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National Power Training Institute

STUDY MATERIAL (BOILER) (Northern Region)


PGDC in TPPE – 10th Batch (2005-06)

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National Power Training Institute
STUDY MATERIAL (BOILER) (Northern Region)
PGDC in TPPE – 10th Batch (2005-06)

Thermal Power Plant

In a thermal power plant, steam is produced and used to spin a turbine that operates a generator.
Shown here is a diagram of a conventional thermal power plant, which uses coal, oil, or natural gas
as fuel to boil water to produce the steam. The electricity generated at the plant is sent to consumers
through high-voltage power lines.

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National Power Training Institute
STUDY MATERIAL (BOILER) (Northern Region)
PGDC in TPPE – 10th Batch (2005-06)

1 Chimney. 2 ID Fan. 3 ESP. 4 FD Fan. 5 PA Fan.


6 SCAPH. 7 Air Pre Heater. 8 Economizer. 9 Feed Water Line. 10 Primary SH(LTSH).
11 Final SH. 12 Platent SH. 13 Extended Steam Wall. 14 Reheater. 15 Super Heated Steam.
16 Cold Reheat Line. 17 Hot Reheat Line. 18 Boiler Drum. 19 Down Commer. 20 BR Header.
21 Furnace. 22 Burner. 23 Wind Box. 24 Hot PA Header. 25 Cold PA Header.
26 Coal Mill. 27 Coal Crusher. 28 Seal Air Fan. 29 RC Burner. 30 PC Pipes.
31 Water Platent. 32 HP Turbine. 33 IP Turbine. 34 LP Turbine. 35 Condenser.
36 Ejactor. 37 Condensate Pump. 38 Gland Steam Cooler 1,2. 39 LP Heaters. 40 Deareator.
41 Boiler Feed Pump. 42 HP Heaters. 43 Makeup Pump. 44 Circulating Water Pump. 45 Water Treatement Plant.
46 Control Structure. 47 Generator. 48 Hydrogen Plant. 49 Main Transformer. 50 Aux. Transformer.
51 Air Circuit Breaker. 52 Cooling Towers. 53 CT Pump.

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National Power Training Institute
STUDY MATERIAL (BOILER) (Northern Region)
PGDC in TPPE – 10th Batch (2005-06)

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National Power Training Institute
STUDY MATERIAL (BOILER) (Northern Region)
PGDC in TPPE – 10th Batch (2005-06)

Definition: BOILER

Steam Generator is a complex integration of furnace, superheater, reheater, boiler


or evaporator, economizer and airpreheater along with auxiliaries such as pulvarizers, burners fans,
stockers, dust collectors and precipitators, ash handling equipment, and chimney or stack. The boiler
(or evaporator) is that part of steam generator where phase changes (or boiling) occurs from liquid
(water) to vapour (steam), essentially at constant temperature and pressure. However the term
“boiler“ is traditionally used to mean the whole steam generator.

History of Boilers

Early steam boilers consisted of little more than kettles filled with water and were heated on the
bottom, similar to those shown in Figures a and b. Boilers of the early 1700s still used the kettle
principle, but burned the fuel in an enclosed furnace to direct more heat to the boiler kettle.

Haycock Boiler, 33385

Early Steam Boiler A

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National Power Training Institute
STUDY MATERIAL (BOILER) (Northern Region)
PGDC in TPPE – 10th Batch (2005-06)

33386

Early Steam Boiler B

Boiler Efficiency

In the mid 1700s, boiler designers noted that nearly half of the heat from the fire was lost because of
short contact time between the hot gases and the boiling heating surface. To improve boiler
efficiency, an integral furnace was developed with the fuel actually burned in a container enclosed
within the water vessel (Figure 3). A smoke flue wound through the water from the combustion
chamber to the atmosphere much like a coil in a still. To prevent a deficiency of combustion air, a
bellows was used to force air to the combustion zone and gases through the flue in what was the first
application of forced draft.

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National Power Training Institute
STUDY MATERIAL (BOILER) (Northern Region)
PGDC in TPPE – 10th Batch (2005-06)

33387

Early Fire tube Boiler

Boiler Safety

As the demand for power increased, many gas tubes that increased the heating surface replaced the
single flue. More water was subjected to the heat from the flue gases. While this fire tube design
was popular until about 1870, it was also dangerous. Many disastrous explosions resulted from the
direct heating of the pressure shell that contained large amounts of water at saturation temperature.
Boiler designers recognized that one way to overcome the deficiencies of the fire tube boilers was to
develop a water tube design in which the heating surface consist of water-filled tubes. This design
would limit the consequences of a pressure-part rupture.

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National Power Training Institute
STUDY MATERIAL (BOILER) (Northern Region)
PGDC in TPPE – 10th Batch (2005-06)

Benefits

While several water tubes boiler designs were patented between the late 1700s and the mid 1800s
(Figure 4), it was not until 1856 that a significant breakthrough occurred. The design incorporated
inclined water tubes connecting water spaces at the front and rear of the furnace with a steam space
above (Figure 5). It provided a better water circulation and more heating surface than other designs,
along with the reduced steam explosion hazard.

42 in.

64 in.
Water-tube boiler of small tubes connected at one end to
a reservoir. John Stevens, 1803.

46 in.

First water-tube boiler. Built and Water-tube boiler with tubes connecting
Patented by William Blakely in 1766. water chamber below and steam
chamber above. John Cox Stevens, 1805.
33388

Early Water tube Boilers

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STUDY MATERIAL (BOILER) (Northern Region)
PGDC in TPPE – 10th Batch (2005-06)

Inclined water tubes connecting front and rear water spaces complete circuit
with steam space above. Stephen Wilcox, 1856.
33389

Early Inclined Water tube Boiler

Boiler Control

Boiler control began in the late 1700s with the introduction of the "flyball" governor for speed control
of the first rotative steam engines. Also during this time, feedback control was used to control the
level in the boiler by regulating the water to the boiler. Using automatic draft regulation also used
feedback control to control steam pressure.

There were no further advances in boiler control until the early 1900s when integrated systems were
designed to control steam pressure, furnace draft, and feedwater, combustion, and steam
temperature. During the 1950s burner control systems were developed to start and stop burners and
to include flame safety systems.

