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Paper presented fo 3 symposium on Diese ‘nine contustion held bythe Institution ‘of Mechanical Engineers in London, April 1970, Fig. 1. Apparetns for the determination of lamin delays at high pressures Spontaneous Ignition of Hydro- carbon Fuels in a Flowing System F. W. Stringer, BSc., Research Manager, Lucas Aerospace Lid., A, E. Clarke, Ph.D.. B.Sc., AM. Inst Pet., Director of Engineering, Lucas Industrial Equipment Lid. and the late J. S. Clarke, O.B.E., Ph.D., B.Sc THE NATURE OF THE DIESEL engine cycle results in the value of ait pressure, temp= erature, velocity, and turbulence changing during fuel injection and the ignition delay period. Hence, although the engine docs sive indispensable overall trends, it cannot be used to determine the influence of any one of the above factors on ignition delay, all fthers being held at constant values. The most convenient way of doing this is to have aan experimental duct in which the conditions Of air pressure, temperature, cic, can be established at steady conditions for a Sufficient length of time for them to. be measured accurately prior to controlled fuel rature ig full ofexcellent examples ‘of rapid compression machines and engines being used to assess overall effects of physical factors and fuel type on ignition, The work of ‘Lyn and Valdmanis ()” is but one example. ‘When their work was being undertaken at CA. Ld, the points mentioned above were ‘appreciated, and as a complementary study fan apparatus was designed at the Lucas ‘gas turbine laboratories at Burnley to fulfil the requirements of a steady flow system, ‘One of the requirements of this apparatus MI Mech E ‘was that it should be capable of operating at conditions occurring in diesel engines at the time of fuel injection, Henee, the system was signed for air pressures up to 60 atm., temperatures up 10 973°K, and air velocities up t0 100 ft/s (30 ms), Apparatus and Procedure The experimental duct of the steady flow system devised for these experiments was a rectangular section, 4 em x 40cm x about 36 em in length, machined into a 15:2-cm iameter billet of stainless steel, It will be seen from Fig. 1 that in the test section the floor was water cooled, thus enabling it to be kept at a constant temperature of about 37°K over a wide range of operating conditions. ‘Single shot’ fuel injection was obtained from a single diesel type plunger pump fitted witha solenoid operated rack. The amount of Fuel per injection was controlled by a micro- meter adjustable stop, and the fuel was injected normal to the ait stream through a diesel injector nozzle. Before each test series the quantity of fuel per injection was deter- mined by taking the average weight of fuel from several injections (Collected in an Erlenmeyer flask) for a given position of the rack stop. ‘The ignition delay was defined as the time interval between the commencement of fuel injection, as determined by the fuel injector needle valve lift, and the occurrence of a flame ~ signifying ignition ~ detected by photo-conductive cells mounted on the ‘Windows of the test duct. In each case the results presented are the mean of some 6 f0 10 ignitions with a period of 05 to 1 min between each fuel injection to allow the rig to purge. A schematic representation of the ‘ignition delay measurement is given in Fig, 1. ‘The air to the test section was provided from a high-pressure blowdown system, and inlet air temperatures were obtained using an indine combustion pre-heater_ burning ‘gaseous hydrogen. The oxygen deficiency so incurred was made up by adding gaseous ‘oxygen tO the air, The degree of oxygen replenishment was determined by monitoring. the efflux from the hydrogen burner using an oxygen meter and adding the amount of ‘oxygen required to maintain a concentration fof 21 per cent by volume in the test duct. ‘This method of heating the air naturally ‘causes the water vapour content to be increased from about 0-2 to 9 per cent at 973°K. This latter amount of water vapour night be expected to influence the ignition delay period of a fuel. However, confidence in this simple method of air heating was established when it was found that the iniroduction of water vapour into an engine intake manifold in amounts similar to and in excess of those relative tothe rg (65 per cent by volume as