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• . • . • TOURS -IN • • • .\ • • • • •






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(!;mtpQni!" ()f the Moat 'mi1zent Order-;f the Indian El1rp;roe; Co"ector' {WI/ .'

Mag;sfrafe, Hi/girls; .Persian (I'nd Hindustani 'l'rnnslatrn- to the J(adrrrs GO'l.'er1lmentj FeUOtIJ oft.", Uni'tJerBity rtf Jl(1dras; Ff'lfo'U: n.fthe '

RU.lJn,l GcogrolP1tical Sof'iety; .lJfembn o uj'the RO!Jfll A'fotic Suciefy and of/he Geographical S!J(';t:ly of l.J'll'i~;

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and Dalhousie-More speech88-Viadta-Bporte at


Body Gua_ linee-To Diamond Harbour-On board .H.tJfIJ_ Incidents of voyage-Eclipse ceremony-Arrival at Irladraa 77•




Departure from Madras-R6ception at Salem-Opening of Agri- cultura.lI'Exhibition-Mr. Nicho~80n-!t1r. Dykes-Cattle shows -Former {;xhibitions-Municlpal address-Govemor'a reply- Sections of ahow-Alambadi bulls-Kangyam bulls-Nilgai- Pegu8 and Arabe--" Parfait Amour "-Government stallions- Arabs and Penians-Pony-breeding operations on hills-Agri- cultural implements-Native and Swedish ploughs-Native harrow-Penian wheel-Native picottah-Vegetable products -Specimens of ftbres-Iron-smelting-Spear heads-Animal


quelware&--Na.ti ve saddles-Shermadevi mats-Garden party- Mr. Sturroek-Proposed transfer of Coorg to Madras Presidency -.Prize-giving at Agricultural exhibition-Departure for billa . -Eucalyptus plantatioD8-Sim's Park-\\.,e!come at .Dharing Cross

manufactures -

Palampores -





l)eparture from Hills-Our party-Object of tour-Government House, Ootacamund-Seenery en 'rQut8-Toda herdsmen-Korum. bers--Ovorsoor's encounter v.-;'th a tiger-Mahlu'ajah of !lysore'8 Silladars-Brahmin Superintendent of Police-Tippoo Sultan- Fishers' village-CRste in Modern India-At Nanjengode-- Native welcome-Hindu temple-Jain Priests-Story of a Hindu ~g-Beception at Mysoro-Chamundi ltill-An Eastern St. George-Visit to palace-Dusserah festival-Mysoro forests- State jewe1s-Tippoo Sultan'8 sword-Palace library-.Bi.sexual divinities-Picture gallery-Visit to Beringa.pat'UIl-Cauvery bathing ghant-Daria Dowlat-Hyder-Colonel Baillie-Paint- ings on walls-Apothecary cicerone-Maer 8aduk-Tomb of Hyder and Tippoo-Return to Mysore-Grove of palma-Duke of Wellington-Maharanee's caste girls' school-Lady Dufferin -Departure-Tales of Seringapatam-At Bangalore-Residency

-Mandalay mementos-Social functions-~ational8ports-8ky



race8-Mah&rajah-Aga Khan-Of local water-llUpply-Race coW'll6-Inapection of Remount depat-At OOflllOOr-A legmd- • Hamilton's bon6ll-Stock·fa.rm-Principles of agriculture- Return to· Bangalore--Mad.ras Sappel'll and Minera--Myaore tplateau-A story of powder and shot-Depa.rture-Arrival at

( Kolar's tomb-8ocial relatiollll among Musaulman8 ·~ection of gold minll8-Their future-Pr ent prospect- Return to Ootacamund


