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Biological Characteristics and their impact on organisational behaviour

Organisational theory & behaviour (PPG 501)

Masters of Public Policy and Governance

Department of general and continuing education

North South University, Dhaka

Prajwal Mani Pradhan prdhan.pm@gmail.com

2010

Table of Contents

Topics

Page No.

CHAPTER I

1.

Introduction

1

1.1.

Purpose of the study

3

1.1.1. General Objective

3

1.1.2. Specific Objectives

3

CHAPTER II

2.

Methodology

4

2.1. Conceptual Methodology

4

2.2. Data Analysis

4

2.3. Sample size

5

2.4. Limitations

5

2.5. Ethical Considerations

5

CHAPTER III

3.

Findings and Discussions

6

3.1. Age

6

3.2. Gender

10

3.3. Leadership Perception

13

3.4. Job Satisfaction and turnover perception

15

CHAPTER IV

4. Conclusion

20

5. References

22

CHAPTER I

1. Introduction

People’s behaviour makes sense if you think about it in terms of their goals, needs, and motives.

Thomas Mann

1875-1955

This aphorism provides us with humorous peril of organisational behaviour. Behaviour is one of the key interest areas for most management gurus. Following the advent of Humanistic approach and/or organisation humanism to management, many have started looking further into this part of management. It also gains its impetus from the fact that since carrot and stick motivation doesn’t work always, based on Maslow need hierarchy-it is difficult to find at which hierarchy staff is, what to do next, whereas, many find Kurt Lewin’s theory brief to wield it exactly in to practicality. There must be something that is construing every theory, and transcending into realities: behaviour – largely a construct of socialisation but also and often influenced by biological characteristics of an individual. Biographical characteristics of an individual are those characters which are in born/innate and not based upon the preference of the individual. For e.g.: Age, Gender, Race\Ethnicity etc.

Organisational behaviour is the systematic study and careful application of knowledge about how people- as individuals and as groups –act within organisations. Five levels of analysis for organisational behaviour are: individuals within an organisation, interpersonal relations, small groups, intergroup relations, whole systems. (Davis & Newstrom, 2007)

There is a major conceptual question as to whether emotion and the individual-level components can be meaningfully characterised at the group level. When people enter a group, they bring their affective personalities and individual affective experiences and skills with them. There are many types of affect that can comprise individual-level moods and emotions. At least five general affective factors can be identified that may form aspects of the affective composition of the group: dispositional affect, mood, acute emotions, emotional intelligence and sentiments (affective evaluations of the group). (Kelly & Barsade, 2001)

In the first family study on the inheritance of talent, Sir Francis Galton, the father of

behavioural genetics, presented evidence that talent is inherited from parents to offspring: ‘I

I justify my

conclusions by the statistics I now proceed to adduce, which I believe are amply sufficient to

command conviction’. (Galton, 1865, p. 157), (Ilies, Arvey & Bouchard, 2006)

find that talent is transmitted by inheritance in a very remarkable degree

A decade ago, in their review of the behavioural genetics findings with respect to measures

used in organizational settings (Arvey &Bouchard, 1994) made a strong case that, in psychology in general, ‘biology is back.’ That is, research in most domains of psychology has

shown that human behaviour is influenced by genetic and biological characteristics of individuals (Bouchard & McGue, 2003; Dick and Rose, 2002; Plomin et al., 2003; Sherman

et al., 1997). In the organizational domain, though progress in understanding the role of

genetic differences has been rather slow-paced (Arvey & Bouchard, 1994), it has become increasingly accepted that traits, attitudes, and behaviours relevant to the workplace also have a genetic component.

