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14-15: Acids, Bases and Solubility

AP Review Questions
**On AP test, if in doubt use 3 significant digits. It is always correct.

**For logs: If Ka = 1.8 X10-5, then pKa = 4.7932685.

Ka has two significant digits. pKa should be 4.79, since the 4 tells the power (the 7,9 are significant.)

** For strong acids: #Oxygens - # Hydrogens is 2 or greater.

H2SO4 strong, H2SO3 weak, HIO3 strong etc.
** Acid strength increases with the number of oxygens. (The more oxygens, the better the negative charge can be
supported and be made stable when the H+ leaves.)

**Molarity = mol / L = mmol / ml

** For buffer solutions the weak acid must have a pKa within one pH unit of the desired buffer pH.

**In titrations:
At the halfway point to equivalency HA will equal A-
HA + OH- ↔ H2O + A –
1.0M 0.5M
-0.5 -0.5 +0.5
0.5 0.5

pH = pKa + log {[A-] / [HA]}

pH = pKa

At the equivalence point:

for strong acids: the titration curve is steep and the equivalence point equals pH = 7.
(strong acids and strong bases completely neutralize one another to make a neutral pH of 7.)
but for weak acids/weak bases: the titration curve has less of a steepness (it is flatter) and the equivalence point is
determined by stoichiometry and the dissociation of the weak acid/ weak base, not by pH. It will not be neutral! (see
textbook p. 696-716)
{The pH at the equivalence point of a weak acid with a strong base is always greater than 7, because the anion of the
acid (that is left in solution) is a base. The weaker the acid, the higher the pH at the equivalence point. The pH at the
equivalence point of a weak base with a strong acid will be less than 7, since the hydrated base is acidic. The weaker
the base, the lower the pH at the equivalence point.}
1) Which pair of substances cannot be the major
components of (coexist in) an aqueous
a) OH- and H+ b) H2PO4- and HPO42-
c) HOCl and OCl d) SO42- and SO32-
e) H2CO3 and CO32-

4) Which of the following is not a conjugate acid-

base pair?
a) H2SO4 and SO42-
b) HCl and Cl-
c) NH3 and NH2-
d) HPO42- and PO43-
e) H2S and HS-

5) Which of the following is a Lewis Theory

a) NH3 b) CO2 c) CH4 d) BH3 e) LiH

6) Which of the following can function as both a

Bronsted-Lowry acid and a Bronsted-Lowry
a) HCl b) H2SO4 c) HSO3- d) SO42- e) H+
2) Each of the following can act as both a
Bronsted acid and a Bronsted base EXCEPT
a) HSO4- b) H2PO4- c) NH4+
d) H2O e) HCO3-
7) In the reaction CO32- + H2O ↔ HCO3- + OH-
the carbonate ion is a
a) Bronsted acid b) Lewis acid
c) Arrhenius acid d) Bronsted base
e) Arrhenius base

3) Which of the following anion(s) is/are not

derived from a strong acid?
I. F1- II. NO31- III. HS-1
IV. ClO4 V. C2H3O21-
a) V only b) I, II, and III only
c) I, II, and IV only d) I, III, V only
e) II and IV only
8) Which of the following is the strongest acid in
a) perchloric acid b) chloric acid
c) chlorous acid d) hypochlorous acid
e) They are all the same strength.

Questions 12-13
a) Lithium b) Nickel c) Bromine
d) Uranium e) Fluorine
9) When equal masses of the following
12) Is a gas in its standard state at 298 K.
compounds are dissolved in water, which is
13) Reacts with water to form a strong base.
expected to conduct electricity the most?
a) MgCl2 b) CH3CH2CH2OH c) SO3
d) KMnO4 e) HCO2H

14) Which of the following pairs would make an

effective buffer solution?
a) HCl / NaCl b) KOH / K2SO4
c) HClO4 / NaClO4 d) NaHCO3 / Na2CO3
e) HCl / NH4Cl

10) In aqueous solution the strongest acid is

a) HCl b) H3O+ c) HBr d) HI
e) All are equally strong.

11) The strongest acid below is

a) HClO2 b) HBrO3 c)HClO3
d) H2SO3 e) H2SeO3
15) In aqueous solution the amphiprotic (amphoteric) 18) Which of the following cannot be a Lewis acid?
substance is a) Fe2+ b) Fe3+ c) NH4+ d) BCl3 e) H+
a) H2O b) Cl- c) NH4+ d) Cr2O72-

16) Addition of a base to this compound produces a

a) CaCO3 b) ZnS c) NH4Br
d) CH3COOH e) Mg

17) The strongest base is

a) NaClO b) NaClO3 c) NaBrO3
d) KClO3 e) KClO4
Questions 19-22
a) A solution with a pH of 1
b) A solution with a pH of greater than 1 and less
than 7
c) A solution with a pH of 7
d) A solution with a pH of greater than 7 and less
than 13
e) A solution with a pH of 13
For CH3COOH, Ka = 1.8 X10-5
For NH3, Kb = 1.8 X10-5