'. si






Departure from Ootaca.mund-Pa !Illgo down ghaut-R.n.ilway ext6llllion to Caliou.t-Our party-Corruption in Malabar district -Condition of Lacca.dives-Rat plagues-Turtle catching- Malabar Tenants' Bill-Waste lands-Sir Oharles Turner- Departure from Ca.licut-Margar~t North~ote- acriflce Rock-- Welcome at Tellicherry-To MaM-A Brahmin gar~yle­ "Preseutez annes"- eaning of iuhabitanlil-ItB " constitution-It8 Administrateur-Addretlll68 at 'l'ellicherry":'- Ohristianity in Malabal'-Seikh Zeinud-Deen-Departure--At Oannanore-Addresaes-"Railway extensions-Ramayanam enter- tainment-Church service-Local Native' Chief-Cheruman Perumal-Convict Kunjen Menon's hoalth- Vanity Fair on Natives as Judge&--Employment of NativfJ8 in public service-

At Mangalore -

institutions-Basel Mil'~ion iIidustries-Government schools- .- Toddy Drawer's neputation-Tiyyans-Levee-Curious features -St. Alosyius' College-Jesuits-Carmelites-Syrian Christians -Their early settlement-Mar Dionyaius-Mar Athanaaius -Early Christian church-Xavier-Convcnt of girls' school- Buckrams-Founders of Jesuit College-Concordat-Exhibition of district products-Silver question-Babel of tongues-An anecdote-At KI1.ndapore-:-Nambudri Brahmin-Mr. and Mrs. Bhnjaet fishing-Local d.warf-At Honawar- To Gairacppa - Falls- Visitor's remarks - Lover's raptures- Panther surpriscd-Ruins of Jain city-Queen of Gairsoppa- Jain temples-Government and Religion-At Karwar-Coasts 01 Canara-Arrival at Goa-Reception at Government House-- Portugn6SEl power in India-Vasco cIa Gama-State dinner- Constitution of Government-Native Viceroy of Goa-Old Goa -Ita Cathedrals-St. Francis Xavier's tomb-Cape,falaee--En "/lUte to Dharwar-Sctlnery/along railway-At Dharwar-Colonel LindBay-At Bcllary-~tQ,rmy weather-Munro Chuttrum-At

Landing -- Welcome address -








Cuddapah-Local Civil Dispensary-Di.pl1t~ regarding burial-

grounds-At- Renigunta-.A.ddreeses-At Chandragiri Palace- l\Iahant of Tripetty-Asccnt of hill-Temple-Sacred bin- Governor's visit to Mahant-Departure-Auival at Ne11ore- Dr. Macleane-Levee-Rajas of Venkatagiti and Ka1abastry-

worb-Ci viI dispensary""


Indian castes-Lo"al Lying-ill f lo~pital-Jubilee memorial-At

Venkat&giri-PrOt'~~:-'l.,nfrom Hailway atation-Ra?" -Arrival

at Madra&-Beeults ot toU!'





Bad news from Ganjam district-Famines of 1877 and 1866-In- accc>s13il,ility of district--Means of cOIDyuunication-Causcs of.

present distress-Mr. Garstin's visit-Hi~ report-Professional. agency works-Civil agency works-Gratuitou8 relief-Outbreak of chQlera-Serious condition of affail's--Govemor' 8 departure from Oota.camund-Our part~r-AmiEhap-Antonio "killed"-

Arti,val in Madras-Departuro by sea-Culm v

-yage--At Gopal-



pur-Dangetous surf-Landing-Lugg'age-boat capsized-Vaual reccpt.ion-llishop Tistiot-Port of Gopalpur-Condeynned pier-

•Examination of inhal)itants-HtJsults thereof- -Cholera cases- Drive to'IktmbhA.-Mr. }Iinehin--Anecdoto-At Berhampore-

· Supply of scod-grain-Purchase fronl OOliavcry-Visit to jail- Uriyas-Thoir c.aste ob8crvan<:es-At Aska-l\Ir. :l\Jinchin's Sugar £actory-G-roat beat-At HU5sellkondah-l\laliahs or Hill '"Practs--Id}'llic jnil-Khonds--Theircustorns-Religif'Tl-Meriah

sacrifico-Its origin -- At IchaIRl)' -lIealth of party - Queen's 8ympn.thy·~At Kanshili-Zemindar of Parlakimedi-Addresses ':-Embarka.tion-8ceno at Baruva-Uel'3ults of Governor's visit

- Real preventive of fanline - ]~ast Coast RaHway - Hanctlon

for its survey-Stormy voyage-Arrival at 1tladras-Return to

Oot&camund-Goycrnor's official minute 173




Departure from ·Oo~acamun.l-Ourparty-Arrival at Trichinopoly . -Mrs. Bhnjat Ali-1\IunicipaladdresR-At Negapatam-Meaning

of Negapatam-Vi~it tQ South Indian B4j1way workshope- .



