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PAUL CRESTON PRINCIPLES OF RHYTHM \ ‘Bebwin, Mills rsissinecon e MELVILLE, N.Y, 11746 Pra] LETT & ° ORAL ANOTHER) LIBRARY OF CONGHESS CATALOGUE CARD NUMMER: 6415438 ALL RIGHTS RESERVED coprmicars © 1961 Bx PAUL ORESTON corrnicur © 1964 uy FRANCO COLOMnO, INC, 16 wesr 61 sneer NSW yore 23, ». % MANUFACTURED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, ERRATA Page 3, line 8: "e.g. a J into ‘e J dang Page 33, lines 4 and 5: "Example 29 should read "Example 31"./ Page 83: Example 87 precedes the line above it. © Page 91, last paragraph, line 3: "Page 000" should read “ “page 69". Page 160: Under "Types of Trirhythmic Polymeters" ---= "Regular Subdivision Overlapping (2)" in category II should follow t “Regular Subdivision Overlapping (1)" in category I. Page 182, below first page of music of Sonata No; 1 --~- Scriabine: Copyright by Editions M.P, Belaleff. Used by permission of Boosey and Hawkes, Inc., sole agents. a Contents IntTROpucTION Tue Evements or Ruytam Meter—Metrical Notation~Pace—Accent—Pattern Pre-Ciassic DaNncr RHYTHMS Bourrée—Courante—Galliard-Gavotte-Gigue— Pavane~Sarabande Ruvramic Sravcruees Fist Structure: REGULAR Suapivision Seconp StRuCTURE: InnEcULAR SUBDIVISION Tam Structure: OVERLAPPING Fount: Sraucture: Recutan Susprvision Ovextarrinc Fiera Srnucrure: Inrecutan Suppiviston Oventarrine Poyarerens aND PovynstyrHMs Miscttanzous Devices * Compositional Rubato—Syncopation—Basic Patterns Ruyramic STaucturE as A WaoLe; SUMMARY Aprenpix I Principal Ancient Greck Meters—Rhythmic Modes— Mediaeval Meters—16th Centmy Meters Avpenpix IT Solutions of Exercises Bis.iocraPny 53 76 96 iL 129 142 161, 172 195 198 215 ii This book ts dedicated to my wife, whose dances inspired my very first compositions and served to introduce me to the magical realm of rhythm. ‘My deepest thanks are due Mr. Ralph Satz for his invalu- able criticism and suggestions, iii Introduction IN TECHNICAL ANALYSES OF MUSICAL MASTERPIECES, THEORISTS have been preoccupied mainly with thematic material, har- monic logic and formal structure. With rhythm they have been relatively unconcerned. In every school of music, a course in composition includes harmony, counterpoint, form and, some- times, melody. Rhythm is an unknown quantity. Even those outstanding composers who have directed their efforts toward revealing the secrets of their art have treated the subject either as an unwanted step-child or as a pale shadow of poetic meter. Paul Hindemith’s apology for the omission of rhythmic study betrays an all-too-prevalent intellectual lethargy in the matter; he writes: “. . . all questions of rhythm, as well as of the formal characteristics of composition which spring from it, are still so largely unexplained that it seems impossible at the pres- ent time to include rhythm as an integral part of a system of teaching the craft of composition.”” And Walter Piston’s curt dismissal is no less discouraging: “It is assumed that the con- ceptions meter and rhythm are understood. Meter is simply measure. Meter has no rhythm.”* Yet, as Karl Eschmann notes: “The literature on Rhythm is voluminous.”* What has been lacking is the special effort in coordinating the materials, resolving the confusion existent in this literature, and presenting the results in a thoroughly prac- tical organization in order to assist the student of composition in mastering the element of rhythm. Even a work as erudite and authoritative as Curt Sachs’, which is advisedly subtitled “A Study in Music History,” does not fulfill the student's need for basic principles and practical guidance. It must be admitted, there is confusion; and a sampling of the usual definitions of the term reveals distorted logic, vague fantasy or downright ignorance. Let us glance at some of these 1. Craft of Musical Composition, Vol. 1 2. Harmony. 3. Changing Forms in Modern Music. 4. Rhythm ond Tempo eee 0 — morsels of wisdom. 1. “Rhythm is that property or quality by which the ca- dences of every kind of movement are regulated and deter- mined.” (Dr. Busby (1755-1838), Dictionary) 2. “A particular arrangement of the alternately strong and weak sounds of a musical progression whereby, at regular or irregular intervals—that is, at every two, three, four or more bars—one sound of the progression (which the preceding sounds cause the ear to desire) conveys to the aural sense a feeling of rest, and the effect of a stop or close more or less complete.” (Matthis Lussy, Musical Expression) 3. “We shall call the constant measure by which the meas- urement of time is made~METRE; the kind of motion in that measure-RHYTHM.” (Moritz Hauptmann, The Nature of Harmony and Metre) 4. “Rhythm .. . is time, pace, metre and other things rolled into one, and it is not surprising that it has been used to name each of them singly.” (Grove’s Dictionary of Music and Musi- cians) 5. “Rhythm refers to the beat of the music—the time ele- ment.” (Sidney A. Reeve, The Rational Theory of Music) 6. “Rhythm is engendered by the motion of the musical picture, and manifests itself in the association of differing time- values.” (Percy Goetschius, Materials of Composition) 7. “The disposition of Melody or Harmony, in respect of Time or Measure is termed Rhythm.” (John Wall Callcott, A Musical Grammar) 8, “Rhythm is Order and Proportion in Space and Time.” (Vincent d’Indy, Course in Composition) 9. “Musical rhythm . . . bases itself upon the regular heart- beat of a uniform time-unit, and derives its satisfactions from the many and subtle combinations of pulse-groupings that can be developed upon this, and from the increasingly varied means for their expression.” (Geo. Coleman Gow, “Rhythm: the Life of Music,” Musical Quarterly, October, 1915) 10. “The term Rhythm is constantly erroneously applied. It has only one true meaning in music—the number of bars in a phrase.” (G, Egerton Lowe, “What is Rhythm?”, Musical Times, aly, 1942) This last pronouncement is probably the masterpiece of in- tellectual egotism, especially in the light of Curt Sachs’ more humble approach: “What is rhythm? The answer, I am afraid, is, so far, just--a word: a word without a generally accepted meaning,” However, to separate the chaff from the wheat, sev- eral definitions which seem to pierce the veil of mystery should also be noted: 1. “Rhythm is ordered movement.” (Plato) 2. “Rhythm is an ensemble of accents disposed according toa certain order.” (Aristides Quintillianus [c. 100 a.v.] ) 3, “Rhythm is the art of well-ordered movements.” (St. Augustine ) 4, “Musical rhythm is the organization of sonorous move- ment.” (Ph. Biton, Le rythme musical) 5. “The nature of rhythm may be defined as the periodic quality, regular or irregular, of all movement.” (Margaret H. Glyn, Theory of Musical Evolution) 6. “Rhythm, in music, is the organization of duration.” (Maurice Emmanuel, Le rythme d’Euripide d Debussy) Perhaps an account of the author’s rhythmic experience will best clarify the reason for presenting this book as an answer to the confusion and neglect in the study of rhythm. When I began teaching composition, I assumed that rhythm was nat- urally one of the elements of composition and therefore in- cluded it in my course. I had noticed that, intuitively, I fol- lowed certain principles and I formulated these principles in such manner as would best aid the student in practising them himself, But I asked myself: “Are these principles applicable to my music only or are they present in the music of other com- posers?” An examination, from the purely rhythmic aspect, of a great deal of music from the 17th to the 20th centuries re- vealed that they were not original with me, but rather had always existed, although no article or book had presented them in quite the same form. After many years of teaching the sub- ject, I was convinced that there was need for a textbook such as mine. This called for much further research, this time on the literature dealing with the subject, as well as the culling of spe- cific examples, The “voluminous” literature of which Eschmann writes is, with insignificant exceptions, of the theoretic type and of little practical yalue to students of composition. ed vi It is my hope that this book will prove genuinely valuable to composition students. But in order to prepare them as to what to expect, I shall outline the purpose and scope of the book: 1. It is primarily for students of composition. No attention, therefore, is given to “performing” rhythm, although the per- former will derive some benefit from a knowledge of the prin- ciples formulated. 2. Its purpose is practical not theoretic, For this reason, and in order to avoid elaborate discussions of certain points, it is necessary, at times, to be doctrinal in the expression of an idea. 3. It deals with mensurable rhythm in the music of Western civilization from the 17th century to the present day. Hence, there are no discussions of Arabian, East Indian or African rhythms, and references to mechanical, physiological or cosmic rhythms are virtually non-existent. (The time spent on deter- mining whether a sleeping person breathes in 2/4 or 3/4 can be more profitably utilized with problems of musical rhythms. ) ‘The limitation of “mensurable” rhythm also explains the omis- sion of Gregorian rhythm and the practices of such modern rhythmists as Olivier Messiaen. 4, It is by no means an exhaustive study. Rather, I consider it more an introduction to the study of rhythm. On the other hand, it is not a mere codification of past practices, but in- cludes contemporary devices and offers clues to future ramifi- cations of the principles evolved. 5. Two extremes have been avoided: (a) presenting all material ready-made and in “pre-digested” form; and (b) leav- ing the student entirely to his own devices. Guidance and dis- cipline are necessary—but so is personal experimentation. 6. Although solutions to certain exercises are given in Appendix II, the instructor should devise additional exercises similar in principle to those given. CHAPTER ONE The Elements of Rhythm IF WE COMBINE MAURICE EMMANUEL'S DEFINITION OF MUSICAL thythm! with that of Plato’s for rhythm in general,? we have one which will prove a practical guide in our study. This re- sultant definition is: “Rhythm, in music, is the organization of duration in ordered movement.” The value of this definition is its comprehensiveness, being applicable to one measure of music as well as to a phrase or an entire composition, Attention must be brought to the word “organization,” for, as Max Schoen states:* “There can be no rhythm in a simple duration, ‘The duration must be broken up into units, whether of equal or unequal periods, to give rise to rhythm.” In a single measure the pulses (commonly called “beats”) are the units of dura- tion; in a phrase, the measures themselves become the units; while in an entire composition we think of durational units in terms of formal sections or segments of time in minutes. There are four elements comprised in a rhythm and which determine a primary “organization of duration in ordered movement,” namely: MereR, PACE, ACCENT and parrenn.t A change of even one of these elements results in an alteration of shythm. For example, if the meter of the following rhythm 1, “Le rythme est, en musique, Vorganisation de la durée.” (Rhythm, in music, is the organization of duration,) Le rythme @'Burlpide a Debussy, 2.'“Rhythm is ordered movement.” 3. The Psychology of Music. 4. “Meter” is commonly termed “time” (3/4 time, 6/8 time, etc.) and “pace” is traditionally called “tempo” (slow tempo, moderate tempo, etc), Both traditional terms, “time” and Frempo" ve ingetnite and inaccurate, and in this hook are replaced by “metex” and “pace,” respectively. By “pattern” is meant syle of & pulse or beat ito smaller units, eg, a Pit: am, FRA vee ls EXAMPLE 1 sees is changed to EXAMPLE we have a change of rhythm, If instead of moderato we change the pace to allegro, or shift the accents to the so-called weak pulses, or alter the pattern to one of sixteenth notes, we also have a change of rhythm. ‘This fact is further demonstrable by a comparison of the waltz, the sarabande, the mazurka and the polonaise. All four rhythms are in 3/4 meter. However, the rhythms vary in pace, accent or pattern, as the following table shows: RXAMPLE 3 Waltz Sarabande Mazurka Polonaise Therefore, to refer to a rhythm as 3/4 or 2/4 rhythm, or as fast or slow, would be an incomplete description. The four ele- ments are the irreducible minimum in the classification of any thythm. There are other factors involved which arise from the manipulation of these elements, particularly of meter, accent and pattern, and these factors will be dealt with in their proper place. It is seen, then, that “rhythm” and “meter” axe not synony- mous. Meter is only one element in the organization of dura- tion, while rhythm is all-inclusive. This conception will become clearer as we deal with the various elements of rhythm and rhythmic structures (Chapter III through VII). METER Meter is the grouping of pulses within a single measure or a frame of two or more measures. “Meter” is commonly termed “time” (3/4 time, 6/8 time, etc.) and “pace” is traditionally called “tempo” (slow tempo, moderate tempo, ete.). Both traditional terms, “time” and “tempo” are indefinite and in- accurate, and in this book are replaced by “meter” and “pace,” respectively. By “pattern” is meant any subdivision of a pulse or beat into smaller units,e.g.a @ into 9, da. “Pulse” (or “metrical pulse”) is the term used in this study to desig- nate what is commonly called “beat” (or “metrical beat”). For example, 3/4 meter consists of three pulses to a measure, each of quarter-note value; 6/8 meter consists of two pulses to a measure, each of dotted quarter-note value, The term “beat” is reserved for the actual rhythmic beat which may or may not coincide with the metrical pulse. In the following rhythm Exam 4 the metrical pulse and the rhythmic beat are one and the same. But in Example 5, the pulse is again of quarter-note value, but the actual rhythmic beat is of dotted quarter-note value. EXAMPLE 5 ‘This latter rhythm brings up another element of meter, the unit, which also may or may not coincide with the pulse or with the beat. In Example 4, pulse, beat and unit are of equal value or coincide; while in Example 5 the common unit for pulse and beat (which in this case do not coincide) is the eighth note, so that the rhythm might be diagrammed as fol- lows: EXAMPLE 6 ‘A well-known application of this rhythm is Chopin's “Waltz in A fiat, Op. 42.” EXAMPLE 7 In other words, meter is comprised of three elements: pulses, beats and units. These three elements may all be equal to one another (coincide or be synchronous) as in Example 4; or the beat may be larger than the pulse, as in Example 8; or smaller than the pulse, as will be shown in the section dealing with irregular subdivision. To the author's knowledge, this distinction between pulse and beat has not been made by other writers on rhythm, perhaps because most music is metrically based on coincidental pulses and beats. However, after study- ing the rhythmic structures discussed in later chapters, the reader will realize the importance of this distinction in classify- ing certain rhythms. For reasons of convenience or practicality, the grouping of pulses is sometimes not contained in a single measure, but in a frame of two or more measures. The Mendelssohn “Scherzo” (Example 8a), written in 3/8, would imply three pulses to a measure, However, the pace is too fast to beat in 3 and the Piece is actually conducted 1 beat to the measure. A whole measure, therefore, becomes the value of one pulse, and the metrical structure is, in this particular case, a frame of two measures or a dimeter. The Ravel example (8b) is also a dimeter. EXAMPLE 8 4. Scherzo from “A Midsummer Night's Dream — Mendelssohn b, La Valse — Ravel —_— 4920, Permision for reprint granted by Durand & Cie, P Covrsg Vogel Coy Ine Philadelphie Pao agen, cownet? aris France, copyright When Beethoven writes in the Scherzo of his 9th Sym- phony: EXAMPLE 9) Ritmo di tee Dattate the metrical pulse is not the quarter-note but the dotted half- note, and the rhythm could just as well be written in 9/4. The change, later in the movement, to “Ritmo di quattro battute” may have dictated the use of 3/4 throughout, besides the cus- tom of 3/4 meter for the third movement of the traditional symphony. This, as well as the following example, implies a frame of three measures for the grouping of pulses, and is consequently a trimeter. exaras 10 L’Apprenti sorcier — Dukas Rythme ternaire ——7, Copyright 1906, Permission for repeint granted by Durand & Cle, Parit, France, copyright ‘owner, Eikan-Vogel Co. ines Philadeiphixs Pass agentes ae This conception of pulse-grouping makes possible a classifi- cation of meters in terms of the number of measures compris- ing the meter, as follows: MONOMETER _itteter of one measure DIMETER meter of two measures ‘TRIMETER meter of three measures TETRAMETER meter of four measures PENTAMETER meter of five measures UEXAMETER meter of six measures, ete. Most meters, of course, are monometers, but many examples of dimeters, trimeters, etc. will be found in the chapters on Regular Subdivision Overlapping and Irregular Subdivision Overlapping. A rhythm which changes meter every measure or every few measures is a multimeter, and one which employs two or more meters simultaneously is a polymeter. hill ExanerLe 11 MULTIMETERS a. Chanson Albanaise from “Balkan Songs and Dances” — Slavenski Used by permision of Milana Slaverski b. Bagatelle, Op. 6 No. 10 — Bartok Sie dle 2p Used by permision of the original publisher, Kdltio Musica, Budapest. POLYMETERS ¢. Balletto ~ G. B. Vitali . Minuet from Don Giovanni — Mozart DON GIOVANNI — Vieni con me vi-tal MaserTo e. Final movement of Symphony No. 2— Crestoa Copyright 1954, Used by permission of G, Schirmer, Ine. Muitimeters and polymeters are more prevalent in pre- classic and twentieth century music than in musi¢ of other periods. In fact, the chapter on Overlapping will reveal that multimetric rhythm was almost common practice with 16th century composers, usually concealed behind a single metric notation. When 2 multimeter follows a regular pattern of change, it is termed a metrical sequence. Brahms’ Variations on a Hun- garian Song, Op. 21 No, 2, follows a metrical sequence of 3/4:4/4; Scriabine’s Prelude, Op. 11 No. 16 is in 5/8:4/8; the author’s String Quartet has in the first movement a se- quence of 4/4:3/4:2/4 and in the third movement 15/8:21/8; and in his Seven Theses, the following metrical sequences are eee “fn employed: No. 1=4/4:5/4:6/4:5/4 No. 3-2/4:3/4:5/4 No, 5~4/8:3/8:2/8:3/8 No. 6-2/8:8/8:3/8:4, sxanrtac 12 METRICAL SEQUENCES a Variations on a Hungarian Song, Op. 21 No. 2— Brahms Allegro b, Prélude, Op. 11 No, 16— Seriabine a 2 Gopysight by Ealeons MP, Bole, Used by permission of Boosey & Haske, Ine sole age «. String Quartet, Op. 8 — Creston Allegro \wed by courteay of the publisher, Templeton Publishing Co,, Inc, Delaware Water Gap, Pea It must be noted that one important distinction between metrical and free rhythm is that the pulses in the former are always af equal value, In Gregorian Chant, as an example of free rhythm, the pulsation is equal to two or three eighth notes, shifting from one to the other. So long as the metrical pulse is constant, a composition’s rhythm is metrical even though there may be changes of meter. As will be shown in a later chapter, these changes of meter are often unnecessary in notation. ‘The matter of strong and weak pulses in a measure (termed respectively “primary pulse” and “secondary pulse”) is one which has existed more in theory than in practice. Theoreti- cally, the first pulse of each measure is strong and the other (or others) weak. While this is true in some music, such as church hymns, dances and marches, the greater tendency has been to conceal, disguise, obscure or even ignore the promi- nence of primary pulses. Even in some dance thythms, for ee ee ee ne eee een ee see example, such as the sarabande and the mazurka (Example 3) the strong pulse is shifted away from the first of the measure. Strong and weak pulses are plainly distinguishable, and natur- ally so, in Schubert’s “Marche Militaire”: EXAMPLE 13 Marche Militaire, Op. 15 No. J — Schubert 2 (pg te) ey but only the most insensitive musician would make a strong first pulse in the second measure (at *) of Schumann's “Traumerei’ EXAMPLE 14 ‘Tritumerei from “Scenes from Childhood,” Op. 15 ~ Schumann — * Mozart and Beethoven did not hesitate to place strong accents on traditionally weak pulses of a measure. Exauene 15 ‘a, Final Movement of Violin Sonata in Bt (K. 454) ~ Mozart we b, Piano Sonata No. 5 in Cm, Op. 10 No, 1 — Beethoven we PF AE It was the pedantic insistence on the relative strength of pulses in a meter which gave rise to the “tyranny of the bar- line,” producing a mass of purely metrical rather than rhythmic music. The transference of poetic meters to music perhaps con- tributed to this misconception: But the element of pattern in musical rhythm, making possible many and varied subdivisions of a pulse or a beat (non-existent in poetry), is an important distinction, and should restrain us from pressing too far the analogy of poetic te musical meter. The fallacy of strong pri- mary pulses also led a number of pedants to decry the masters’ misharring of their music, accusing them of beginning a phrase on the first pulse of a measure when it was obviously an upbeat phrase. But the masters intuitively felt meter as a grouping of pulses, and allowed strong pulses to occur wherever the musical idea demanded. Nevertheless, primary and secondary pulses do exist in rhythm if not always in meter, and understanding their tradi- tional conception metrically will clarify their use rhythmically. Moreover, the proper notation of certain rhythms is dependent on this conception of relative pulse strength. For these reasons, the table of music meters will include indications of primary, secondary and, when present, tertiary pulses. Thus far we have viewed, in the main, the organization of duration within one measure and in terms of pulse-groups. When we consider rhythm beyond the measure, ie. the rhythm of the phrase, another factor enters our plan, one which plays an important role in characterizing a rhythm. This factor is concerned, on the one hand, with the type of initial “ictus” or impulse employed in generating the phrase rhythm and, on the other hand, with the final “ictus” resolving that rhythm. These types of ictus are called “species of rhythm,” and are, conse- quently, in two groups: A. Initial Species 1) stmonc-purse'—first sound on a primary pulse. 