19) A solution prepared by mixing equal volumes

of 0.2 molar HCl and 0.2 molar NH3.
20) A solution prepared by mixing equal volumes
of 0.2 molar HNO3 and 0.2 molar NaOH.
21) A solution prepared by mixing equal volumes
of 0.2 molar HCl and 0.2 molar NaCl.
Questions 23-25 refer to an experiment in which
22) A solution prepared by mixing equal volumes
five individual 1-liter aqueous solutions, each
of 0.2 molar CH3COOH and 0.2 molar NaOH.
containing a 1 mole sample of one of the salts
listed below, were subjected to various tests at
room temperature.
a) NaC2H3O2 b) NaCl
c) MgBr2 d) HC2H3O2
e) KBr

23) The solution containing this salt had the

highest boiling point.
24) The solution containing this salt had the lowest
25) The solution containing this salt had the
highest pH.
Use the following responses for questions 26-28.
a) HOCl Ka = 3.0 X10-8
b) HC2H3O2 Ka = 1.8 X10-5
c) N2H4 Kb = 9.6 X10-7
d) HNO2 Ka = 7.1 X10-4
e) CH3NH2 Kb = 4.4 X10-4

26) A 0.01 M solution of this substance will result

in a solution with the highest pH.
27) A 0.1 M solution of the sodium salt of this
substance will have a pH closest to pH 7. Questions 31-33
28) This substance is most often found in salad a) Arrhenius acid b) Bronsted-Lowry acid
dressing. c) Bronsted-Lowry base
d) Lewis acid e) Lewis base

31) BF3 in the reaction: BF3 + F- → BF4

32) CN- in the reaction: Cu2+(aq) + 4 CN-(aq) →
33) H2O in the reaction: HC2H3O2(aq) + H2O(l) →
C2H3O2-(aq) + H3O+(aq)

29) Each of the following compounds was added to

distilled water at 25 oC. Which one produced a
solution with a pH that was less than 7? 34) Which substance(s) listed below would form
a) N2 b) O2 c) NaI d) MgO e) SO2 basic solutions?
a) I only b) II only c) III only
d) I and II e) II and III

30) In which of the following reactions does the

H2PO4- ion act as an acid?
I. H3PO4 + H2O → H3O+ + H2PO4-
II. H2PO4- + H2O → H3O+ + HPO42-
III. H2PO4- + OH- → H3PO4 + O2-
a) I only b) II only c) III only
d) I and II e) I and III
Questions 35-36 37) Which of the following is the safest and most
Acid Acid dissociation constant effective procedure to treat a base spill onto skin?
a) HC2H3O2 1.8 X10-5 a) Dry the affected area with paper towels.
b) HCN 6.2 X10-10 b) Flush the area with a dilute solution of HCl.
c) HNO2 7.1 X10-4 c) Flush the affected area with water and then
d) HCHO2 1.8 X10-4 with a dilute NaOH solution.
e) HOBr 2.1 X10-9 d) Flush the affected area with water and then
with a dilute NaHCO3 solution.
35) When each of these acids is titrated, which one will e) Flush the affected area with water and then
have the highest pH at its endpoint? with a dilute vinegar solution.
36) Which of these five acids and their corresponding
salts can be used to make a buffer at pH 6.5?
a) HC2H3O2 b) HC2H3O2 or HOBr
c) HC2H3O2 and HNO2 and HCHO2
d) HOBr e) none of these

38) Acid precipitation or acid rain has a pH below

the normal value for rainwater. Normal rain has a
pH between 5 and 6. Which of the following are
contributors to acid precipitation?
I. O3 II. N2 III. NO
IV. SO2 V. O2 VI. SO3
a) I and III only b) III, IV, and VI only
c) III and VI only d) I, II, and V only
e) IV and VI only

39) The safest and most effective emergency

procedure to treat an acid splash on skin is to do
which of the following immediately?
a) Dry the affected area with paper towels.
b) Sprinkle the affected area with powdered
c) Flush the affected area with water and then
with a dilute NaOH solution.
d) Flush the affected area with water and then
with a dilute NaHCO3 solution.
e) Flush the affected area with water and then
with a dilute vinegar solution.
40) A solution of KNO3 is known to have a
concentration of 0.564 m. In order to calculate the
concentration of this solution in terms of molarity,
which of the following needs to be specified?
a) no additional information
b) the density of the solution
c) the volume of the solution
d) the solubility product of KNO3
e) the Ka of nitric acid

44) A 40.0 ml sample of 0.25 M KOH is added to

60.0 ml of 0.15 M Ba(OH)2. What is the molar
concentration of OH-(aq) in the resulting solution?
41) Which of the following equilibrium (Assume that the volumes are additive.)
expressions represents the hydrolysis of the CN- a) 0.10 M b) 0.19 M c) 0.28 M
ion? d) 0.40 M e) 0.55 M
a) K = {[HCN][OH-]} / [CN-]
b) K = {[CN-][OH-]} / [HCN]
c) K = {[CN-][H3O+]} / [HCN]
d) K = {[HCN][H3O+]} / [CN-]
e) K = [HCN] / {[CN-][OH-]}