Municipal addre_Karikal-lts early history-Story of Yanam -Mottos-At Karikal-At Tranqucbar-Mr. Ratnaswamy l'adar -Major Helmich's tomb-Barthelom Ziegenbaig-Evening ser- vice-Representations of Last Supper-Visit to Nagur-Return to Negapatam-Arrival at Kwnbhakonam-Mcaning of name- Cauvery waters~Government college-Higher education- ., ~\lCeptionat Railway station-Native entertainment-Busy day -Town ·en fAte-Hail, hero of Ganjam-Visits to institutions- "Young India.'s" manners-Mr. Seshaya Sastry14r-Ceremooy of weighing against gold-Interesting picture-Sports at Kum- bhakonam . college-Exhibition of local manufactures-Caste girls' school-Incident-More addresses-Gambling in district


Its early history-Fort St. David-Rama Raja-East Iildia Com-


attempt at suicide-French in Pondioherry-Victories of peace-

pany - Fall of Madrss-Dupleix - Collector's house·

A story -

Tank illuminationS -

Departure -

At Cuddalor~


Addresses-Visit to Fort St. David-Arrival at Gnindy Park








Governor embarks for Calcutta-Our party-Arri\"al at Hoogly-- Saugor island-Landing at Calcutta--Conference with Sir Steuart Bayley-East Coast Railway-'-JourIlcy to Darjt'eIillg-- Durjccling railway-Scenery etI J'oule-" Shrubbery "-~fa},a Rnja of Cooch Behar-Himalayan snows-Kangchcnjinga peak-Obscrvatory hill-Senchal hill-Riklrim frontier expcdition-Tibetians--Chi- Dsse amban_Connaught Raugprs-Tigcr llill--Mount Everest- , Bazaars-Bhooteans-Lepchas-Buddhist temples-B()~t Lama twist-Curious l'eJi!,rious ceremony-Kursl'ong-Arrival in Cal- cutta-Local opinm dues-Allahabad-Visit to fort-Junction of

Ganges and Jumna.-lIIr. JIl~ticeStraight-Agra-Fort-Akhar's

tomb at Sccundm-Taj by moonlight-Saharunporc-Umhalla- General Galbraith - Black Mountain cxpcditir,n - Kalka-En route to Simla-Himalayah trecs-Lilliputian ricc-fidds-Sona- war-Dagshai- Solon - Arri\"al at Simla - Viceregal lodge- Goorkhas-Jutogh battcry practice-"'iltshire regiment-Pros- pect hill-Sutlej .and' Jumna-Fakir-Kerolin€' oil tins-Bilsy

day~-Departure from Simla-Arri~-al at Lahore-Lieutenant

(}overnoJ's house-Cathedral-Mayo hall-Shalimar gardens- Fort-Sir .Jamcs and Lady Lyall-Camcl.riding-:;Uosque-- Tomb of Runjeet Singh-Sikh Bible-Fort annoury-Durbar hall-Departure from Lahore-Rohri-Lansdowne brldge-Buk- kur-Sukkur-Inuu.s--Sadh Bela-Sindhia-Sind-Pishin line-

hall-Departure from Lahore-Rohri-Lansdowne brldge-Buk- kur-Sukkur-Inuu.s--Sadh Bela-Sindhia-Sind-Pishin line-

xiv ~


Chappar rift-Bostan-Kilah Abdulla-Khojak pua-Xhwaja Amran MOUlltain8-Beloochiatan-Khelat tenitory--Quetta-