In the 1960s control switched from predominantly pneumatic analog control to predominantly solid-
state, discrete element, electronic analog control. Between 1950 and 1970 not much money was
invested into boiler control development because of the continual reduction in fuel prices relative to
the cost of boilers and boiler accessories. Beginning in the 1970s fuel economics have influenced
changes in boiler control. The high price of fuel has allowed a greater degree of control sophistication
than could be justified in 1970. In addition, the development of microprocessor control has caused an
advantageous transition to the greater precision of digital control.

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National Power Training Institute
STUDY MATERIAL (BOILER) (Northern Region)
PGDC in TPPE – 10th Batch (2005-06)

Types of Boilers

Fire tube Boilers

In Fire tube Boilers the hot flue gas products of combustion flow through boiler tubes surrounded by
water. The heat transferred through the walls of the tubes to the surrounding water generates steam.
The flue gases are cooled as they flow through the tubes, transferring their heat to the water.

Early fire tube boilers consisted of a spherical or cylindrical pressure vessel mounted over the fire
with flame and hot gases around the boiler shell. To increase the heat transfer area and improve the
heat transfer coefficient, longitudinal tubes were installed in the pressure vessel and flue gases were
passed through the tubes. Other fire tube boilers include the Locomotive-type boiler and the Scotch
Marine Boiler. The Scotch Marine Boiler is designed with the combustion chamber as a long cylinder,
jacketed by a larger cylinder fitted with several passes of fire tubes. Today, the most common fire
tube boilers are similar to the Scotch marine boiler and Wetback Fire tube Boiler in which the
combustion chamber is water-jacketed. In the Dry back Fire tube Boiler in which the combustion
chamber is lined with high temperature insulating material.
Water tube Boilers

Water tube Boiler's design features one or more relatively small drums with many tubes in which the
steam/water mixture circulates. In the water tube boiler heating the riser tubes with the hot flue gases
causes the water to circulate and steam to be released in the boiler drum. Early water tube boilers
were shown in Figures 4 and 5 of this module.

Today a typical water tube boiler has a single burner with up to approximately 125,000 pounds per
hour steam flow but is available in sizes up to several million pounds per hour with more than one
burner.

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National Power Training Institute
STUDY MATERIAL (BOILER) (Northern Region)
PGDC in TPPE – 10th Batch (2005-06)

Drum

Circulating Water
Downcomer
Boiler

Riser Superheater

Mud Drum

Economizer
Feedwater
Riser

Burners

Air
Steam Coil
Air Heater Air Heater

To Stack
Gas Outlet
Gas Air

Induced Draft Fan Forced Draft Fan


33390

Modern Day Boiler

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STUDY MATERIAL (BOILER) (Northern Region)
PGDC in TPPE – 10th Batch (2005-06)

Drum

Boilers operating below critical pressure are usually fitted with a steam drum, (Figure 7). In the steam
drum, saturated steam is separated from a recalculating steam/water mixture. The recalculation flow
is from the steam drum via downcomer tubes to either the mud drum or the water wall header, and
from there through riser tubes back to the steam drum. Most boilers rely on natural convection for
this flow, because of heat absorption by the risers from the furnace. Some larger boilers use low
head, high working pressure pumps to provide positive circulation. The steam rises up through
separation devices in the drum and exits to one or more superheating passes through the furnace.
The water from the steam/water mixture is then recalculated together with the makeup feedwater to
downcomer circuits. Water treatment chemicals may be added to the steam drum and feedwater
may be discharged, or "blown down" from the mud drum, to reduce dissolved and undissolved solids
in the boiler water. The primary purpose of the steam drums however is to provide a free controllable
surface for separation of steam from water and housing for any mechanical separating devices.

Steam
Outlets

Secondary
Scrubber

Primary
Scrubber

Cyclone

Blowdown
Feedwater Inlet Chemical
Feed

Upcomer/Riser 33391

Steam Drum: Figure 7

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National Power Training Institute
STUDY MATERIAL (BOILER) (Northern Region)
PGDC in TPPE – 10th Batch (2005-06)

Mud Drum

The mud drum is completely filled with water and is the low velocity point of the circulating water.
Unresolved solids that develop in the boiler gravitate to the bottom of the mud drum and can be
drawn off.

Riser

Heat collecting surfaces constructed from tubing and conveying boiler circulating water upwards to
the steam drum are generally called risers. The risers may originate from either the water wall
header at the base of the furnace, or from the mud drum.

Boiler circulating water absorbs primarily radiant energy from the furnace fireball while resident in
risers jacketing the furnace. These heat absorption surfaces called water walls are fed from the water
wall header at the base of the furnace.

Downcomer

Water is carried down from the boiler drum to the mud drum or to the water wall feedwater header
through tubes called downcomers. The downcomers are not heated and are located outside of the
furnace cavity..

Superheater

The superheater is a flue gas to steam heat exchanger. Heat from the flue gases is added to the
saturated steam from the drum.

Burner

The burner is used to introduce fuel and air to the furnace at the required velocities, turbulence, and
concentration to maintain ignition and combustion of the fuel within the furnace.

Economizer

Feedwater from the condensate-feedwater system enters the economizer located in the furnace flue
gas ductwork. Waste heat from the flue gas is absorbed by the feedwater in order to improve
efficiency.

Air Heater

The steam-generator air heater improves boiler efficiency by transferring heat to incoming
combustion air from the flue gases before they pass to the atmosphere. The heat is transferred to the
air from the flue gas through a regenerative heat-transfer surface in a rotor that turns continuously
through the gas and airstreams.

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STUDY MATERIAL (BOILER) (Northern Region)
PGDC in TPPE – 10th Batch (2005-06)

Steam Coil Air Heater

The steam coil air heater is a tublar steam to air heat exchanger in which auxiliary steam charges the
coil. Combustion air flows across the tubes in order to provide a minimum combustion air
temperature. The steam coil air heater is normally in service only during boiler startup, or possibly
low load conditions when the regenerative air heater cannot provide sufficient heat to the combustion
air.

Forced Draft Fan

The forced draft fan supplies low head air necessary for fuel combustion, and secondarily to make up
for air heater leakage and for some seal-air requirements.