42) 50.0 ml of a 0.0200 M HCl solution is mixed

with 25.0 ml of a 0.0100 M NaOH solution. What
is the pH of the final mixture?
a) 3.36 b) 0.43 c) 2.00 d) 11.00 e) 7.00

43) How many milliliters of water must be added

to 10 milliliters of an HCl solution with a pH of 1
to produce a solution with a pH of 2?
a) 10 ml b) 90 ml c) 100 ml
d) 990 ml e) 1000 ml
45) A 0.010 M solution of a weak base has a pH of
9.85. What is the pKb of this weak base?
a) 4.15 b) 7.1 X10-5 c) 2.0 X10-7
d) 7.85 e) 6.30

46) Phosphoric acid dissociates in three steps with

equilibrium constants
K1 = 7.1 X10-3
K2 = 6.3 X10-8
K3 = 4.5 X10-13
Which of the following mathematical expressions
represents the pH of a 0.100 M solution of
a) –log K1 b) –log √[(7.1 X10-3)(6.3 X10-8)]
c) –log K2 d) –log √[(K2)(K3)] e) 7.00

47) What is the H+(aq) concentration in 0.05 M

HCN(aq)? ( The Ka for HCN is 5.0 X10-10.)
a) 2.5 X 10-11 M b) 2.5 X 10-10 M
c) 5.0 X 10-10 M d) 5.0 X 10-6 M
e) 5.0 X 10-4 M
48) Hypobromous acid, HBrO, is added to distilled
water. If the acid dissociation constant for HBrO
is equal to 2 X 10-9, what is the concentration of
HBrO when the pH of the solution is equal to 5?
a) 5-molar b) 1-molar c) 0.1-molar
d) 0.05-molar e) 0.01-molar

51) Which of the following compounds is NOT

appreciably soluble in water, but is soluble in dilute
hydrochloric acid?
a) Mg(OH)2(s) b) (NH4)2CO3(s)
c) CuSO4(s) d) (NH4)2SO4(s)
e) Sr(NO3)2(s)

49) Which of the following solid salts should be

more soluble in 1.0 M NH3 than in water?
a) Na2CO3 b) KCl c) AgBr
d) KNO3 e) NaBr

50) Which of the following solid salts is more

soluble in 1.0 M H+ than in pure water?
a) NaCl b) CaCO3 c) KCl
d) AgCl e) KNO3
52) The Ka for hydrofluoric acid is 6.8 X 10-4. What
percentage of HF is dissociated in a 0.080 M solution
where the hydronium ion concentration is 7.4 X 10-3
a) 12.3 % b) 4.25 % c) 9.2 %
d) 1.12 % e) 23.6 %

53) A 100 ml sample of 0.10 molar NaOH solution was

added to 100 ml of 0.10 molar H3C6H5O7. After
equilibrium was established, which of the ions listed 55) At 0oC, the ion-product for water, Kw, is
below was present in the greatest concenctration? 1.2 X10-15. The pH of pure water at 0oC is
a) H2C6H5O7- b) HC6H5O72- a) 7.00 b) between 6.0 and 7.0
c) C6H5O73- d) OH- e) H+ c) more than 7.0 but less than 8.0
d) approximately 15 e) between 14 and 15

54) HC2H3O2(aq) + ClO-(aq) ↔ HClO(aq) + C2H3O2-(aq)

The standard free energy change for the reaction has a
negative value. Based on this information, which of
the following statements is true?
a) Ka for HC2H3O2(aq) is less than Ka for HClO(aq)
b) Kb for C2H3O2-(aq) is less than Kb for
c) Keq for the reaction is less than 1
56) The Ka for HCN is 6.2 X10-10. What is Kb for CN-
d) The reaction occurs in the presence of a 1
? Kb = {[HCN][OH-1]} / [CN-1]
Note: CN-1 + H2O ↔ HCN + OH-1
e) HC2H3O2(aq) and HClO(aq) are conjugates
a) 1.6 X109 b) 6.2 X10-24 c) 6.2 X104
d) 1.6 X1023 e) 1.6 X10-5
57) The pH of a 1.0 M sodium acetate solution is
a) 7.0 b) greater than 7.0 c) less than 7.0
d) 0 e) impossible to predict

58) The [H+] for a solution with pOH = 10 is

a) 4 b) 10-4 c) 1010 d) 10-10 e) 104

59) Which of the following will give a solution with

the highest pH when dissolved in water to make a 0.10
M solution? 61) A chemist creates a buffer solution by mixing
a) a strong acid b) a weak acid equal volumes of a 0.2 molar HOCl solution and a 0.2
c) the potassium salt of a weak acid molar KOCl solution. Which of the following will
d) the potassium salt of a strong acid occur when a small amount of KOH is added to the
e) the ammonium salt of a strong acid solution?
I. The concentration of undissociated HOCl will
II. The concentration of OCl- ions will increase.
III. The concentration of H+ ions will increase.
a) I only b) II only c) III only
d) I and III only e) II and III only