water vapour and 10 per cent as «fine water spray) produced no change in the measured delay period @). Tests using an cletrical air heater on the rig provided additional confirmation of this, as shovin in Table | Fuels Used Because of the interest in the multi-fuel engine and the ack of quantitative data over 4 Tange of commercial fuels, the following ‘were chosen: (1) Diesel fuel (DEF 2405A (1) — 47 ceiane). (2) Diesel fuel (DEF 24054 (1) temperature) (@) Avtur (a Kerosine supplied for the aircraft” gas turbine — specification D.Eng. RD.2494), (4) Avtag (@ wide-cut gasoline supplied foraireraft gas turbines ~ specification D. Eng, RD.2486), (5) Avgas (an 80-octane gasoline — D. Eng. RD. 2485), (6) An 80 octane reference gasoline: (DEF 24054 (1). Bas Speen dees TEL conten: min. wl @ A premium grade commercial gaso- line. Table 2 gives some of the relevant inspection data for these fuels. In addition, several pure “uels' were inclided in the investigation, namely: cetane (r-hexadeeane) and methylnaphtha- Tene, which are the primary references at the extremes of the cetane scale for rating diesel fuels; iso-cetane and r-hoptane, which are the primary reference fuels a the extremes of the octane scale used for rating mpentane, A, Table 1. Comparison of ignition delays using lected preheater and hodrogerburnng Drehater with oxigen replentaiment Table 2 Fuels inspection dana Cetane (rexadecane) Methylnaphihalene Isovoctane (2.2. ‘methylpentane) rHepiane Benzene Cyclohexane mPentane CH, (CHa CHs cH Saturate Aromatic Satvrate Atomatic [Naphthene cit, CH, (CH), CHy Saturate Table 3. Some properties ‘Specific gravity at 60 ba Residue OF DF oud point, °c Pour point, 1c Geuane ‘roma ‘Raine point." Albi gravis degrees Bromine number Smoke pein, rm Table 4. Fuel inspection data for blended (ied ring he investigation 20 per ent reoovery 40 percent recovery AO per cont reconery SO per cont recovery per cent recovery “0 ber cent recovery {0 percent recovery 0 per sent Fecovery Final boing point, "C Reid vapour presse, 1lin® at 100° inci vacosiy 5) ber (research) percent volume Oletns, por ent volume ‘Saturated hydrocarbons, per cént volume Anite gravity constant ofthe pare substances represen n of the molecular structure and some of the relevant properties of these substances are shown in Table 3. ‘Some of the commercial fuels referred to previously contain tetraethyl lead. This Additive has a significant but apparently variable effect upon ignition delay, and to determine its role using the continuous flaw apparatus, samples of iso-octane and ‘nheptane were treated with tetraethyl lead to sive a concentration of 12 mljimp. gal. This Tead concentration was obtained by using the “aviation mix’ which has the following composition tetraethyl lead 62°49 per cent ethylene dibromide 35°72 per cent dye inerts 2-79 per cent ‘Samples ofthe two leaded fuels were then diluted to have various tetraethyl lead concentrations up to 6 mljimp. ga ‘Aromatic compounds! are relatively more «difficult to ignite spontaneously than straight chain saturated hydrocarbonst and, there= fore, could be expected to be undesirable in a diesel engine fuel. Hence, to attempt to ‘determine the effect of aromatic compounds without the masking effect of tetraethyl lead land at a constant octane rating, three tasolines were specially blended, These fuels hhad a constant octane rating of about 80 (85, Research Method) with aromatic contents oF 41, 224, and 46 per cent volume. The \aorr ing poini, °C ts _asolins wih sorying avomeate content Sesh iparae ame ernest inspection data for these fuels are given in Table 4 Results and Discussion Diesel fuet A plot of pressure against temperature for lines of constant ignition delay is most helpful in many instances, but a classical method of plotting ignition delay data is on the basis of the simple Archenius equations: RAR. = concentration x exp(-E/RT). (1) where RR. is reaction rate, £ activation energy, T temperature, and R the gas con- For constant pressure, this may be transformed into terms of ignition delay (+) ‘and femperature (7) to give r— A exp(E/RT) Which has the following logarithmic form Hog 1 = Cob EIRP nse (2) Although this simple plot is usually only & straight line over a small temperature range (~ 50 deg ©), and the present data extend over some 200 dog C, itis sil a very useful way of