General Sir George White-Sir Robert 8andeman-Fort--l\farket

-Parsi merchant - Anecdote - Durbu-Duranie-- Popalzai_ c Barnkzais _ Presentations - Governor'. speech - Sirdar Asad

Khan-Benefits of British rule-Baleli-Guliatan-Railway from

Kilah Abdulla-Kandahar--Punjaubis-Pathan&-8halibagh- Old Chaman-New ChamA.n-~hJ1'derof Captain Harris-Book on thievetr-Headman of Ka&ct' village-Brahui entertainment- Departure from Quetta-Sir James Brown's railway-~ppar rift-Hurnai route-Sibi route-BI11'\n pass--Babar Kach-Ruk junf'tion-& route Kurra.chef:\-Tpagic occurrenco-Sehwan- Kotri-~lan\)raheadland-At Kurra<:hee-lfrere hall-Campanile

-Signboards-Saint and his crocodiles--Sind population-Local buililinp-Trade-Embarkation-Dwarka- Somnath-Bombay harboul'-Ht)cep f l0n at Apollo Bunder-Duk~ of Connaught-- t:;ir llurry Prenu~rWl8t-Bhor6ghaut-Arrival at Ma.dras





r"uko of Claronce'B departure from Madl"aS-HraiJ riots in Southern districts-Object of tour-Our party-On board S.S. Sir,f.I-- Madra8 barbour-II.~I.S. }lfadicea-Sir Edward Freenlantle- Coa~t of MJ\Sulipfltanl-Its hi."toric as')otiations--Colonel ~"orde -Marquis de Conflans-ReligiuU8 wars-Secular wars-English "nd lJutch at Masulipatam-CharleB IT-At Coconada-Harbour -Tn1de of port--Plan of EaRt Coast Hailway-Chamber of Com- mer~e-Htcam dredger Cowumara-Loeal self-govemment- Female metlical aid-Agricultural L<JanB Act-By enna1 to Rajah- mundry-S.S. Arthur Ootton-Scenery fa r9-ute-Godayari Irriga- tion 'Vorks-DowlJish,,"cram-Inddent of journey-S.S. JoAn Mullins-Landing-At Rajamundry-Poepshow-])eparture for Gorge-=Hcro worship-~lr.Puckle-General Haig-l\ItU'quo88 of

Tweeddale--Scenery en

,·oute-8. S.

Vtl'ffWia -


to 1)acc 0--

en ,·oute-8. S. Vtl'ffWia - Lo(.'al to 1)acc 0-- 8hipwreck~De8cription of Gorge--Sir Charlos

8hipwreck~De8criptionof Gorge--Sir Charlos Tr~,"el)rnn---Silo


Grant Duff -

Return to HnjRJnandry -


country-Incident of Rumpa rllmpu8-~fr. l\lnrtindalH-J

Guillamore-Humansacri.fiees to Kali-Bill pC'ople--TI£lj:unun-


dry and Rumpa

Ellore - Enthusiastic reoeption - Primary education - Carpet

manufa.cture-Jo~eyto Bezwada-Pitt and regent diamonds- Story of Bindbad the Sailor-Deccan Mining Company-Tom-

contrastcd-J Ail-IloSI'l tal--Lxcise


tom telephone-Ani val at















~------ . _ a_ ~. .-----: - CONTENTS. 0 o {it XV \lAGB 'radipaHe-Bellary-KiBtna State Railway-Bingareni-Colonel





'radipaHe-Bellary-KiBtna State Railway-Bingareni-Colonel Orr - Extent and cost of dap} - Kondapille toys - Malin- • Halcyon's feathers-Railway commUnication-Mr. Arundel- East Coast Rail.way-Future of Bezovrac1a-Altemoon reception- Deputation from Nizam-Mr. Harrison-Buddhist cave temple -Mr. Wolfe-Hurray-Ascent of .hills-Kali temple-Brahmin