Findings form behavioural genetics research has profound implications for the study of

organisational behaviour. Heritable constructs such as intelligence, personality and attitudes are central to the study of behaviour in organisations, and calibrating the relative contribution of genotypic and environmental differences to the variation in these constructs across individuals informs research and theory in the areas of selection, work attitudes and a variety

of work outcomes such as voluntary behaviour and job performance. (SEIRnet, 2008)

Evolutionary psychology also called modern Darwinism is a convergence of research and discoveries in genetics, neuropsychology and paleobiology among other sciences, evolutionary psychology holds that although human beings today inhabit a thoroughly modern world of space exploration and virtual realities, they do so with the ingrained mentality of Stone Age hunter-gatherers, a drive to trade information and share secrets. You can take the person out of the Stone Age, but you can’t take the Stone Age out of the person- according to evolutionary psychologists. The discipline recognizes the individual differences caused by a person’s unique genetic inheritance, as well as by personal experiences and culture.

Evolutionary psychology goes far as to raise the questions: how might organisations be designed to work in harmony with our biogenetic identity? And are modern-day executives managing against the grain of human nature?

This paper’s level of analysis is individuals within an organisation solely based on their biological characteristics (particularly age, gender, genetics, job satisfaction and turnover rates) that affect an organisation.

1.1. Purpose of the study

1.1.1. General Objective:

To understand some features of biological characteristics for individual influencing his/her organisational behaviour.

1.1.2. Specific Objectives:

To outline differences related with age in an organisational environment.

To outline differences related with gender in an organisational environment.

To assess leadership perception for a public and private organisation.

To assess job satisfaction and turnover perception.

To collate the biological characteristic’s influence upon organisational behavior.

CHAPTER II

2. Methodology:

2.1. Conceptual Diagram

Age Gender Biographical characteristics Job satisfaction Leadership
Age
Gender
Biographical
characteristics
Job
satisfaction
Leadership
Influences Organisation behaviour
Influences
Organisation
behaviour
= Primary data = Intermediate variable/vehicle = Acting/influencing/shaping = Ultimate output/bigger picture for analysis
= Primary data = Intermediate variable/vehicle = Acting/influencing/shaping = Ultimate output/bigger picture for analysis
= Primary data = Intermediate variable/vehicle = Acting/influencing/shaping = Ultimate output/bigger picture for analysis
= Primary data = Intermediate variable/vehicle = Acting/influencing/shaping = Ultimate output/bigger picture for analysis

= Primary data

= Intermediate variable/vehicle

= Acting/influencing/shaping

= Ultimate output/bigger picture for analysis

The study considers typically four factors: Age, Gender, Job Satisfaction and Leadership which are key variables for biographical characteristics which inturns influences organisation behaviour.

2.2. Data Analysis

To increase the strength of the analysis, both primary and secondary data are used. For collection of primary data, a custom questionaire was prepared and adminstered amongst the students of MPPG-3 rd batch students of North South University, Dhaka. The findings from that questionaire were analysed using SPSS Program and main findings extrapolated to

Microsoft word. For Secondary data, a literature review was done in a step-wise manner; first course books were reviewed, then a brief internet search was done and finally a list of documents and relevant materials were downloaded form the social and psycological journal whose article were relevant.

The data from the primary sources are used as evidences to back up the arguments in relation with the theories and finding from other studies, it has also been used extensively whereever, analysis of same was rendered necessary upon authors discretion.

2.3. Sample Size

The students of MPPG were selected because all of them had work experience in public sector and/or development sector. 17 questionaire were adminstered amongst 24 students of MPPG 2010 intake, which means that the study findings are representative at a level of 70.83 percentage for MPPG 2010 intake(3 rd batch).

2.4. Limitations

It was noted that the primary data has very few sample population despite the great percentage, out of which to generalise on basis of these is quite difficult. However, the sample is strongly suggestive of general view of MPPG 3 rd batch class.

2.5. Ethical Considerations

For ensuring the respondents privacy, no name whatsoever, has been recorded in the questionaire. No extra information for tracking the respondents were collected during the filling of questionaire.