Induced Draft Fan

The induced draft fan used in a balanced draft furnace exhausts combustion products from the
furnace. The induced draft fan creates a sufficient draft to establish a slight negative pressure in the
furnace.

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National Power Training Institute
STUDY MATERIAL (BOILER) (Northern Region)
PGDC in TPPE – 10th Batch (2005-06)

Systems Functional Overview

A boiler is composed of two separate systems: the steam-water system and the draft system

Steam-Water System

Water enters the steam/water system, is heated, is converted to steam, and exits the system in the
form of steam.

Draft System

The draft system supplies the heat that is necessary to boil the water. Fuel and air enter the draft
system and are mixed and ignited in a furnace. The combustion converts the chemical energy of the
fuel to heat or to thermal energy.

Heat Transfer

In most tube steam generators, the radiant section of the furnace is lined with a heat transfer surface
of boiler circulating water tubes (water wall or mud drum risers.) The tubes receive radiant heat from
the fireball and transfer it to the steam/water system. The water wall and the boiler circulating water
heat transfer surfaces cool combustion flue gases.

Flue gases exiting the furnace also transfer heat to the working fluid by conduction as they pass
through the various heat transfer surfaces. Additional heat is recovered from the flue gases by use of
the combustion air preheater The combustion air preheater transfers heat from the hot flue gases to
the combustion air. The economizer transfers heat from the hot flue gases to the boiler feedwater.

COMPONENTS OF BOILER FLUID CIRCULATION SYSTEMS: FUNCTIONS AND BASIC


OPERATION

The fluid circulation systems of a boiler are the following:

• Feedwater supply system


• Feedwater conditioning and boiler blowdown
• Boiling process and steam generation
This section will discuss the components of these systems and the functions of these components.

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National Power Training Institute
STUDY MATERIAL (BOILER) (Northern Region)
PGDC in TPPE – 10th Batch (2005-06)

Feedwater Supply System

Figure 8 illustrates the basic feedwater supply system. The function of the feedwater supply system
is to continuously supply water to the boiler through piping to the steam drum.

To Process
Header
Intermediate
Intermediate Steam to Process
Pressure Turbine
Drive to BFP
Lo Pressure Lo Pressure
Turbine Steam to
Process

Condenser

Makeup
Superheater Deaerating Softened
Heater Condensate
Steam Storage
Drum Superheat Tank
Spray Valve
Economizer

Drive from
Condensate
Turbine
Feed Tank
Feedwater
Heater Boiler Deaerator
Feed Pump Storage Tank 33392

Basic Feedwater Supply System


Figure 8

Relatively cool water leaves the condensate storage tank and enters the deaerating heater and is
deposited into a deaerator storage tank. The feedwater deaerator supplies the suction side of the
boiler feedwater pump(s). These high-pressure pumps supply the economizer from the deaerator.
Boiler feedwater from the economizer enters the steam drum, and the boiler circulating water system.
Saturated steam from the drum passes through the superheater and is discharged to the process as
high pressure superheated steam. The steam may be used to supply power turbines or
manufacturing processes.

Some of the energy in the high-pressure steam may be partially expended by the process of power
turbines. The resulting intermediate pressure steam is used for feedwater heating, processes using
low-pressure steam, or low-pressure power turbines. Steam pressure letdown and attemperation
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National Power Training Institute
STUDY MATERIAL (BOILER) (Northern Region)
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stations may provide supplements to the intermediate pressure steam loads. Excess high-pressure
steam, resulting from sudden load drops may also be routed through letdown stations (sometimes
referred to as steam bypasses) to the low-pressure steam header.

Low-pressure steam is phased back to liquid by the steam condenser and is stored in the condensate
storage tank.

Most pumps in an industrial or utility environment will have some form of working fluid recirculation to
prevent damage at "deadhead" or low flow conditions. The discharge side of the pump is provided
with a recirculation line back to the reservoir-feeding pump, or occasionally backs to the suction side
of the pump. A mechanical pressure relief valve, a shutoff valve and orifice, or modulating control
valve may feed the recirculation line.

Condenser

The steam condenser in the feedwater supply system is a heat exchanger used to transfer sufficient
heat from the low pressure steam to condense it back to its liquid phase. The heat exchanger may
be either air to steam or water to steam.

Feedwater Heaters

Feedwater heaters are used to heat the boiler feedwater so that less fuel is required to generate
steam. The heaters may be classified either as low pressure prior to the deaerator or high pressure
after the boiler feedwater pumps. Heating the feedwater is also necessary for the process of
deaeration.

Deaerator Heater and Storage Tank

The deaerator is used to eliminate air, oxygen, CO2, and other gases from the boiler feedwater.
These gases are removed by vigorous boiling and venting the gases to atmosphere. If CO2 were
allowed to remain in the water, the heat exchangers and condensate return piping would become
corroded. If oxygen were allowed to enter the boiler, serious corrosion could occur.

Boiler Feed Pump

The boiler feed pump is used to supply high-pressure boiler feedwater to the drum. Boiler feed
pumps operates in a constant speed or variable speed manner. A variable speed motor, a magnetic
or hydraulic coupling, or a steam turbine can drive a variable speed pump’s speed. A recirculation
line is open at low flow to keep the pump from cavitating and overheating.

Economizer

The economizer is used to recover heat from the flue gas to the boiler feedwater. The flue gas exits
the boiler and enters the economizer where it transfers heat to the boiler feedwater. The flue gas
temperature decreases, and the boiler feedwater temperature increases.

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STUDY MATERIAL (BOILER) (Northern Region)
PGDC in TPPE – 10th Batch (2005-06)

Feedwater Conditioning and Boiler Blowdown

Feedwater conditioning and boiler blowdown are used to maintain a proper boiler chemical balance.
Feedwater conditioning includes flash evaporation and reverse osmosis of sea water and the use of
oxygen scavengers and corrosion inhibitors. Boiler blowdown can be continuous and is used to
remove impurities in the boiler water. There are various methods for the internal treatment of boiler
water. A blanket recommendation of any one method is not realistic. The type of treatment to be
used in a particular boiler should be based on the raw water supply, the percent of make-up required,
the nature of condensate returns, and other factors.

