th e most direct involvement of the colonies.
XIX. Impact of the Peace Settlement on Future Colonial Relations
a. Colonial leaders thought that support in war would cause them to leave them alone
b. Actually no, but they rejected international involvement
c. Countries looked too powerful before the war
XX. Evaluation the Peace
a. Countries didn't like the peace treaty because they thought it meant they have to be nice to
the other countries
b. "It was not peace without victors"
XXI. The Economic Consequnces of the Peace
a. John Keynes was the most critical of it.
i. Economic consequnces of the Peace- attacke reparations; he hated the treaty of
versailles and called wilson a dummy
b. Brits became suspicious of france.
c. But the attacks on the treaty were unjustified. Isn't that a bias of the aurthor of the book?
XXII. Devisive New Boundaries and Tariff Walls
a. Since the treaty dissolved austria this meant that a bunch of trade routes were now messed
up.
b. Germans felt that they shouldn't have to admit defeat.
XXIII. Failure to Accpet Reality
a. The treaty left out germany and russia from the leagure of nations and they werw
important.
b. The treaty wasn't good enough to resolve the war and it wasn't good enough to prevent
another war.
XXIV. In Perspective
a. Unification of germany in 1871 transformed euro international ordrer
i. Lots of alliances under Germany
ii. After Bismarck Wilhelm came and he was really imperialist
b. Many diplomatic crises over the balksans and stuff
i. the assassination of the archduke caused a conflict that could not be contained.
c. Military stalemate
i. United states entered the war

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i. United states entered the war
d. Paris Peace Conference in 1919 they redrew tha map of europe
i. Establsihed the league of nations

This chapter

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