60) What is the pH of a solution prepared by mixing 50

ml of 0.125 M KOH with 0.050 L of a 0.125 M HCl?
a) 4.0 b) 5.7 c) 6.3 d) 7.0 e) 8.1
62) Which of the following procedures will produce a 65) What ratio of the mass of Na2HPO4 (molar mass =
buffered solution? 142) to the mass of NaH2PO4 (molar mass = 120) is
I. Equal volumes of 1 M NH3 and 1 M NH4Cl solutions needed to prepare a buffer with a pH of 7.4? The pKa2
are mixed. for H2PO4- is 7.42.
II. Equal volumes of 1 M H2CO3 and 1 M NaHCO3 a) 1.58 b) 0.63 c) 1.87 d) 1.18 e) 0.53
solutions are mixed.
III. Equal volumes of 1 M NH3 and 1 M H2CO3
solutions are mixed.
a) I only b) III only c) I and II only
d) II and III only e) I, II and III only

63) Which of the following is NOT a buffer?

a) CH3COOH and NaCH3CO2
b) NH3 and NH4Cl
c) HCl and NaCl
d) H3PO4 and NaH2PO4
e) H2S and NaHS

64) Below are Kb values for some weak bases. Which

should be selected to prepare a buffer at pH 8.9?
a) 2.3 X10-2 b) 5.6 X10-6 c) 4.3 X10-4
d) 8.8 X10-3 e) 8.2 X10-10
66) What is the pH of a solution made by mixing 200 68) The value of Ka for lactic acid, HLac, is
milliliters of a 0.20-molar solution of NH3 with 200 1.5 X10-5. What is the value of Kb for lactate anion,
milliliters of a 0.20-molar NH4Cl solution? (The base Lac-?
dissociation constant, Kb, for NH3 is 1.8 X10-5.) a) 1.0 X10-14 b) 8.5 X10-10
a) between 3 and 4 c) 6.7 X10-10 d) 8.5 X1010
b) between 4 and 5 e) It cannot be determined from the information given.
c) between 5 and 6
d) between 8 and 9
e) between 9 and 10

69) Which of the following has the highest pH?

a) the endpoint of a strong acid titrated with a
strong base
b) the endpoint of a weak acid titrated with a
strong base
c) the endpoint of a weak base titrated with a
strong acid
d) the endpoint of a strong base titrated with a
strong acid
e) the endpoint of a weak acid titrated with a
weaker base

67) HC2H3O2(aq) + CN-(aq) ↔ HCN(aq) + C2H3O2-(aq) The

reaction represented above has an equilibrium constant
equal to 3.7 X104. Which of the following can be
concluded from this information?
a) CN-(aq) is a stronger base than C2H3O2-(aq).
b) HCN(aq) is a stronger acid than HC2H3O2(aq).
c) The conjugate base of CN-(aq) is C2H3O2-(aq).
d) The equilibrium constant will increase with an
increase in temperature.
e) The pH of a solution containing equimolar 70) A sample of 61.8 g of H3BO3, a weak acid, is
amounts of CN-(aq) and HC2H3O2(aq) is 7.0. dissolved in 1000 g of water to make a 1.0-molar
solution. Which of the following would be the best
procedure to determine the molarity of the solution?
(Assume no additional information is available.)
a) Titration of the solution with standard acid
b) Measurement of the pH with a pH meter
c) Determination of the boiling point of the
d) Measurement of the total volume of the
e) Measurement of the specific heat of the
71) It takes 40.0 ml of 0.100 M NaOH to titrate 488
mg of a solid monoprotic acid to the phenolphthalein
endpoint. What is the molecular mass of the acid?
a) 221 b) 122 c) 68 d) 1.2 X105 e) 1.2 X10-1

Questions 73-76 refer to aqueous solutions containing

1:1 mole ratios of the following pairs of substances.
Assume all concentrations are 1 M.
a) NH3 and NH4Cl
72) In a titration experiment, a 0.10-molar H2C2O4 b) H3PO4 and NaH2PO4
solution was completely neutralized by the addition of c) HCl and NaCl
a 0.10-molar NaOH solution. Which of the diagrams d) NaOH and NH3
below illustrates the change in pH that accompanied e) NH3 and HC2H3O2 (acetic acid)
this process?
73) The solution with the lowest pH
74) The most nearly neutral solution
75) A buffer at a pH > 8
76) A buffer at a pH < 6
77) How many moles of solid Ca(NO3)2 should be 79) The solubility product constant at 25 oC for AgCl is
added to 450 milliliters of 0.35 M Al(NO3)3 to increase 1.6 X10-10 mol2 • L-2 and that for AgI is 8.0 X 10-17
the concentration of the NO3- ion to 1.7 M? (Assume mol2 • L-2. Determine the equilibrium constant for the
that the volume of the solution remains constant.) reaction of silver chloride with I-(aq).
a) 0.07 mole b) 0.15 mole c) 0.29 mole a) 1.3 X10-26 mol2 • L-2
d) 0.45 mole e) 0.77 mole b) 5.0 X10-7 mol2 • L-2
c) 1.0 X103 mol2 • L-2
d) 2.0 X106 mol2 • L-2
e) 1.3 X1016 mol2 • L-2