expressing the results, With the majority of data, therefore, the logarithm of the isnition delay was plotted against the reciprocal of the absolute air temperature, Figure 2 shows the data for diesel fuel ‘obiainedat 30, 40, and 60atm, Theestimated seatter within a batch of results is about 10 per cent at the lowest temperatures (773°K) to + 2 per cent at the higher temp- cratures (973K). Referring to Fig. 2, the classical trend of ignition delay with air temperature and pressure was obtained; that is, for & given, pressure the ignition delay period decreased ‘with increasing temperature, and for a given temperature it decreased with increasing pressure ‘Thedisproportionate effect oftemperature ‘on ignition delay is not surprising when itis considered that reaction rates (R.R.) ~ snd hhence ignition delay periods ~ are controlled by the Arrhenius equation (Eqn. 1). The concentration terms are generally pro- Portional t© pressure, whereas the temp- erature occurs in an exponential form, hence the disproportionaity Figure 2 also contains information which allows a comparison between the ignition characteristics of to of the diesel fucls in common use, In view of the small differences in the delay periods of these two fuels, it seems reasonable 10 infer that the data obtained from one of them could be read across to the other without much loss of accuracy, Comparison with engine data At an early stage in the investigation, a comparison with engine data was sought by considering the work of Lyn and Valdmanis (1) which contains ignition delays measured over a wide range of conditions using a motored engine. Fig. 3 shows the ignition 4elays for a diese fuel (cetane number 50-55) determined over apressure range of 4-47aim. usingan indirect injection (i.d.i) engine. They I aad tae Se ft repo 4fc5(02 win © mn. Pig, 2. The efeet of temperature and presave ‘om iention del eat terrane no, 45-50, zs B85 ee T5.05 Fh ee Fig. 3, Comparison of ig data inerpoated ‘rom Fig) ana engine data tom re. (0) a ig, 4 Interpretation of rig data as variation of tenis del’ with Injection timing and ‘ompenrizon wil aher workers results “Table 5. Details of notes used oe ad valiant eee are compared with those for @ diesel fuel {eetane number 46) obtained by cross- plotting the data from Fig. 2 and inter polating for a pressure of 44 atm. Figure 4 is a second comparison with Which the rig data from Fig. 2 was used 10 predict the variation of ignition delay with rank angle using the information from reference (1), Comparison was made also With the variation of ignition delay: period according to Wolfer (3) and Tsao et al (#), Bearing in mind the wide differences between the intermittent process in an engine And the continuous nature of the process in the rig, and the slight differences in fuel csiane number, the comparisons are good Not only did ‘they give a high degree of confidence in the continuous flow rig, but they indicated that, provided air velocity and air/fuel ratio exerted no major influence, the bulk of the investigations concerned with the effect of fuel type could be carried out at a Tow air velocity and ina constant pressure rig, © Eifectsof air fuel rari and air velocity ‘Since the investigation was aimed primarily at diesel engines, it was concerned ADLOS 421%, DLOS 421 BDLOS 421 BDLOS 4212. BDLOS 50 BDLOS 514 ‘with the injection of fuel sprays into a hot air stream. Under these conditions it was expected that each droplet would find its own air and hence give a spectrum of air/fuel ratios, In these circumstances it was not ‘expected that air/fuel ratios would exert the ‘major effect that they havein the Otto engine where the fuel vapour and air are mixed before entering the combustion zone and air/fuel ratio has a wide significance. It was a matter of some difficulty to defino the term “air/fuel ratio’ in the appara- tus, but for the purpose of the work the following definition was used: “The air/fuel ratio the amount of air passing through the unit during the time of fuel injection (defined by the needle fift diagram) divided by the amount of fuel injected during one injection’. The effects of aie/fuel ratio and aie velocity were found to be so interrelated that they were dealt with together. For example, fon the one hand, ifthe effect of velocity was Investigated by simply increasing. the mass flow through