Boilers require high-purity feedwater. Careful monitoring of boiler feedwater as well as condensate
chemistries is crucial to boiler operations. The monitoring of PH, specification conductivities, and
dissolved oxygen (DO) are required for high-purity feedwater maintenance.

Boiler Feedwater (BFW) Supply

Flash Evaporator Sea Water- Feedwater conditioning removes dissolved salt and mineral solids that
tend to form ions in solution. One method that removes dissolved salts and minerals is flash
evaporation. The flash evaporator operates with its flash chamber under partial vacuum. Water that
enters the chamber is preheated sufficiently to cause water to flash into a vapor upon entering the
chamber. The vapor is condensed to form condensate and the precipitated solids removed and
disposed of.

Reverse Osmosis of Sea Water- Another procedure that is used to remove dissolved salts and
minerals is reverse osmosis. Osmosis is based upon the principle that when a semi permeable
membrane separates two solutions of different concentrations, solvent (water) will be transported
from the dilute to the more concentrated side. Reverse osmosis is based upon the principle that if
pressure is applied to the more concentrated side the solvent will flow in the reverse direction (Figure
9). If the solution is salt water and a membrane is chosen that is permeable to water but not to salt,
water will flow to the unpressurized side. The result will be a solution that is more dilute than the
original and a solution that is more concentrated than the original.

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PGDC in TPPE – 10th Batch (2005-06)

Pressure
Applied

Semi-Permeable
Membrane

Water Water

Dilute Solution Concentrated Dilute Solution Concentrated

Osmosis Reverse Osmosis 33393

Reverse Osmosis
Figure 9

Chemical Treatment of BFW

Supplementing internal boiler water treatment is possible by injecting chemicals through the chemical
feed line into the steam drum. The chemical feed line discharges into a turbulent zone of the drum for
thorough mixing with the boiler water before the mixture enters the downcomers. The continuous
blowdown and chemical feed lines are separated so that the injected chemicals do not flow directly to
the blowdown line.

Oxygen Scavengers control corrosion by dissolved oxygen (DO). Corrosion by DO is more critical in the
feedwater system because corrosion rates increase with temperature. Sodium sulfite and sodium
sulfite that are catalyzed with cobalt have been applied in low-pressure cycles. Sulfite, which is a
reducing agent, functions strictly through reaction with DO. Hydrazine also functions as an oxygen
scavenger. Hydroquinone is an oxygen scavenger that has been applied in blends with hydrazine to
catalyze its reaction with DO, but hydroquinone may also be used as a hydrazine substitute. Other
chemicals such as carbodihydrazide decompose at feedwater temperatures and form hydrazine as a
by-product. Organic oxygen scavengers, such as erythorbic acid and diethyl hydroxylamine, are also
available.

Corrosion Inhibitors- Hydrazine provides corrosion protection through the formation of magnetite film on
steel and through the formation of cupric oxide on copper alloys.

Boiler Blow down Methods

Continuous- During normal operation, feedwater is constantly added to the drum as steam is removed.
The impurities in the feedwater and the impurities separated from the steam will remain in the boiler
water. If the impurities are not removed, these impurities will become more concentrated and
eventually deposit on internal tube surfaces. The formation of scale on tube surfaces reduces heat
transfer and can lead to overheating and possible tube failures. Dissolved oxygen, organic-chemical-
breakdown products, acids, and excess caustic can cause corrosion of the boiler. Contaminants that
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PGDC in TPPE – 10th Batch (2005-06)

can form deposits on boiler surfaces include calcium, magnesium, iron, silica or silicates, phosphates,
sulfates, oils, and organic elements.

Boiler water solids are maintained at recommended limits by the continuous blowdown line. The line
is positioned internally, along the length of the drum, in a zone where solids tend to collect. A
calibrated flow control valve regulates the amount of blowdown to the drain system, based on water
solids concentration and feedwater flow. This process tends to remove the most contaminated water
in the system and replace it with fresh feedwater.

Intermittent blowdown is performed by periodically opening a blow off valve that is connected to the
lowest part of the mud drum. The primary purpose of the intermittent blowdown is to remove
undissolved solids that collect at the low velocity point of the boiler circulating water. The intermittent
blowdown may be operated anytime depending on the concentration of impurities in the boiler water.

Boiling Process and Steam Generation

The process of boiling water to make steam is a familiar phenomenon. As heat is added to water, the
temperature of the water increases. When the water temperature reaches the boiling point, or
saturation temperature, some of the water begins to vaporize to steam.

Saturated Water and Saturated Steam

When water just begins to boil, it is called saturated water. As more heat is added (at constant
pressure), the fluid temperature will remain at the saturation temperature until all of the water is
converted to steam. Once the conversion from water to steam is complete (but before the
temperature is raised above saturation temperature) the fluid is called saturated steam. The speed of
conversion depends on the rate of heat that is being added. It must be remembered that heat and
temperature are not the same thing. A considerable amount of heat is added to the fluid while its
temperature remains constant at the boiling point saturation temperature. Although the temperature
remains constant, the heat being applied is not lost or wasted. It is being utilized to convert water into
steam. The heat input or enthalpy necessary to convert saturated water to saturated steam is called
the heat of vaporization. The conversion of water to steam requires much more energy beyond that
required to reach the boiling point.

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National Power Training Institute
STUDY MATERIAL (BOILER) (Northern Region)
PGDC in TPPE – 10th Batch (2005-06)

Superheated
Temp ( F) Steam
o

Saturated
Water
Constant Pressure
Saturated
470
500 psi Steam

450 1205
Enthalpy (BTU/lb) 33394

Boiling Process and Steam Generation


Figure 10

Boiling Point- The term boiling point is most frequently used to identify conditions at atmospheric
pressure (29.92 inches of mercury.) For instance, the boiling point of water at atmospheric pressure
is 212 degrees Fahrenheit, however, pressure increases when steam is generated in a closed vessel.
The boiling point is actually a function of pressure and increases as pressure increases, as illustrated
in Figures 11 and 12. At higher pressures, more heat energy is required to raise the fluid temperature
to the boiling point.
Enthalpy- The amount of heat energy contained in the fluid is termed enthalpy and is measured in
BTUs/lb.