2) weax-putse—first sound before a primary pulse. 3) sment-putse—silent primary pulse. B. Terminal Species 1) srronc-purse—final sound on a primary pulse. 2) weax-purse~final sound on a secondary pulse, 3) poveran—final sound becomes initial sound of succeeding phrase, 5, Tn conformity with foregoing explanations, the word “pulse” has been substituted for what most writers call “beat.” The latter would he satisfactory were we dealing exclusively with purely metrical musi (as distinet from “bythinie) where pulse ard beat always coincide, But, as already stated, some stinction must lie made for music In which the accented rhythmic beat does not coinside with the underlying pulsation, which, furthermore, accounts for the fascination and effectiveness of certain rhythms. be are Following are musical examples illustrating the six species of rhythm: EXAMPLE 16 fRONG-PULSE (Initial) a, Sonata, Longo 475 — Scarlatti b. Organ Prelude ancl Fugue in C minor~ J. $. Bach WEAK-PULSE (Initial): ce. Romanze from Symphony No. 4 — Si d. Auf Fligelndes Gesanges, Op. 34 No. 2 — Mendelssobn 4 SILENT-PULSE (Initial ): «Ist ovement of Symphony No. 6 — Beethoven eae aars eS £. Prelude from English Suite No. 2 —J. 8, Buch 5 STRONG-PULSE (Terminal): & Prelude No. 17, Book I, Well-Tempered Clavier — J. S. Bach { WEAK-PULSE (Tenninal): h, Fugue No. 1, Book Il, Well-Ten:pered Clavier — J. §. Bach BeheesS Peer ee eee ere oe eeeepeneene eee een eee 12 1. Ist Movement of Symphony No. 8 ~ Beethoven Stroag Weak ‘Pale Prise _ DOVETAIL: j. Fugue No. 7, Book Il, WelTempered Clavier ~ J. S. Bach oe k, Noctume, Op. 15 No. 1 Chopit To complete the analysis of these species, we must note that of the examples of initial species: the Schumann and Beetho- ven examples are stRoNG-Putse in terminal species, and the Scarlatti is weak-PuLse; and of the terminal species examples (g), (j) and (k) are stnonc-ruzse (initial) as both phrases of (i) are, and (}) is siuenr-Puxse (initial). Jt must be understood that the term “primary pulse” is used in a larger sense than heretofore; to designate a strong pulse whether it is the first of a measure or not and “secondary pulse” is used to designate a weak pulse, wherever it may occur. In the foregoing examples, the pulse strength is of the traditional type. But there are many themes which are defi- uitely wEaK-Putse even though they begin on the first pulse of the measure, like the following: EXAMPLE 17 WEAK-PULSE 8. Prelude No. 13, Book Il, Well-Tempered Clevier ~ J. $. Bach 3 — fies fees b. Novelletten, Op. 21 No. 1 ~ Schumann 4 13 And there are those which are stronc-Putse even though they begin on a traditionally wrax-rutse wxaniris 18 strong-Pulse a, Nocturne, Op. 87 No. 1 — Chopin pees b. Nocturne, Op. 55 No. I — Chopin ‘The same applies to the terminal species, as in the phrase end- ing of Example 18b, which is stronc-ruiss though on a tradi- tionally secondary pulse." Albert Schweitzer wisely warns, re- garding the interpretation of Bach’s music, that “.. . to play Bach rhythmically means accenting not the downbeat but the emphatic beat.” (Author's italics) QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES 1. What is rhythm in music? 2. Name the four elements of rhythm. 3. Define meter. 4, Name the elements of meter. 5. What is a monometer? a pentameter? a trimeter? a dimeter? 6. Define multimeter and polymeter. 7. What distinguishes metrical rhythm from free rhythm? 8. Define “primary pulse” and “secondary pulse.” Where does primary pulse traditionally occur in a measure? 9. Write several melodic examples, each of two measures’ length, illustrating each of the following initial species of rhythm: a) STRONG-PULSE. b) WEAK-PULSE. c) SILENT-PULsE. (It is understood that, for the present, only monometers are to be used.) 10. Write several melodic examples, each of two measures’ length, illustrating each of the following terminal species of rhythm: a) STRONG-PULSE. b) WEAK-PULSE. Cc) DOVEFAZL. 6, stonc-ruzse has been termed “thesis” (by the Greeks), “arsis” (by the Romans), “masculine” or “downbeat” (by later writers) WEAK-PULSE has been termed “arsis” (by, the Greeks), “thesis” (by the Romans), “feminine,” “up-beat” or “anacrusis” (by later wiiters) The common, simple terms employed in this book are devised in the hope of avoiding confusion, 14 METRICAL NOTATION Before studying the table of music meters, the student is advised to examine the various tables of ancient meters found in Appendix I. He will realize that some composers still cling to the signs © for 4/4 and ¢ for 2/2, which are relics of ancient notation, Even with the exclusive use of fractions" to designate meter, our present system of rhythmic notation is not quite consistent, for, whereas in binary meters (2/4, 4/4) the denominator represents the value of the pulse, in ternary meters (6/8, 9/8) it represents the value of the primary uni Dalcroze® sought to overcome this dual system by substituting a note for the denominator, thus: 4/ fF equals 4/4, 2/p- equals 6/8, etc; while Villa-Lobos, Honegger, and others merely write the numerator, from which the musician assumes it represents the number of pulses in a measure, usually of quarter-note value, Another inconsistency, as pointed out by Henry Cowell,?° is the various interpretations of the same note in terms of dura- tion. For example, the notes in Example 19 are all referred to as quarter-notes, RxAMPLE 19 In reality, those in 19 (b) are sixth notes and those in 19 (c) are 3/16 notes. This conclusion is quite logically arrived at by basing our calculations on the whole note as equal to 7, It is understood that “time-signatures” are not literally “fractions.” This tenn is merely a convenience in referring to them. 8. A binary meter is one whose primary units (the division into the next smaller uit) of exch pulse are two. A temary meter is one whose primary units are three. For example, 2/4 is binary, because the primary units of each pulse (quarter-note) are two eighth notes; while 6/8 is ternary, because the Primary units of each pulse (in this case, the dotted quarter-note) are three eighth notes. The traditional terms are “simple” (binary) and “compound” (eeaty) which are inaccurate and misleading There is nothing simple about 8 7/4 meter (binary), nor anything compound about a nary) which i ing poop os pA rg th» Cee wt 9. Ahythm, Music and Education. 10. New Musical Resources ‘a four quarter-notes or eight eighth notes, etc.; or as expressed by sixteenth century writers, “the semibreve (whole note) is the mother of the other notes.” Consequently, the whole note would logically be equal to three third notes, six sixth notes, ten tenth notes, and so on. However, Mr. Cowell's solution of reverting to differently shaped notes to represent third notes, sixth notes, etc., is neither practical nor necessary, Th system of variously shaped notes is recommended by Sidney A. Reeve" to repre- sent sharps and flats. It was just the idea of practicality in writ- ing which abolished square-shaped and diamond-shaped notes ‘As Sylvia Townsend Warner"? expresses it so well: “No in- vented notation is likely to supplant a notation which has been evolved.” It is not surprising that examples of ambiguous metric nota- tion will be found even in the works of the masters. Schumann's “Des Abends” and Chopin’s Prelude in C are written in 2/8 when they should be in 6/16; Ravel’s “Chanson Romantique” is written as a metrical sequence of 6/8:3/4, with no indica- tion of the relative value of pulses or units (whether } equals dor J equals J, preceding), instead of 6/8 alone, and the same situation occurs in Toch’s piano piece Op. 32 No. 1; Beethoyen writes, in Variation 2 of Opus 111, 6/16 instead ot maintaining the 9/16; Brahms’ Sonata, Op. 1, second move ment, presents several measures in 3/16 which are really in 6/32, and his Sonata, Op. 2, first movement, has forty measures in 3/4 when mere convenience, if nothing else, should have dictated 9/8. sam EXAMPLE 20 a, Des Abends from Fantasiestieke, Op. 12 — Schumann S16 Baas = LL, The Rational Theory of Music. 12. In Grove's Dictionary. 16 b, Brélude, Op. 98 ~ Chopin 24) 2846, . Chanson Romantique from “Don Quichotte @ Duleinée — Ravel (fe , ee should be—-| Jue 19M Mermislon for reprint granted by Durand & Gie, Pars, France, copyright IEBs-Vowsl Gown tne Phulsdatphisy Pay agents a d. 3 Klavierstioke, Op. 32 No. 1 Copyrigint 1925, renewed 1952, by B. Scott's Soetne . Variation 2 from Piano Sonate, Op. 111 ~ Beethoven orpesiey HS Ss SE £, 3nd Movement, Piano Sonata, Op. J — Brahms 2 & g Ist Movement, Piano Sonata, Op, 2— Brahms =% > on Such cases are not frequent. But their occurrence, even occasionally, in the works of Bach, Beethoven, Brahms, Schu- mann, Wagner, Ravel and composers of similar stature, reveals the long-standing confusion regarding our metric notation, If the present day composer, however, should begin to com- miserate himself in this plight, he can easily find consolation in the tribulations of the mediaeval musician and the chaos of that period’s notational system. At that time, almost each composer and each copyist had his own theory of notation. Despite dualism, inconsistency and confusion, our present system of rhythmic notation is very practical if we bear in mind the following facts: 1. A meter is a grouping of pulses.* The entire history of thythmic notation up to the innovations of Daleroze, Villa- Lobos and others, reinforce this conception of meter as pulse- groups. Psychologists and writers on rhythm have elaborated ad nauseam on the tendency of the mind to group into two's, three’s, ete. any series of regular, periodic sounds: footsteps, heartbeats, clock-ticks, etc. and it is only natural that this ten- dency has been apotheosized in musical meter. 2, This conclu- sion would make the binary meters sufficient were it not for the musical possibility and practice of subdividing pulses into three (as well as two) units, thereby necessitating the ternary me- ters. 3. While the two classifications of binary and ternary are dictated by convenience, the large number of meters exists through custom. For example, a 6/8 meter could be written in 2/4, but it would require the numeral “3” over each group of three eighth notes, This inconvenience is quite apparent in the Brahms example of incorrect notation (Example 20g). And were it not for custom or habit, all meters with 2, 16, or 32 as 13, The aspect of meter as duration is discussed on page 34 under Pattern. ls 18 denominator (4/2, 2/2, 6/16, 6/32) could be dispensed with. Actually there is no difference in sound whether we write 3/2 3 =60 or 3/4 J = 60 or 3/8 + = 60. But the musician has always associated whole notes and half notes with breadth, and sixteenth and thirty-second notes with speed. It is this appeal to the visual impression which the composer considers when he writes a majestic piece in 2/2 instead of 2/4, Another con- sideration in the choice between, say 3/2 and 3/8, is that of the smallest unit employed in a piece. If a piece written in 3/2 were to have 16th notes, [77JJ37d_, they would have to be written in 3/8 as 64th notes, FAR FFs] » which would be rather cumbersome. 4. Three signs are of great assistance in obtaining almost any fraction or multiple of a pulse: the dot, the tie, and the group numeral.'* Whenever convenient, the dot or tie or both should be employed in preference to the numeral. For example: EXAMPLE 21 write instead of | write. toad of Aen In slow-paced rhythms it is advisable for practical reasons to employ a notation which clearly reveals where each pulse occurs. Example 22 (b) and (d) would be practical at a very fast pace but quite difficult at a slow pace. The versions at (a) and (c) which show the exact position of each pulse (0) make them simple of execution, ogee 22 (in slow pace) be a Ty Ape intaaot ZI a. inatend of 19 Note in the following table of meters that the meters are divided into two classifications: Binary and Ternary, and that each classification has a sub-classification dependent on the number of pulses in a measure: Duple (two pulses), Triple (three pulses), etc. 2/2 or 2/4 or 2/8, therefore, is duple binary meter, while 6/4 or 6/8 or 6/16 is duple ternary meter. 14, The dot as used for additional value, as in a dotted quarter-note, ‘The Zune as wed for a group of notes more of Tess than the normal number, tir M24 or Bin 678 BXAMPLE 23 MUSIC METERS a. BINARY Triple = yy yy = vy it ingen Cee ererer Quadruple v £ SS SSSS5 freeeeeee| trererer| erererer| Quintuple cage eeeee ‘rereeeeere) thorerceer Soptuple -E 19 b, TERNARY Duple Triple , = reereeeee SS Quadruple , ee rrereeeceeee| Cercercerter| cercereereer oF = Owintuple : Septuple * Possible Sextuple (slow pace): Rieti Coreertercereer Vo. Yoo Cercercercercercer cer yoo. ** Possible Sextuple *** Possible Sextuple (slow pace): etnies (slow pace): ale eS] 7 becomes binary ChOrerererce [ee eaS becomes 18/16 becomes binary vemains ternary COeererey cereercereereereee mxanres 24 Examples of UNCOMMON AND RARE METERS a. Variation 11 from Variations on a Thome of Schumann, Op. 9 — Brahms x ” + x 2 ay SS a a . Gigue from Partita No, 6 ~ J. F. Bach Allegro SSS ce. Pugue No. 8, Book I, Well-Tempered Clavier —J. 8. Bach Adagio alla breve (+#/2) 4. Organ Chorale Pretude “Aus lefer Noth Schrei Teh xu Dir” J.8. Bach 2g F €. No. 6 from Piano Pieces, Op. 97 (Part II) — Hindemith dss2 eh t notated a Copyright 1927, renewed 1955 by B. Schott’s Soehne £. No. 3 from Sept pieces bréves — Honegger Tr’ tent (= 56) Copyright. 1921, renewed 1949, by Baltions Max Eschig, proprietor of the copyright (or au Cobntties, Used by penniston a1 22 No, 12 from Piano Works, Op. 40 — Copyright 1927, cenewed 1956, by B. Schott Soehne, 1h, Mikrokosmos No, 113, Vol. 4— Bartok Copyright 1810 ty Hawkes & Som (London) Li 4, Mikrokosmos No. 115, Vol. 4— Bartok Copyright 1940 by Hawkes & Son (London) Ld. j. Fugue No. 11, Book Hf, Well-Tempered Clavier — J. §, Bach ——— Let Movement of Syrephony No, 9 — Brabms 23 1m, Prelude to “Parsifal” — Wagner 1. Gigue from Partita No. 4 —J. 8. Bach inaorrecty 1 motates ae are feel PS Copyright 1022, renewed 1950, by sheitkopt Publications, Ine p. Prelude No. 13, Book I, Well-Tempered Clavier — J. 8, Bach Goer 4: Fugue No. 4, Book I, Well-Tempered Clavier — J. S. Buch = aa 1. Drei Klavierstiicke, Op. 82 No. 2—Toch A5/g Copyright 1925, renewed 1952, by B. Schote’s Sochne, s. String Quartet, Op. 8 — Creston 2g 15/9 wet oe Used by courtesy of che publisher, Templeton Publishing Co., tne., Delaware Water Gap, Fa, Other unusual meters are noted in the section on Pattern, on page 42. The matter of rests in notation requires some considera- tion. There is dualism also here in our system, but the follow- ing guiding points should help in clarifying correct usage. lg In all meters, whether binary or ternary, the whole rest 3 always signifies silence for the entire measure. It may not be employed to equal a rest of whole note value (in other words, for two silent pulses) in meters with 2 as denominator (3/2, 4/2, 5/2) except in 2/2 where it is equivalent to a whole measure, hore -=S SS S— Se In 5/4, four pulses of silence are designated by two half rests (and not one whole rest) or by quarter- and half-rests. Correct hore === Correct 5/4 is subdivided into 3 +2 or 2 +3, never as 4+ 1. The fol- lowing examples will be a guide concerning sounds and silences: Otherwise, the rest signs are equivalent in silence to their corresponding note values. =r Sr iP ‘7/4 is treated similarly as 4 + 3 or 3 + 4. Binary meters PY eto Pr ete ‘Ternary meters The dotted half rest sign of ternary meters must not be used in binary meters. honet 2 Cnet RS A half rest is used only on primary or secondary (not tertiary) pulses. (Refer to 4/4 in table of meters for explanation. ) 5 Incorrect Correct In 3/4 meter a silence of two pulses is noted by two quarter rests. ee ——————| Correct The same rule applies to 3/2 for half rests and 3/8 for eighth rests. Incorrect ¥f Correct In ternary meters a quarter rest may be used in place of two eighths when the rest occurs on a pulse. Correct Incorrect, Corrected Ternary meters with 4 or 16 as denominator are treated simi- larly. QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES 1. Define binary meter and name six binary meters. 2, Define ternary meter and name six ternary meters. 3. Name a) the triple binary meters; b) the triple teary meters; c) the quadruple binary meters; d) the quintuple teary meter. 4, Write short, simple melodies (four to eight measures long) int the following meters: 2/4, 3/2, 4/8, 5/4, 6/8, 9/16, 15/8. 5. Write two accompaniments for piano in each of the meters given below in any type of figuration desired; left hand alone, right hand alone, both hands, melodic line, chords, broken chords, etc, Each example need not be more than one or two measures long, it being assumed that the figuration would continue throughout the section or entire piece: 2/2, 3/8, 4/2, 5/8, 1/8, 8/4, 9/8, 12/16, The following are specimens of what is meant by figuratior xan 25 8, Prélude No, 24 ~ Chopin Allegro appassionato ¥ J b, Prélude No, 3~ Chopin Vivace oe 4. Sed Movement of Piano Sonate, Op. 27 No. 2— Beethoven Presto agitato . Suite for Viola and Piano ~ Bloch Copyright 1920. Used by permision of G. Schirmer, Inc. 6. Do the sume in the following meters, utilizing rests as part of the figuration: 3/4, 6/8, 9/4, 3/2, 5/4, 7/4. Specimens: tb, i8 GT aT PACE Pace is the rate at which the pulses of a meter occur, noted in music by the metronome indication J =60, d =72, etc. it is commonly referred to as “tempo,” an unsatisfactory term. mpo” in Ttalian, like “time” in English, has a number of meanings, even in music, such as: duration, pace, meter, etc. There is very little to be said of this element which is not quite obvious, except that it is affected to some degree by meter and pattern. A large meter (4/4, 12/8, 5/4) gives the feeling of slower pace than a small meter (2/4, 6/8), even though the actual rate of pulses is the same. This is due, nat- urally, to the more widely-spaced primary metrical pulses, as the following experiment with simple counting will demon- strate: EXAMPLE 26 4/4 123 4 1234 1234 2/4 12 12 12 12 Similarly, a large unit of pattern, d or ¢ , gives the feel- ing of slower pace than a small unit, b, # or }, even though meter and pace are the same as in Example 27: EXAMPLE 27 a4 did jd id | 2/4 FFT FT| Since this book is concerned only with compositional rhythm, that element of pace known as “rubato” is not dis- cussed. Mention will be made, however, in a later chapter, of “compositional rubato.” aT 28 ACCENT | Accent is the very life of rhythm. Without it, meter is a monotonous series of pulse-groups; pace has no real sense of { motion; and pattern can become a nebulous elaboration. But we are accustomed to thinking of accent only in terms of dynamics or tone intensity, which is merely the most obvious and perhaps the most elementary type of accent. There are various more subtle ways of rendering prominent a certain tone, and any means which draws attention to, singles out, or gives special significance to a tone, is a form of accent. Accent, therefore, is that element of rhythmwhich makes prominent or emphasizes a pulse or beat. There are eight types ) of accent accomplishing this emphasis, which may be em- ployed individually or in combination, namely: 1. Dynamic, [ 2. Agogic, 3. Metric, 4. Harmonic, 5. Weight, 6. Pitch, 7. Pat- tern, and 8, Embellished. Of these eight types, the metric accent is often implied or felt rather than heard.’* 1. The dynamic accent emphasizes a pulse or beat by méans of tone intensity, i.e. a tone louder than the others, noted in the usual manner by +, > or «&. It is a qualitative accent. This is the most common and best understood type of f accent, and one that is dependent on the performer rather than being inherent in the musical structure itself. EXAMPLE 28 a, Sonata, Longo 375 ~ Scarlatti 15, A ninth type of accent could be included, tone-color; but it is not dis- cussed here because it rightly belongs in the realm of orchestration. It is that type which might be expressed by a stroke on the triangle or any percussion instrument. The classification of eight types is not intended as a limitation, but rather as a starting point, Other types are conceivable and possible. Also, the expressive accent is not included, because it does not affect the rhythm but S « funeton of expresion ae last 18 usually found in running passages, where one tone is emphasized by tone intensity within the nan for expressive color; oF when every note of a melody is accented to signiiy an intense tone ae b. 2nd Movement of Symphony No. 1 ~ Beethoven 2. The agogic accent expresses emphasis by means of dura- tion, ie., a tone longer than those preceding or following it or both preceding and following it. It is a quantitative accent. It is the most effective of accents in clarifying the rhythm of a melodic line unaided by harmony or accompaniment. In organ music it is constantly in evidence since the dynamic accent is not indigenous to the instrument, at least in the sense of sound- ing one tone louder than others on the same manual. EXAMPLE 29 a, Organ Fantasia and Fugue in G minor ~J. $. Bach nS Pa bent Lp r here py pte, $e = b, Scherzo from Piano Sonata, Op. 26— Beethoven gpa aah Any means which makes one tone seem longer than its sur- rounding tones is a form of agogic accent. In this respect, two devices should be noted which give a tone seemingly longer duration: (a) repetition of the accented tone, and (b) a stac- cato note preceding the accented tone. EXAMPLE 30 a, Organ Fugue in G major —J. 8. Bach t b. Bourrée II from English Suite No. 2—J. S. Bach 4 t oo 2 ses id 3. The metric accent is implied in a rhythm which simply 29 sounds the particular metrical grouping of pulses, as in Ex- ample 31 (left hand). Sometimes it is aided by tone intensity or by harmonic changes, but it remains fundamentally a metric accent if it agrees with the traditional accentuation of primary pulses in a met: examrtic 31 Prelude No. 8, Book I, Well-Tempered Clavier — J. §, Bach oa aa Pabst (I ld Sl altos + “art t— 7 an 4, The harmonic accent emphasizes a pulse or beat by means of a dissonance on that pulse or beat. Like the agogic accent, this type is inherent in the musical structure even though it usually calls for a dynamic accent as well. EXAMPLE 32 a, Ist Movement of Piano Sonata, Op. 111 ~ Beethoven b, Sonata, Longo 429 — Scarlatti ©. Surabande from English Suite No. 2—J.