CHAPTER III

3. Findings and Discussions

3.1. Age

The relationship between age and job performance is likely to be an issue of increasing importance during the next decade for at least three reasons. First, there is a widespread belief that job performance declines with increasing age. Regardless of whether this is true, a lot of people believe it and act on it. Second, the workforce is aging. Third, reason is U.S. legislation that, for all intents and purposes, outlaws mandatory retirement. Most U.S. workers today no longer have to retire at age 70. (Robbins & Judge, 2009)

Table 1: Discrimination percept according to age group

age_categories * Objective_discrimination

 

Objective_discrimination

 
 

Yes

No

Total

Age_categories

18-30

5

3

8

31-40

5

4

9

Total

10

7

17

Based on the primary data survey it was found out that 10 out of 17 feel being discriminated just based upon their age. Analysis reveal that both age group strata of the respondent have equally felt being discriminated based upon age. (See Table 1) This finding should come with surprise that given 60 year is the age for retirement; 31-40 age group people should have less discrimination regarding age. People of age group 18-30 and 31-40 both seem to have equal views regarding discrimination related with age. Some of the literatures were indicative of workplace discrimination directly and indirectly associated with age.

Table 2: Areas of discrimination by age group

age_categories * Areas_of_discrimination

   

Areas_of_discrimination

   
     

career_planning

   

(including

Participation

Information

promotion,

_at_decision

Sanctioning_

No_response

_sharing

transfer issues)

_making

of_leave

Total

age_categories 18-30

1

1

1

2

3

8

 

31-40

4

2

0

3

0

9

Total

5

3

1

5

3

17

On a tick as many applies, for the discrimination areas participation at decision making was the area with most ticks whereas least discrimination was seen in areas of career planning. Surprisingly, people at age group 31-40 elected participation at decision making as one of the areas where they faced discrimination regarding age. (See Table 2) Generally speaking, it is considered that younger people are often disregarded when it comes to participation at decision making, but the contrary revealed amongst the survey of MPPG students.

Table 3: Job selection perception among age group for young

age_categories * younger_age than_recruiting_officier_increased_chances_for_job

younger_age

than_recruiting_officier_increased_chances_for_job

Yes

No

Total

age_categories

18-30

4

4

8

31-40

6

3

9

Total

10

7

17

Upon a popular question “being younger than the recruiting officer would increase ones chances for job selection” has been held to be true for the MPPG students. 10 out of 17 and especially 31-40 age group holds conviction that being younger has an advantage over job

selection. (See Table 3) This can be explained by two reasons, Firstly, the young employees are more likely to obey, learn and adapt to organisational culture. Secondly, the increasing

population surge of youth leaves little or no room for the recruiting officers not to select them

as they have apparently better education, and other qualifications.

Table 4: Job selection perception among age group for old

age_categories * older_age than_recruiting_officier_increased_chances_for_job

older_age

than_recruiting_officier_increased_chances_for_job

Yes

No

Total

age_categories

18-30

3

5

8

31-40

1

8

9

Total

4

13

17

A counter question was also asked in the response to which 13 respondents said being older

than recruiting officer has no advantage on being selected for a job. (See Table 4) This can also be viewed under the notion that recruiting officer is generally older than other staffs and being older than him/her would certainly disqualify an applicant based on age limit.

Table 5: Who initiates Sifarish/Sycophancies/Afno-manche/Tadbir culture

age_categories * more likely to initiate a sifarish/sycophancies/Afno-manche/tadbir

 

more likely to initiate a sifarish/sycophancies/tadbir

 
 

Young_age

Middle_age

Old_age

Total

age_categories

18-30

0

3

5

8

31-40

2

5

2

9

Total

2

8

7

17

Another popular question that is much contested was “who actually initiate the Sifarish/Sycophancies/Afno-Manche/Tadbir culture in an organisation based on age. The findings show a mixed response. Age group of 18-30 firmly believe that old age people (40+) initiate this kind of culture (5 out of 17) whereas middle aged respondents(31-40) replied that young age people are the one to initiate this culture(5 out of 17). (See Table 5)

Table 6: Age based discrimination and working capacity

age_categories * Age based discrimination working capacity

 

Age based discrimination make you work less than capacity

 
 

No response

Yes

No

Total

age_categories

18-30

1

5

2

8

31-40

0

8

1

9

Total

1

13

3

17

On a final question related with age and job performance, 76.47 % of the respondents sounded their answer with yes. (See Table 6) Age group of 31-40 prompted a majority of yes than 18-30 age groups for hampering their working capacity.