"priest-Tiled hO~8es-Two devotees-illuminations of tow~­

Excise eystem-dperatioDs of Agricultural Loans Act-House' tax-Local Punohayet8-Departute-Nizam's Railway Baloonl- Kumumett-Nawab Badr-ud-Dowlah-Conditions of British and Native rule-8inga.reni coal mines-New year's. day-Arrival- at Hyderabad--Reception at Railway station-Visits from Nizam

and minister-Nizam's


Minar-Char Ma.hal~­

Titles- Title of Nizam - Fireworks - Illuminations- Second names of cities-Nawab Afsar Jung.--Fort of Golconda-Bra.d- laugh's Congress 8peech-Oongress agencies-Nawab Vicar-ul- Oomrah-Falaknumah--Lucknow modellere-Featnres of tour- Return to Madras





Eurasian problem-Whi~fieldand Sausmond-History of settle- ment&--Mr. D. B. White-His "Guide Hook" and project- Maharajah of ~lY80re-Mr. Glenny's report on Colonies-Sir Dennis Fitzpatrick's opinion-Mr. Gantz-Governor's arrival at Kadgoodi - To Whitefield- Settlers interviewed - Sir Oliver

St. John-Address-Characteristic holdings-Sergeant Crooks-

~8es of holdinga-Bansmond-Uesult@ of inspections








Courtallum-Railway to~Ou~ ~~~Departurc

from Ootacamllnd-Mangosteen- Burliar-Nl1gm Railway--At




Mettapolliem-Karur- .A


Trichinopoly- 8rirangam-

approaching vi~it-Wage8in dis-

trict-Price of rice-J(\~~t Mi88ion---Ex-.Mahant o~ Tirupati- Ra.ja of Puducottah-Ayanar templ€'li-Arrivalat Tanjol'e-Dis- trict otlicial8-01eand~r-lJa.lace trool)ers - Vallam-Rantes--

Sivaj ee-8erfojee-Mis:Aonary Schwartz-~~kojce--r,ate Princess

-Jail-Hospita.l-Clu·ioU8 petitionll-Palace-Armoury-Durbar hall-Library-Late Dro Hurncll·-Marco Polo-Lord Napit!r- Bishop 11eber-~"'laxman'8statu\) of Serfojeo-Orientalluxury-

Capital of Cholil.s-Country of Bholas-Lino from to

Muttupott-Mayaveram-~Iutturl'ttRailway-Ceremony of cut-

ting firt;t sod-Lord Connemara's Bplor·h--Tanjore settlement--

Bernier"and rraVf'rniflT-Sir Charlu8 Tl'evel~?an-Tamilcooly- Local wail:l'-Supply-English-speaking power-Local ofticials- Arrival at Chin~.dpput-Visitto Reformatory-TaTIlillyric-Con- jeovuraln- -Jh: Huehanan-8ankara Charriar--Hamanuja Char- riar-~an("tityof town-Vishnu temple-AddrctiB from Sanscrit

SClLl101-Prince of Wales-Professor :\Ju.x Muller-Imperial In-

tititnte-HiaunThsang-''lea.ving operatious-Ancient customs-

Hindu"nlother-in-law-Vegavati-Jain temple-Customs of Jains

-Theatre notice-",\\Tagps of agril~ultul'Rlla,b()urer-Bi8hopHeber

-Free Church MiHsion Girls' school- Etat.o interference in mar- riage cllstoms-Ktesias-Megasthpnes-Loeal t3elf-governulOnt-

Frmale medical aid-Counte~8 of

Orlo:ff diam6nd-Czarewitoh t

Dufferin'p fllnd-Departure

frum Conj~everam-ColonelBaillie's defeat

at Pullalur-Ghosts



-Guntakal-DI~pL1tiltiollof 13~llary citizens-Corruption in dis-

_7 trict--:\laddikora-Sir r rhomas .l\Iunl'o-'· Stony wolds of Deccan"

-Hindu myth--Ralualeotta--Dianlond

Ba.nganapallo-\Vajra Karnr-Trco-iapping ~yTstem-l\'IroCaine -Nalldyal lacquer fallS--~allamalai I-lil1s-1Ii b best viaduct-