$. Bach t 1 31 5. The weight accent expresses emphasis through texture or volume of sound, in terms of amount rather than intensity or loudness. Note that in the following two examples, the thicker texture is sufficient for the purpose of emphasis at the desired points, without assistance from tone intensity. EXAMPLE 33 a, 1st Movement of Piano Sonata, Op. 31 No. 3— Beethoven b, Intermeazo, Op. 116 No. § — Brahms t \ 1 6. The pitch accent occurs at the highest or lowest tone of a group. For this accent to be effective, there must be an appre- ciable distance between highest and lowest tones. Examples (a) and (c) are, therefore, more telling than (b). EXAMPLE 34 Tze from Oran Toca nd Fugu a C=. 8. Bash 32 , Fugue from Toccata and Fugue in € for Organ —J. 8. Bach t t ¢. Organ Chorale Prelude in G “Allein Gott in der Hoh’ Sei Eh” — J, S. Bach eee ‘The separation of a bass note from chords in dance accompani- ments (waltz, polka, etc.) is also a type of pitch accent. 7. The pattern accent is evident in a repeated figure of characteristic contour. This type is especially useful when a smoothly flowing rhythm is wanted without the quasi-jerky effect of dynamic accents. ExaMPLe 35) a. Valse Brillante, Op. 34 No. 3— Chopin 4 ‘ ‘ b, Prelude from English Suite No, 5 ~ J. 8, Bach hoe bg memo 8. The embellished accent is obtained by any means of melodic embellishment: appoggiatura, acciaccatura, mordent, till, ete. sxantrii 96 a, Bourrée I from English Suite No. 2—J. 8. Bach ©. Sonata, Longo 375 — Searlatti 1 As already stated, these types of accent may be employed singly or in combination. In fact, the alert reader may have noticed that most of the foregoing examples really employ at least one other type than the one noted in each case. Example 34 employs agogic accents in the right hand melody besides metric accents in the accompaniment. Example@fa is both agogic and embellished. The second measure of Example 32a is also agogic because of the short tone preceding the accent; and for the same reason, so is the second measure of Example 32b(*). Example 34b shows an especially ingenious form of agogic accent in the 2nd and 4th measures: the use of silence to emphasize a pulse. Rhythmic analysis of a seemingly simple passage like Ex- ample 37 reveals no less than four types of accent employed for one rhythm: metric, dynamic, agogic and pitch. EXAMPLE 37 Ist Movement of Symphony No. 7 — Beethoven ae St. On the other Hand, Example 38 employs four types of accent for three different rhythms: dynamic in upper melody, agogic and weight in the inner figure, and pattern in the lowest figure. EXAMPLE 38 O boisinho de chumbo from “Préle do bébé — Villa-Lobos Lent Copyright 1927, renewed, 1985, by Haitions Max Héchig, proprietor of the copyright for sll Countries. Used! By persion. Mh QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES 1. Define Pace and Accent, 2. How does meter affect pace? How does pattern affect it? 3. Write melodic fragments with accompanying chords of four or five measures’ length, illustrating the metric accent, in 4/4, 3/4, 6/8, and 9/8. 4, Do the same to illustrate the dynamic accent, in 2/4, 12/8, and 12/16. 5. Write melodies, four to oight measures long, demonstrating the agogic accent in 4/4, 3/4, 3/4, 12/8, 9/8. One of these melo- dies should employ the repetitional form of agogic accent and one, the preceding staccato tone. 6. Write a fragment, four to five measures long, to show the har- monic accent in each of the following meters: 3/2, 2/4, 6/8, 4/4. Do the same (as in Question 6) to show the weight accent. Write a melodic line, of four to five measures, illustrating the pitch accent in each of the following meters: 6/8, 3/4, 4/4. Do the same to illustrate the pattern accent. 9. Write one melody, about 12 measures long, employing as many embellished accents as desired. PATTERN Pattern is the subdivision of a pulse, a beat, or a group of pulses or beats, into smaller units, If we turn back to Examples 6 and 7, Chapter I, we can see this clearly illustrated. The pat- tern in this case is the group of three eighth notes, which is How many subdivisions of pulses can there be? Theoreti- cally, on paper, a very large number. For reasons of practicality and effectiveness, the number is much smaller but by no means confining; because rhythms which cannot be heard do not really exist, and those which cannot be executed, are not even born though fully conceived in the mind and present on the manuscript of the composer. The major requisites of practical- ity and effectiveness in rhythm will be stressed often in later chapters. In the meantime, to introduce this recommendation, the reader is asked to consider the following two rhythmic pat- terns, played on two drums of equal pitch and level of dynamics; EXAMPLE 39 oo TARTAR On paper, we have two patterns, but in sound we have only one, namely: FAR AAR, Unfortunately, the actual instances in music of this non-fulfill- ment of rhythmic conception are not always as simple and apparent. Only a meticulous analysis of the music will reveal the disparity between intention and result. The note values employed in modern notation might lead us to believe that the subdivisions of a pulse are few. Including the exceptional ones (double whole-note and one-hundred- twenty-eighth note) the table of note values might appear to be: ‘EXAMPLE 40 Double whole note woot A Whole e Half d Quarter d Eighth 3 Sixteenth 3 Thirty-second 3 Sixty-fourth } Oneshundved-twenty-eighth”® 16. Nicolas Slonimsky in “The Road to Music” quotes the following ex- ample of seeming 256th notes from Couperin, Enough is enough! EXAMPLE 404 » In other words, each smaller unit is half the value of the larger one. But by means of dots, ties, or numerals, we have at our disposal almost any mathematical fraction we wish. Con- sidering the whole note as “the mother of the other notes” and excluding the exceptional ones (double whole-note and 128th note), a larger (though not complete) table of subdivisions would be the following: (all considered as of 4/4) Whole Three-fourth notes PIP od Half notes e 7 e Third notes Three-eighth notes Quarter notes Fifth notes Three-sixteenth notes Sixth notes Eighth notes Tenth notes = Ss Twelfth notes of or cor ctr cfr Sixteenth notes Reef sr ‘Twentieth notes Bebe / Twenty-fourthnotes ELLPP Ps s; 7 = Thirty-secondnotes FiEferer! / Thirty-sixth notes Copeprerer / i / cs 2 2 Fontycghth notes GEREES eeerep! / & & Sisty-fourth notes bgeeeereeeeeser! =f! These calculations are based on the whole note, and the whole is considered equal to four pulses. What about 12/8? Is the dotted-quarter, which is the pulse, equal to a quarter or ' to a quarter plus an eighth? In reality, it is equal to a quarter note, Our dual system rears its head once more! Without re- creating confusion, the student is reminded that the classifica- tions of meter into binary and ternary exist solely for con- venience of notation, and it is not necessary to be pedantic re- garding the true name of a note-value, Suffice it to know that all of these fractional values (and more) do exist, and that the knowledge of a fact is of greater importance than its name or symbol. It must not be assumed that a pattern always consists of equal units for every pulse. The following, for example, are also patterns of a quarter note, and may be employed individ- ually in a repeated pattern or in any order desired: zxaMPLe 41 a = + Patterns may be classified as regular or irregular, and simple or compound. A patter which is a normal, metrical subdivision of a pulse is regular. For example, in 2/4 the quar- ter-note pulse may be normally subdivided into: 42, 9, IF o FTG, ete. In 6/8, the dotted quarter-note pulse may be subdivided into: JJ], 1.4, JTI° or STII etc, These are regular patterns. However, If we write in 2/4: gd or or or in 6/8; 4,0 or aga, then we Hive an irregular pattern, Groups such as SEES 0 SESEEE are irregular in both binary and ternary meters, A repeated pattern is simple and a changing pattern is com- pound. exams 42 SIMPLE a, Regular b. Regular Irregular a. Irregular 37 compounp a, Regular Se >. Regular Ess ¢ Inegular BSE > Imeger SEES ° e Through this important element of rhythm, pattern, a num- ber of unusual resultants are conceivable which are not listed in the table of meters, but which are nonetheless perfectly valid. They stem from the aspect of meter as duration, which is actually included in our definition of meter as “the grouping of pulses within a single measure or within a frame of two or more measures.” They do not vitiate our fundamental concept of meter, for no matter by what means we arrive at a meter, whether through pulse, beat, accent or pattern, the final result is the same: a grouping of pulses. When Debussy writes 18/16 (Example 43), he is not try- ing to be esoteric or to avoid a commonplace 9/8. The pattern expressed is a double triplet to the pulse and not a sextolet, and the metric notation is perfectly logical. EXAMPLE 43, Sonate pour Fldte, Alto et Harpe — Debussy 218/46 916. Pecmlion for reprint granted by Durand & Cie, Pars, France, copyright Vogel ‘Gay Toe, Philadelphia ageate, ™ * © * copra Neither is it an invention of the 20th century. Bach was quite fond of such subdivisions, even though his notation did not always declare it as such, as in: xanerLe 44 Orgen Chorale Prolude “Allein Gott in der Hoh’ Set Ehr'” 218/16 ~ J. 8. Bach These two examples reveal one method of enlarging our table of meters: through secondary and tertiary subdivisions of a pulse and re-grouping.* To illustrate: the Debussy excerpt stems from a 9/8 meter. The primary subdivision of 9/8 is ITITIIT and the secondary subdivision is ITIiSdddad fTdddd or two secondary units to each primary unit. Re-grouping the secondary units into triplets, we arrive at 18/16: AAT AT TSS ae ess cosets Alterations of meters through pattern occur principally in ternary meters. The alteration of 3/4 into 6/8 is the exception for binary meters. If the reader will refer to the table of meters, he will notice this aspect of meter already suggested by the alteration of 6/8 (in the duple group) to 12/16 (in the quad- ruple group) Now, if 6/8 may be converted to 12/16 and 9/8 to 18/16, then 12/8 should be variable to 24/16, And so it is, The fol- lowing two examples of 24/16 are from Bach, one notated as such, the other hiding behind an innocent ¢ ° “Secondary wnits” are the metrical subdivision of a pulse into the second smaller unit. The following table will clarify the terms “primary,” “secondary,” ete. as used in this book. Pulse Primary units Secondary enits Tertiary unite BINARY METERS J rl ar TERNARY METERS J, JT FERRARA RRRTRR For the explanation of “extrametrical” units see foot note Page 83. 39 40 EXAMPLE 45, a, Prelude No. 15, Book 1, Well-Tempered Clavier — J. 8. Bach Example 45b reveals an interesting practice: the use, in reality, of an unusual meter in a usual metric notation. If we were to insist on naming the true mathematical values of notes, the following Scriabine example would be called a 10/10 meter in the right hand, basing our calculations, as always, on the whole note, EXAMPLE 46 Prélude, Op. 31 No. 3 — Seriabine However, the 2/2 notation accomplishes its rhythmic pur- pose quite well. It cannot be too strongly stressed that the student of rhythm must learn to work from the mental concept of a rhythm to its suitable notation rather than the reverse procedure. As already stated, “the knowledge of a fact is of Greater importance than its name or symbol.” If we were to concem ourselves excessively with the true names of note values and meters, there would be no time left for rhythm. Examine the following examples from Scriabine, and notice how much can be done with the group numeral in the matter of pattern alone as well as its influence on meter. EXAMPLE 47 a. Etude, Op. 42 No. J — Seriabine Presto ys ¢. Etude, Op. 42 No. 3 ~ Scriabine Al of the above Serisbine quotations are copyrighted by Editions M. P. Bela. Used by prermision of Boosey & Hawkes, Ine sole agents Continuing the alterations of ternary meters, the last col- umns of the duple, triple and quadruple groups need not be the final ones regarding pattern. 6/16, 9/16, and 12/16 may become, respectively, 12/32, 18/32 and 24/32, and the units of these alterations may be re-grouped into triplets. AL | | 42 xamene 48 Similarly, with the binary meters, 2/8, 4/8 and 5/8 may be- come, respectively, 4/16, 8/16 and 10/16; but there is no need for these alterations unless one is employing changing meters (containing among them those with an odd numerator) where the unit of measure is the sixteenth. Stravinsky, in the Danse Sacrale from “Le Sacre du Printemps,” has the following multi- meter: 3/16, 5/16, 3/16, 4/16, 5/16, 3/16, 4/16, etc. Ironically enough, this is one instance where this complexity of notation is entirely unnecessary: the entire section from cue 142 to 149 can be written in 2/8. (More of this in a later chapter.) One must be careful that with the concern for consistency one does not create confusion. In selecting a meter with a higher denominator (ie., 6/16 in place of 3/8), for the purpose of maintaining a constant unit of value, the resultant primary subdivision must be considered. Any meter with a multiple of 3 as numerator (but not 3 itself) such as: 6/8, 9/16, 12/4, 15/8, 12/32, ete., implies a ternary subdivision, a grouping of primary units by triplets. In other words, is not 6/16 but 3/8, and FSG ITT is not 12/16 but 3/4. To be 6/16 and 12/16, they must be written, respectively: S7d/2d and ATATLITIAT . It is better, at times, to change denominators for the sake of rhythmic clarity, with some indication as to whether the constant value is the unit or the pulse, as in Example 49, Note that in (a) the pulse is constant while in (b) the unit is constant. peamrie 49 2 died preceding —p, de dor deed. Sree ie In Villa-Lobos’ “O Lobosinho de Vidro,” four different de- nominators are employed at various times: 13/16, 3/4, 5/8, 2/2, with no indication of relative values. However, the con- text of the music makes it obvious that the value of the six- teenth note is constant. Mention should be made of a subsidiary element of pattern, namely phrasing. The character of a rhythm is slightly altered by a difference in phrasing, ie. a difference in slurs, legatos and staccatos. For example, the following, although virtually the same rhythmic pattern, vary somewhat in the “feeling” of the rhythm. a) y o @ This subsidiary element of Pattern is what distinguishes the tarantella from the gigue. Both dances are in 6/8, fast- paced and generally based on the same pattern. However, the rhythmic phrasing is different, Whereas in the tarantolla the 3rd eighth note of each triplet serves as an impetus to the next pulse, in the gigue this same note is a sort of rebound after the pulse. The following will clarify this differen pattern which has been used in both dances. GIGUE in one ——— nes Mastery of the element of pattern in rhythm will be of inestimable value in the manipulation of the rhythmic struc- tures explained in following chapters. The student is urged to give it full and constant attention, beyond the mere execution of the exercises at the end of this chapter. TARANTELLA QUESTIONS AND EXERCISES 1, Define Pattern, 2. What are two major requisites in shythm? 3, Name the available subdivisions of a pulse (up to 64th) which are not included in our traditional note-value notation. 4, By what method of alteration can the table of meters be en- larged? Which numerators imply a ternary primary division? 6. Write at least 40 patterns (regular and irregular) of a quarter note, employing up to and including 32nd notes. Begin with 2 note patterns, then to 3 note patterns, 4 note, ete. (Solution Appendix IT) 7. Re-write the preceding patterns based on a half note instead of a quarter note. For example, J. for the quarter note would become J. 4) for the half note. 8, Write at least 40 patterns of a dotted half-note, employing up to and including 16th notes (regular, irregular and compound), eg, ae but not simple patterns such as: CHAPTER TWO Pre-Classic Dance Rhythms BEFORE PROCEEDING TO THE RHYTHMIC STRUCTURES, THE AUTHOR feels it advisable to discuss briefly several pre-classic dance thythms for the purpose of applying what has been thus far learned regarding meter, pace, accent and pattem+ The stu- dent is asked to write one example of each dance rhythm, of about 12 to 16 measures in length, illustrating the particular rhythm; and to utilize at least one for treatment in a complete composition. In the complete composition, the form may be whatever the composer wishes: two-part, three-part, rondo or free sectional form. The pattern for each dance is the basis of its general rhythmnic feeling. The composer’s ingenuity will be revealed in the many ways of varying this fundamental pattern without sacrificing that feeling. Moreover, in full-length compositions, some variation is mandatory if the music is to be more than a mere tonal interpretation of drum-beats, handclapping, foot- stamping, etc. The importance of understanding traditional types of rhythmic treatment cannot be overstressed. There are students who, in their concern with being thoroughly modern and up-to- date in rhythmic practice, belittle any theory of an earlier century and forget that what exists today, in music, as signifi- cant and worthy can trace its origin to ancient philosophies. 1. These dance rhythms have always been misnamed dance forms. An analysis of many musical examples of the dances shows, however, that the dis- tinguishing features are neither formal nor harmonic. Practically all of the Bach sarabandes, courintes, gigues, etc. are in two-part form and the har- monic vocabulary is the same as in his other types of composition. What does characterize a dance, other than its mood, is its rhythmic arganization of meter, ace, accent and pattem, ‘As ©. F. Abdy Williams states:? “All the simple forms (in rhythm) that we use were used by the Greeks, and are in- telligible to other races and other stages of civilisation than ours, The iambuses and trochees, the anapaests and dactyls of the Greeks reappear in the Hymns of St. Ambrose, in the ancient folksongs of Europe, in the litanies of the Roman Church, in the Sonatas of Beethoven, in the songs of Schubert, in the modern music-hall ballads, in the music of the South Sea Islanders.” ‘The dance rhythms are presented in alphabetical order, but the student may work on them in any order he wishes. Alter- nating slow and fast dances might be interesting. BOURREE This dance is of French origin, although some authorities believe it to have originated with the Spanish. The word itself means a “stuffing” or “padding.” Tt was the most vigorous of the old dances, a sort of rustic clog-dance of the natives of Auvergne and Berri. It was also sung and danced during the wine-makers’ crushing of the grapes (by stamping upon them with their bare feet). The Bach Bourrée from the 2nd Violin Sonata is a fine specimen and really expresses the true charac- ter of this dance. Of its purely rhythmic aspects, the following must be ob- served: The meter is duple binary (2/2) and begins on the fourth quarter weak-pulse initial species). The pace is lively, about d +112 for the actual dance. The two pulses are strongly accented, and the pattern is principally J | J J J d- BxAMPLE 50 Bourrée from Sonata No. 2 (Partita) for Violin Solo ~ J. 8. Bach eas aaa 2. The Arlstoxenian Theory of Musical Rhythen. COURANTE ‘There are three different types of this dance, two of which Bach utilized in his suites and partitas. The type to be em- ployed in this exercise is the French, in triple binary meter (3/2), beginning with a weak pulse eighth note. The pace for dancing was about J = 82, but for musical purposes (as in Bach’s examples) can be slightly faster. The accentuation is traditionally metrical and the pattern generally J, JJ. bJ. 4. However, a special feature of this courante is the alteration from 3/2 (d d J) to 6/4 (d. J.) without indicating this change by the metrical designation, In some compositions, this alteration to 6/4 occurs only in the last measure of a section, but in others it will be found more frequently. For this reason, the Courante by Chambonniéres is quoted as a specimen, but there are many fine examples among Bach’s works. The student may feel free in the inclusion of 6/4 measures, but there should be at least one such at the conclusion of a section. The word “courante” means “running,” and although this idea of running was more evident in the Italian form of the dance (written in 3/8 or 3/4), running passages may be em- ployed at will. EXAMPLE BI Courante — J, C, de Chambonniéres (92)me wy OK) fe at 48 GALLIARD As with courante, there