When people grow older they tend to become more social and less ego oriented lower mas at the same time the gap between women’s and men’s mas values becomes smaller and around age fifty it has closed completely this the age at which a woman’s role as a potential child bearer has ended there is no more biological reason for her values to differ from a man’s. (Hofstede & Hofstede, 2005)

The older you get the less likely you are to quit your job as cited in Robbins & Judge, of a study based on age-turnover relationship. They add further that as workers get older, they have fewer alternative job opportunities.

Assumptions like age is inversely related with absenteeism, core questions like if older workers are less likely to quit, won’t they also demonstrate higher stability by coming to work more regularly the answer according to Robbins & Judge is not necessarily, because

many researchers have pointed out that that this age-absence relationship is partially a function of whether the absence is avoidable or unavoidable. Older people have higher rates of unavoidable absence. Probably due to the poorer health associated with aging and the longer recovery period that older workers need when injured.

On an enquiry upon age and productivity, Robbins & Judge quote study findings and debunk the myth that productivity declines with age. Whereas, other reviews of the research find that age and job performance are unrelated.

Another probing issue is the relationship between age and job satisfaction. Robbins & Judge find a mix response based upon their literature review. A generalised study has however lead to a finding of U-shaped relationship-indicating satisfaction tends to continually increase among professionals as they age, whereas it falls among non-professional during middle age and then rises again in the later years.

3.2. Gender

No consistent male-female differences in problem-solving ability, analytical skills, competitive drive, motivation, sociability or learning ability according to a study finding cited by Robbins & Judge. They further assert that when the employee has preschool-age-children, is preference for work schedules. Working mothers are more likely to prefer part-time work, flexible work schedules and telecommuting in order to accommodate their family responsibilities. On questions of turnover, the evidence indicates no significant differences; same research shows however women rates of absenteeism are higher than of men.

Table 7: Discrimination based on Gender

Gender * behaved differently based on gender

Count

 

behaved differently based on gender

 
 

Yes

No

Total

Gender

Male

3

6

9

Female

6

2

8

Total

9

8

17

A mixed response was obtained from the survey, 6 males responses for No was ruled even with 6 Yes responses from female. However, on an average it was seen that 52.94 % faced some sort of different behaviour based on their gender. (See Table 7) However, it should be acknowledged that being male also doesn’t give you the immunity from being discriminated based on gender.

Table 8: Areas for discrimination based on gender

Gender * areas discriminated based on gender

Count

   

areas discriminated based on gender

   
     

Career

   

planning(includi

No

Information

ng promotion,

Participation at

Sanctioning of

response

sharing

transfer issues)

decision making

leave

Total

Gender

Male

4

1

2

2

 

1 10

Female

3

1

4

2

 

1 11

Total

7

2

6

4

 

2 21

Career planning (including promotion, transfer issues) was one of most gender discrimination prone areas as perceived by the MPPG students. The least frequency was related with leave. (See Table 8) though the finding suggest that women have been facing career planning issues but it doesn’t explain why those issues having been occurring in women only.

Table 9: Gender advantage in job selection

Gender * opposite gender to recruiting officer advantage

Count

 

opposite gender to recruiting officer advantage

 
 

Yes

No

Total

Gender

Male

2

7

9

Female

1

7

8

Total

3

14

17

Overtly, it was found that being of opposite gender to the recruiting officer gave no added advantage to the prospective employee. (See Table 9)Equal frequencies of No from both the sexes are indicative that being of opposite gender only doesn’t make it happen.