800

700 2500
Temp ( F)

2000
o

600 1500
1000
500
500 psi

400
160 psi

300
400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
Enthalpy (BTU/lb) of Saturated Water 33395
Boiling Point–Pressure Relationship
Figure 11

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STUDY MATERIAL (BOILER) (Northern Region)
PGDC in TPPE – 10th Batch (2005-06)

1200

1100

1000

900

800
Temp ( F)

Length of line = h fg
o

Saturated Curve
700

600 2000 psi


Boiling
Points
500 500 psi
400
200 psi
300 100 psi
400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500
33396

Saturation Curve–Boiling Point–Pressure Relationship


Figure 12

Heat of Vaporization- The points at which all of the water has been converted to steam are indicated by
the saturated steam line (Figure 12). The heat input or enthalpy necessary to convert saturated water
to saturated steam is termed the heat of vaporization and is indicated for a given temperature by the
horizontal constant pressure lines.

For example, water begins to boil at about 470 degrees Fahrenheit when the pressure is 500 pounds
per square inch. The enthalpy at this point is about 450 Btu per pound. As more heat is added (at
constant pressure), the enthalpy increases and more water is converted to steam. The temperature
remains constant until all the water has been converted to saturated steam. This point would be at
the same pressure and temperature (500 pounds per square inch, 470 degrees Fahrenheit), but the
enthalpy would be increased to 1205 Btu per pound. The heat of vaporization would then be the
enthalpy of the saturated steam minus the enthalpy of the saturated water or 1205 - 450 = 755 Btu
per pound.

Steam Quality- The measure of how far the conversion from saturated water to saturated steam has
progressed is called quality and is shown in Figure 13. Quality is the percent by weight of vapor in a
steam/water mixture. As more water is converted to steam, quality increases. Water on the
saturated water line has a quality of 0%. Superheated and saturated steams have a quality of 100%.
Water that has been heated to saturation and has sufficient additional heat added to convert half of it
to steam has a quality of 50%.

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STUDY MATERIAL (BOILER) (Northern Region)
PGDC in TPPE – 10th Batch (2005-06)

1200

1100

1000
Superheated
900 Steam
800
Temp ( F)
o

700
Saturated
600 Water
(0% Quality)
Constant Pressure Line
500 Saturated
20 40 60 80 Steam
400 (100% Quality)

300
400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500

Enthalpy (BTU/lb) 33397

Steam Quality
Figure 13

Superheated Steam

If still more heat is added to saturated steam, the temperature will again begin to rise. This is shown
by the dotted lines to the right of the saturated steam lines in Figure 10. The fluid in this area is said
to be superheated steam. The super heaters derive their name from their function of heating steam
above the saturation curve. Steam is sometimes referred to as having a number of degrees of
superheat. The number of degrees of superheat describes how far the steam has been heated
above the saturation curve.

Boiling Process

Two types of boiling processes exist. One is nucleate boiling. The second is film boiling. Nucleate
boiling is preferred over film boiling.

Nucleate Boiling- As a water-cooled tube is heated, steam bubbles form at the tube's inner surface.
The steam bubbles condense quickly in the main stream, giving up their heat to raise the temperature
of the water. Normally these bubbles diffuse well and mix with the water in the center of the tube as
shown in Figure 14. This process is referred to as nucleate boiling and promotes two benefits: (1) it
heats the fluid inside the tube to saturation, and (2) it maintains tube metal temperature at saturation
keeping the tube cool.

23 ©NPTI (NR) PGDC 10th Batch 2005


National Power Training Institute
STUDY MATERIAL (BOILER) (Northern Region)
PGDC in TPPE – 10th Batch (2005-06)

Tube Wall

Steam Bubbles
(Mixing)
33398

Nucleate Boiling
Film Boiling- With high heat input levels and high steam quality, the nucleate boiling process breaks
down. The bubbles of steam forming on the hot tube surface will begin to interfere with the flow of
water to the surface and the bubbles of steam eventually coalesce to form a film of superheated
steam over part or all of the tube surface. This condition is known as film boiling (Figure 15). Little
heat will be transferred from the tube metal through the film to the water in the center of the tube.
The tube metal temperature will rapidly increase, resulting in a failure.

Tube Wall

Steam Film
(No Mixing) 33399

Film Boiling
Figure 15
24 ©NPTI (NR) PGDC 10th Batch 2005
National Power Training Institute
STUDY MATERIAL (BOILER) (Northern Region)
PGDC in TPPE – 10th Batch (2005-06)

Departure From Nucleate Boiling- The point at which nucleate boiling stops and film boiling begins is
determined by the heat input and steam quality. The point is termed Departure from Nucleate Boiling
or DNB. Metal temperatures are shown in Figure 16 as a function of steam quality for several heat
input levels. As the curves illustrate, only moderate heat inputs can be tolerated at high quality levels
(Area B); however, much higher heat input levels can be tolerated at lower qualities (Area A). This
means that high heat inputs, which result in higher levels of circulation and steam generation, can be
used at low quality levels.

Subcooled Superheated
Increased Metal Temperature

Water Steam

nput
H eat I
h
Hig

put
Heat In
Low

Area A Area B

0% 100%
Quality 33400

DNB Metal Curve


Figure 16

Research into DNB has found several parameters that affect DNB:

A. High fluid velocities decrease the occurrence of DNB at a given fluid quality.

B. Fluid quality has a great effect on DNB. Lower qualities afford greater margins of safety
and reduce the possibilities of the occurrence of DNB.

C. Wall construction or location of heat flux also affects DNB. Heating a wall from one
side could allow a steam film to form on the heated side of the tube, causing overheats.

D. Tube type has a major impact on the prevention of DNB.

25 ©NPTI (NR) PGDC 10th Batch 2005


National Power Training Institute
STUDY MATERIAL (BOILER) (Northern Region)
PGDC in TPPE – 10th Batch (2005-06)

E. Research and experience has shown that DNB is more likely to occur at operating
pressures above 2000 psig.

F. Higher heat flux also increases the possibility of DNB caused by the higher qualities
generated.

Natural Circulation

Modern water tube boilers were developed from the early fire tube designs. Modern water tube
boilers not only have a larger surface area available for heat transfer, but by proper design, a natural
circulation effect is created with water continuously moving within the boiler tubes to remove and
replace the generated steam. In a natural circulation system, circulation increases with increased
heat input until a point of maximum fluid flow is reached.