are three types of this dance, known under the titles of galliard, tourdion, and yolté, All three types were based on the rhythmic characteristic which gave it still another name “cingue pas” (five steps), The galliard originated in Italy (known there as gagliarda, and also as romanesca) and was a rather merry dance with jumps involved, although Praetorius called it “an invention of the devil.” In his Orchesography, Arbeau explains: “The Galliard ought to consist of six steps, seeing that it contains six crotchets (quarter notes) played in two bars of triple time. All the same there are only five steps, because the fifth and penultimate note is lost in the air. On the count of 5 the dancers always executed either a little or a big jump, landing in a cadent pos- ture on the count of 6.” Early settings of the galliard very often had no note on the fifth count, The dance is in dimetric triple binary meter (two measures of 3/4) and the pace lively. The pattern, deduced from the description of the steps, would be principally| 4 J Jig J, with a rather strong accent on the first pulse of each second ieasure. Good examples will be found by Hassler, Frescobaldi, Dowland, Byrd and Orlando Gibbons. EXAMPLE 52 Galliard — Hans Leo Hasster Allegro 7 GAVOTTE Originally a rather rough dance in which there was a good deal of kissing and capering, the gavotte was introduced to the French court in the 16th century and was gradually ve- fined in character until it attained formality and stateliness, finally developing to a degree of stiffness and artificiality. Neither the original roughness nor the eventual artificiality need be the character of this dance in our present use of its rhythm, but rather a certain grace and dignity. The meter of the gavotte is 4/4 beginning on the third quarter and ending the section at the half bar with a half-note. The pace is moderately fast, about J = 120, and the pattern principally J jd 4 |, It must be remembered that a pat- tern need not, in fact, should not, be rigidly maintained throughout, but varied in many ways. The pattern is given only as the general rhythmic character of the dance. In the gavotte, perhaps more than in any other of these dances, it has been common practice to vary the pattern of the half-note at the beginning of a measure. There are many good examples among the works of early French composers: Couperin, Rameau, etc, EXAMPLE 53 Gavotte en style antique — CG, Aldo Randegger Sj oe Tempo di Gavotte P a — |G Used by permission of award Schuberth aid Coy Ine, New York GIGUE The gigue, or giga, is of Italian origin and its name is derived from that of a small stringed instrument (giga). It has always been a very lively dance even when appearing in other countries: France, Ireland, etc. Mattheson has said: “The Italian Gigas, which are not meant to be danced but to be 49 fiddled, drive themselves almost to the utmost speed or care- lessness.” ‘The meter of the gigue is either 6/8 or 12/8, the accentua- tion traditionally metrical, the pace J. _= 112-132, and the pattern principally J dJ ) or JJIJTJ, with or without a weak-pulse eighth note. Good examples will be found among early French and English composers and, of course, in Bach's works, ‘EXAMPLE 54 Gigue J. B. Loeilet Molto vivace PAVANE Although the pavane is generally said to have come from Spain, the name lends evidence to an Italian origin. Some authorities state that the name is derived from pavo, the Latin for peacock, while others believe it derived from Padovana, an ancient dance of Padua. At any rate, the pavane of the 16th and 17th centuries was a slow, stately, and solemn dance, often presented in procession and in religious ceremonies. Like many easly dances, it was originally sung as well as danced. The example given, quoted in Arbeau’s “Orchesography”, was sung, and included a drum accompaniment with the following pat- tem throughout: d The pavane is in 2/2 meter, the pace J = 90 for the actual dance (according to L’Affilard in “Principes trés faciles”) but may be slightly faster in the musical setting. The accentuation is traditionally metrical and the pattern principally of half notes, xAMPLE 55) Pavane from “Orchésographie” — Arbeau Bel = te qui tent ma, =| © cap = tt- ve [dans tex yeutx, Qui mas te. me re - vi =| ¢ Dun soubeeriz | gra-ci | eux, SARABANDE The history of the sarabande is most curious. Of probable Spanish origin, it was originally a lascivious dance; in fact, so much so, that it was for a time suppressed. However, toward the end of the 16th century it was revived and transformed into the dignified dance we have found it to be in the music of Bach and Handel. It is this latter type of sarabande with which we are concerned. This sarabande is in triple binary meter (3/2 or 3/4) and of moderately slow pace. The accent, on the second pulse, is rarely a dynamic accent, more often agogic, harmonic or weight.* The pattern is principally do n3/fordd in 3/4, but may be varied in many ways without sacrificing the rhythmic feeling. Each section should begin on the first pulse (strong-pulse initial species) and end on the second or third pulse (weak-pulse terminal species). exaMeLe 56 Sarabande from Suite No. 11 ~ Handel Grave SICILIANA The siciliana belongs more properly to the classic, rather than pre-classic, period. However, it seems advisable to include it in our study of dance rhythms. It is often found in Handel's works, sometimes unidentified as such (as in “He Shall Feed His Flock” from “The Messiah”). It is closely allied to the pastorale, being in 6/8 or 12/8 meter and of moderate pace, about ¢. = 72. Classic ex- amples are usually in a minor key. There is no strong accentua- tion in this rhythm, the character of the dance being smooth and tender. 3. As already recommended, the Back sarabandes should be carefully ex- amined with the matter of accent in mind, 51 52 "The Casella example given below should be examined in its entirety. It is most effective in its simplicity of treatment regarding both the character of the dance (by employing a modal melodic idiom in a contemporary manner) and the manipulation of the basic rhythmic pattern (by arrangements of the segments of the pattern JJ] and J } .) The ex- ample should also show that ancient rhythms can still be in- terestingly employed. EXAMPLE ST Sicillana from “Piéces enfantines” — Casella Allegretto dolcemente mosso (it ritmo sempre motto preciso) Copyright 1921, renewed 1949, by Univeral Euition, A, G. SUGGESTED READING ERE-CLASsIC FORMS. Louis Horst. DANCES OF ENGLAND AND FRANGE. Mabe] Dolmetsch. ‘oncHESOcRAPHY. Thoinot Arbeau (Jéhan Tabourot COURT DANCES AND ofteas, Nellie Chaplin. ‘THE STORY OF DANCE Music, Paul Nett]. ‘THE ANCIENT DANCE Forms. Jeffrey Pulver. Musical Association Pro- ceedings, Session 39 and 40. cnove's vicrionany, Articles on bourrée, courante, gavotte, etc. ap 53 CHAPTER THREE Rhythmic Structures. First Structure: Regular Subdivision THE ORGANIZATION OF DURATION IN ORDERED MOVEMENT 18 ultimately accomplished by five different plans termed RHYTHMIC STRUCTURES, and these are: 1. Regular Subdivision 2, Irregular Subdivision 3, Overlapping 4, Regular Subdivision Overlapping 5, Irregular Subdivision Overlapping Each of these structures is explained in a separate chapter. Regular Subdivision is the organization of a measure into equal beats, ie., beats of equal duration. These equal beats may or may not coincide with the pulses, as explained by Examples 4, 5, and 6, in Chapter J. Perhaps ninety percent of our music is rhythmically based on regular subdivision of the traditional and purely metrical type in which pulse and beat are one and the same. However, what should be of greater concern to us is not the type of regular subdivision present in synchronous pulses and beats, but the rhythmic principle of metrical alteration already suggested in the analysis of the Chopin “Waltz in A-flat” (Ex. 7), the courante (Ex. 51), and the alteration of meters discussed in the section on pattern. The reader will recall that, in the Chopin “Waltz,” the six units of eighth-notes (in 3/4) were grouped into 2 x 3 or 2 groups of 3 {TTJJ¢ instead of the normal 3 x 2 or 3 groups of 2; “and in the courante, the six units of quarter- notes (in 3/2) underwent a similar transformation: freee t in place of pf ppp + This particular alteration, termed the “hemiola,” is found in ee 54 the music of Greece and Arabia, in that of Western civi tion since the 16th century, and in several South American dances, among them the Bambuco of Colombia, the Pasillo of Ecuador and the Cueca of Chile, which should be sufficient testimony for its popularity.’ The following are several further examples of this “extra-metrical” subdivision into equal beats. EXAMPLE 58 1, Fugue No. 10, Book 1, Well-Tempered Claster ~ J. §. Bach os b, Ist Movement of Symphony No. 2 ~ Brahms ra 7 ¢ Dance of the Apprentices from “Die Meistersinges” — Wagner £ So 4, Scherzo in E major, Op. 54 — Chopin pide se ze ©. Valse No. 7 of “Valses nobles et sentimentales” — Ravel |. 1 oprighe 1911, Permision for repr granted by Durand & Cie, Pars, France, copyvight owner! Hfeh-Vogel tne, Phiadelpbin Pas apenas ant ® Cie Parts France, copyea 1. “Hlemiola” was the terzn used in medieval music to designate the ratio of 3:2, In harmony it referred to the interval of a fifth, and in thythm to any ‘3:2 relationship, such as 8 notes in place of 2 or 3 notes against 2. The Latin term was “proportio sesqualtera.” 55 As is quite evident, the two meters, 3/4 and 6/8 (or 3/2 and 6/4) are therefore interchangeable, so that the hemiola is also present in 6/8 meters altered to 3/4. This latter was a favorite rhythmic practice with Brahms, almost to the com- plete exclusion of any other possible metrical alteration. Ex- amples of this type are more numerous, and following are several other than the Ravel “Don Quichotte” (Ex. 20). Exar 59 a. Aufochwung from Fantasiesticke, Op. 12 — Schumann =a b. Berceuse, Op. 57 — Chopin ¢. Aragonaise from “Le Cid” ~ Massenct i 4 sed by courtesy of Hougel & Cie, Paris, France, 4, 3rd Movement of “Scheherazade” — Rimsky-Korsakov | Copttight by ations MP. ReWGR, Used by permision of Boosey & Hawkes, Inc 56 . Ballade, Op. 47 ~ Chopin —— £. Capriccio, Op. 76 No. 8 — Brahms sue Capriccio, Op. 76 No. 5— Brahms =a 5 h, Intermezzo, Op. 117 No. I — Brahms Regular subdivision has been applied to other meters, and in fact, can be applied to all meters, In our study of meter we learned that, through pattern, 6/8 may become 3/4 or 12/16, 9/8 may become 18/16, 12/8 may become 24/16, etc. But with the exception of the hemiola (3/4-6/8 interchange) the beats were merely binary subdivisions of ternaty pulses. To extend the principle of regular subdivision, as exemplified by the hemiola, to other meters, it is necessary to subdivide the meas- ure into a number of beats against the pulses. In a sense, this is merely a different approach to the enlarging of the table of meters in terms of beats rather than pattern. The result is the 57 same but with an extension of possibi metric notation. Now, if we consider the problem in its aspect of pulse-beat relationship as well as pattern alteration, we shall realize, first of all, that the hemiola is available also in 2/4 meter, illustrated by the following excerpts from Brahms and Chopin. (See also Example 20 (a) and (b).} ties within a single ExAMPLe 60 a, Intermezzo, Op. 76 No. 6 ~ Brahins And this interchange of the 3 x 2 and 2 x 3 relationship is con- ceivable in 9/8 or 18/16, thus: EXAMPLE 61 or 18/6 As it is possible to obtain 2 beats against 3 pulses, so fs it possible to obtain 4 beats against 3 pulses, as in the following examples: EXAMPLE 62 a. Valse, Op. 64 No. 1 — Chopin —— =19h6 could be written 58 b. O Lobosinho de vidro from “Préle do bébé” — Villa-i.chos right 3927, renewed 1955, by Editiont Max Eschig, proprietor of the copyright for ' sat GORGES Uae Gy ernison This subdivision is more obviously present in the 6/8—12/16 interchange, as in the next examples, since it is a binary beat subdivision of ternary pulses. xantere 63 a, Ballade, Op. 98 ~ Chopin b. Prélude, Op. 66 No. 1 — Scriabine (ayncopates) mma anne —— Sp 7 i= va i HL Copyright bY Haitions MP. Blais used by permision of Roowy & Hawks, Inc, sole agents An instance of interchange of all four meters, 2/4—12/16—3/4— 6/8, is found in Debussy’s Prelude “Les collines d’Anacapri.” The notation by the composer is 12/16 = 2/4, but it could very easily be written in 2/4 throughout by the use of group numerals. we pxamece 64 Les collines d’Anacapri from Préludes, Vol. 1 — Debussy (ortho) (am) Trbs modéré (-6/8) rater Nope 29/4 P Copyright 1910, Fernnion for reprint erated by Durand & Cie, Pais, Pane, copie owner Eifan-Woge Gon ine Philadephia Bay ag Now let us take another binary meter, 4/4, and see how the principle of regular subdivision can be applied. We have, first, the normal metrical subdivisions of 2, 4 and 8 equal beats, thus: eka ddkye ddddive NNO ‘The extra-metrical (not metrically implied) subdivisions would be 3, 5 and 6 equal beats. How do we arrive at these? By a simple mathematical process: find the common denominator. For the subdivision into 3 equal beats, the common denomina- tor of 3 (beats) and 4 (pulses) is 12. The measure must there- fore be divided into 12 units, which would be ppp and these 12 units must then be regrouped into 3 x 4 (3 groups of 4) instead of 4 x 3 (4 groups of 3) thus: 29 3 a Wi TT Translating this into simple beats, without pattern, we have: ddd bd This is not an uncommon rhythm in arrangements of American popular music and is usually notated 4 dd, which is an acceptable notation when the pace is fast, but ‘Impractical at a slow pace. (Refer to remarks on Example 22, Chapter I, re- garding practicality of notation.) The common denominator of 6 (beats) and 4 (pulses) is also 12. Utilizing the same means of obtaining 12 units in 4/4, we group these units into 6 x 2, thus: IT TTA Sobsut or in simple beats: bd dtd a ~ ve These two regular subdivisions, 3 and 6 beats, are naturally available in 12/8, with a difference only in notation: the addi- tion of dots to two of the quarter notes and the elimination of the group numeral: 3 beats in 12/8 dddJ dd. = 3/2; Gbeatsin 12/8 Idi l ds) =6/4. In other words, the 4/4 or 12/8 meter has been transformed into either 3/2 or 6/4, or mathematically expressed, a 4 x 3 relationship has been altered to 3 x 4 or 6 x 2, Notice that the new arrangement of 6 x 2 can be regrouped into a large 2 x 3 or 3 x 2, thas: ve FOS LK pees aes Ten TAM en eg eae 1 OM Following are several examples of the 6 x 2 subdivision in 4/4 or 12/8, (Even when the notation is 4/4, a division of the measure into 12 units implies 12/8.) rxanert 65 4. Rhapsody, Op. 79 No, 2— Brahm: b.O gatinho de papeldo from “Préle do bébé” ~ Villa-Lobos AIL of the above Villa-Lobos quotations are copyright 1927. renewed, 1955, by Editions Maz Esehig, proprieir of the copyright for all counts, Used’ by permision The common denominator of 5 (beats) and 4 (pulses) is 20. To obtain 20 units in 4/4, each pulse must be divided into 5 units. For practical reasons, in performance, it is necessary to work with the full pattern of 5 notes to a pulse rather than beats alone, and to regroup the normal 4 x 5 into 5 x 4, thus: OF course, if the pace js sufficiently fast, we can have the simple beats notated J J JJ J. Even in this case, sounding the pulses in conjunction with the extra-metrical beats is often helpful EXAMPLE 66 Slow or Fast > Fast 61 It must always be borne in mind that no matter how fas- cinating a rhythm may appear on paper, if it is not practical in performance it is a waste of effort writing it, Extrametrical regular subdivision is applicable to all meters. But all possible subdivisions are not equally practical in all meters, certainly not in simple beats. Example 65a demonstrates one method of making an unusual subdivision practical: by employing the full units of the pattern. The fingers of the instrumentalist per- form the task of minute division much more easily than the mind can in counting, especially when the units are rather fast. Jn other words, from the standpoint of execution, it is easier to gauge a multi-divisional pattern from pulse to pulse rather than from an irregular group of beats within an entire measure. A reference to the Scriabine examples, 47 (a) (b) and (d) re- veals his understanding of practicality in execution through full patterns in unusual rhythms. Another means of making a rhythm practical is by employ- ing a notation which reveals exactly where each pulse occurs. For example, Egon Wellesz in his opera “Die Bakchantinnen,” has a subdivision of 3 equal beats in 5/4, notated in the usual impractical manner. EXAMPLE 67 Act 11 of “Die Bakchantinnen” — Welles

), and pulses (when noted) by a circle. In some meters, of course, pulses and beats are synchronous. Observe that the notation must conform with the meter em- ployed: 2 equal beats in 6/8 are notated J. J.; but in 3/4 , s0 that the pulse in each case is quite evident. This is particularly necessary when pattern is involved, which will be discussed later. EXAMPLE 69 8B orm 26/4 oF 3 22h 10/8 oF 6 s18AG or 9 189 or 29 <6 or BE = 20/6 oF 1S The next step is to arrange a similar tabulation for 3 equal beats in a measure, for the same meters. 64 ExaMPLe 70 ‘Throe equat beats Salk oF 9-2 282 or 4 fr SD Parr F18/8 oF 8 20M or 8x2 = Ror Suz OE It has always been the author’s contention that mere mem- orization of formulas does not insure complete understanding of a theory or practice. Understanding must be developed from within through individual thought and experimentation. For this reason, the student is asked to try his utmost to solve the next problem through his own efforts, and to refer to the solu- tion in Appendix II only as a last resort. The problem is to complete the table of regular subdivi- sion as begun in Example 71. The first column is for 2 equal beats, the second for 3, the third for 4, ete. Those subdivisions already solved are entered in their proper places. Remember that in this table only the simple beats are to be noted, and wherever necessary (that is where pulse and beat do not coin- cide) these beats should be designated by the accent sign and the pulses by the circle. The numbered subdivisions are also to be written in a separate table at the bottom, with full-unit pat- terns for slow pace. The new metrical result should also be designated by notation or multiplication formula or both, as in the second column for 2/4 =3 x 2. 65. TABLE OF REGULAR SUBDIVISION EXAMPLE 71 2beats 3 beats 4beats S beats 6 beats 24 of 2 Stow =#/8 — Fast25/8 © Stows/s = Ee was ae [G] Rework the following plans from the [A] group, incorporating, wherever desired, extrametrical regular subdivision or irrogular subdivision: Nos. 1, 8, 4, 7, 9 and 11. CHAPTER SIX Fourth Structure: Regular Subdivision Overlapping AS THE TERM IMPLIES, THE FOURTH RHYTHMIC STRUCTURE, regular subdivision overlapping, is a combination of the prin- ciple of the first structure (regular subdivision) with that of the third structure (overlapping). It may be defined as: the organization of a group of measures into equal beats over- lapping the barline. The difference between it and simple regu- Jar subdivision is that the beats are contained within a frame of two or more measures instead of a single measure. What dis- tinguishes it from simple overlapping is the presence of a re- peated rhythmic pattern. The hemiola being a favorite application of extrametrical regular subdivision, it is not surprising that this 3 x 2 alteration of a 2.x 3 relationship is equally predominant in regular sub- division overlapping. The sources of the following examples illustrating this rhythmic structure (the hemiola ix regular sub- division overlapping) show that the practice is of long standing and in various periods of musical history. (The oblique lines designate the frame of measures—dimeter in this case—or major rhythm; and the brackets indicate the rhythmic units forming the beat, or minor rhythm.) EXAMPLE 11 a. Organ Fugue in A—J. S. Bach 2 ve . aes Sa ae ey . Organ Chorale Prelude “Yn Dir ist Freude” =J.8. Bach ul ¢, Prelude No, 3, Book I, Well-Tempered Clavier — J, 8. Bach a vv ~ we 41 4 d. Rondeau from Partita No. 2~ J. 8. Bach ee = QoS SS oe ¢. 3rd Movement of Piano Concerto — Schumann moe Vo Sap aa ae \ 7 z= & 3rd Movenient of Symphony No. 5 — Tchaikovsky ° ———————— . Ist Movement of Plano Sonata No, 1, Op. 6 — Scriabine —, Copyright by ions MP, Belael. Used by permision of Boosey K Hawke, They sole agent ©. Overture to “Pocahontas” Suite — Carter 1 Copyright 1961 by Edwin F. Kalmus, and used by permission of Aimcrican Compoters? aulnes and Merrymoune Must, Ine. 4, Ist Movement of Symphony No. 3 Creston Used by courtsy of the publisher, Templeton Publishing Co, Tne., Delaware Water 2p, Fa. In the first rhythmic structure (regular subdivision), the metrical alteration was obtained through primary units: 6 units in 3/4 (0042 11) equalling 3 x 2 changed to 2 x 3 (L2S451). The same process is employed in the fourth structure (regular subdivision overlapping), except that now, besides units, either pulses or beats may be considered as units. Consequently, as the 3 x 2 and 2 x 3 relationships are inter- changeable in 2/4 in regular subdivision through 6 units in on the measure ( S72 JT] ), so is the same interchange avail- ou able in regular subdivision overlapping through a dimeter of 3 beats to a measure: 2/4 “J 7h) ) FSI a or in 2/2 J “dgd (d "ddd | pa lee Sir William Walton notates this rhythm in the following manner: exam 113 Ist Movement of Symphony — Walto = Copyright 1936 by the Oxford University Press, London Actually, there are 4 possible methods of notating this rhythm. sxaspue I4 an om am om oom — a) Either method (a) or (b) is practical at a fast pace, but (c) ox (d) (depending on the pattern) is preferable at a slow pace. ‘The same would apply to a 2/4 notation. The hemiola being available in duple binary meter (2/2 or 2/4), a corollary is its availability in duple ternary meter (6/8 or 6/4), which would be diagrammed thus: xan 115, bests ar What results, then, in this fourth structure, is the enlargement of a meter: 3/4 becomes 6/4, 6/8 becomes 12/8, etc. This sim- plifies, to a certain extent, the employment of unusually large meters. Therefore, it is possible to have such meters as 10/4 or 30/8, by including a rhythm in a frame of, respectively, 5 measures of 2/4 or of 6/8, which are pentameters. (See Chap- ter I, page 5) . Unbelievable as it may seem, even such meters as 60/16 and 72/32 are also possible through this process. But before proceeding to pentameters, let us continue our examina- tion of dimeters or 2 measure meters. ‘aie Us 116 In the following example, a group of 18 units in 2 measures normally existing as 2.x 9 is rearranged into 9 x 2. ‘EXAMPLE 116 Prélude a Vaprés-midi d'un faune — Debussy xe OOOO fsoas Permission for reprint granted by Jean Jobert, BAiteur, Paris In Example 117 (a), a group of 36 units in a dimeter, tradi- tionally arranged as 6 x 6 is converted to 9 x 4; while in (b) a dimeter of 2 x 5 is altered to 5 x 2. pxanpue 117 1 Ist Movement of Plano Concerto No. 2 — Bartok e e 6 e oa Copyright, 1982 by Universal Edition, Copyright awigned to Boosey & Hawkes, Inc. for USAT Copyright all other counnies by Universal Edition. b, 3nd Movement of Symphony No. 6 (“Pathétique”) — Tchaikovsky 6x2 Gn a One of the most fascinating specimens of dimetric regular subdivision overlapping is found in Chopin’s Ballade in F minor.