the apparatus, then for a given Faol nozale the air/fuel ratio changed. On the ‘other hand, the air/fuel ratio could not be ‘varied over a sufficiently wide range simply by increasing the amount of fuel per injection since the injection period also changed, “The most simple method of diferentiating between the two variables was to choose 3 fiven pressure and temperature and to determine separately the effects of air/fuel ratio at various velocity levels and to obtain the effect of air velocity at @ given air/fuel ratio by cross-ploting ‘At each velocity, therefore, the air/fuel ratio. was varied by injecting the fuel at different rates but with the same injection pressure (170 tm.). Hence, several plain hole Injection nozzles were used such that various amounts of fuel were injected over a constant period of time forthe given injection pressure, Details of the nozzles are given in Table 5. ‘There was some variation in the L!D ratio, especially in the last two nozzles in ‘Table 5, but the effect of L/D was considered 10 be negligible and this was later supported by the engine work of Lyn and Valdmanis (1) Attention is directed to the changes inthe ‘estimated droplet size due to the diferent hozrles and fuel quantities used, Table 5 Shows that there is a 2/1 change in droplet size, but this was also considered to be of secondary importance. ‘The first pressure and temperature chosen for this branch of the study were 30 atm. and Gyles anti cross-plotted to give the effect of air velocity range of conditions studied. ‘Ba at nominal air/fuel ratio of 4/1 and 10/1, Tt ‘would appear that there is a slight tendency for the ignition delay period to increase at the lower velocities. ‘The tests were repeated at 60 atm. and '873°K. The limited amount of data obtained supported the conclusions reached at 30atm.: The eifect of air turbulence ma A hot wire anemometer, the element of : which was a 0002 in (0-005 nm) ameter SEIS pat RR ora esa tungsten wre, 2 mns in length, was used to IAAMUEL karo determine. the turbulence across the text Tt endins Sint! Meare section in a pasition approximating to the ee Racist cenre-line ofthe fuel spray. The troulence aeete i tees ‘nas varied by inserting ris, POT pe BTR ea, A 3m Without the grids the level of turbulence 2 08 mm was assessed (0 be 3-4 per cent. With a coarse grid (mesh 0-39 mm) inserted about 3-5 mm upstream of the Fuel injection the turbulence was measured at 16-17 per cent. The influence upon ignition delay of this amount of turbulence was found t0 be insignificant, This does not mean, of course, that turbulence is not advantageous in an engine since it will have an effect upon the combustion subsequent to ig Fuels The wide range of fuel included in this investigation fall naturally into two groups those br which itis easy fo determine the cetane number and the more volatile ones for whieh it is easier to determine the ostane rating. Since no assumption was “made regarding @ relationship. between cetane number and octane rating, similar to those proposed by Wilke (5), Dumanois (6), and others, the two groups are discussed separately. Before proceeding, aitention is drawn to the spread of viscosity from 4 eS in 2 diesel fuel t0 0:18 cS for n-pentane, Viscosity is one of the factors affecting droplet size, but the ange of viscosities mentioned is responsible only for a 2/1 change in droplet size and this was considered to have a secondary effect upon ignition delay. Hence, no effort was ‘made to compensate for the change in viscosity inasmuch as the same nozzle (0-35 mm diameter x 1 mm length) was used Fig, 5. Variation of inition delay with ais fuel Jin all the Tul tests, ‘AR VeLocity — mt Cetane type fuels Seal fiat ‘The fuels considered in the eetane group, Pee ee were the primary reference fuels, cetane ‘Temperature: afer. semethylnaphthalene, various mixtures of Fede Or 2m these, the diesel fuels, and the kerosines Avtur and Avag. Fig. 6. Efect of air velocity om ignition delay Fig. 7. Variation of ignition delay with cetane imine at vans a tempera paresares el BF oe oe Gen ” e 4 Fig. 8. Variaionof ignition delay with octane Imber er 973 K and varius ct presses When the logarithm of the ignition delay was plotted against the reciprocal of the absolute air temperature, each fuel exhibited the expected classical trend of ignition delay with air pressure