Table 10: Gender danger on working capacity

Gender * Gender based discrimination make you work less than capacity

Count

 

Gender based discrimination make you work less than capacity

 
 

Yes

No

Total

Gender

Male

4

5

9

Female

5

3

8

Total

9

8

17

It has been revealed that gender is not that much of threat to the working environment according to the survey of MPPG students. Gender based discrimination did not have significant impact on full working capacity of the employers. (See Table 10) however it should be noted that gender based discrimination would often make female work less than their capacity than compared with male.

Table 11: Which gender likely to start Sycophancy

Gender * more likely to initiate sifarish/sycophancy/Afno-manche/tadbir

 

more likely to initiate sifarish/sycophancy/tadbir

 
 

Male

Female

Total

Gender

Male

5

4

9

Female

7

1

8

Total

12

5

17

It was found out that males were more likely (70.58 %) to start sifarish/sycophancy/Afno- manche/tadbir cultures. A closer look reveals that men are more undecided about this question as their opinion is slightly divided, whereas female seem to have a clear idea for this kind of practices, to be initiated by males. (See Table 11)

Both are equally necessary for the success of an enterprise, but the optimal balance between the two differs for masculine and feminine cultures. The masculinity feminity dimension affects ways of handling industrial conflicts. Organisation in masculine societies stresses on results and try to reward it on the basis of equity that is, to everyone according to performance. Organisation in feminine societies are more likely to reward people on the basis of equality (as opposed to equity) that to everyone according to need. Girls in a masculine society are polarised between those who want a career and the majority who don’t. (Hofstede & Hofstede, 2005)

3.3. Leadership Perception

With an astounding majority males (73 %) were seen as better leader for the public organisation than females (27 %).(See Figure 1) This might have several implications for the analysis, few of which includes the traditional male dominated mentality, high presence of male in organisations, insufficiently available skilled female workforce etc.

Figure 1: Better l eader of pu blic organ isation

Better L eader of Publ i c Orga nisation 2 7 % 73 %
Better L eader of Publ i c Orga nisation
2 7 %
73 %

73 % o f the MPP G students

Only 2 7 % of st udents beli eved fema le as a be tter leader

variatio n can be e xplained by

believed t hat male w ere better leader of p ublic orga nisation.

organisati on. This

the organi isation cult ure and tre nd, whereas s Banglade sh is the

of public

country

where the head of st

te of is a f emale addi tionally the opposing

party head is also a

female

though m ajority of

students

still

believ e

that

lea dership

es pecially

in

public

organis ation is lar gely a male domain. C an a patriar chal society explain th is paradox situation where l eader of a p atriarchal s ociety is a female?

Figure 2: Better l eader of pr ivate orga nisation

Fi g ure 2: Better l e ader of p r ivate orga nisation Better L
Better L eader o of Priva te Orga n isatio n n
Better L eader o of Priva te Orga n isatio n n

Better L eader o of Priva te Orga nisation n

19% 81%
19%
81%

% of the r espondent believed

that ma le are bette r suited for private org anisation o nly 19 % of the respon dent were i n favour

of fema le leadersh ip for a priv ate organis ation.

Better l eader for p rivate orga nisation go t even mor e votes, 81

3.4. Jo b satisfacti on and tur nover perc eption

Table 1 2: Last pe rformance based on

 

Frequency

Perc ent

Valid

Perfo rmance

 

11

52.

4

Gend er

 

1

4.8

   
   

Age

2

9.5

Sifari sh/sycophant/ Tadbir/Afnom anche

3

14.

3

Total

17

81.

0

Missing

Syste m

 

4

19.

0

Total

21

100.