* xaneene 118 Ballade in F minor, Op. 52 ~ Chopin i ere Each measure is divided into 18 extrametrical units, giving us 36 units for the dimeter. This would be traditionally arranged, in the major rhythm, as 2 x 2 (pulses) or 2 x 18 (units); and 1, Walter Goldstein calls specimens such as this in the music of Chopin and Schumann “Rhythmic Tricks” (Proceedings, MTNA, 1924). But they do not deserve so frivolous a term, for they are based on sound, fundamental principles of rhythm, ee in the minor rhythm (rhythmic units) as 12 x 3. Chopin, how- ever, transforms this into 3 x 1* (major rhythm) and 9 x 4 units (minor thythm), thereby creating a rhythm which 16th cen- tury composers would have considered almost perfection itself. In the face of the accomplished fact, this does not seem extraor- dinary. But let us diagram this rhythm in its relation to the meter and observe the complexity of calculation. mxaserte 119 ‘A. Rhythmic beats (Major Rhythm) ——————— B. Rhythmic units (Minor Rhythm) Sel rene HN H i Sea C, Pattern units Ts D. Metzical units E. Metrieal pulses The major rhythm (A) consists of 3 large rhythmic beats. The rhythmic units or minor rhythm (B) are in groups of 3, as are the metrical units (D). Only the pattern units (C) and metrical pulses (E) do not haye the ternary division; and since 16th century composers considered ternary divisions “perfect,” the statement regarding “almost perfection itself” is readily understood. From the standpoint of practicality of execution, Chopin’s figuration, employing all the rhythmic units, is un- questionably the wisest procedure, The foregoing analysis may seem a little fussy, but each element mentioned has an influence on the rhythm as a whole. One would be amazed at what factors are co-dependently existent in a seemingly elementary rhythmic phenomenon such as the following: 2, This 1 of the 3/1, to be specific, is equal to @ 1/3 note: ie, 1/3 of © 18 ( ExAnPLE 120 Varlation 5 from Piano Sonata, Op. 111 — Beethoven 7 But as Willi Apel semarks, in the language of 18th century theory, this would be described as “modus maximarum (D) imperfectus cum modo longarum (CG) perfecto cum tempore (B) perfector cum prolatione (A) perfecta.” In 20th century ter- minology, this would be: “dimetric major rhythm (D) in ter- nary meter-(C) with ternary primary (B) and secondary extra- metrical (A) units.” Now let us examine several illustrations of trimetric regular subdivision overlapping; that is, rhythms contained in 3 measures. wemarus LOL a, Missa “Assumpta lost Maria” — Palestrina 8 ee Ht in Spi - ri-tum San - etum Do- minum . Sonata, Longo 286 ~ Scarlatti 26, woe ow we mw ¢. 4th Movement of Symphony No. 2 — Brahms as eae es eerie ed ee ey (ee lg 4. "Scarbo” from “Gaspard de la nuit” — Ravel 266 Ccopysight 1909, Permiston for reprint granted by Durand & Gie, Paris, France, copyright owner! Eikian-Vogel Con tne, Philadeiphine Pan agent ce. Overture to “Pocahontas” Suite — Carter BB pn ot zy oh, A the 2 Copyright 1941 by Edwin F. Kalmus, and used by permision of Ameriean Composers llsnes, and Mezrymoane Aste, tne a a £. 2nd Movement of Viola Concerto — Walton 48 fee oS = 1 Leo 4 Copyright 1980 by the Oxford University Pres, London. g Two Chori Dances—Dance II — Creston 0 ce Yi : pep pees EE as pea a eee eee gees) ‘Coprlht 47, Used by permision of 6. Schiemes, ne h, Idem — Creston Bay caltgd, PY courtery of the publisher, Templeton Publihing Co. Ine Delaware Water j. Prelude and Dance, No. 2— Creston Boy . io ni eg eel Used by courtesy of the publisher, Templeton Publishing Go., tne, Delaware Water Cap, Pa. 120 k, Last Movement of Symphony No. 4 ~ Creston Baas 24/6 Property of G. Ricordl & Co, New York 1. Ist Movement of Suite for Flute, Viola and Piano — Creston Property of G. Ricordi & Go., New York, ‘It must be noted that in this, as in all the rhythmic struc- tures, the calculation may be based on secondary or extra- metrical, as well as primary, units. Examples (a), (b) and (g) consider the pulses as units; (c), (e), (£), (In), (j) and (1) are based on primary units; (i) and (k) on secondary units; and (d) on extrametrical units. Note, also, that (e) does not utilize three complete measures, two eighths remaining after the regular subdivision overlapping. This reveals that in this structure the frame of measures, or segment of duration, need not be con- tained from the first to the last barlines of any group of meas- ures. So long as there is the equivalent of 2 or more measures, the structure is considered regular subdivision overlapping. To further clarify this aspect, let us examine the following illus- trations. sxanerut 122, ‘a. 2nd Movement of Trio pour piano, violon et violoncelle ~ Ravel ay to —s Copyright 1915, Permission for reprint granted by Durand & Cle, Paris, Frente, opyright owner? Eiken Vogel Con Tne Phitadelphias pyri b, Pretude No, § ~ Chopin z \ esas ©. Ballade in F minor, Op. 52 — Chopla a. Why Sit I Here Complaining? ~ Morley WB oy Thenoe e-wey,comfort, ia vain thoudostease me,comfort,in vain thou @. Ist Movement of Piano Concerto ~ Ravel ways S > = Ais seen cement corre em Copyright 1918, Permission for reprint granted by Duran & Cie, Paris, France, copyright owner! Eikan-Vogel Go, Inc, Philsdeleiiay Pa, agent mms £. Two Choric Dances—Dance I — Creston oo, . isd iseesisseeaest aeeseeieecsoers) ey Copylth 1067. Wied by pevntaion oO. Baiter, Ie 1 122, g; Legend, Op. 31 for Concert Band ~ Creston meg — © ott 10 by Leal Muse, Corporati, $82 West 48th Steet, New York 80, N. ¥. Reprinted by permision. All rights rex Example (a) is an offbeat hemiola, and (b) presents two different offbeat hemiolas, the frame of measures being desig- nated by oblique lines. Example (c) is the same dimetric 9 x 4 relationship fully explained earlier (Example 119), but in- cluded from the second pulse of the first measure to the first pulse of the third measure inclusive. Example (d) is a trimetric 4x 3, the trimeter being contained from the second quarter of the first measure to the first quarter of the fourth measure inclusive, equalling 12 quarters; traditionally grouped as 3 x 4 but here converted to 4 x 3, Example (e) is also a trimeter, the quarter-note being considered the rhythmic unit with a pattern of eighth notes; and Example (£) is a similar trimeter beginning on the last eighth of the first measure. Example (g) is a 12 x 5 arrangement of 5 measures (pentameter) of 12 six- teenth notes in a measure, beginning on the fourth 16th of the first measure, The question arises regarding the number of measures pos- sible in a regular subdivision overlapping rhythm. It is obvious that a smaller meter permits a greater number of measures in a frame, and vice versa. Hence, tetrameters (four measure meters), pentameters (five measure meters) and even hexa- meters (six measure meters) are quite feasible in 2/4, 3/4, 6/8, or 9/8, but not as effective in 4/4, 5/4 or 12/8, since the pri- mary thythmic accents would be too widely separated. This does not completely exclude pentameters and hexameters in large meters, since the element of pace must also be considered. It is quite possible to have a frame of even seven or eight measures, if the pace is sufficiently rapid. Following are several illustrations of tetrameters and penta- meters in addition to Example 122g. 193 EXAMPLE 123, a. Scherzo from "A Midsummer Night's Dream" ~ Mendelssohn axe “ Ua Ua 2 ee eee eect b. Valse Brillante, Op. 34 No. 3— Chopin wy : peepee ees Se ae ee eee tm meee Gel L’Enfant et les sovtléges — Ravel xd “Viotns ia Copyright 1925-1992, Permission for reprint granted by Durand k Cle, Paris, France, copyright owner! Rikan:Vogel Cow Inc Phiadeiphia, a, agents 4, Piano Works, Op. 40 No, 5 — Tock aKb fe | Ft Copyright 1927, renewed 1985 by B, Sehot’s Sochne. Used by permission e. La sacre du printemps — Stravinsky BM ot oe Copyright 1921 by Edition Ruste de Musique for all counties. Copyright sssigned to Boosey € Hawkes, Ine. a amma oem 4. 2nd Movement of Symphony No, 1 — Creston 6 _———$$__, ——______,, p_—_, bs 3 te we ‘Used by permision of G. Schirmer, Inc, 124 4g 3rd Movement of Suite for Flute, Viola and Piano — Creston os — Oo Property of G. Ricordi & Co., New York, By now the student should have no difficulty in analyzing regu- lar subdivision overlapping rhythms. But it should be men- tioned that the rhythm of the Ravel excerpt (123c), which is maintained for 40 measures, is definitely a 3 x 4 grouping, in spite of the bowing. Mixed rhythms exist in the fourth structure as they do in the first. This, as the student will recall, is a major regular sub- division with a minor irregular pattern. Following are several. specimens. EXAMPLE 124 a, Two Choric Dances—Dance I ~ Creston we Qa OO Sot 4 = = SreEIrer ,n of G. Schirmer, Ine Copyright 1947. Used by permis b. Two Chorte Dances--Dance 1 — Creston os Te co Copyright 1947. Used by permision of G. Schirmer, Ine ©. Final Movement of Symphony No. 2 — Creston 6 oe Gt es Pt ees] Copyright 1954. Uted by permision of G, Schirmer, Ine. As with the previous structures, the first group of exercises deals with the tabulation of rhythms, notated in simple beats. However, there are some rhythms which are practical only with the full pattern of units. For example, in a 2/4 dimeter, a 5x 2 rhythm is possible through pattern, thus: exami 125 This same rhythm is also possible in 2/2, 6/8, 3/4 and 9/8. In all such rhythms a rapid pace facilitates their execution, EXAMPLE 126 In the tabulation, the student need not concern himself with those rhythms available only through pattern, but should write only those which can be notated in simple beats. A dimetric rhythm in 2/4, therefore, would be written thus: BxAMPLE 127 3x4 (ya) arrived at huss ——— —_ se 2 : e > 8 The method of calculation is: find the number of units con- tained in the frame of measures, then regroup the units into an overlapping formula. First consider the pulses as units, then the primary units, the secondary units, extrametrical units, etc, Regarding Example 127, a 2/4 dimeter: in 2 measures of 2/4 there are 4 pulses. These cannot be arranged except as 2 x 2, which is not an overlapping rhythm. The primary units are 8 and the secondary units, 16, neither of which can be rear- ranged as an overlapping rhythm, But the primary extrametri- cal units for the 2 measures are 22, traditionally existing as 4x9, but which ean be converted tor notated in the example in simple beats: mpd 1 hi 125 126 A. EXERCISES . Tabulate the number (shown in parentheses) of dimetric regu- lar subdivision overlapping rhythms, notated in simple beats and showing also the resultant division and meter; e.g. (3 x 4= 3/2, 9x 2=9/4, etc.), in the following meters: 2/4 (1), 3/4 (2), 4/4 (1), 5/4 (2), 6/8 (2), 9/8 (2), 12/8 (1). (Solutions Appen- dix 11) 2. Do the same for trimeters in the same meters: 2/4 (3, 3/4 (2), 4/4 (3), 5/4 (3), 6/8 (3), 9/8 (2), 12/8 (3) 3. Do the same for tetrameters: 2/4 (1), 3/4 (2), 4/4 (1), 5/4 (2), 6/8 (1), 9/8 (2), 12/8 (1). 4. Do the same for pentameters in the following meters: 2/4 (5), 3/4 (5), 4/4 (3), 6/8 (5), 9/8 (5), 12/8 (3). ‘The second step of application, that of writing patterns of specific rhythtns, may be omitted at this stage, and we proceed immediately to that of figurations. Remember always that the figuration must be practical of execution besides being clear and definite in the presentation of the rhythm. Notice the fig- uration in the right hand part of the following example, which fulfills both requirements: practicality of execution and clarity of presentation, EXAMPLE 128 6 Preludes for Piano, Op. 38 No. 3 — Creston Fast (d:128) : Copyright 1946 by Leeds Music Corporation, 38% West 48th Street, New York 86, Nu ¥. Repnited by permision, All Fights reseFved 127 It is advisable to re-read the ten points outlined in Chapter TIT regarding figurations. B, EXERCISES Write several figurations on each of the following rhythms: 1 mPa a ii uy Lape Laye Lae) 2 Me Fd ALL 2 % 4 Med dad div td J. \ 5. Md1d dtd 1d dud. 6. Me dd ddd dd. a 7% d_te Ltd dtd bd dtd. au Jd did d Lid. dtd 24 Ihde. = 9. wee Te dae 42, Fs: fol RR ete C 5 z oe + soon Fd , Ee} dae C. EXERCISES Write several melodies of at least 3 frames in length, ie. 6 measures of a dimeter, 9 measures of a trimeter, ete., in one and the same regular subdivision overlapping rhythm throughout, in the fol- he wring rhythms Varying patterns may be used in the above exercises, but the tive 1m in regard to subdivision of beats must be the same.) 128 D, EXERCISES Write several short pieces for piano, not less than 12 measures in length, utilizing regular subdivision overlapping in one hand and traditionally metrical subdivision in the other, as was done with regular subdivision (Page 73—D. Exercises). ddd Medd 2d dd %m J_id SS 1 5. we sau deddid db ddd dd 6. fe ded bids dud. 1 CHAPTER SEVEN Fifth Structure: Irregular Subdivision Overlapping THE FIFTH RHYTHMIC STRUGTURE, INREGULAR SUBDIVISION overlapping, may be defined as the “organization of a group of measures into unequal bests overlapping the barline.” It is a combination of the second (irregular subdivision) and third (overlapping) structures, and is a rhythmic phenomenon asso- ciated primarily with the 20th century. If the student has really grasped the various aspects and ramifications of the preceding structures, he should have little difficulty in assimilating this particular “organization of dura- tion in ordered movement.” For it partakes of elements existent in irregular subdivision, overlapping and regular subdi overlapping. Like the second structure (irregular subdi this fifth structure incorporates the following factors: 1. It is additive rhythm. 2. It is not necessary that all beats be unequal. As long as there is one unequal beat in a frame of two or more measures, the rhythm is irregular. 3. Any number of units (in the entire frame) may be grouped unequally except 2, 3, 4 and 6. 4. There must be at Jeast one beat which is not an equal divisor of another. From simple overlapping it borrows the concept of meter as truly “a grouping of pulses” with primary accents not metni- cally but rhythmically ordered. What distinguishes it from simple overlapping is the presence of a repeated scheme. And as in regular subdivision overlapping, the major rhythm (in the fifth structure) is contained in a frame of 2 or more measures, ie, in dimeters, trimeters, ete. To the foregoing must be added two special factors of irregular subdivision overlapping: 129 130 1. Rhythmic beats (obtained through regular subdivision), as well as pulses, may be considered the units of the irregular beats. 2. Ibis not necessary that every barline in the major rhythm be overlapped. Let us examine several illustrations in order to clarify the various points just enumerated. ExAMPLE 129 1. Final movement of Sympthony No, 2~ Creston Copyright 1954. Used by permission of G. Schirmer, Tne b, Final movement of Symphony No, 4 — Creston 4 a 2 2 ‘oq —*—— 45 See ee eee Property of G. Kicordi te Co., New York. ¢, Ist Movement of Piano Concerto ~ Ravel z o Coppi 1682, Ferinion for ceprint graced by Dara & Cie ns, France, copyright owner? Elfan-Vogel Go. Ine, Philadelphia, Pa, agents, 4, 2nd Movement of Symphony — Walton Copyrighe 1996 by the Oxford University Press, London €. Ist Movement of Concerto for Orchestra — Bartok , oe, * 4 Ge pp oS SS Copyright 1946 by Hawkes & Son (Londoa) Ltd. £. Idem — Walton 131 g. In Movement of Pano Concert — Creston 2g genees) Sie Used by courtisy of the publisher, Templeton Publishing Co. tne, Delaware Water Gap, Example (2) of the above is a dimeter in 3/4, containing 12 primary units (6 in a measure), arranged as 4 unequal beats: 3+4-+2-+ 3. In the full score, this rhythm is repeated 3 times. A rearrangement of this rhythm into 4 +3 + 3+ in a dimeter of 6/8 is found in (b), maintained for 32 measures. Example (c) is a dimeter in 4/4, the pulses are considered as units, giving us 8 units in 2 measures, arranged as 3 unequal beats: 3 + 2 + 3. Example (d) is a trimeter in 3/4, pulses as units, 9 units in major rhythm, arranged as 2 unequal beats: 4+ 5, Example (e) is a trimeter in 3/8, 9 primary units, 4 unequal beats: 2 + 2+ 2+ 3. Note here that only 1 of the beats is unequal (sufficient for irregularity) and that the 3 unit Deat (*) does not overlap, but is, nevertheless, included in the major rhythm. This latter factor is also present in Example (f), which is a tetrameter in 3/4, pulses as units, 12 units in major rhythm, in 3 unequal beats: 4-+ 5 + 3. Example (g} is a tetra- meter in 6/8, with beats (through regular subdivision ) as units, and a non-overlapping measure included in the major rhythm (°), which, in the full score, is maintained for 48 measures at its first appearance. The favorite in irregular subdivision being the 3 + 3 + 2 rhythm, it is not surprising to find this same rhythm in imregu- lar subdivision overlapping as well. The following are several illustrations in a dimeter and one in a tetramter (Example (£) ). Remember that the additive formula (3 + 3 -+ 2) always refers to the units comprising the ixregular beats, regardless of the pattern. As an instance, Example (b) has a pattern of sixteenth and eighth notes, but the units through which the rhythm is calculated are the primary units (eighth notes) of each meas- ure. Also, it must be assumed that in all examples of the fifth structure the scheme is repeated, even though only one frame may be given. 132 Examen 130 a, dth Movement of Suite for Viola and Piano ~ Bloch = Sy bs ts Oo ta OSS Copyright 1920. Used by permission of G. Schirmer, tne b. Final Movement of Symphony No, 1 — Creston # ——= a = ——— d, Prelude and Dance, No. 2— Creston Used by courtsy of the publisher, Templeton Publishing Co., Ine, Delaware Water Gaps Fa . Final Movement of Symphony No. 4 — Creston ao aS Property of G. Ricordi & Co,, New York. £, 2nd Movement of Symphony ~ Walton Copyright 1986 by the Oxford University Press, London. Obviously, the simplest scheme in irregular subdivision overlapping would be 2 unequal beats in a dimeter. To know the possibilities of this scheme, all the student has to do is refer to the tabulation of irregular subdivisional rhythms devised in Chapter IV. He will find, among others, the following: 5 + 3, 7+5,947, 11 +5, 13 + ll and 17 + 7, all of which are obtainable in 2 measures. Translating the dimetric 5 + 3 thythm, as an instance, into various meters, we would obtain the following: exanrt 191 s+8 An explanation of some of these results is in order. (‘The rhythms, incidentally, are notated in durations of simple beats.) Obtaining 8 units in 2 measures (or 4 units per measure) in 9/4, 4/4 ot 12/8, is simple enough if we bear in mind that even pulses may be considered the units (in 4/4 and 12/8). In 3/4 and 6/8, the 4 units per measure are obtained extrametri- cally by converting the meter to 12/16 or 4 equal beats to the measure; the rhythmic beats, in other words, becoming the units. Similarly, the 5/4 is converted to a 4 x 5 relationship for each measure, and the 9/8 to a 4 x 9 relationship, again the beats becoming the units. Reference to the table of regular subdivision, Chapter II, will clarify this process of obtaining a certain number of units through beats; and the following diagrams explain this process. pxanerLe 132 As BEATS (Regular Subdivision) cc ——— ieee ee ee ‘As UNITS in Irregular Subdivision Overlapping It is to be noted that those relationships rather circuitously ar- rived at, 9/8 (4 x 9) and 5/4 (4 x 5), although logical and possible, are not so practical, in simple beats. Now, each of the five rhythmic structures has its own par- ticular character or feeling, which will be discussed in the chapter on the “Rhythm as a Whole.” In the meantime, how- ever, we must bear in mind the specific character of irregular subdivision overlapping. Its character is that of a certain angu- 133 134 larity or spasmodic quality. For this reason, small beats are more in keeping with its nature than large heats and one will more often find use for such 5 beat rhythms as 2 + 34+2+3 +2or3+3+4+3+43 + 4 than for 2 beat rhythms such as 13 + 11 or 17 + 7. The following illustrations are typical of the fifth structure. peancene 139 a. 2nd Movement of Trio pour piano, violon ct violoncelle ~ Ravel 3 ree et Fo = ranted by Durand & Cie, Pais, France, copie Pony agents Copyright 1915, Permission for re ownert Bikan-Voge! Co. ney Philadel b, dth Movement of Symphony — Walton Bo tat Copyright 1986 by the Oxford University Prem, Landon, ¢. Final Movement of Symphony No. 4~ Creston ee 4 Propeny of G. Ricard & Co,, New York, 4. 