Longest tunnel-Tigers 1l.t railway stHtio;lS--}~Ol'~~tBisnlarck-

prospecting-Nawab of

Aborigines of South IIldia--Their early ntigratiou--Storyof a Polk.e officer - Congre13~ in K urJ100l - Cu.lubllln - Amencan

LutLeloan Mis~ion-" ~rllJ'eeOheers"


Amravati topo--Bpllani kon<.l:~-

fortruf-s -- Indian

on paper-Railway stories

B •.,th Gelert - Feringipuram - Gnntl11'- A\iultoration of Indian

(:otton-8acril('g'o-:rHan!!ala~iri---l\Jr 0 ~trcvnshanl Ma~tor·-~\t

Bezwada-CLltt-'lllg first ~:)d;fl:aBt OOHst R~ilwa.y-}Ir" Spring's addroBs-Bridge over K1~tna- Ijol'd Cross - Lord Lansdo'w'ne--

Mr. HoG, Turner-Aligonluontol linf)-Arl'an~-eI~Jent.Bat cerenloDy --AJl(lre6,~es-Undavilli ('.fH"es-l\lr. }~(lrgu~son-Politeness of

Telugus-Loeal self-g-ovornmcnt--Dcparturc£rom Bez\'·ada- Cwnbum-'ral'lk-Savago ~--attle-Rn,ilwaycxh.nsions-Ruina of



duri~g last



Opening of Tir\?anamalai line-These narratives






-:'~.'.''~.:.' .


.~ • MAP altha ~ MADRAS PRESIDENCY lu Illustrate Chapter I elf Mr. Roes·s Narrative
lu Illustrate Chapter I elf Mr. Roes·s Narrative
Scale 1 Inch. 126 Miles
IN Cl:tlftAL. atI
• '0 TOURS IN o INDIA. •• CHAPTER I. • ~ -: . Noam ABOOT,
• '0 TOURS IN o INDIA. •• CHAPTER I. • ~ -: . Noam ABOOT,
• '0 TOURS IN o INDIA. •• CHAPTER I. • ~ -: . Noam ABOOT,












Departure from Madraa--Our party-Gathering at Railway 8ta.tion-Maha- rajah of 'Viziamagram-" Sakuntala "-Forest fires-Address from HiBdu Brethren of Wallajnagar-.Arrival at' Katpadi-Vellore jaU- Lingam Lakshmaji-Fort-Kalyanaman'&pam-Ex-zemindar of Pal eondah-M.i8sion 1Ch0ol-T<abl of ~ppoo Sultan's. relatives-Mus- salman 8tipen~e_Receptionat Salem-Rev. Mr. Foulkes-Salem. riots-Curious mottoes-More addre88es-Shevapett mosque-Condition of town-Native entertainment-Central jail-Prisoner's petition- Local dispensary-Wea.ving industry-A busy afternO<Jl-Arri"l at Coimbatore-Vlsits to local institutions-Sir Thomas Munro-Village

lIunsiJfs' Itill-Horse-:breeding establishment-At MettapolUem-& rONt, to Hills-Burli&r garden8-Mr. Law80n-Colon~l JlIgo-M~. Burrows-KUDicipal address at Charing Oross-Arrival at Oo~. mund.

ON March 30th, 1887, we - left Madras for-the' first time since the Govemor's

• His Excellener the L~ Oonne- arrival on the 8th of De-

cember 1886 from England.

mara.' Mr. Rees, Private Secretary.

The '~18COuntMaraham,

A.D.O. A very large assembly of

gentlemen, Europ~n and Native, and of European ladies were present on the platform at 5-30 P.K. to see us start. Members of Council, Maharajas, exJlDewans of Native States, Military officers, Civil officers, representatives of the Press, all seemed to

express a feeling' of genuine regret that the Governor

The .~esence of the Body' Guard of

was leaving











-.- . ----~---

r.~ ~;.,.J-


Lancers in scarlet tunics, Qwell-mounted and well- dressed, II general feature of such departures from.\ Madras 1 was not absent on this occasion. Of tli~; · chiefs present on the platform, perhaps the Maharaj~t:

of .V~ian8gram looke~ the most distinguished. The• night bafore starting we had sat ·up till past midnight Beeing his theatrical company perfonn in S8Il8krit the


well-~owndrama of Sakun~la, or the miBsing Ring,

in whi~hwe have such charming pictures of early Indian womanhood.