.0

Most th e responde nt answere d that their last perform ance was b ased on pe rformance; some of

the res ponses we re as syco phancy, ge nder and

Since mos t of the

age. (See

Table 12)

respond ents were

for perf ormance co uld have g one higher.

at some sta ges of getti ng governm ent benefic iaries right fully, the fr equency

Figure 3: Childre n career p athing simi ilar to pare nts

29 % 7 1%
29 %
7 1%
n career p athing simi i lar to par e nts 29 % 7 1% Yes

Yes

No

Chi ldren ca reer pa thing s imilar t o pare n ts

take simila r career pa thing to

often deb ates on

Kennedy

family in US, Koi rala family in Nepal,

in Ban gladesh. T herefore, b ased on t heir ideolo gy this ki nd of find ing should

someth ing very dis tracting bu t rather pre dictable. M aybe geneti cs could ha ve better e xplained

not be

domina nce of poli tical system

parents . (See Fig ure 3) Ho wever, it

71 % o f the resp ondents de ny that chi ldren do n ot tend to

should be

noted that

this class

by one fa mily only, for e.g: Ga ndhi family

in India,

Rajapakshy a family in Srilanka an nd Rahama n family

this tha n a percept survey.

Figure 4: Satisfac tion with c urrent job

1 = Ab solutely yes

2

= Maybe Yes

3 = Not Sure

4= May ybe No

5

= Absolu tely No

3 = Not Sure 4= May y be No 5 = Absol u tely No It

It has b een found out that m ost of the r esponses a

mean i s also sug gestive of.

standar d deviation is of 1.061 meaning th e choices t hat has bee n made oth er than maj ority.

swered we re “maybe curve draw n we can

yes” for w hich the

inference

that the

With the

normality

Table 1 3: Job sat isfaction a mong gend er

Gender * sat isfied with cu urrent job Cr osstabulatio

Count

   

satisfie d with curren t job

   
 

Absolutely yes

Mayb e yes

Not sure

Abso utely no

Total

Gender

Male

4

2

2

1

9

Female

2

5

1

0

8

Total

6

7

3

1

17

Though various literatures suggest that female tend to be more satisfied in terms of job satisfaction it was found that it was male who were more satisfied with their job than females. (See Table 13)

Figure 5: Likely to quit current job (Turn over)

Table 13) Figure 5: Likely to quit current job (Turn over) It was found out that

It was found out that “maybe yes” and “not sure” got the equal votes with a standard deviation of 1.218. It means that most of the MPPG students will not return to their previous jobs or are having second thought about it.

Table 14: Gender and turnovers

Gender * likely to quit current job Crosstabulation

Count

   

likely to quit current job

   
 

Absolutely yes

Maybe yes

Not sure

Maybe no

Absolutely no

Total

Gender

Male

 

0 2

2

2

3

9

Female

 

1 3

3

1

0

8

Total

 

1 5

5

3

3

17

Though it appears that on an average respondent were divided among “maybe yes” and “not sure” categories. Upon closer inspection, it has been found that more females were likely to quit their current jobs than males.

CHAPTER IV

4. Conclusion

Upon comparative analysis with general belief versus published research versus a first hand research amongst MPPG revealed following:

Age and performance were debateable, though in lack of sufficient literature the study has not given its any objective or subjective judgements.

Discrimination based on age was perceived significantly amongst student of MPPG 3 rd batch, whereas various other literatures also support it.

A key area of discrimination based on age is participation at decision making.

Being young age than recruiting officer was perceived to give some advantage. Whereas, being old was a total turn off based on the same survey.

The initiation of sifarish/sycophancy/afno-manche/tadbir based on age was quite unclear but when combined with gender it can be understood that male of middle age group are more likely to initiate sycophancy culture.

Age based discrimination would often be detrimental to working capacity of the staffs.

Half of the respondents (both gender combined) felt some form of discrimination based on gender.

Career planning (including promotion, transfer) was one of the areas for gender based discrimination.

Gender was perceived not to give any advantage for being selected on job interviews.

Combined view of both gender, would not mean much of threat to working of both gender but on terms of individual gender, gender related discrimination would make female work often less than their capacity.