78) What is the final concentration of lead ions, [Pb2+],

in solution when 100 ml of 0.10 M PbCl2(aq) is mixed
with 100 ml of 0.050 M H2SO4(aq)?
a) 0.005 M b) 0.012 M c) 0.025 M
d) 0.250 M e) 0.10 M
80) Compound Ksp at 25 oC
FeS 6.33 X10-18
PbS 8.03 X10-28
MnS 1.03 X10-13
A solution at 25 C contains Fe2+, Pb2+, and Mn2+ ions.

Which of the following gives the order in which

precipitates will form, from first to last, as Na2S is
steadily added to the solution.
a) FeS, PbS, MnS b) MnS, PbS, FeS
c) FeS, MnS, PbS d) MnS, FeS, PbS
e) PbS, FeS, MnS

83) The solubility product of Fe(OH)3 is

1.6 X10-39. Which of the following mathematical
expressions represents the molar solubility of iron III
a) √(1.6 X10-39) b) 3√(1.6 X10-39)
c) 4√[(1.6 X10-39) / 9]
d) √(27 X 1.6 X10-39)
e) 4√[(1.6 X10-39) / 27]

81) The molar solubility of BaCO3 (Ksp =

1.6 X10-9) in 0.10 M BaCl2 solution is
a) 1.6 X 10-10 b) 4.0 X 10-5 c) 7.4 X 10-4
d) 0.10 e) 1.6 X 10-8

82) The solubility product, Ksp, of CaF2 is

4 X10-11. Which of the following expressions is equal
to the solubility of CaF2?
a) √(4 X10-11) M b) √(2 X10-11) M
c) 3√(4 X10-11) M d) 3√(2 X10-11) M
e) 3√(1 X10-11) M
84) HCl(aq) + AgNO3(aq) → AgCl(s) + HNO3(aq) One- 86) A beaker contains 150.0 ml of a 0.20 M Pb(NO3)2
half liter of a 0.20 molar HCl solution is mixed with solution. If 50.0 ml of a 0.20 M solution of MgCl2 is
one-half liter of a 0.40 molar solution of AgNO3. A added to the beaker, what will be the final
reaction occurs forming a precipitate as shown above. concentration of Pb2+ ions in the solution?
If the reaction goes to completion, what is the mass of a) 0.20 M b) 0.10 M c) 0.050 M
AgCl produced? d) 0.025 M e) 0.012 M
a) 14 grams b) 28 grams c) 42 grams
d) 70 grams e) 84 grams

85) A student added 1 liter of a 1.0 M Na2SO4 solution

to 1 liter of a 1.0 M Ag(C2H3O2) solution. A silver
sulfate precipitate formed and nearly all of the silver 87) A student added 0.20 mol of NaI and 0.40 mol of
ions disappeared from the solution. Which of the KI to 3 liters of water to create an aqueous solution.
following lists the ions remaining in the solution in What is the minimum number of moles of Pb(C2H3O2)2
order of decreasing concentration? that the student must add to the solution in order to
a) [SO42-] > [C2H3O2-] > [Na+] precipitate out all of the I- ions as PbI2?
b) [C2H3O2-] > [Na+]> [SO42-] a) 2.40 b) 1.20 c) 0.60 d) 0.30 e) 0.15
c) [C2H3O2-] > [SO42-] > [Na+]
d) [Na+] > [SO42-] >[C2H3O2-]
e) [Na+] > [C2H3O2-] > [SO42-]
88) A 40.0 mg sample of pure iron III sulfate 90) Approximately what volume of carbon dioxide, at
(molecular mass = 400) is dissolved in 1 L of acidified STP, is needed to precipitate all the calcium ions in a
water. If a base such as sodium hydroxide is added, a 100 ml sample of 0.250 M Ca(NO3)2?
precipitate will form. At what pH will iron (III) Ca2+(aq) + CO2(g) + H2O(g) → CaCO3(s) + 2 H+(aq)
hydroxide begin to precipitate from this solution? (Ksp a) 560 ml b) 560 L c) 280 ml d) 1.12 L e) 280 L
[Fe(OH)3] = 1.6 X10-39)
a) 1.6 b) 2.3 c) 11.7 d) 36 e) 5.8