Steam Outlet

Steam
Drum

Water / Steam

Downcomer FurnaceWalls
(Unheated) (Heated)

Furnace Wall Supplies 33401

Natural Circulation
Figure 17

Natural circulation is based on the difference in density between water and steam. Steam is
significantly less dense than water. Water is supplied from a drum to the furnace wall tubes through
26 ©NPTI (NR) PGDC 10th Batch 2005
National Power Training Institute
STUDY MATERIAL (BOILER) (Northern Region)
PGDC in TPPE – 10th Batch (2005-06)

down comers. The down comers are not heated. As the unit is fired, a steam/water mixture is
generated in the furnace wall tubes. The steam/water mixture in the wall tubes is less dense than the
water in the down comers and forced up the steam drum by the heavier water as shown in Figure 17.
The process continuously repeats with a steam/water mixture being generated in the furnace tubes
and being replaced with heavier water in the down comers.

As more heat is added to the furnace tubes, the quality of the fluid increases. Because the density
difference becomes greater, more pumping power is available from the natural circulation effect. Up
to a point, circulation will naturally increase with increased heat input and provide more flow to keep
furnace tubes cooled as more steam is generated. Beyond a certain level, friction in the tubes
overcomes the difference in density and circulation is reduced with additional heat input as shown in
Figure 18. Natural circulation boilers are designed to operate in the left region of the curve so that
circulation increases with heat input.

Normal Operation Possible Overheat


Inc reasing Flow

Increasing Heat Input 33402

Effect of Flow versus Heat Input


Figure 18

Natural circulation also provides an additional benefit. It partially compensates for normal imbalances
in the heat input to the furnace. As shown in the left portion of Figure 17, if one tube receives more
heat than adjacent tubes, it will generate more steam with a lower density and thus will receive more
flow to keep it cool. Within normal limits, tubes exposed to higher heat levels will receive more
cooling flow. If the heat imbalance becomes too great, flow will be reduced and the tube will
overheat.

Drum boilers operate in the area on or under the saturation curve. Steam quality leaving the riser
tubes and entering the steam drum is usually 5 to 30%, depending on the boiler load and pressure.

27 ©NPTI (NR) PGDC 10th Batch 2005


National Power Training Institute
STUDY MATERIAL (BOILER) (Northern Region)
PGDC in TPPE – 10th Batch (2005-06)

This means that of the water that flowed down the down comers, between 5 and 30% will be
converted to steam by the time it reaches the top of the furnace. Staying at low quality levels is
necessary to protect the tubes from overheating failures caused by the nature of the boiling process.

Steam Drum Internals

In modern drum boilers (Figure 6 of this module), the separation of steam from the steam/water
mixture generated in the furnace usually takes place in two steps. Primary separation removes
nearly all of the water from the mixture, so that in effect, no steam is recirculated to the boiler water;
however, the steam may still contain solid contaminants that must be removed or reduced in amount
before the steam is sufficiently pure for use. This step is called secondary separation or steam
scrubbing. When wide load fluctuations and variations in water quality are suspected, secondary
scrubbers may also be installed to provide nearly perfect steam separation.

Cyclone Steam Separators- Primary steam separation is accomplished with cyclone steam separators.
The cyclones, essentially cylindrical in form, are arranged internally along the length of the drum. The
steam/water mixture enters the cyclone steam separator tangentially. Centrifugal force throws the
more dense water to the outside of the cylinder where it forms a layer against the cylinder wall. The
less dense steam moves to the core of the cylinder and moves upward. The water flows down the
cylinder wall and is discharged from the cyclone through an annulus located below the water level.
The separated water returns to the boiler cycle virtually free of steam bubbles, thus providing a
maximum available head for producing flow through natural circulation.

Primary Scrubbers- The upward rising steam from the cyclones passes through the primary scrubbers
at the top of the cyclones for secondary steam separation. After primary separation, the steam may
still contain dissolved solids suspended in tiny water droplets. These water droplets that contain
solids are removed from the steam as it passes through the corrugated plate elements of the primary
scrubber.

Secondary Scrubbers- Further steam scrubbing of any trace amounts of water contaminants in the
steam are achieved by the secondary scrubbers. Secondary scrubbers are corrugated plates that are
located at the top of the steam drum, and provide a large surface to intercept water particles as the
steam weaves through the closely fitted plates. Steam velocity through the corrugated plate
assembly is very low, so that re-entrainment of water is avoided. The collected water is drained from
the bottom of the scrubber assembly to the water below.

28 ©NPTI (NR) PGDC 10th Batch 2005


National Power Training Institute
STUDY MATERIAL (BOILER) (Northern Region)
PGDC in TPPE – 10th Batch (2005-06)

COMPONENTS OF THE VARIOUS BOILER AIR AND DRAFT SYSTEMS: FUNCTIONS AND
BASIC OPERATION

This section will discuss the functions and components of the various boiler air and draft systems
(Figure 19).

Steam
Coil Air
Heater
Stack
Forced
Draft Scrubber
Air

Vent Air Heater

Gas Gas
Supply Dryer Precipitator Induced
(Optional) Draft
Fan

Windbox Boiler/
Furnace
33681

Boiler Air and Draft System: Figure 19

The function of the air and draft system is to provide an adequate flow of air and combustion gases
for the complete combustion. The stack and fans control air flow. The differential pressure required
for air flow is produced by a combination of the stack and fans. In Figure 19, air flows from the forced
draft fan through a steam coil air heater into the boiler. Combustion products exit the boiler and flow
through an induced draft fan to the scrubber and the stack.

Specifically, this section will discuss:

• The function and components of the boiler forced draft system.

• The function and components of the boiler balanced draft system.

• The function and components of the air flow system.

Forced Draft and Natural Draft Systems

A forced draft system or a pressure fired boiler, operates with the air and combustion products that
are maintained above atmospheric pressure.

29 ©NPTI (NR) PGDC 10th Batch 2005


National Power Training Institute
STUDY MATERIAL (BOILER) (Northern Region)
PGDC in TPPE – 10th Batch (2005-06)

Forced Draft Fan

The forced draft fan provides sufficient pressure to force the air and flue gas through the system.