6 Preludes for Piano, Op. 38 No. 6 — Creston oat th HOG © 1946 by Leads Musle Govporation, 322 West 4h Street, New York 86, N.Y. Reprinted by Sermon. Ail rights rected €. Ist Movement of Symphony No. 2 ~ Creston pest aes SSS Copyright 1954. Used by permission of G, Schirmer, Ine. While regular subdivision overlapping results in the en- largement of a meter, irregular subdivision overlapping results, in one sense, in a metrical sequence. In other words, irregular subdivision overlapping and metrical sequence are two differ- ent methods. of presenting the same rhythm. To understand this aspect better, observe the two versions of the following examples; the original (metrical sequence) and its presenta- tion as irregular subdivision overlapping. examen 134 a. Exultation — Cowell Metrical Sequence Copyright 1922, ronewed 1960, by Bretkopt Publications, Inc. Used by permission, b. 2nd Movement (Pastorale) from Suite for Saxophone and Piano — Creston Metrical Sequence ‘As Irregular Subdivision Overlapping ——— —_ aki DY stu of the publahe, Templeton Pubihing Co ne, Deare Water As in the fourth structure, the segment of duration in ir- regular subdivision overlapping need not be contained from the first to the last barlines of any group of measures. The next example, by a 16th century composer, illustrates this. EXAMPLE 185 Fais que je vive — Pevemage 4 3) 45 ayy 3) AS eS ee e ¥ # smb -re desmal-heureuxand-re des malheuress;mb-re dou mal heart An objection may be raised, however, to the preceding illus- tration, with regard to terminology. Perhaps it might be classi- fied as the second structure (irregular subdivision) instead of 135 136 the fifth, since the number of units (8) are contained in a single measure. However, to really be the fifth structure, the number of units contained in the major rhythm must be greater than that in a single measure of the particular meter; or, in other words, the units must equal at least a dimeter. The 3 + 3 + 2 rhythm presented as follows will give a better idea of this factor. EXAMPLE 196 The comments about the notational system in regular sub- division overlapping ( p. 96 ) apply as well to the fifth struc- ture. The metrical system of notation is the logically correct one, while the rhythmic system presents the true rhythm visu- ally; but either system may be adopted. ‘The variety and the number of effective rhythms in irregu- lar subdivision overlapping are greater than in any of the other three structures which follow a repeated scheme: regular sub- division, irregular subdivision or regular subdivision over- lapping. Even hexameters, heptameters and octameters are quite feasible in the fifth structure. The following are two hexa- meters and an octameter: xaMpie 197 a. Two Chorle Dances~Dance IT — Creston F A A A php 4 2 Copytight 1947. Used by permbision of G. Sekirmen, Ine. b, Idem — Creston «, Final Movement of Symphony No. 4— Creston no ooo 8 gis oe ral oye Ga PG ios aa Property of G. Ricordi & Co., New York. Example (a), in the full score, is maintained for 42 measures (7 times) at its first presentation, and Example (b) is main- tained for 30 measures (5 times). Concerning the latter ex- ample, the student is reminded again that the major rhythm is comprised in the 6 measures, and the number of non-over- lapping measures does not alter the fact that this rhythm must be considered irregular subdivision overlapping. Certain mixed rhythms pose the problem of correct ter- minology. Observe the following example and its accompany- ing diagram. examen 138 Final movement of Symphony No. 2 — Creston ag BS B Tc Copyright 1954. Used by permlsion of G. Schirmer, Ine, b, Ist Movement of Suite for Saxophone and Piano — Creston SS SS SS SSS by covrtey of the publisher, Templeton Publishing Co,, Inc, Delaware Water us cap, Pa 137 138 The major rhythm (A) of Example 138a is a pentameter (5 measures) of 3 converted to a 3 x 5 relationship (B) which would properly be termed regular subdivision overlapping, But the minor rhythm (C) is an irregular 4-beat rhythm: 3 + 3 + 2+ 2, and in sound, it is this irregular character which seems to predominate. For this reason, it would be best to mention both factors in classification by terming it major regular subdivision overlapping with minor irregular subdivi- sion overlapping. A similar analysis can be made of Example 138b. More than in any other structure, the problem of practical- ity in execution must be fully considered in the fifth structure. If the student will examine the examples already given for this aspect, he will notice that almost every one is based on the utilization of all the units. The particular technique of the instrument must also be considered. Re-examine these ex- amples from the standpoint of string bowing: 129b, 130¢, 139¢, 133e and 137c. And these from the standpoint of piano technique: 129c, 129g, 190d, 138a and 133d. Selecting one from each group, notice that in Example 133e, the accented note always comes at a change of bow, and that in Example 133d, the accent is on a chord requiring arm touch. In other words, the pure, physical mechanics of playing should cause the accents without any special attention to where they must occur. Before proceeding to the exercises, the student is advised to review the instructions given on page 88 regarding the development of the rhythmic sense. Apply the method of absorption explained there to several of the rhythms already devised in this chapter. For the first group of exercises the following process will be found helpful in calculating those rhythms based on extra- metrical beats as units. Taking, as an example, the 7 + 5 rhythm in a dimeter of 2/4: we need 6 units per measure in order to obtain the 12 of the entire rhythm (7 + 5). Triplets to each quarter note give us this number: 2 Twn Bracket the units according to the additive rhythm: WITT aaa aaa ee Translate this to simple beats: _ ides a ‘As another example, let us calculate the 4 + 3 + 2 rhythm in a trimeter of 4/4. We require 9 units in 3 measures or 3 units per measure. Regular subdivision showed us how to obtain this through the 3 x 4 relationship: LPL DS Write this out for 3 measures and then bracket the 4 + 3+ 2 rhythm NL LIL SL Pes he die he Ld A Translate this to simple beats: lod Sd dd oo et A Asa final example, we shall apply the same process to a rather difficult rhythm, 4-+ 3 + 3 + 2 in a dimeter of 5/4, which is fully diagrammed in Example 139, EXAMPLE 139 aS > In order to obtain the 12 units (4+ 3+ 3 + 2) we must divide each measure into 6 units. The common denominator of 6 (units) and 5 (pulses) is 30: write them as sextolets for the two measures (A). Group them in 5's to obtain the 6 x 5 rela- tionship (B). Now regroup these six beats into 4+ 3+3+2 (C). Translate to simple beats of rhythmic duration (D). This last example should clearly demonstrate the co-relationship of the fifth structure with the first, besides, as already mentioned, partaking of elements of the second, third and fourth structures. A, EXERCISES Write the following rhythms within the specified frame of measures, 139 140 in simple beats of duration, in the various meters given. (Solu- tions in Appendix IT) 7 +5 Dimeter in: 2/4, 3/4, 4/4, 6/8, 9/8, 12/8, 7 +5 Trimeter in: 2/4, 3/4, 4/4, 6/8, 12/8. 5 +4 Trimeter in: 2/4, 3/4, 4/4, 6/8, 9/8, 12/8. 3+3-+2 Dimeter in: 2/4, 3/4, 4/4, 6/8, 12/8. 5 +443 Dimeter in 2/4, 3/4, 4/4, 6/8, 9/8, 12/8. 443+ 2 Trimeter in: 2/4, 3/4, 4/4, 6/8, 9/8, 12/8. 5+4+ 3 Trimeter in 2/4, 3/4, 4/4, 6/8, 12/8, 5+ 4+ 3 Tetrameter in: 2/4, 3/4, 4/4, 6/8, 9/8, 12/8. | 4+3+3 +2 Dimeter in: 2/4, 3/4, 4/4, 5/4, 6/8, 9/8, 4 12/8, 15/8. 10. 44343 +2 Trimeter in 2/4, 3/4, 4/4, 5/4, 6/8, 12/8, 1, 44343 +2Tetrameter in: 2/4, 3/4, 4/4, 6/8, 9/8, 15/8 12, 3+2+3+42 +4 2 Dimeter in 2/4, 3/4, 4/4, 6/8, 9/8, 12/8, 13. 34+24+342 + 2 Trimeter in 2/4, 3/4, 4/4, 6/8, 12/8. M4. 34+24+342+ 2 Tetrameter in 2/4, 3/4, 4/4, 6/8, 9/8, 12/8, 15, 3+34+3+42+4 3+ 2 Dimeter in 2/4, 4/4, 6/8, 12/8, 16. 3+3+3+243 +2 Tetrameter in 2/4, 3/4, 4/4, 8/8, 12/8. IT, 5+44443 45 +3 Dimeter in 2/4, 4/4, 6/8, 12/8. 18. 5+4444+3+5 43 Trimeter in 2/4, 4/4, 6/8, 12/8. i 19. 5+4+4+3+5+3 Tetrameter in 2/4, 3/4, 4/4, 6/8, 9/8, 12/8. 20, 5+4+44+3+45 +3 Hexameter in 2/4, 3/4, 6/8. QL. 5+24+34+34+24+2+34+2 42 Tetrameter in 2/4, 3/4, 4/4, 6/8, 9/8, 12/8. 22. 54+24+34+3+24+24+34242 Hexameter in 2/4, 23. Pere Hp ter 3/4, 6/8, . 34+3444+34+244444344 4 2 Octameter (8 measures) in 2/4, 3/4, 6/8 Because of the complexity of the fifth structure, it is advis- able to do a few exercises in pattern. Before thinking of the final pattern, notate the rhythm with a pattern utilizing all the units. For example, taking as a model the 4 + 3 + 3 + 2 rhythm in a | Trimeter in 8/4 which appears in beats thus: i Id. id Fld. bd i fill out the units, thus: LA LAAT. 5 leap eee ee ep ee This, in itself, would be the s cents to bring out the rhythm. lest pattern, with dynamic ac- 1e next simplest pattern would 141 fill out the metrical units, thus: EXAMPLE 140 sree Primary > and secondary ¥ accents have been noted, Following are several other possible patterns of the same rhythm. axaMeLe 141 a) o. ae 5 —, B, EXERCISES Write 2 or 3 patterns for each of the following rhythms. 1. 54 4+3 Dimeter in 3/4 td Thad Ad 2. 443+ 2 Trimeter in 6/8 ides dd id dd 3. 5+ 4+ 3 Tetrameter in 2/4 read Md id 4. 44343 + 2 Tetrameter in 9/8 td did dtd did d. 5. 5+44+4+3+5 +3 Hexameter in 6/8 Va WD TEI ids. 1 6. 3+34+44+3424+44+44+34+4+42 Octameter in 2/4 1d Add id add ADs ed ad dad Li C. EXERCISES Write 2 or 3 figurations of several shythms from the A. group, or pat- tems chosen from the B group, of exercises. D. EXERCISES Write 2 or 3 short pieces for piano of about 16 measures in length, employing an irregular subdivision overlapping rhythm in the accompaniment, and purely metrical scheme in melodic part. b. Sed Movement of Symphony No. 4— Creston Allegretto giocoso fi uss Lie iio Property of G, Ricord! & Go., New York, ©. Ist Movement of Suite for Flute, Violo and Plano — Creston ur 4/8 Property of G. Ricardi & Co,, New York, Example (a) above, shows different configurations of one structure, regular subdivision, without any overlapping or var- iation in measure length, therefore not multimetric but melti- rhythmic, Example (b) contains three different configurations of the first structure (Roman numerals indicate the structure), other structures (IIT and IV), and varying measure lengths through overlapping, hence multirhythmic and multimetiic. Example (c) is also both multirhythmic and multimetric. The matter of needless notational changes deserves some consideration. Stravinsky and Bartok are, perhaps, two of the most culpable in this respect. Let us take one typical example from each composer to demonstrate the fallacy, in many cases, of changing notation. Only the melodic line is given as it is sufficient to indicate the rhythm. EKAMPLs 149 Danse Sacrale from “Le sacre du printemps” — Stravinsky 4 dare: 143 CHAPTER EIGHT Polymeters and Polyrhythms BEFORE DEALING WITH THE SUBJECT OF THIS CHAPTER, IT 15 advisable to discuss a little more fully the matter of multimeter and multirhythm as a preparation for the more complex prob- lem of combining meters and rhythms. First Jet us clarify the distinction between multimeter and muiltirhythm. Since the fundamental concept of meter is the “grouping of pulses,” it follows that multimeter involves a variation of pulse-groupings, whether this is designated by monometric notation through overlapping or by changing nota~ tion, In other words, multimeter, to be correctly so named, must contain measures of varying length. Multirhythm, on the other hand, must contain different structures or different con- figurations of a structure, which may exist in either monometric or multimetric notation. By “configuration” of a structure is meant the particular arrangement of beats. For example, 3/4 converted to 6/8 would be one configuration, and the same meter converted to 12/16 another configuration of the same structuse (regular subdivision). Similarly, 4/4 arranged as 5 + 3 would be one, while 3 + 3 + 2 another, configuration of the same structure (irregular subdivision). Chapter I (Exam- ple 11) presented several illustrations of multimeter with changing notation, and Chapter V (Example 100) those with a single metric notation, The following are three illustrations of multirhythm, sxananns M2 a. Ist Movement of Symphony No. 2~ Creston Slow, oie aft emo to Copmight 195. Used hy permision of G. Schirmer, Inc. Seow ty ion Ruse de Mais for coun. Copa meet so | oP Wl In the above example, the metronome indication is d= 196, It is not until the fourth measure (4/16) that the eighth-note | unit can be calculated or felt, thereby creating the first stum- bling block in the performer’s path. But let us ignore that for the moment. This is obviously additive rhythm, so let us add: The entire section equals 112 sixteenths, which number is divisible by 4 and hence convertible to 28 groups of 4 six- teenths. Since the metronomic beat is the eighth note, let us change the 4/16 to 2/8, and inject some logic into the notation. (This excerpt of the music, incidentally, leads directly into a section of multimeters based on eighths: 3/8, 2/8, etc.). It is | now much less terrifying and “modern” in appearance. | exami 144 Idem — Stravinsky d.u6 The following Bartok excerpt is from the Allegro movement of his Third String Quartet, of which the first few measures \ are given, exanerLe: 145 nd Movement (Allegro) of String Quartet No. 3— Bartok fo sock Wiviton tne or U'Sia Copies een eunets by Univeral Eaifon™ From cue [3] to the first measure inclusive of [9], there are 189 eighths, This is divisible by 3, making 63 measures of 3/8. Logically enough, the ensuing section from cue [9] to [28] is all in 3/8. Why not, then, write the preceding section entirely in 3/8, as follows? ExAMPLE 146 Idem — Bartok es Three examples from other composers are now given with brief remarks. Only the revised monometric notation is shown for the first several measures, with the dotted lines indicating the original multimetric notation. ExaneeLe 147 a, Ist Movement of Piano Sonata — Slavenski er ‘Used by permision of Milana Slavens b.“Die Grablegung” from “Die Passion” — Reuter 2 is jue Copyright 1980, renevted 1958 by B, Schott's Sot. Used By permission. 145 146 e, Sarcasmes, Op. 17 No. §— Prokofieft By permission of Messrs. Ancon J. Benjamin, London-ftamburg. Example (2), in its first section, consist of four periods of, respectively, 16-16-12 and 16 quarters, adding to 60, con- vertible to 15 measures of 4/4. This leads to the pit) vivo section, which utilizes every binary meter from 2/4 to 10/4, adding to 85 quarters, convertible to 17 measures of 5/4: a logical proportion for the development section. Example (b), in its entirety, is equivalent to 80 half notes, convertible to 20 measures of 4/2. And Example (c) contains 55 eighth notes, convertible to 11 measures of 5/8, leading to a straight 2/4 for the remainder of the piece. The foregoing discussion of proper notation may seem un- necessary to some musicians, and as far as it relates to solo music, there may be some reason in not being overly con- cerned, But when the music involyes two or more performers, monometric notation greatly lessens the difficulties of rhythmic execution, and a little concentration on practicality will repay the composer with a more reliable performance. Let there be as many rhythmic complexities as desired, bat the burden of solving complexity must rest with the composer and not with the performer. We need not, however, be extremists in this or any respect. There are instances when multimetric notation is imperative, These instances are a last resort and exceptions to the rule. Until his rhythmic sense is fully developed, the stu- dent is advised to calculate multimeters through a single metric notation, so as to be assured of “ordered movement.” As there is a distinction between multimeter and multi- rhythm, so is there a similar distinction between polymeter and polyrhythm, Polyreter is the simultaneous use of two or more meters, while polyrhythm is the simultaneous use of two or more structures or configurations of a structure. Turning back to Example 11 in Chapter I, the Vitali excerpt (Example 11c) is polymetric in the combination of the 4/4 and the 3/4 or the 12/8 and the 3/4, since they are of varying measure lengths; but polyrhythmic in the 4/4 and 12/8 combination. The Mozart (Example 11d) is polymetric in the 2/4-3/4 combination, but polyrhythmie in the 3/8-3/4 combination. The 3/8 is rather confusing; it should be 9/8, three measures of 3/8 equalling one measure of the 3/4.) Example Lle is polymetric in the combination of 12/16 (or 6/8 or 3/4)—5/4 and 2/4, but poly- rhythmic in the 3/4-6/8-12/16 combination. Following is an example of pure polymeter: 5 different metrical schemes, of which the D line is traditionally metric and the other four, multimetric. exawrne: 148 Walt Whitman, Op, 53 -- Creston va Tt ae fae b/s Copyright 1958 by G. Ricorai ke Co,, New York. aT 148 The next examples are of polyrhythm. Examples (b) and (c) are pure polyrhythm without the additional factor of poly- meter, but Example (a) is slightly different, not only because it includes the polymetric factor but because of a variation in primary accents rather than in configurations of a single struc ture. Notice that the instrumental rhythms (lower four) are all of the 3 + 2 + 3 arrangement of irregular subdivision over- lapping, but each beginning at a different pulse of the measure. ‘This is the type of polyrhythm so prevalent in 16th century music. ‘EXAMPLE 149 1. Poalmus Hungaricus — Kodaly ne sa wanons vis, Via, Yo. on Copyright 1934 ty Universal Edition. Renewed 1951. Used by permision of Boceey & akg 'fnc, sole agent for the USA, and Cannda aid Univers Edition, for A set 2nd Movement of Trio pour piano, violin et ooloncelle~ Ravel 26/8 —~> age Copytight 1015, Permission for reprint grant owner? ElfanVoge) Go, Ine., Philsdelpaiae Pa. 49 ¢. Frontiers — Creston = 6/8 212/16 Tru Temb Ie Used by permison of G, Schirmer, Ine The 6/8 of the Chorus part (Example 149a) would be much clearer, in performance if not in appearance, if adapted to the 4/4 meter, thus: EXAMPLE 150 Idem ~ Kodaly All that was said regarding multimetric notation applies with greater force to polymetrie notation. Different metri¢ no- tations are very often unnecessary. The following are Examples Llc and 11d rewritten in a single notation. (Accent or tenuto (-) signs may be used to clarify a rhythm.) ExAMLE 151 (Ex, He) Balletto — G. B. Vitali From "Buono ¢ Remo" of Eyilia Gubitrt. Copyright 1982 by Edixiont Curel, Mitano, ad ‘copyright 1050 by Eirini Cure, Milano, Used by courtesy 2¢ Edivont Curse, Mano, 150 (Ex, 114) Minuet from “Don Giovanni” — Mozart In the Ravel Trio, the following double notation occurs more than once: xaaerce 152 2nd Movement of Trio pour piano, violin et violoncelle — Ravel ——. z= Copyright 1915, Permission for reprint granted by Durand & Cie, Paris, France, copyright owner Efan-Vora Co, ine ¥otincelphiat Cas agen, In each case it would be much clearer to retain the 3/4 nota- tion for all parts, and write the 4/2 parts thus: EXAMPLE 153 Idem — Ravel —_ Of course, exceptions to the single notation rule exist also in polymeters. Because of the particular pattern in the 6/4 part, Example 154a, if written in a single notation, would be more difficult and confusing than as Wagner wrote it. The same reason for practicality of notation rules Examples (b) and (c). EXAMPLE 154 a, Prelude to “Parsifal” — Wagner (idded 4) ° b. Sth Movement of Suite for Flute, Viola and Piatio — Creston Fh atte ee So eS Property of G, Ricard & Go., New York, ¢, 1st Movement of Piano Concerto, Op. 43 ~ Creston Used by courtesy of the publisher, ‘Templeton Publishing Co,, Tnc., Delaware Water Gap, Fa. a te * The problem of devising polymeters and polyrhythms is not as formidable as the student might think, although it is, ad- mittedly, more difficult than any device heretofore attempted. It is a matter, really, of two procedures: planning and experi- mentation. Strangely enough, the real problem becomes one of harmony rather than rhythm, For it would not be too difficult to calculate the polymetric and polyrhythmie possibilities 451 152, within a certain span of measures were it not for the resultant harmonic requirements. But in this harmonic problem, plan- ning and experimentation again will be found to be the most effective procedures, All the exercises of the preceding chapters for which the student wrote short pieces, were actually a preparation for polyrhythmic composition. The polyrhythmic combinations thus far employed have been for two parts: 1, Extrametrical regular subdivision and metrical. (Chap- ter IIL) 2, Irregular subdivision and metrical. (Chapter IV) 3, Irregular subdivision and extrametrical regular subdi- sion. (Chapter IV) 4, Two different configurations of irregular subdivision. (Chapter IV) 5. Regular subdivision overlapping and metrical. (Chapter V1) 6. regular subdivision overlapping and metrical. (Chap- ter VII) ‘The next step, logically, is the combination of three rhythms in pure polyrhythm, without multimeters. Now more than ever the intention and result in sound must be one and the same. Tt is not sufficient for each rhythm or combination to look right on paper; it must be clearly audible as intended. The following suggestions will be found helpful: 1. Plan rhythms first. Polyrhythm being, in a sense, rhythmic counterpoint, it cannot just happen, it must be planned. The customary procedure of many students of writing a melody and then harmonizing it will not usually work when rhythmic counterpoint is involved, As a rule, it is not feasible to write a melody first and then expect various rhythms to fall in place. The better sequence generally is: rhythm, harmony, melody Plan the rhythms first, then the harmonic basis; from