91) Consider the following equilibrium with a Ksp

value of 1.8 X10-10.
AgCl(s) ↔ Ag+(aq) + Cl-(aq)
Will a precipitate be formed, if equal volumes of 0.001
M AgNO3 and 0.001 M KCl are mixed?
a) No, because the product of [Ag+(aq)] and
[Cl-(aq)] exceeds the value of Ksp.
b) Yes, because the product of [Ag+(aq)] and [Cl-
(aq)] exceeds the value of Ksp.
c) No, because the equilibrium will shift to the
d) Yes, because molar concentration of potassium
ions should be increased for precipitation.
e) No, because AgCl is a non-electrolyte.
89) In a 1.0 L sample of 0.01 M potassium sulfate,
K2SO4, what is the minimum number of moles of
calcium chloride, CaCl2, that can be added to the
solution before the precipitate calcium sulfate forms?
Assume that the addition of calcium chloride has a
negligible effect on the total volume of the solution.
Ksp for CaSO4 = 2.4 X10-5
a) 2.4 X 10-5 mol b) 1.2 X10-5 mol
c) 2.4 X10-3 mol d) 1.2 X 10-3 mol
e) 0.01 mol
92) Which of the following occurs when excess 95) Which of the following techniques is most
concentrated NH3(aq) is mixed thoroughly with appropriate for the recovery of solid KNO3 from an
0.1 M Cu(NO3)2(aq)? aqueous solution of KNO3?
a) A dark red precipitate forms and settles out. a) Paper chromatography b) Filtration
b) Separate layers of immiscible liquids form c) Titration d) Electrolysis
with a blue layer on top. e) Evaporation to dryness
c) The color of the solution turns from light blue
to dark blue.
d) Bubbles of ammonia gas form.
e) The pH of the solution decreases.

96) A yellow precipitate forms when 0.5 M NaI(aq) is

added to a 0.5 M solution of which of the following
a) Pb2+(aq) b) Zn2+(aq) c) CrO42-(aq)
d) SO42-(aq) e) OH-(aq)

93) The solubility of KNO3(s) at 25 oC is 36 g per 100 g

water. A solution prepared at a higher temperature
contains 28 g of dissolved KNO3 in 50 g water. What 97) A solid piece of barium hydroxide is immersed in
happens when the hot solution is cooled to 25 oC? water and allowed to come to equilibrium with its
a) None of the KNO3 crystallizes out of solution. dissolved ions. The addition of which of the following
b) All 28 g of KNO3 crystallizes out of solution. substances to the solution would cause more solid
c) 18 g of KNO3 crystallizes out of solution. barium hydroxide to dissolve into the solution?
d) 10 g of KNO3 crystallizes out of solution. a) NaOH b) HCl c) NaCl d) BaCl2 e) NH3
e) 20 g of KNO3 crystallizes out of solution.

98) Which of the following is the least soluble?

a) CaSO4 Ksp = 9.1 10-6
b) BaF2 Ksp = 1.0 10-6
c) NiCO3 Ksp = 6.6 10-14
d) CaCrO4 Ksp = 7.1 10-4
e) Sn(OH)2 Ksp = 1.4 10-28

94) Very fine precipitates are most easily separated by

a) distillation b) filtration c) centrifugation
d) evaporation e) vacuum filtration
99) Which of the following will be classified as a
precipitation reaction?
a) CaO + SO3 → CaSO4
b) 2 NaHSO4 → Na2SO4 + SO3 + H2O
c) CaCl2(aq) + 2 AgNO3(aq) → 2 AgCl(s) +
d) SnCl2 + PbCl4 → SnCl4 + PbCl2
e) H2SO4 + Mg(OH)2 → MgSO4 + 2 H2O

Written Questions:
1) Calculate the pH of 30.0 mL of 0.200 M acetic acid solution after the following volumes of
0.200 M NaOH have been added. The Ka for acetic acid is 1.8 X10-5.
a) 10.0 mL
b) 15.0 mL
c) 35.0 mL
2) a) The binary acids (HCl, HBr, HI) in aqueous solutions show no difference in acidity.
These three acids in a nonaqueous solvent like acetone or glacial acetic acid are observed to
have the following order of acid strength: HI > HBr > HCl. What accounts for the different
observations in water and nonaqueous solvents?
b) The pH scale can be used to indicate the availability of hydronium ions in aqueous solutions.
The hydronium ion concentration is related to pH by the following equation [H3O+] = 10-pH. A
laboratory worker reports observed pH values of –0.1 and zero. Are these values realistic?
Justify your answer, and give examples that support your answer.
3) NaC2H3O2, Ba(NO3)2, KCl
Aqueous solutions of equal concentration of the three compounds listed above are prepared.
What would an experimenter expect to observe when each of the following procedures is
performed on each of the solutions?
a) The pH of each solution is measured.
b) Pb2+ ions are introduced into each solution.
c) SO42- ions are introduced into each solution.
d) The freezing point of each solution is measured and the three temperatures are compared.
4) Give explanations in terms of Lewis structures, electronegativity differences, and apparent
oxidation numbers.
a) What is the explanation for the decreasing acid strength in the following series of acids:
HClO4, HClO3, HClO2?
b) What are the predicted relative base strengths for ClO41-, ClO31-, ClO21-?
5) Give a brief explanation for each of the following:
a) Water can act either as an acid or a base.
b) HF is a weaker acid than HCl.
c) For the triprotic acid H3PO4, Ka1 is 7.5 X 10-3 whereas Ka2 is 6.2 X10-8.
d) Pure HCl is not an acid.
e) HClO4 is a stronger acid than HClO3, HSO4-, or H2SO3.