Natural Draft

Natural draft occurs as a result of the stack effect. Hot air or hot gases rise through vertical ducts.
Hot flue gases, that have a lower density than the outside air rise through vertical ducts and create a
suction that causes combustion air to flow through the boiler.

Pressure and Draft Profile

A pressure and draft profile of a forced draft system is shown in Figure 20. The negative pressure at
the right side of the profile is caused by the natural draft of the stack. A pressure and draft profile of a
forced draft system with an air preheater is shown in Figure of balanced draft, Profile of Pressure and
Draft of a Pressure-Fired Boiler (Typical-Includes Air Preheater), shows in the figure.

Furnace Air Pressure and Boiler Load

Additional draft losses cause the forced draft system to operate at higher pressure at all loads and to
be under positive pressure except at very low loads. At 70% boiler load the draft losses are
approximately 50% of the full load draft losses.

Balanced Draft Systems

Balanced draft systems have a forced draft fan at the system inlet, and an induced draft fan near the
system outlet (Figure20, Balanced Draft Boiler (With Air Preheater),

Air Preheater

The air preheater is used for flue gas heat recovery and adds additional draft losses to both the
combustion air and the flue gas sides of the boiler. The air preheater does not change the controlled
furnace draft set point.

Induced Draft Fan

The induced draft fan takes suction at the flue gas exit. The induced draft fan reduces the furnace
pressure and ensures that it is negative.

Pressure and Draft Profile

A pressure and draft profile for the balanced draft system is shown in Figure Profile of Pressure and
Draft of a Balanced Draft Boiler The forced draft fan and the induced draft fan work to maintain the
balance point or pressure in the furnace. The pressure is slightly negative for all boiler loads and is
not affected by the addition of an air preheater (Figure 20 of this module).The air preheater does add
additional draft losses to the combustion air and flue gas sides of the boiler.

30 ©NPTI (NR) PGDC 10th Batch 2005


National Power Training Institute
STUDY MATERIAL (BOILER) (Northern Region)
PGDC in TPPE – 10th Batch (2005-06)

Pressure D
A
C
(+)
B

0
Balance
Point

(-)

F.D. Air Windbox Furnace Boiler Air I.D. Stack


Fan Preheater Outlet Preheater Fan
Out Inlet Outlet Outlet

High Load - (100%) A


Reduced Load - (70%) B
Change Balance by Increasing Induced and Reducing Forced C

Change Balance by Decreasing Induced and Increasing Forced D


33404

Pressure and Draft Profile–Balanced Draft System–Includes Air Preheater


Figure 20

Benefit of Balanced Draft System

The benefit of balanced draft system is that negative operating pressures cause any leakage to be
cool air leaking into the furnace rather than hot combustion gases leaking out. The negative furnace
pressure condition is cooler and cleaner, which results in a better environment for the furnace
housing, the auxiliary equipment, and the operating personnel.

Air Flow System

Air flow requirements of the combustion control system require that fans operate at different
pressures and volume discharge rates. To meet these requirements, some means of varying the fan
output is required such as a constant speed fan with damper or inlet vane control or a variable speed
fan.

31 ©NPTI (NR) PGDC 10th Batch 2005


National Power Training Institute
STUDY MATERIAL (BOILER) (Northern Region)
PGDC in TPPE – 10th Batch (2005-06)

Constant Speed Fan

A constant speed fan used with damper control or inlet vane control introduces sufficient variable
resistance in the system to alter the fan output as required. The constant speed fan is attractive
because of its low initial cost; however, a constant speed fan consumes significantly more energy
than a forced draft fan at low boiler rates.

Variable Speed Fan

The variable speed fan is attractive because it reduces energy at reduced flow rates. The variable
speed fan significantly improves fan efficiency during periods when the boiler is operating at less than
its maximum load. Even so, variable speed fans require a higher initial cost than constant speed fans
that may not be offset by lower power requirements.

32 ©NPTI (NR) PGDC 10th Batch 2005


National Power Training Institute
STUDY MATERIAL (BOILER) (Northern Region)
PGDC in TPPE – 10th Batch (2005-06)

COMPONENTS OF BOILER FUEL SYSTEMS: FUNCTION AND BASIC OPERATION

This section will discuss the boiler fuel oil and fuel gas systems.
Specifically, this section will discuss:

• The function and components of the fuel gas system.

• The function and components of the fuel oil system.

Fuel Gas System

The most common gaseous fuel is natural gas. Waste gas or gas produced as a process byproduct
can also be used. Natural gas is transported through pipelines and is delivered by the suppliers as it
is used.

Fuel Oil System

The most common oils used for boiler fuel are the lightweight Number 2 fuel oil and the Number 6
grade of heavy residual fuel oil. It is usually necessary to heat Number 6 fuel oil so that it can be
pumped through the system. It is normally not necessary to heat Number 2 fuel oil. Fuel oil is
pumped through the fuel oil system, and the boiler control system regulates the BTU input by a
control valve. The amount of heat (BTU) liberated per unit quantity of gas or oil is called the Higher-
Heat Value (HHV). The HHV for a fuel, typically in units of BTU per pound, can be found in the
Combustion Engineering Fuel Burning and Steam Generation Handbook.

33 ©NPTI (NR) PGDC 10th Batch 2005


National Power Training Institute
STUDY MATERIAL (BOILER) (Northern Region)
PGDC in TPPE – 10th Batch (2005-06)

GLOSSARY

Air The mixture of oxygen, nitrogen, and other gases that with varying amounts of
water vapour, forms the atmosphere of the earth.

Air heater Heat transfer apparatus through which air passes and is heated by a medium of
higher temperature, such as the products of combustion (flue gases) or steam.

Air preheater A steam coil or similar heat exchange device used to keep the temperature of the
flue gas above its dew point to minimize corrosion to the air heater.

Balanced draft A system of furnace pressure control in which the inlet combustion air flow and the
outlet flue gas flow is controlled to maintain the furnace pressure at a fixed value
(typically slightly below atmosphere).

Blowdown Removal of a portion of boiler water to reduce chemical concentration, or to


discharge sludge.

Boiler A closed vessel in which water is heated, steam is generated, steam is


superheated, or any combination thereof, under pressure or vacuum by heat from
combustible fuels in a self- contained or attached furnace.