these two devise the figuration, and lastly create the melodic line. The figurations and melodic \imes must clearly reveal, and not vitiate or work against, the rhythms, 2. Avoid synchronous accents except at one point per meas- ure or two or three per major rhythm when this extends for several measures. Rhythmic counterpoint has characteristics 153 similar to melodic counterpoint: each part should be, if not completely contrasting, at least varied from the others—varied in number of accents, points of synchronization, structures or configurations. Supposing we have two irregular configurations or arrangements such as: 4+ 3+ 3+ 2 against 4+ 342 + 3, as in the following diagram: EXAMPLE 155, The rhythmic counterpoint is barely suggested, for there are the same number of accents, four, of which three are syn- chronous. However, if we employed for the same number of units, a combination of 4+ 3+ 3+ 2and5 +44 + 3, the rhythm would be genuinely contrapuntal, for there would be four accents against three, synchronous at only one point. EXAMPLE 156 If we should want more contrast in the rhythms, we would then empioy different structures, such as: 5 + 4 + 3 (second structure) against 6 x 2 (first structure): xanerne 157 inregultr subdivision regular subdivision 3. Use various types of accent, Reexamine Example 148. Although this is a specimen of polymeter, the same accentual features can be incorporated in polyrhythm. Besides dynamic accents, there are: agogic (line A), pitch and pattern (line B) and weight accents (line C). It is always a good idea to rely on agogic accents for the main melodic line. 154 4, Use various types of pattern. A pattern, as the student will recall, may be simple or compound, based on simple beats or on some of the units or all of the units. Turning back to Example Ile (Chapter I); the first rhythm (top line) sounds the beats only; the second rhythm uses a simple pattern with all the units adapted to the irregular minor rhythm; the third uses a compound pattern but not all the units; and the fourth uses a compound pattern with all the units. The exercises for polyrhythms are based on pre-devised plans. The metrical scheme is given in pulses, the regular sub- division rhythm in beats, and the irregular subdivision in units But the pattern for each rhythm may be whatever the student wishes, remembering always to try for various types of pattern. When the student feels he has had sufficient practice with pre- devised plans, he should continue the exercise with originally conceived plans. The given plans are based on five different combinations or types: I A. Metrical B. Extrametrical Regular Subdivision (one configuration ) Extrametrical Regular Subdivision (another configuration ) Metrical Extrametrical Regular Subdivision Inregular Subdivision Metrical Irregular Subdivision (one configuration ) Inregular Subdivision (another configuration ) Extrametrical Regular Subdivision (one configuration) Extrametrical Regular Subdivision (another configuration ) C. Irregular Subdivision V. A, Extrametrical Regular Subdivision B. Cc. 9 I. It. PORPOmE w . Irregular Subdivision (one configuration) . Irregular Subdivision (another configuration) The positions of these rhythms need not be as presented in the plans. For example, in the first plan, the rhythms are pre- sented thus: A) Metrical B) Extrametrical Regular Subdivision (one configuration) C) Extrametrical Regular Subdivision (an- other configuration). But the “A” rhythm may very well be in the middle or low part, and not necessarily in the high part. The same applies to the other two rhythms. Since there are two specimen plans given for each type (in the exercises) it would be a good idea to try two different positions of the rhythms, A, EXERCISES (Polyrhythm) Write a short piece of about 12 measures, based on each of the given plans. The piece may be for piano or any combination of three instruments: 2 violins and viola; piano, violin and cello; flute, oboe and clarinet; etc. The main melodic line may be as sug- gested (by the word “melodic”) or for either of the other thythms, and the pace may be slow or fast. T w (2) He Ad J J estosio gad. J. 4. J Bd. dos Bid ddd ddd 01 cmeroeie) 0. IIT. . ane Code bd bd. a2 I (1) (2) tyra d Lod Sewowein AL Jd BD PB Sede na contoees 2 2 osm = 6 MT Sate ie ir (a) (4) Bead J (medic) MEAL do de 8. £FF FT B. IT) LT2 IT (retoaie ae ar ie 155 156 Iv (a) (2) gad Not ddecae GA. TT. TDs ite Bed dM J ddd sou(metoaioB.d bd Jean | o. MMM c. peel) | pe eo v oF os @) | Hdd dd facies Aad ALITY cmetoaio | mmm saaaan man wat { . mmm og a eee | When the art of combining three rhythms has been fully | mastered (through the preceding exercises and others based on original plans) the student should proceed to combinations of | four and five rhythms. Remember that the plans must be based on combinations of only the following structures: 1) metrical 2) extrametrical regular subdivisions 3) irregular subdivision | and 4) different configurations of regular or irregular subdivi- | sion. ‘The third, fourth and fifth structures are used in poly- rhythms combined with polymeters. | The next exercises are in birhythmic polymeters, i.e. poly- meters containing two different rhythms and with only two metrical schemes. These are possible in 15 types: I. Metrical Regular Subdivision Overlapping Il. Metrical Inregular Subdivision Overlapping Tl. Metical \ Overlapping IV. Regular Subdivision Overlapping (1) | Regular Subdivision Overlapping (2) V. Irregular Subdivision Overlapping (1) Inregular Subdivision Overlapping (2) VL Overlapping (1) Overlapping (2) VI. Regular Subdivision Regular Subdivision Overlapping VII. Regular Subdivision Irregular Subdivision Overlapping IX, Regular Subdivision Overlapping X. Regular Subdivision Overlapping Irregular Subdivision Overlapping XI. Regular Subdivision Overlapping Overlapping XII. regular Subdivision Overlapping Overlapping XIN. Tregular Subdivision Regular Subdivision Overlapping XIV. regular Subdivision Inregular Subdivision Overlapping XV. Irregular Subdivision Overlapping Tt is understood that the regular subdivision structure, whenever included, is extrametrical to distinguish it from the purely metrical. Types I and II have already been practiced in Chapter VI and VII. Specimens of types Il and IX are found, respectively, in Example 120k and Example 38 (combination of highest and lowest parts). The following is a specimen of type XL weampie 158 Std Movement of Suite for Flute, Viola and Plano — Creston 19/4 overlapping 6/4 ee regular ETIvision overapgTag 9/4 Property of G. Ricordt & Co., New York, Exercises are now presented for several of the types with predevised plans. The remaining types should also be practised with plans devised by the student. As before, the position of each rhythm need not be as given: they may be reversed; and similarly, the melodic line need not be in the part suggested. Short pieces are to be written based on the given plans. 157 158 (1) era Oe A. oto (metudie) B wi 4 ! ie Vere 98:68} (2) Wy A. als Ja. alaleh AM 187R 12/4 isiqa (metudie) B () ea L Mad (metodie) B. d. 4. FL. continue for 12 measures (2) Ba A. (aetodio) B. ot: ad thy @ aa yA. na aya B. mam mani; ime aoa (2) graea %g A. PF EL J3. 44.5 F. B mn mmm continue for 12 measures aoe cont.for 12 meas (metudie) cont.for 10 or 12 mens Sivaratore (1) (contrepuntay pty d. Sida fa fame al pe Ny in fob | wee WMA. deyd'd i) {2} (eon vtoupontalty) ve tere % a. J a ara ode ab ia (a) Wa a. de dd (metodie) cont, for 19 oF 12 meas B. tale (a) My Ad (metodic) coat. for 10 oF 12 mens cont.for 10 of 12 B. minlnm tH ar (1) Baa. d 4. (metodie) for 10 or 12 mens. B artes g1IT7 a q | x aera a i 4. (melodic) for 12 meas B. fai ts wie d ny (a) Be A dtd did ddd. I) ote. tor 12 mons. (melodie) B. Overtepping-any (2) Big And d Judd dll ete tor Wor 12 meas (metodic) B. avertapping—any scheme dorired me desired d. d.yd. dd. " cont.for 12 Bod add fal Ll 7 159 160 B. EXERCISES Obviously, combinations of three rhythms are possible in many more types than of two, The following are just a few of them, for each of which the student must write two examples on schemes originally conceived by himself. From there he may go on to other types possible with three rhythms, and finally with four and five rhythms. \ TYPES OF TRIRHYTHMIC POLYMETERS { (partial lst) I. Metrical Regular Subdivision Overlapping (1) Tl. Metrical Regular Subdivision Overlapping Regular Subdivision Overlapping (2) | TM. Metrical Inregular Subdivision Regular Subdivision Overlapping IV. Metrical Overlapping (1) (contrapuntal) Overlapping (2) V. Metrical Regular Subdivision Overlapping Irregular Subdivision Overlapping VL. Regular Subdivision | Regular Subdivision Overlapping Overlapping VIL. Regular Subdivision Overlapping (1) Regular Subdivision Overlapping (2) Overlapping VIL. Overlapping (1) Overlapping (2) (contrapuntal) Overlapping (3) IX Regular Subdivision Overlapping Irregular Subdivision Overlapping | Overlapping CHAPTER NINE Miscellaneous Devices IN THIS CHAPTER WILL BE DISCUSSED BRIEFLY SEVERAL RHYTHMIC devices not included in the structures. COMPOSITIONAL RUBATO The first of these is what may be termed “compositional rubato” and was alluded to in Chapter I. It is a seeming altera- tion of pace through pattern. If the student will refer to Ex- ample 27 (Chapter L), he will recall the relationship between pace and pattern: how a Jarge unit of pattern gives the feeling of slower pace than a small unit. Thus, in compositional rubato, we create the feeling of rallentando or accelerando without actually altering the pace. This device belongs to the same class as the agogic accent in that it is an integral part of the musical structure and not added in performance. It is a means by which the composer registers unequivocally a rhythmic phenomenon usually entrusted to the performer. Like its counterpart in performance, compositional rubato is of two forms: (1) accelerando and. (2) rallentando, and, of course, the two may be employed in a single phrase. The accelerando form is accomplished in two ways: 1) by diminu- tion of note value, either within the measure or multimetrically, ot 2) by shortening of phrase-length. Example 159 presents specimens of accelerando in compositional rubato. Exams 159 8, Berceuse, Op, 87 — Chopin 161 162 b, Final Movement of Symphony No. 4— Creston = Property of G. Ricordi & Co,, New York. ¢. “Scarbo,” from “Gaspard de la Nuit” — Ravel Copyright 1909, Permission for reprint granted by Durand & Cle, Paris, Prance, copyright owner! Elkan-Vogel Co. Ine, Philadelphia, Pa, agents . 2nd Movement of Piano Sonata — Slavenski says ae “aera ssa/ar aale pS ars Used by permission of Milana Slavens. Examples (a) and (b) show diminution of note value within the measure; (c) is multimetric (through overlapping), and (a), although written ametrically (without bar-lines) is really multimetric. Example 104 in Chapter V (from the 7/8 measure to the 4/8) is a specimen of accelerando through a shortening of phrase-length without any change of note-value. The rallentando form is also effected in two ways: 1) by augmentation of note-value, either within the measure or multimetrically, or 2) by lengthening of phrase-length, The specimens in Example 159, played in reverse order, would be illustrations of rallentando. However, the following are two actual examples: 160a being of the note-value augmentation type and 160b of the phrase-lengthening type. EXAMPLE 160 a Bagatelle, Op. 6 No. 11 ~ Bartok Used by pertission of the original publisher, Fditio Musica, Budapest. b, Ist Movement of Piano Concerto No. 2 — Bartok oprah 1982 by Universal dition, Copyright renewed. Copyright asigned to Boosey & Haske Ine, for USA. Copyright a sibee counties by Universal Eakion SYNCOPATION Syncopation is the shifting of traditional accents in a meas- ure. This is commonly thought of as existing in two forms: agogic and dynamic, and primarily in 4/4. In reality, however, it may logically be expressed by eny means of accentuation and. in any meter. The common species appears in any of the fol- lowing formulas: ExanPLe 161 a) agogic a) 6) a) a p &) dynamie Of course, all the foregoing formulas may be written in 2/4 as well. Since every meter contains traditional accents, a shifting of these accents in any meter may reasonably be termed a syncopation, The sarabande rhythm, for example, with its prin- cipal accent on the second pulse instead of the first, is, with a certain modification, a syncopated rhythm, as is also the hemi- ola in 3/4 or 6/8 in the first or fourth structure. Let us review these rhythms and note the syncopated feeling present in them. axaMrL 162 hemiota Sarabande a) y a) As will be explained, the sarabande rhythm is a form of syncopation only when employed after the 3/4 pulsation has been established or when this pulsation is coexistent. In other words, if the sarabande rhythm present from the very So en eee 164 beginning, it is not syncopation. ‘Syncopation may be present in the second structure also. When studying itregular subdivision, the student was advised to place the largest beat, normally, on the first pulse. That ad- vice may now be modified by: “unless syncopation is desired.” ‘As an example, let us take the ubiquitous 3 + 3 ++ 2 rhythm in 4/4, Although there is an irregularity in the occurrence of accents, there is no doubt as to where the first pulse is; hence, there is no shifting of accents, but rather a superimposition of additional accents. But if this is rearranged to 2 + 3 + 3: Jd. 4.4 , with repetition, the primary pulse seems to shift to the first 3-unit beat, which is, metrically speaking, a tertiary pulse. This analysis ray be made of all irregular rhythms such as: 4-+3+420r5 + 4+ 3 rearranged as: 2+ 4+ 30r3+4 5 + 4. And it may be extended to the same rhythms obtained through irregular subdivision overlapping. Regarding the matter of accent, we need not be limited to just two: agogic and dynamic; any type of accent may be em- ployed to express syncopation. Example 32c employs a har- monic accent in the syncopation of the sarabande, and Ex- ample 33b a weight accent in a 6/8 syncopation (which is not the hemiola rhythm). One consideration must be constantly borne in mind: for syncopation to be audible as such, and not merely to exist on paper, the normal metrical pulsation must be either pre-estab- lished or co-existent. (This axiom, so unostentatiously stated, is actually the essence of all rhythmic phenomena, and will be discussed in the final chapter.) The following example is one of syncopation on paper only, since it is the first measure of the composition, therefore devoid of a pre-established pulse, and since no other rhythm is sounded with it, it is also devoid of a co-existent 4/4 pulsation, ' exaMece 163 Overture to “Manfred” — Schumann A discussion of syncopation invariably suggests jazz rhythms, particularly their employment in serious composition Renner or by serious composers. If we accept the broad interpretation of “syncopation” as just outlined and name any shifting of traditional accents a “syncopation,” we can understand how the two terms “syncopation” and “jazz” have come to be, in most minds, almost synonymous. Examples such as the follow- ing, consequently, may be included in the category of “jazz” or “swing,” ExaMeLre 164 a, Swing Stuff — Robert MeBride ir 1948 by Dav Gorton. ternal copyright secre. AI sighs rere b, “Jazz Tempo” from Piano Works, Op. 40 No. 14 —Toch “aE a Copyright 1927, renewed 1956, hy B. Schott's Soehne. Whatever cannot be explained in jazz rhythms as syncopa- tion, usually stems from one of the rhythmic structures, as in the following specimens: PAAMPLE 165 4, Irregular Subdivision ». Overlapping Fascinating Rhythm ~- Gershwin Ws } i oe fale Copyright 1924 by New World Musle Corp. Copyright renewed: Used by permission, 165 166 ©. Regular Subdivision Overlapping “Workout” for Oboe and Piano — McBride so Af Available through the American Composers’ Al ce, 2121 Broadway, New York 28, N. ¥. d, Irregular Subdivision Overlapping “Jonny Spielt Auf” — Krenck ay a Copyrighe 1926, renewed 1954, by Universal Edition, A. 6. However, an exposition of jazz rhythms, even though limited to their presence in serious music, will not be attempted in this study for several reasons. First and foremost, a great ; deal of the special character of jazz rhythms emanates from the performance of these rhythms, while we are concerned only with composer's rhythm. The efforts of serious composers to capture the jazz element have necessarily been directed toward that phase which can be notated. Secondly, the student may be certain that what exists in popular music today (and jazz may be rightly included in this category) existed many years : earlier in serious music. Our study of the rhythmic structures presented specimens from as early as the 16th century. Thirdly, the field of jazz is a specialized one and cannot be included in a work of such general scope as this. BASIC PATTERNS The term “basic pattern” is applied to a common rhythmic entity which may form the basis of a section or of an entire piece of music. In one aspect, it can be expressed by almost any one of the ancient Greek meters. For example, the trochee (long-short: J 4 ) and the dactyl (long-short-short: 4 Jd .) are basic patterns. Bach’s great “Passacaglia in C minor” is in an iambic rhythm throughout: ¢'4 id , and his Chaconne for Solo Violin is largely built on a basic rhythmic pattern which the student will find termed “temary bacchic peon”: 4d. 4 ! ‘ee These rhythms are usually presented in simple beats, but they may be contained in a special pattern. Very often a combina- tion of two or more basic patterns forms the basis of a com- position. In the second movement of Beethoven’s Seventh Sym- phony, a combination of the dactyl (J £7) and the spondee Gd is employed. examrte 166 Allegretto oe: FER Pr And in Bartok’s “Allegro Ironico” (from “Gyermekeknek”) we find a combination of the minor ionic ([] J J) and the anapest (Jad). f EXAMPLE 167 “Allegro lronico” from “A Gyermekeknek” (For Children) — Bartok swinor tonic anapest ‘With permission of the original publisher, Haitio Musica, nudapest. Basic patterns are prevalent in so many compositions that it would be a loss of time to enumerate specimens. What we are interested in, at this point, is two ramifications of this de- vice: 1) application in a structure other than purely metrical, and 2) variation of a basic pattern. In Chapter III, the student was told ta write the following rhythms in various meters: spondee (2 longs) ¢ 4 molossus (3 longs) 4 J dactyl (long-short-short) 4 Jd trochee (long-short) 4 matic trochee (4 shorts) JJJ2 major ionic (2 longs-2 shorts) 4 J 9 Ina sense, this was a preliminary exercise in basic patterns through extrametrical regular subdivision, rather than purely metrical. We may also obtain these rhythms through the fourth structure: regular subdivision overlapping. Taking as an ex- ample the dactyl rhythm ( J JJ ), this would be possible by means of the fourth structure, as follows: DR Pope 167 168 Exam 168 In devising such rhythms in the fourth structure, all the student need bear in mind, in order to calculate the notation, ig that 1 long equals 2 shorts, and the frame of measures (dimeter, trimeter, etc.) necessary to create overlapping. In calculating the foregoing rhythm, we consider the long beat as equal to 2 short beats, therefore making the equivalent of 4 short beats in the entive rhythm, A dimeter would not create overlapping, as the long beat (or the first 2 short beats) would fill one measure and the next 2 short beats another measure, the two measures being equally divided, But a trimeter would ' necessitate overlapping, and after considering the division of 3 measures into 4 equal beats, we combine the first 2 beats into | one long beat. Those basic patterns which are translations of ancient Greek meters are all of the binary type with the long beat equivalent to 2 short beats, and are consequently quite ele- mentary. By extension of principle we can include basic pat- ters derived from ternary meters. In these rhythms a triple classification of beats must be invented: large, long and short, | 1 long equalling 2 shorts (as before) and 1 large equalling 3 i shorts, thus: (long) J = JJ (large) 4. = JJ0. Follow. ing are several teary basic patterns possible in monometers: examenx 169 8/8 or 4 9/8 large long short large shustlung large large long short large long long long. ‘These ternary basic patterns are also possible through extra- metrical regular subdivision and overlapping. The method of calculation in this case is to consider the entire rhythm in terms of the number of short beats. Taking the first of these as a working specimen, 4.44 (large-long-short), we find there are the equivalent of 6 short beats; we divide the measure ESS SESE EEE 169 | into 6 equal beats, then combine the first 3 beats into 1 large beat and the next 2 beats into 1 long beat. In 9/8, for example, this would be the process: uxaMPte 170 == Here it is in other meters: exami 171 Since this rhythm is divisible into two equal parts, large 4 plus long-short “4 , we must work with a trimeter to create overlapping; divide the three measures into 6 equal beats (or 2 equal beats per measure), combine the first 3 beats into 1 large beat and the next 2 beats into 1 long beat, thus: | pxampue 172 — apf fy : pS ee ee Se ee et Proceeding to the second ramification, that of “variation of a basic pattern,” we further liberate musical rhythm from the exigencies of poetic meter.