The Agent of the Railway came with us to Ark6- nam, where we dined extremely weU in the Refresh ment Room of the ~ilway Oompany. The Superin-

tendent of Police met us here, and after leaving the station, the train mov.ed on through the night towards <t~.Vetlore our destination, and on the way fore8t.~es; '. "raging in the hills on our left, made the line of march pne grand illumination. The outline of the hills was marked ~fire. Thi~ is one of the evils which we hope the new Forest Rules will prevent.

th~ "Hindu Brethren of



As we passed Arcot,

W allajahnaggar " presented a comprehensive address on the platform, which there was no time to ans~er. At 10 o'clock we got to Katpadi, the station whence Vellore and Chittoor, the chief ct~wn8 of the North ' ~cot Distri,ct, are reached. Here we were met by Mr. Crole, tl1e Judge, and Mr. Glenny, the Collector, who kindly' entertained us for the night in a little camp near the railway station. " To those, cwho have not visited India, it will be necessary to explain that the ColJector is the adminis-








trator of a district and tlfe age~t.of Government, and· Chief Magistrate within a charge, which may run in ~~~adras Presidency from 2,000 to 10,000 square miles ;IJlIis somewhat misleading designation is derived from the fact, that he is responsible for the revenue of his district, which may amount .00' as much aBo half &. million sterling, the largest portion of whioh is paid as land ~sess~ent. Actual collections are made by


"native officers in every village.

A certain 'n~ber of

such. village officers pay in their collections ~ another fUnctionary, who again deposits them- in the treasury of a superior official, having autl;J.ority over a large IUlmber of yillages,. whose subordinate he is. A certain number of these superior native officers are in turn ~der the- authority of an officer ~ charge of a division -of a distriot, and thee last named officer, and .all ot~ers :;. in charge of such divisions are subordinate to the' :,"

Collector, ~ho is personally responsible to the Govem~


Next morning at 6 o'clock we rode to Vellora and visited first the Central Jail, one of the mo~t important in the Presidency. "CQ]onel McLeod, the Superintendent, and the Medical Officer met us here. We had some conversation with a State .prisoner, and ' with -the notorious ~onvict Lingam Lakshmaji, once

Agent to the Maharaja of

J eypore in Vizagapatam,

once. Deputy Inspeotor of Schools, AuihQr, Pandit, Fa.on of the drama, Sanskritist, .writer of Latin essays, kn~ now lllldergoing a sentence of impri-

sonment for forgery. Under the orders Qf Govern-







is allowed 8p~ial priY~leges







during his imprisonment

work. The solitary ward&, the -.1zial seotioD where adm1l8ble carpets are made, the gunny ~ . weaving, and the purdah-making were all ~ted.

To the prolonged visit to thil very interesting jail; 8Ucceeded a visit to the not less interesting fort,-- the 'old fort of Vellore, -built of 'Bl888ive granitestone,

and ~unded by a broad :wet ditch, up to -which.

gently &lopes iJle grassy gltMJiB.· IDSide the fort the most beautiful specimen of architecture is the Kalyana-

mantapatn, or marriage-porch, the 'carvings of···.whi~h are very·remarkable. There are also large mansions in which State prisoners used to be kept, and here the

Be is employed on literary



ex-Zemindar of Paloondah, whose case" has mom thaD.

once been -before PaFliament, lived for'many ·years. The Governor conversed with him'- for ROme time and

~mised to consider- 8 petition he .,is about

to ., Government.

pleased with his reception. He speaks no English, and is an infirm, :but not undignified old gmrt~mam.

Ail that Govemment can do to alleviate his lot has

He . expressed hinise1:f very' mucn

to present

been done ,for him.

whether ar not he should have been· otherwise treated

when a' child.