Boiler feed A pump that is used by the boiler system to supply high pressure boiler
pump feedwater to the steam drum.

Boiling point The temperature that a liquid changes to vapor for a given pressure.

Burner A device or group of devices for the introduction of fuel and air into a furnace at
the required velocities, turbulence, and concentration to maintain ignition and
combustion of the fuel within the furnace.

BTU British Thermal Unit.

Circulation The movement of water and steam within a steam generating unit.

Condenser A heat exchange device that is used to condense steam. A condenser is used to
condense the exhaust steam from turbines.

Constant speed A fan with a single-speed motor that uses damper control or inlet vane control to
Fan vary air flow.

Continuous The continuous blowing down of water.


blowdown

34 ©NPTI (NR) PGDC 10th Batch 2005


National Power Training Institute
STUDY MATERIAL (BOILER) (Northern Region)
PGDC in TPPE – 10th Batch (2005-06)

Control Any manual or automatic device for the regulation of a machine to keep it at
normal operation.If automatic, the device is motivated by variations in
temperature, pressure, water level, time, light, or other influences.

Corrosion The wasting away of metals caused by a chemical action that is usually caused by
the presence of O2, CO2, or an acid.

Deaerator A device that is used to remove air and gases from boiler feedwater prior to its
introduction into a boiler.

DNB Departure from Nucleate Boiling: The point at which nucleate boiling stops and film
boiling begins.

Downcomer The lines that carry cold water from the steam drum to the mud drum of the
furnace for heating.

Draft The difference between atmospheric pressure and some lower pressure existing
in the furnace or gas passages of a steam generating unit.

Drum A cylindrical shell closed at both ends designed to withstand internal pressure.

Economizer An energy saving heat exchanger that is commonly used on all large boilers to
provide additional heat to the feedwater prior to the water entering the boiler. Heat
input comes from the hot flue gases passing the tubes (containing feedwater) just
before going to the air heater.

Efficiency The ratio of the output to the input.The efficiency of a steam-generating unit is the
ratio of the heat absorbed by water and steam to the heat in the fuel fired.

Enthalpy The amount of heat energy that is contained in a fluid or gas in BTU/lb.

Feedwater Water that is introduced into a boiler during operation. It includes make-up and
return condensate.

Feed water A tube-shell heat exchanger used to heat boiler feedwater.Specified as low and
heater high pressure heaters that use main turbine extraction steam to heat water.

Film boiling A condition where steam forming on a hot tube's surface begins to interfere with
the flow of water to the surface by coalescing to form a film of superheated
steam over part or all of the tube surface.

Flash evaporator A device that is used with boilers operating at 1000 gal or over to purify boiler
water by an evaporation technique.

Forced draft The furnace draft that is caused by forcing air into the furnace with a fan.
35 ©NPTI (NR) PGDC 10th Batch 2005
National Power Training Institute
STUDY MATERIAL (BOILER) (Northern Region)
PGDC in TPPE – 10th Batch (2005-06)

Forced draft fan A fan that is used to force a flow of air into the boiler furnace.

Fuel A substance that contains combustible materials that are used for generating heat.

Fuel oil Unit of energy management equivalent to energy in a barrel of oil, or


equivalent 6,300,000 BTU.
barrels

Furnace Combustion chamber of a boiler.

Heat exchanger A device for transferring heat energy from one medium to another.

Heat of The heat input or enthalpy necessary to convert saturated water to saturated
vaporization steam.

HHV Higher Heating Value. The number of heat units that are liberated per unit of
quantity of fuel burned.

Induced draft The furnace draft produced by drawing the flue gases out of the furnace by an
induced draft fan. The furnace pressure is usually controlled at less than
atmospheric pressure with the fan.

Induced draft A fan that is used to produce a flow of air through the furnace by creating a lower
fan pressure. An induced draft fan is commonly used to aid the
exhaust of flue gases.

Intermittent The blowing down of boiler water at intervals to remove suspended solids.
blowdown Intermittent blowdown is achieved by periodically opening a blowoff
valve located at the bottom of the mud drum.

Makeup Water that is added to replace losses, blowdown, etc.

Mud drum Lowest boiler drum in which suspended solids collect.

Natural circulation The circulation of water in a boiler that is caused by differences in density.

Natural draft A furnace draft that is caused solely by the effect of the stack.

Nucleate boiling The process of steam bubbles at a tube's inner surface condensing
and giving up their heat to raise the temperature of the water.

Oxygen Chemicals that are used to control boiler corrosion.


scavengers

PMC Process Measurement & Control.

36 ©NPTI (NR) PGDC 10th Batch 2005


National Power Training Institute
STUDY MATERIAL (BOILER) (Northern Region)
PGDC in TPPE – 10th Batch (2005-06)
Pressurized A furnace that is operated above the atmospheric pressure by using just a
furnace forced draft fan.

Quality Quality is the percent by weight of vapor in a steam/water mixture.

Recirculation The reintroduction of part of the flowing fluid to repeat the cycle of circulation.

Reverse osmosis A procedure that is used to remove dissolved salts and minerals in a solution.

Risers The tubes that are heated through which the steam/water mixture moves
from the lower or mud drum to the boiler drum.

Saturated steam Steam that is at the boiling point temperature that corresponds to a particular
pressure, without any water present.

Saturated water Water at the temperature of its boiling point.

Scrubber An apparatus for the removal of solids from gases by entrainment in water.

Specific volume The volume that a pound of steam or water occupies at a given pressure or
temperature.

Stack The flue, vent or passage through which smoke or heated air, etc. escapes.

Stack effect The movement of hot flue gases out of the stack caused by differences in density
between these flue gases and the cooler air surrounding the stack.

Steam coil air A tubular recuperative air heater in which gas flows vertically through tubes. Air
heater flows horizontally across the tubes in order to provide heat transfer.

Steam drum All apparatus within a drum.


internals

Steam quality The percent by weight of vapor in a steam and water mixture.

Superheated Steam that is at a higher temperature than its saturation temperature.


steam

Superheater A device that is used to raise the temperature of steam above its saturation
temperature.

Variable speed A fan with a variable speed drive that is used to change speed to vary air flow.
fan

37 ©NPTI (NR) PGDC 10th Batch 2005