* Now we consider beats on a less rigid mathematical basis and may include a number of irregu- lar formulas as basic patterns. In other words, a large beat does not have to equal 3 short beats nor a long beat 2 short beats. The popular 3 + 3 + 2 rhythm has the feeling of long-long- short, and rhythms such as 4-+3+4+2,5+44+3,7+544, ete. convey the spirit of large-long-short just as clearly as d. 4 2 And, of course, these rhythms may be expressed * A number of music theorists have attempted to base musical rhythmic piineples on poctie meters, Tho posits with pattems in music prove the fallacy of such a concept: 170 through the fifth structure (irregular subdivision overlapping) as well as the second (irregular subdivision ). In the selection of irregular basic patterns one consideration must be remembered: there must be an appreciable difference in duration among large, long and short beats, as was pointed out on page 169 regarding irregular rhythms. A rhythm such as: 19 + 17 or 13 + 12 + 11, is rather indefinite: it is too close to equal beats to be considered irregular, and not dis- similar enough to be considered a variation of a basic pattern. The following is a partial list of basic patterns. A. Binary Basic Patterns 1. trochee dh 2. iambus od 3. dactyl 17) 4, anapest fd 5. amphibrach ddd 6. cretic peon ddd 7. first bacchic peon dd J 8. second bacchie peon JJ 4 9. major ionic PPP 10. minor ionic fils 11. choriamb fi B, Ternary Basic Patterns in 6/8 or 3/4 A. firstternary bacchic peon dd. 4 2. second ternary bacchie peon J. J 3. ternary amphibrach dd 4, cyclical dactyl ddd in 9/8 or 3/4 5. ternary major ionic Adds 6. ternary peon dd ddd C. Irregular Basic Patterns 1. Irregular trochee, 5 + 3, 2. Irregular dactyl, 5+ 2+2,orl0+4+4. 3. Inegular major ionic 3 + 3-+2 +2. 4 . Irregular ternary dactyl, 4+ 3+ 2,or5 +443, or T+5+4, im 5. Invegular bacchic peon, 3 + 3 + 21 6. Irregular cyclical dactyl, 4+ 2+ 3,or5+4+344, o T+ 445. EXERCISES Write, in simple beats, the following basic patterns in the various meters given. (Solutions in Appendix II) 1. Trochee (long-short) J 4 (a) first structure, in 2/4, 3/4, 4/4, 6/8, 9/8, 12/8. (b) fourth structure, dimeter in 2/4, 3/4, 4/4, 6/8, 9/8, 12/8. (c) second structure, as 5 + 3 in 2/4, 3/4, 4/4, 6/8, 12/8. (d) Afth structure, as 5 +3 dimeter in 2/4, 3/4, 4/4, 6/8, 12/8, 2. Dactyl (long-short-short) J JJ (a) first structure, in 2/4, 3/4, 4/4, 5/4, 6/8, 9/8, 12/8. (b) fourth structure, trimeter in 2/4, 3/4, 6/8. (c) second structure, as.5 + 2+ 2 in 3/4, 9/8; as 10+ 4+ 4 in 6/8. (d) fifth structure, as 5 + 2 + 2 trimeter in 2/4, 3/4, 6/8, 9/8. 3. Cyclical dactyl (large-short-long) ¢. dd (a) first structure, in 2/4, 3/4, 4/4, 6/8, 9/8, 12/8. (b) fourth structure, trimeter in 2/4, 3/4, 4/4, 6/8, 9/8, 12/8. (c) second structure, as 3 +2 + 3 in 2/4, 4/4, 6/8, 12/8. (a) fifth structure, as 3 + 2 + 3 dimeter in 2/4, 3/4, 4/4, 6/8, 12/8. ‘These few exercises are given for the sole purpose of clarify- ing in the student's mind the concept of basic patterns, their application in various structures, and their variations. Some of ese exercises were done earlier in the book but they are now grouped in this manner to reveal their proper perspective. 1. Curt Sachs names this rhythm the “dochmine,” deriving the term from ancient Greek theory, but the name is not important-the fact gg 172 CHAPTER TEN Rhythmic Structure as a Whole: Summary UNTIL NOW, ALL THE ELEMENTS AND FACTORS OF RHYTHM HAVE been dealt with individually and in miniature, so to speak, no exercise being more than 16 measures long. This was necessary in order to concentrate fully upon their function, their use and value, and would be structurally sufficient for most small com- positions, But in any composition, large or small, rhythm must be considered as a whole and in its relation to the other ele- ments of composition: melody, harmony, form. In the first chapter, it was stated that the four elements comprised in a rhythm—meter, pace, accent, pattern—deter- mine a “primary organization of duration in ordered move- ment.” Ensuing chapters revealed factors which proved this organization to be really only a starting point. Understandably, no one composition contains all the structures and devices of thythm and, possibly, no one composer has ever employed all. We cannot, therefore, refer to any one composition to illustrate the proper perspective of rhythm as a whole, but rather, only to the rhythm of a particular composition. Lifting examples out of their full context has not helped, nor was it intended to help, to accomplish this. The student would do well to examine in their entirety some of the compositions quoted, especially those appearing in the chapters on the various structures, in the light of the axioms, plans and classifications presented in this chapter. Before presenting these final advices, the student is asked to bear in mind, firmly and constantly, the following statement by Karl Eschmann:' “Rhythmic form in the largest aspects of 1. Changing Forms in Modern Music. musical architecture, as well as in its smallest details, has an emotional appeal as its result and, in all probability, as its cause.” Structures and devices should never be employed for mere effect or for the display of cleverness or originality. Their relation, their appropriateness, their emotional genuineness in terms of the entire musical expression of a work, must be the eri- teria. Originality for its own sake is a form of insincerity. Isorhythm in a work, where only one basic pattern forms the basis of the entire composition—and which has been em- ployed in practically all the exercises in this book—is a normal procedure in small compositions. It has been employed in large compositions—thereby presenting a real challenge to the com- poser—as in Bach's “Organ Passacaglia in C minor,” in which one basic pattern (the iambus) is the rhythmic founda- tion of a massive tonal architecture. But the student must not assume from preceding chapters that jsorhythms must exist, either in small or large compositions. Various meters, structures or patterns may logically exist sometimes in a single phrase. If the rhythm of a piece is to be appropriate and genuine, some attention must be given to planning it, by determining four factors in the order given: 1) character or mood; 2) pace; 3) pulse-group; 4) structure, We determine first the character or mood of the piece: ma- jestic, vigorous, gay, brilliant, calm, tender, pathetic, ete. For each character there is a corresponding pace, which can be found with just a little imagination. The exact shade of this pace is naturally affected by the pulse-grouping: a large pulse- grouping (4 or 5) seeming slightly slower than a small one. From these two elements we decide on the principal meter, with the further consideration that prolation (binary or ternary subdivision) also alters the pace-feeling slightly: ternary seem- ing slightly faster than binary. Finally, we determine the par- ticular rhythmic strueture to be employed: regular subdivision (or even purely metrical), irregular subdivision, overlapping, etc., selecting that structure which is most expressive of the character of the composition or a section of it. In practising the various structures, the student must have felt and absorbed the specific characteristics of each, so that there is really no need to elaborate to any great extent, Extra- 173 174 metrical regular subdivision and regular subdivision overlap- ping, despite the minor conflict of pulses and beats, have a certain even, smooth, flowing motion, but also a sort of simple mechanical periodicity. In irregular subdivision and irregular subdivision overlapping, there is a greater conflict between pulses and beats, with the periodic quality more obscured, con- sequently resulting in angularity and disjunction. Simple ov lapping almost completely obscures the periodic factor in rhythm, whether based on pulses or units, and expresses a flow- ing motion without any tinge of monotony. Obviously, the type and degree of accentuation have a bearing on any of the structures~strong, accentuation would emphasize the period- ieity in the regular structures and the disjunction in the irregu- lar structures, Perhaps, the third structure best illustrates the axiom that the greatest art conceals art, for its possibilities are of the most subtle and varied, creating emotional effects with- out necessitating conscious analysis. Attempts have been made to find a parallel between rhythm and harmony, notably the one by Moritz Hauptmann,’ iden- tifying certain rhythms with certain intervals. The value to thythmie practice of such investigations may be negligible, but there is one factor in rhythm which should be considered from a harmonic philosophy: rhythmic “consonance” and “disso- nance.” Irregular subdivision, with or without overlapping, and, to a degree, syncopation, have a feeling of non-cadence or thythmic “dissonance.” How long such rhythms should be maintained and whether or not they must be “resolved” by regular or metrical subdivision, depends on the particular com- position and on the composer's attitude toward the “conso- nance-dissonance” philosophy in harmony as well as in rhythm. Certainly, the Pythagorean philosophy of the “balance” wilh be found to be, in rhythm as well as in life, a sane guide. The word, “balance” is used not in the sense of symmetry, but of correct proportions, variety, and the avoidance of extremes; not too much nor too little of any one element. This is espe- cially true of large compositions, Toward this end, the com- poser would do well to consider balance in the following com- ponents: 2, The Neture of Harmony and Metre, 15 1. Species of rhythm. Varying from strong-pulse to weak- pulse or silent-pulse (initial species), and from strong-pulse to weak-pulse or dovetail (terminal species). | 2. Metrical structures. Varying from monometer to dimeter, ! trimeter, polymeter, ete.; from duple to triple, quadruple, etc.; from binary to ternary. 3, Accentuation. Varying from strong to mild or non-ac- centuation; varying types of accent. 4. Pace. Varying through actual change in pace or through pattern or metrical size (duple to triple, ete. ). 5. Rhythmic structures, Varying from first structure to sec- ond, third, ete, In planning the rhythmic form of a large composition (suite, sonata, symphony, tone-poem, etc.) it will be found that proceeding from the general to the particular clarifies the conception. The particular has been dwelt on and stressed throughout this study. To discuss the general rhythmic scheme, let us analyze, as an example, Beethoven's Piano Sonata in G, Op. 31 No. 1. This will be presented in relation to four rhythmic- formal factors: duration, pace, meter and prolation. From the duration aspect, the three movements of the sonata are approxi- mately: movement I-6 minutes; movement I[-9/% minutes; movement ITI—614 minutes. ‘The practice of some rhythmists to analyze duration in terms of number of measures is fallacious. It would be purely “paper” analysis with no relation to temporal duration, unless the entire composition is in one meter and at one pace through- { out, which is inconceivable in a large work. i The duration-form or pattern of this sonata would be, there- fore, represented by: Ist movement 2nd movement 3rd movement J ‘ or short—long—short. ‘The pace-form is: Ast—fast 2nd—slow 3rd—fast Allegro vivace Adagio grazioso Allegretto J = 138 dane J =80 ls 116 The meter-form of this sonata consists of: Ist movement 2nd movement 3rd movement duple (2/4) triple (9/8) duple (2/2) ‘The prolation-form is: 1st movement 2nd movement 3rd movement binary ternary binary ‘As an aid’to the student, several specimen rhythmic plans up to five parts are now presented, in the same four aspects noted in the Beethoven sonata. It is understood that the word “part” in these tabulations refers to a section of a large one movement composition (tone-poem, fantasy, rhapsody, etc.) or to a movement of a suite, sonata, concerto or symphony, A. DURATION Two part 1) long-short did 2) short-long did Three part 1) 3 equal did id 2) long-short-long adid 3) short-long-short dds 4) short-large-long Jide td Four part 1) 4equal didid id 2) short-long-short-long syd did 3) short-short-long-short Jdidid 4) long-short-short-Iong diddia 5) long-short-long-short diddid 6) short-long-large-short ddl 7) long-short-large-short a didad Five part 1) S equal d1d 1d Id id 2) short-long-short-long-short Jd dd 1d 3) long-short-short-long-short J |dd|é |d 4) long-short-long-short-short J J 1d 4 1d 5) long-short-large-long-short 4 did. Id 4 8) long-short-short-large-long 4 J él. Id 7) long-short-large-short-long 4 J id. Id d In the “equal” forms, balance or variety must of necessity be obtained through the other formal factors; meter and pace. Besides, the “fast” parts will seem longer than the slow because of a psychological parallel to a physiological truth which also explains why slow movements axe generally long and fast movements, short. The parallel is this; one can walk slowly for a much longer period than one can walk fast or sun. For a similar psychological reason, the listener can participate con- tinuously for a longer time in a slow-paced rhythm than in a fast-paced one; also, since a fast pace strains rhythmic re- sponses more quickly than a slow pace, it seems to occupy a greater span of duration, But sometimes, a final slow move- ment may be short, as, for example, when it serves as an epilogue. B. PACE Two part —_ slow-fast (or the reverse) Three part 1) fast-slow-fast 2) slow-fast-slow Four part 1) slow-fast-slow-fast 2) fast-slow-slow-fast 3) fast-fast-slow-fast Five part 1) fast-slow-fast-slow-fast 2) slow-fast-fast-slow-fast 3) slow-fast-slow-fast-fast 4) fast-slow-fast-fast-slow It is understood that the presence of two or more fast parts implies different degrees of fast. This eliminates the mechanical aspect of, say, fast-slow-fast-slow-fast, thus: 1) 4 =112;2) 4 =80;3) ¢ =116;4) + =66;5) 52, Moreover, the type of pace or motion (smooth, angular, strongly accented or not) contributes to balance or variety. C. METER Two part 1) duple-triple (all of these may be reversed) 2) triple-quadruple 3) triple-quintuple 4) duple-quintuple 1) duple-triple-quadruple (the order may be changed in any of these) ) triple-duple-triple ) duple-triple-duple ) ) Three part duple-quadruple-quintuple triple-quadruple-quintuple 17 | | | i i 118 6) quadruple-triple-quadruple 7) triple-quadruple-triple Four part 1) duple-triple-quadruple-duple (the order may be changed) 2) duple-triple-duple-triple 3) duple-triple-quadruple-quintuple 4) duple-triple-triple-quadruple 5) duple-triple-triple-quintuple 6) quadruple-dupie-triple-quadruple 7) duple-duple-triple-quintuple Five part 1) quadruple-triple-duple-triple-quadruple (the order may be changed) 2) triple-duple-triple-duple-triple 3) triple-duple-quadruple-triple-duple 4) quadruple-triple-duple-quintuple-triple 5) duple-quintuple-triple-quadruple-triple In changing any of the above series it must be remembered that it is best to alternate duple with triple; quadruple with triple or duple with quintuple. D. PROLATION Two part 1) 2 binary parts 2) Ztermary parts 3) binary-ternary (or reversed) ! Three part 1) 1 binary—2 ternary (in any order, e.g. ternary-binary-ternary) 2) 1 ternary—2 binary (in any order) 3) 3 binary 4) 3ternary Four part 1) 2 binary—2 ternary (in any order) 2) 1 binary—3 ternary 3) Lternary—3 binary 4) Abinary 5) 4temary Five part 1) 2 binary—3 ternary (in any order) 2) 2 ternary—3 binary 3) 4binary—l ternary 4) 4ternary—I binary 5) Sbinary ) Gewese tee eee ee 6) 5Sternary Alternating from binary to ternary is generally advisable in arrangements of prolation forms, although in a four part form, for example, it might be effective to enclose 2 binary move- ments within 2 ternary, e.g.: ternary-binary-binary-ternary. To organize these four aspects of rhythmic form, two speci- men forms are now given combining the four components. RHYTHMIC FORMS Two part — Duration—long-short (e.g., 7 minutes—5 min- utes). Pace—slow-fast (e.g., J Meter—triple-duple. Prolation—binary-ternary (therefore, 3/4—6/8). Three part Duration—short-long-short (e.g., 6 minutes—9 minutes-5 minutes). Pace—fast-slow-fast (e.g., Allegro moderato J = 112; Andante J. =72; Presto J = 144). Meter—quadruple-triple-duple. Prolation—binary-ternary-binary (therefore, 4/4-9/8-2/4), 60; J. = 132). So much of rhythmic effectiveness is relative that it is worthwhile to dwell a little on this factor of relativity. The hemiola in 6/8, for instance, which alters the meter to 3/4, creates its particular interest through its relation of beats to an established pulse, concurrently or in advance. There is nothing remarkable about the 3/4 in itself. The same may be said of all extrametrical regular subdivision and basic patterns. Three equal beats in 3/4 or 9/8, with its coincidence of pulse and beat, is not unusual; but the same 3-beat rhythm in 2/4 or 4/4 ox 5/4 produces an interesting interplay of pulses and beats. The dactyl rhythm ( / JJ ) in 2/4 is commonplace; but in 3/4 or 5/4 it is fascinating, This factor of relativity is a strong argument in favor of mensurable music, and for the presence or establishment of a definite pulse. There are occasions when, for the musical ex- pression, a definite pulse is not desired, just as there are occa- sions, in harmony, when a definite tonality is not established 179 180 at the beginning of a composition (in the opening movement of Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony, for example). These cases, however, are the exceptions and not the norm. In the author’s Fantasy for Trombone and Orchestra,® the opening section is written in 2/4, but the first three measures, through the fourth structure, are actually in 6/8, and purposely so, to give an im- provisational, preluding effect before the entrance of the solo Trombone. In the rhythm as a whole, the student must pay special attention, with balance in mind, to the following components: 1, Rhythmic form—Duration, Pace, Meter, Prolation. 2, Major rhythm—or phrase rhythm—monometer, dime- ter, trimeter, ete. Minor thythm—or rhythmic units of major rhythm. Species—initial and terminal. Structure—first, second, third, etc. Pattern—simple, compound, regular, irregular. Accentuation—type and degree. . Presence or absence of basic patterns. ‘Asa final advice, a list of axioms are now presented in sum- mary, some of which have been mentioned in previous chapters. 1, Every rhythm must be felt and understood before being ’ employed. It must originate from the rhythmic sense and not only from rhythmic knowledge. 2. Any rhythmic entity must be practical in notation and execution. It must be audible and not exist merely on paper. 3. All mathematical possibilities are not musically or thythmically effective. 4. The intention and the result in sound must be one and the same. 5. Accents should be neither too many nor too few. 6. Agogic accents are the most natural in overlapping rhythms, 7. In purely metric or multimetric rhythms, traditional pri- mary accents are usually in force, but not in overlapping zhythms, SNDAMAw * Fantasy for Trombone and Orchestra by Creston (Publ, by G. Schirmer, Ine, New York). ” : ” re 8. The structure chosen must be in conformity with the mu- sical idea, and not be interpolated to display cleverness. 9, Isorhythmic treatment is not mandatory, 10. When rhythm is the principal element of a composition, melody and harmony should support it and not vitiate it. 11. The burden of solving complexity must rest with the composer and not with the performer. 12. The effectiveness of a structure or a basic pattern lies in its relation to the full rhythmic context, and not in itself. RHYTHMIC ANALYSIS OF SONATA No. 1 (First Movement)—Scriabine Each structure symbol (1, I, ete.) is in effect until changed by another structure symbol, so that there is no need to write, for example, “M” at every successive measure of a section in traditional metrical rhythm. However, if a different configura- tion of the same structure occurs, e.g. II 3 +2 + 2+ 2 after (II) 2+ 2+ 2+ 3, then the new configuration is noted. Sym- bols in parentheses are in effect only for each instance noted, When the IV structure occurs only once and not in a repeated pattern it may be so noted as IV; but when the V structure occurs only once it must be noted as III (multimeter). The symbol (S) for syncopation is used whenever the primary pulse is shifted from the first pulse of the measure. Only larger as- pects are considered and types of accents are not dealt with. In order to designate the rhythmic form of the one move- ment it is necessary to show its relationship to the other move- ments of the sonata as to duration and pace. The entire sonata is approximately 20 minutes, 30 seconds. MOVEMENT 1 0 a1 w puRATION | targe (7:30 ona, (5:15 shore (240 Tong (6:00, minutes) minutes) minutes) minutes) pace. fast slow fast, slow METER triple ‘quadruple ‘avadruple quadruple PRozaTion | ternary binary ternary binary SYMBOLS M = Metrical (traditional) = Regular subdivision (extrametrical) IL = Irregular subdivision 181 182 irregular subdivision overlapping (MXR) = Mixed rhythm (MXP) = Mixed pattern (S) = Syncopated (>) = Strong pulse eak pulse ilent pulse = New bar line in III structure SONATA No.1 Op.6 ALEXANDER SCRIABINE I tase S errata Allegro con fuoco (J-+ 104) acre M 184 ‘Meno mosso (¢-:4) aed) ua Eo b odrd aT eaTy 4 185 186 Ug aa mt eee eee 30 tte w Taxa) ia SN LED rit, Z SOD ord. 2p con sora. me Ft E i te BP LAH 4A 8 ee re Iv (9x2) nippy ces Pp PRter |tF 3 ho TT Big 4 pL 187 188 189 NBL Sy a Bt urs L 191 ee 8 i | | NB, Metrical measure completed at $ oxpressive accent z 192 193 f | | | \ ' | | | | | v 3 F ao \ te aie: | Tate tag : | ne | 4 194 dim. aut tpt —~ r = M24 By 2 units: 3 units: 4units: 5 units: 6 units: Appendix I A. PRINCIPAL ANCIENT GREEK METERS (1) pyrthie (or dibrach) Qshot TD (2) trochee long-short -~ dh (3) iambus short-long — — ad (4) tribrach 8short LS IT (3) dactyl llong2short-- J SD (6) anapest Qshort long -- D (7) amphibrach short-ong-short --~ dd a (8) spondee Qlong-- J 4 (9) matic trochee Ashort ~~~ ITT (10) eretic peon long-short-long -~- J dd (11) 1st bacchic peon. Ishort2long~-- dd J (12) 2nd bacchic peon Zlonglshort--~ Jd dh (13) molossus Blong--- Jd d (14) major ionie Zlong2short --~-~ 14/0 (15) minor ionic Qshort2long~~-- Idd J (16) choriamb Llong2short Llong -~-- ¢ ad | | | | | | |