and temperature. It was apparent from the slopes of the curves that the fuels with a low cetane content were affected by temperature to a greater degree than those with a high cetane content ‘The data obtained using cetane, a-methyl- naphthalene, and mixtures of these to give reference fuels with cetane numbers of 20,50, ‘and 80, were used to derive the relationship between ignition delay and cetane number ‘which is shown in Fig, 7. Examination ofthis ‘curve showed that the wend was for the ignition delay to decrease as the cetane number increased, but the rate of change Gecreased remarkably at cetane numbers greater than about 60. The data for diesel fuels with a cetane number of 46 were Found ea 8 to ft this correlation. For the Avtur and ‘Avtag, however, the fit was not quite so good, Octane type fuels In this group the fuels considered were iso-octane, s-heptane, various mixtures of these, and r-pentane, benzene, cyclohexane, premium grade gasoline, Aveas, and the '0-octane reference gasoline Taking the standard reference fuels, iso- fctane, heptane, and mixtures of these to aive reference fuels of 80, 30, and 20 octane ating, there is a general increase of ignition delay with increasing octane rating. Examples of this at 973K and 30, 40, and 60 atm., are given in Fig. 8. A similar trend was obtained a other aie te-yperalures. It's interesting to include the data for the ‘other fuels in this group on these curves. For pentane, benzene, and cyclohexane, this was done by taking their octane rating at 62, : 7 i 13 140, and 77 respectively ~ Lovell (7). The ‘commerical fuels have octane numbers of ‘about 80 in the eases of Avgas and the reference gasoline and about 87 for the premium rade gasoline (8), On the whole, these fuelswere found to fit the gnition-delay ‘octane-rating correlation exceedingly well, ‘especially when itis realized that it has been assumed that the octane ratings of these fuels, «do not vary with pressure and temperature From this work it is evident that the lifference in delay periods between the light fuels and those in the diesel range isso great as to make it unlikely that a common engine ‘geometry can be used for the compression ignition of a wide range of fuels without incurring @ heavy weight penalty because of the high compression ratios required. Bearing in mind the obvious necessity for a. ‘clean’ ‘esign of combustion chamber, it is feasible that some compromise might be achieved by ‘employing an ignition aid, such as a spark, advocated by Hass (9) and used in the MAN. engines described by Meurer (10) Effects of tetraethy lead ‘Tetraethyl lead (TEL) has a decided Influence on the octane rating ofa fuel, but a search of the literature revealed that its effect on ignition delay is not uniform. Thisis rot surprising when the decomposition of tetraethyl lead produces lead oxide, which slows reactions, and ethyl radicals) which accelerate reactions. Taylor (11) found that the addition of $ mljgal of TEL had litle fect on the ignition delay of iso-octane, but, 6 mljgal of TEL had a varying effect with ‘heptane. For instance, at temperatures ‘pelow about 723°K the reaction appeared to bbeaccelerated. Schmidt (12) also showed that, at pressures of 13°6 and 20-4 atm. the Addition of an unspecified amount of TEL to & non-aromatic fuel increased the ignition delay by a factor approaching 2/1 To ascertain the influence of TEL at the conditions of pressure and temperature of interest in the present study, samples of iso- ‘octane and mheptane were treated with TEL, as deseribed earlier. Fig. 9 illustrates the effect of TEL upon the ignition of n-heptane. The curves show the ignition delays without TEL and with 3:5 mlgal at 30 and 60 atm, By adding TEL, the ignition delays were increased by a factor fof between 1-2/1 and 2/1 with the factor decreasing as the temperature decreased, If this factor is plotted against air temperature, the curve suggests that had the experiments extended fo temperatures below 723°K, the reaction Would have been accelerated by the TEL with a reduction in the ignition delay periods, which i similar to the experience of Taylor (1, Fig. 10 shows the ignition delays at 30 atm, for iso-octane without TEL and with various amounts of TEL added, In all instances the additive resulted in an increased. ‘ition delay, and it may be deduced that the effect was