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Laboratory Manual format

1. Objectives
2. Course content
Laboratory session
1. Preparation for the laboratory session
1.1 Before coming to the laboratory
1.2 After the laboratory session
1.3 Make-ups and late work
1.4 Laboratory policies
Learning structure
Writing lab report

Experiment # 1
Experiment # 2
Experiment # 3
Experiment # 4
Experiment # 5
Experiment # 6
Experiment # 7
Review Questions

The objectives of the ME 2208 – Fluid Mechanics and Machinery Lab is
1. To teach you how to do the experimental work expected from modern engineering


2. To demonstrate to you physical concepts that you are learning in ME 2204 Fluid

Mechanics and Machinery course. The experiments are not necessarily limited to material

you have learned in class.

3. Some of the experiments are designed to make you think and introduce new concepts and

ideas that are beyond traditional classroom instruction.

4. To stimulate your curiosity and imagination. Hopefully, the course will give you a sense

of measuring and discovering nature, and will introduce you to the excitement of


5. To give you experience with, loading devices and hydraulic machines and to acquaint

you with modern instrumentation.

6. To train you in team work.

7. To enhance your communication and writing skills. Great emphasis is put on the quality

and appearance of the laboratory reports.

Course content

The material covered and the experiments in the laboratory course are classified into two
1. Fluid mechanics
1. Determination of the Coefficient of discharge of given Orifice meter.
2. Determination of the Coefficient of discharge of given Venturi meter.
3. Calculation of the rate of flow using Rota meter.
4. Determination of friction factor for a given set of pipes.
2. Fluid machinery
5. Conducting experiments and drawing the characteristic curves of
centrifugal pump.
6. Conducting experiments and drawing the characteristic curves of
submergible pump.
7. Conducting experiments and drawing the characteristic curves of
reciprocating pump.
8. Conducting experiments and drawing the characteristic curves of
Gear pump.
9. Conducting experiments and drawing the characteristic curves of
Pelton wheel.
10. Conducting experiments and drawing the characteristics curves of
Francis turbine.
11. Conducting experiments and drawing the characteristic curves of
Kaplan turbine

Preparation for the laboratory session

General Instructions to Students

1. Read carefully and understand the description of the experiment in the lab manual. You

may go to the lab at an earlier date to look at the experimental facility and understand it

better. Consult the appropriate references to be completely familiar with the concepts and


2. Make sure that your observation for previous week experiment is evaluated by the faculty

member and your have transferred all the contents to your record before entering to the


3. At the beginning of the class, if the faculty or the instructor finds that a student is not

adequately prepared, they will be marked as absent and not be allowed to perform the


4. Bring necessary material needed (writing materials, graphs, calculators, etc.) to perform

the required preliminary analysis. It is a good idea to do sample calculations and as much

of the analysis as possible during the session. Faculty help will be available. Errors in the

procedure may thus be easily detected and rectified.

5. Please actively participate in class and don’t hesitate to ask questions. Please utilize the

teaching assistants fully. To encourage you to be prepared and to read the lab manual

before coming to the laboratory, unannounced questions may be asked at any time during

the lab.

6. Carelessness in personal conduct or in handling equipment may result in serious injury to

the individual or the equipment. Do not run near moving machinery. Always be on the

alert for strange sounds. Guard against entangling clothes in moving parts of machinery.

7. Students must follow the proper dress code inside the laboratory. To protect clothing

from dirt, wear a lab coat. Long hair should be tied back. Shoes covering the whole foot

will have to be worn.

8. In performing the experiments, please proceed carefully to minimize any water spills,

especially on the electric circuits and wire.

9. Maintain silence, order and discipline inside the lab. Don’t use cell phones inside the


10. Any injury no matter how small must be reported to the instructor immediately.

11. Check with faculty members one week before the experiment to make sure that you have

the handout for that experiment and all the apparatus.

After the laboratory session

1. Clean up your work area.

2. Check with the technician before you leave.

3. Make sure you understand what kind of report is to be prepared and due

submission of record is next lab class.

4. Do sample calculations and some preliminary work to verify that the experiment was


Make-ups and late work

Students must participate in all laboratory exercises as scheduled. They must obtain permission

from the faculty member for absence, which would be granted only under justifiable

circumstances. In such an event, a student must make arrangements for a make-up laboratory,

which will be scheduled when the time is available after completing one cycle.

Late submission will be awarded less mark for record and internals and zero in worst cases.

Laboratory policies

1. Food and beverages are not allowed in the laboratory at any time.

2. Do not sit or place anything on instrument benches.

3. The faculty members and lab assistants are concerned about your safety and for the

equipment in the laboratory. Follow their instructions. If you have any doubt about the

way to operate some equipment, do not guess. Read the instructions carefully and if still

in doubt, ask the faculty member or lab instructor for assistance.

4. Organizing laboratory experiments requires the help of laboratory technicians and staff.

Be punctual. If you come late to the laboratory, you may be asked to leave. Remember

that some of the sessions include one time operation so no make-ups will be given.

Learning structure

Writing a lab report

You will submit a report for each experiment that you perform in a record note book. All reports
will be graded on the ethnical content as well as the writing and presentation. The deadline for
submitting rough (observation note book) and final drafts (record note book) are as instructed by
the faculty member. These deadlines are not changeable.
Technical report submission will be an important factor in attending University laboratory exam.
It is an avenue for communicating your ideas to your superiors and colleagues. The opinion that
your superiors form of you will depend heavily on the quality of such reports. You should make
a considerable effort to master the technique of report writing.
The laboratory exercise grade will be based on:
1. The quality of preparation for the laboratory session. This may include a short
verbal or written quiz before or during each experiment.
2. Attendance and performance in the laboratory.
3. Quality of the report: This will be based on the technical content as well as the
quality of presentation and technical writing. Late assignments will result in
lower grades.
Format for lab report
The format for writing lab report in record note book is as follows:
1. Objectives
2. Apparatus required
3. Schematic sketch of the experimental set up (on left side of the record note
4. Principle
5. Procedure
6. Observation and model calculation (on left side of the record note book)
7. Graphs (if required graph should be drawn with appropriate scale and it has
to pasted neatly in the results and inference page as a flap)
8. Results and Inference