6) A 0.20-molar solution of acetic acid, HC2H3O2, at a temperature of 25 oC, has a pH of 2.73.

a) Calculate the hydroxide ion concentration, [OH-].
b) What is the value of the acid ionization constant, Ka, for acetic acid at 25 oC?
c) How many moles of sodium acetate must be added to 500. ml of a 0.200-molar solution of
acetic acid in order to create a buffer with a pH of 4.00? Assume that the volume of the
solution is not changed by the addition of sodium acetate.
d) In a titration experiment, 100. ml of sodium hydroxide solution was added to 200. ml of a
0.400-molar solution of acetic acid to reach the equivalence point. What was the pH at the
equivalence point?
7) The overall dissociation of oxalic acid, H2C2O4, is represented below. The overall
dissociation constant is also indicated.
H2C2O4 ↔ 2 H+ + C2O42- K = 3.78 X10-6
a) What volume of 0.400-molar NaOH is required to neutralize completely a 5.00 X10-3
mole sample of pure oxalic acid?
b) Give the equations representing the first and second dissociations of oxalic acid.
Calculate the value of the first dissociation constant, K1, for oxalic acid if the value of
the second dissociation constant, K2, is 6.40 X10-5.
c) To a 0.015-molar solution of oxalic acid, a strong acid is added until the pH is 0.5.
Calculate the [C2O42-] in the resulting solution. (Assume the change in volume is
d) Calculate the value of the equilibrium constant, Kb, for the reaction that occurs when
solid NaC2O4 is dissolved in water.
e) For Ka1 what pH range can H2C2O4 and NaHC2O4 be used as a buffer.
8) a) Distinguish between endpoint and equivalence point of a titration.
Describe the importance of choosing the proper indicator for a specific acid-base titration.
b) Which of the following indicators would be the best choice for the titration of a 1.0 N
weak acid solution (Ka = 5.0 X10-7) with a strong base like sodium hydroxide? What will
be the color of the solution at the endpoint for this indicator?
The identities of indicators, their color changes, and pH ranges are listed below.

Indicator pH range color change

Methyl orange 2.8-3.8 yellow-red
Methyl red 3.8-6.1 yellow-red
Phenol red 6.8-8.6 red-yellow
Phenolphthalein 8.0-9.6 colorless-red
9) NH3(aq) + H2O(l) ↔ NH4+(aq) + OH-(aq)
In aqueous solution, ammonia reacts as represented above. In 0.0180 M NH3(aq) at 25 oC,
the hydroxide ion concentration, [OH-], is 5.60 X10-4 M. In answering the following,
assume that temperature is constant at 25 oC and that volumes are additive.
a) Write the equilibrium-constant expression for the reaction represented above.
b) Determine the pH of 0.0180 M NH3(aq).
c) Determine the value of the base ionization constant, Kb, for NH3(aq).
d) Determine the percent ionization of NH3 in 0.0180 M NH3(aq).
e) In an experiment, a 20.0 ml sample of 0.0180 M NH3(aq) was placed in a flask and
titrated to the equivalence point and beyond using 0.0120 M HCl(aq).
i) Determine the volume of 0.0120 M HCl(aq) that was added to reach the
equivalence point.
ii) Determine the pH of the solution in the flask after a total of 15.0 mL of
0.0120 M HCl(aq) was added.
iii) Determine the pH of the solution in the flask after a total of 40.0 mL of
0.0120 M HCl(aq) was added.
10) An approximately 0.1-molar solution of NaOH is to be standardized by titration. Assume
that the following materials are available: Clean, dry 50 ml buret; 250 ml Erlenmeyer flask;
was bottle filled with distilled water; analytical balance; phenolphthalein indicator solution;
potassium hydrogen phthalate, KHP, a pure solid monoprotic acid (to be used as the
primary standard)
a) Briefly describe the steps you would take, using the materials listed above, to
standardize the NaOH solution.
b) Describe (i.e., set up) the calculations necessary to determine the concentration of the
NaOH solution.
c) After the NaOH solution has been standardized, it is used to titrate a weak monoprotic
acid, HX. The equivalence point is reached when 25.0 ml of NaOH solution has been
added. In the space provided below, sketch the titration curve, showing the pH changes
that occur as the volume of NaOH solution added increases from 0 to 35.0 mL. Clearly
label the equivalence point on the curve.
d) Describe how the value of the acid-dissociation constant, Ka, for the weak acid HX
could be determined from the titration curve in part (c).
e) The graph below shows the results obtained by titrating a different weak acid, H2Y,
with the standardized NaOH solution. Identify the negative ion that is present in the
highest concentration at the point in the titration represented by the letter A on the
11) A student performed a titration of a weak, monoprotic acid, HA, with a sodium hydroxide,
NaOH, solution.
a) On the graph that is provided below, sketch an approximate representation of the
titration curve for the experiment. On the curve, label the equivalence point.