greatest in the region of 3°5 ml/gal Pig, 8. Effet of 35 mili of terraethy ladon lgnvon delay of tchoprane Fig, 10. Efe of varius anit of reretiyl edi ond ten day of race Sein Fig. Relationship of inition deta to nba carbon cones mole ‘of the additive. At this condition the increase in ignition delay due to the additive is slightly greater than under similar conditions using sheptane, which is opposed 10 the findings of Taylor (11), ‘The general conclusions were that under the conditions studied, TEL increases. the ignition delays of both iso-octane and heptane Unfortunately, this does not explain what swas hoped originally, that is: ‘Why do the ignition delays of the premium grade gasoline and the reference gasoline show the most deviation from the ignition-detayjoctane number correlation derived from pure compounds? Closer study revealed that the reference gasoline lay consistently below the correlation line (that is shorter delays than ‘would be expected). It could be that in the presence of the intermediates formed during the pre-ignition stage, the ethyl radicals produced during the decomposition of the ‘TEL exert more of an accelerating effect than the delaying nature of the lead oxide. On the other hand, it is only at temperatures of 973K of above that the premium grade sasoline lies below the correlating line. This is the reverse of the experience with r-heptane where the reaction is accelerated at temper atures below 723°K, At this stage, therefore, unless it is accepted that the deviations are due simply to the largely unknown complex nature ofthe takin Ghnectmeger and egereta ay." ” ™h Semprein Fig. 12. Comparzon of ‘ention delays of ‘heptane determined by diferent experimental method 38 fuels and the fact that their octane numbers have been obtained synthetically, then the problem of their deviations from. the Correlation is far more intractable than was originally thought Effects of chemical sructare Figure 11 is @ graph showing ignition delay period, a 60 atm. and 973°K, plotted against the number of carbon atoms in the hydrocarbon molecule. Similar charts can be drawn for other pressures and temperatures, ‘We have far from a complete picture of the eect of chemical structure on the ‘magnitude of iaition delay period. In general the straight chain paraffins are ignited the most realy amonsst the hydrocarbons with the same. number of carbon atoms. The greater the number of carbon atoms the éasier the molecule ignites, but the evidence for the paraffins susgests that the significance ofthe effect decreasesrapisly when thenumber of earbon atoms is greater than about seven or eight, Rinz compounds are most resistant {0 ignition and. the delay periods of naphihenes (as characterized by cyclohexane) are higher than those of pavafis, and the longest delay periods are for aromatics, as characterized by benzene. ‘The data are Searoe but itis most ikely that asthe number Of carbon atoms increases in the cyl compounds, . from benzene 0 toluene to ene, ete, the. ignition delay period decreases n'a similar way a for straight chain parafins ‘An interesting observation a this point is hhow the resistance to ignition ofthe benzene molecule, which is in Keeping with the extremely stable nature of the benzene ing structure, is reduced by the addition of six hydrogen atoms to give the saturated ring structure of eyclohexane: For instance, at atm, and 973°K the reduction is of the order Orit Eifet of aromatic coment ‘When the ignition delays for the three aromatic fuels were plotted it was found {generally that the fucl containing the least, Aromatics had the shortest inition delays AAs broad eeneralization, therefor, it may be said thatthe ignition dala increases with increasing aromatic content up to some 15-20 percent, but from the three fuels surveyed, the effect “due 10 aromatic content for a constant octane number was obtained at the expense of oleines in one instance (224 per ‘ent aromatics) and at the expense of olefines find saturates. in the other (46 per cent aromatics), The true ‘flex of “aromatic antent may therefore be masked. Comparison with Other Data ‘As mentioned previously, an early com- parison was sought with engine data, and for diesel fuel the comparison gave a basis of confidence in the apparatus. As the amount ff data accumulated, it was possible co make Further comparisons