Male was seen as better leader for public organisation, whereas this figure increased by 8 percentage when it came to select better leader for private organisation.

The respondent hugely believed that children do not take similar career-pathing as their parents.

Majority of the respondents were satisfied with their current job.

Male were more satisfied than female, which is seemed as quite contrary to held beliefs.

More females were likely to quit their jobs than males, this was also in conflict with other research findings which indicated that female employee were more stable than male employees.

Biological characteristics were one of the key determinants shaping organisational behaviour. Without taking them into considerations, an organisation would often have to reshuffle its staffs; chief reason for doing that would be incompliance, incompatibility and less efficiency and program effectiveness. Therefore, this research has identified and probed into areas that are often overlooked by existing literatures and has found that biological characteristic was an answer to the unexplained behaviour within an organisation.

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Woodman, R.W. et al., 2007. Toward a theory of organizational creativity. Management, 18(2), pp. 293-321.

Questionnaire

Sex of the respondent:

   

Age:

 

I. Do you feel you were behaved differently in your workplace based on your age?

     
 

Yes (go to question 1)

   

No

                 
   

1.

On what areas were you discriminated (behaved differently)? [Please tick as many as

   

applies]

                           
 

a. Information sharing

   

b. Career planning (including Promotion, transfer issues)

 

c. Participation at decision making

d. sanctioning of leave

           
   

2.

Do you think being of young age (than recruiting officer) would increase the chances to be

   

selected for a job?

                         
 

Yes

3.

No

   

Do you think being of old age (than recruiting officer) would increase the chances to be

                               
 

selected for a job? Yes

   

No

                 
   

4.

Which age do you think are more likely to initiate a Sifarish/Sycophant/Afano

 
   

manche/Takbir culture?

                         
 

Young age [18 30]

Middle age [31 40]

   

Old Age [40+]

   

5.

Did this kind of discrimination make you work less than your full capacity?

   
 

Yes

       

No

                 

II. Do you feel you were behaved differently in your workplace based on your gender?

   
 

Yes (go to question A)

                   

No

 
   

A.

On what areas were you discriminated (behaved differently)? [Please tick as many as applies]

 

Information sharing

 

Career planning (including Promotion, transfer issues)

 

Participation at decision making

 

sanctioning of leave

   

B.

Do you think being an opposite gender (to the recruiting officer) gives some advantage on selection for the new job?

   

Yes

           

No

           
   

C.

Did this kind of discrimination make you work less than your full capacity?

   
   

Yes

           

No

           

Thank you for filling the form, your responses will be kept anonymous. Data confidentiality is the top priority of this research.

D.

Which gender do you think are more likely to initiate a Sifarish/Sycophant/Afano

manche/Takbir culture?

 

Male

Female

     
   

E.

Who do you think would make a better leader for a public organisation?

 

Male

Female

     
   

F.

Who do you think would make a better leader for a private organisation?

 

Male

Female

     

III.

What do you feel your last promotion, transfer and/or sanction of leave based on?

 

Performance

   

Gender

Age

                   
 

Race

   

Sifarish/Sycophant/Takbir/Afano manche

IV.

Do think that a son/daughter of an organisation head would often choose similar career path

as their parents did?

           
 

Yes

     

No

   

V. Are you satisfied with your current job?

       
 

Absolutely Yes

           
 

Maybe yes

           
                   
 

Not sure

           
 

Maybe No

           
                   
 

Absolutely No

           

VI.

What are the chances that you will quit your current job?

   
 

Absolutely Yes

           
                   
 

Maybe yes

           
                   
 

Not sure

           
 

Maybe No

           
 

Absolutely No

           

‐‐‐‐‐‐‐‐ Thank you for your time and consideration; This is the End of questionnaire‐‐‐‐‐‐

Thank you for filling the form, your responses will be kept anonymous. Data confidentiality is the top priority of this research.