b) Discuss at least two ways in which the sketch in (a) differs from the plot that would
result from the titration of a strong, monoprotic, like HCl.
c) The student has a choice between the two indicators: methyl red (pH range 4.8-6.0) or
phenolphthalein (pH range 8.2-10.0). Which should she choose? Justify your response.
d) While the student was performing her first trial, she dispensed 50.0 ml of titrant (base)
from her buret (the maximum), but her analyte (acid) still had not changed color. What
is the most likely source of her error (assume that she did put an indicator in the
e) How would the graph in (a) be different from that of a titration between a weak base
and a strong acid?
12) The solubility of calcium oxalate, CaC2O4, is 6.1 X 10-3 g per liter at 25 oC.
a) Determine the molar solubility of CaC2O4 at 25 oC.
b) Write a balanced equation for the solubility equilibrium.
c) Write the expression for the solubility product constant, Ksp, and calculate its value.
d) If CaC2O4 is placed in a 0.10 M CaCl2 solution, how will this affect the molar
solubility? Explain, and show calculations to support your answer.
e) If 50.0 mL of 0.0025 M CaCl2 is added to 50.0 mL of 1.0 X10-5 M Na2C2O4, will any
calcium oxalate precipitate?
13) Solve the following problem related to the solubility equilibria of some metal hydroxides in
aqueous solution.
a) The solubility of Cu(OH)2(s) is 1.72 X10-6 gram per 100. milliliters of solution at 25 oC.
i) Write the balanced chemical equation for the dissociation of Cu(OH)2(s) in
aqueous solution.
ii) Calculate the solubility (in moles per liter) of Cu(OH)2 at 25 oC.
iii) Calculate the value of the solubility-product constant, Ksp, for Cu(OH)2 at 25
b) The value of the solubility-product constant, Ksp, for Zn(OH)2 is 7.7 X10-17 at 25 oC.
i) Calculate the solubility (in moles per liter) of Zn(OH)2 at 25 oC in a
solution with a pH of 9.35.
ii) At 25 oC, 50.0 milliliters of 0.100 M Zn(NO3)2 is mixed with 50.0
milliliters of 0.300 M NaOH. Calculate the molar concentration of Zn2+(aq)
in the resulting solution once equilibrium has been established. Assume
that the volumes are additive.
14) Lead iodide is a dense, golden yellow, slightly soluble solid. At 25 oC, lead iodide dissolves
in water forming a system represented by the following equation.
PbI2(s) ↔ Pb2+ + 2 I- ∆H = +46.5 kilojoules
The solubility-product constant, Ksp, for PbI2 is 7.1 X10-9 at 25 oC.
a) How does the entropy of the system PbI2(s) + H2O(l) change as PbI2(s) dissolves in water
at 25 oC?
b) If the temperature of the system were lowered from 25 oC to 15 oC, what would be the
effect on the value of Ksp? Explain.
c) If additional solid PbI2 were added to the system at equilibrium, what would be the
effect on the concentration of I- in the solution? Explain.
d) At equilibrium, ∆G = 0. What is the initial effect on the value of ∆G of adding a small
amount of Pb(NO3)2 to the system at equilibrium? Explain.
15) HOCl ↔ OCl- + H+
Hypochlorous acid, HOCl, is a weak acid commonly used as a bleaching agent. The acid-
dissociation constant, Ka, for the reaction represented above is 3.2 X 10-8.
a) Calculate the [H+] of a 0.14-molar solution of HOCl.
b) Write the correctly balanced net ionic equation for the reaction that occurs when NaOCl
is dissolved in water and calculate the numerical value of the equilibrium constant for
the reaction.
c) Calculate the pH of a solution made by combining 40.0 milliliters of 0.14-molar HOCl
and 10.0 milliliters of 0.56-molar NaOH.
d) How many millimoles of solid NaOH must be added to 50.0 milliliters of 0.20-molar
HOCl to obtain a buffer solution that has a pH of 7.49? Assume that the addition of the
solid NaOH results in a negligible change in volume.
16) The solubility of silver chromate, Ag2CrO4, is 0.0280 g per liter at 25 oC. The molar mass
of silver chromate is 331.8.
a) Write (1) the chemical equation for the dissociation of silver chromate, and (2) the
equilibrium law for this process.
b) The equilibrium constant for the equilibrium law in part (a) is called the Ksp. Determine
the value of the Ksp.
c) The Ksp for silver chloride, AgCl, is 1.8 X10-10. What is the minimum concentration of
Na2CrO4 needed to form a precipitate of Ag2CrO4 in a saturated AgCl solution?
d) How many grams of silver chromate can dissolve in 750 ml of a solution that is 0.00200
M in Na2CrO4? What does this problem illustrate?