with published data, Fig. 12 compares the ignition delays for heptane with those measured by other investigators, Below 822K the results of Lonn (12) are almost an extension of the present data, but the ignition delays measured a1 20 atm. by Scheuermeger and Steigerwald (12, using a rapid compression machine, are uch shorter than ether those of Lonn or the present workat higher pressures, However, in this instance they were dealing with premixed fuel and air and there might have been some influence of piston speed, thus allowing for some pro-ignition activity during eom- pression. The main contributory factor is probably the absence of evaporation time because of the premixed system Figure 13 shows the ignition charactor- istics of a 70-cetane fuel. The dotted line represents engine data taken from reference (2) and the Tull line indicates the values ‘timated from Fig. 7, Bearing in mind the large differences between the engine and the Tig, the comparison is good. Further sstimations and comparisons are available for pressures of 650 thjin® (abs) (44 atm.) and 850 Ibyin? (abs) (58 aim}, where the maxi- ‘mum errors between the estimated delay periods and those measured using a motored ‘engine are about 30-35 per cent compared with 10 per cent at 450 Ibjin® (abs) (30 atm.) The data presented by Hencin and Bolt (13) presents a ood test of the present work, ‘These workers, using a single eylinder, four= stroke engine, measured the ignition delays of two fuels having cetane numbers of 37-5 and 57-5 and one fuel with an octane umber of 86 (motor). Fig. 14 presents a cfmparison of these data and the ignition ‘delays predieted from the present work. Again there is « good correlation, providing a high level of confidence that ignition delays determined in a simple wind tunnel can be used in engine performance predictions. Correlation of Data When dealing with the multicfuel aspect of compression ignition engines, itis obviously ‘sefUl fo have some means of converting the ignition characteristics expressed in octane ‘numbers fo cetane numbers. At this point, it ‘maybe ofinterest to derive sucha correlation, Although rigorous analysis results in a Gifferent correlation for each pressure and temperature, the following simple relation ship between cetane numer (CN) and octane number (ON) may be established 104 ON cn = @ that is, a change in ignition quality of 1 cetane mumber corresponds to a change of approximately 2.75 octane numbers. This compares with the following. approximate Felationship, as proposed by Wilke (5): CN ON onnne where a change of 1 ‘cetane number is sceeasioned by a change of about 2 octane numbers. In 1941 Nygaard et af (14) also reported a correlation where a change of 1-5 octane numbers gave a change of 1 cetane number. tls suggested that the rig described in this work could well be used as a standard comparator for evaluating the ignition characterises of a range of hydrocarbon fuels, From time to time, analyses of ignition delay data are attempted in terms of the following equation: “A exp (E)RT) = o where +is the ignition delay (js), Ethe global activation energy (cal/mol), the aie femperature, R the gas constant, P the aie pressure, and the pressure exponent, Although the logarithmic form of the ‘expression usually provides a straight line only over a limited temperature range (50 deg ©), itis instructive to solve the equation for A, E, and n using the data ‘obtained over a wider range of temperatures, Table 6 shows the values of these three variables for some of the fuels investigated ‘The fourth column of this table indicates the ‘maximum deviations from the measured values that are incurred if the above equation is used, with the relevant constants, to Forecast ignition delays. ‘Table 7 compares the global activation energies determined in this study with relevant data obtained by several other workers. The comparison in most instances is very good considering the widely different ‘methods used, e.linuma (15) and Sakai and Kotake (16) injected fuel into quiescent air at atmospheric pressure, Mullaney (17) used A shock tube and the working pressure was 17 atm, and Jost and Teichmann (18) used a compression machine, Fig. 13. Comparison of ignition delays (1 interpolated from vig date (Fi, 1) and (2) obtained from am engine Ref) rae ey Pressure: & sab). Femi Fae ype (432m, 29