= ' W ~lunched with the Sub-CollPctor, and ·there met

the District Engineer, the Head Aseistant CoHectm,

It is hopeless now to eonsider

and others.

.After lunoheon the school of the FNe

Church of 8eotland had to be visited, and the' toJbba , of-the relatives of" Tippu ·Sultan,to be &eeIL '-There i8 II large Mu8&t1lman population in Vello:re, many',of .

.whom tliaw 'stipends from GonpmneBi in OODBictera-







, '.





•• ~



-:tUm of their relationship tot or dependence upon, the ex-royaf family ·of Mysore.

,. '. ~". ~r -dining again in· the- little camp with· Mr.

. Glenny, we· got into our railway carriages, and, during

the night; WaR) carried~.on ·to Sale1&, whWl we reached

m the.early morning.

pleasure than the· oondition 'of the Central Jail, which

N.othing at Vellore ga¥8 more

. is attributable ohieHy to .Colonel McLeod, ita ~perin- tendent, who has been ill oharge fer many years.

. '-. -:.~.On 'the morning of the, lst.of April,_ Xr. }{~

W stterS, the Colleotor" the. Judge, the Superintendent

'of Poliee;: Mr. Cavendi&h, the Superintendent of Jail,

and otherS met the Governor. on the platform, and we

soon started for Salem, .which is ,about as far fr~m the

. station ~_are Vellore, and most other populous plooe&t

along-the Madras :Qailway. ,Arehesof :8.owers were emoted aerose the road, and inseriptlODs in yario.

~ put up. 0 At the gateway of the town'th8 Bev~ .Mr. Foulkes, whose wife is one of the few

Earopean Zemindars,

together with a deputation of

oitizens, stopped Lord Connemara to present him with

an address. The streets were orowded to overJlowiD8

Flowers, garlands, bags of scent were

thrown on to the carriages. Noone would have thought' that 88 l,~ly 88 1882- the Hindu8 and

)("l188ulmans of\ this town had been at daggers-drawn,

8Bd that a riot had eB8ued which ~ed .for the mtA)lTennon .of the Military before it was put down. Some of the. mottoes on the arches were rather curious.


'At .the'


hospital' an

archway bore t1le

-'~Nevar,say die;" f\t ·the Oollector? ho~~ the~·wu

, another, Mena ,aria in corpore



French, Latin,



Tamil, Sanskrit and EngliAh proved insufficient tQ;" . express all the feelings of the good people of Salem,'

who gave His Excellency a very handsome and vert


-< .;>

hearty reception.

. At 5 o'clock in the evening a Hindu address ann;'

a Mussvlman address were presented, to both of whioh a reply was of course given. Next we went to see the mosque at Shevapett, the proximate cause of the riots r~ferredto above. The afternoon was occupied

in acquiring information concerning the illdustI1al and sanitary ~ondition of the town, the various aspects of the railway qU"estion, the water-supply and other matters, whioh it will take much time and much money

Several matters

of detail, which were referred to in the various ad- dreBses pJesented, were also notedland an opportunity

was taken to express an earnest hope that the Mussul. inan community, here and elseWhere, would improve in" education and advance in enterprise. At night a native entertainment was given at the Uollector's office, where the usual dances, and.songs

to bring to a satisfactory conclusion.

~ere performed, and sung.



Next morning early the Central Jail was inspected.

One of the prisoners luid a' petition to

said he had often been·in jail, in.faot, could not keep


out of it.

~0 sooner' was he released than he again

got into m~hief, he. felt that he was a great expense' to Government, and gave a great deal of trouble, mld

- he~ could see nothing for it, but that he should be provided with. an appointment, and so settled for life. At the Dispensary little wa~ elicited except the oomplaint .of the Doctor, that the instruments supplied










.~ by the Store Departmenf of the India Office were not so' good as they might be. Enquiry has shewn, how- ~ver, that -such complaints seldom bear examination.

~} One of the chief industries of Salem is weaving, wmch, it is feared, is rather in a depressed condition. -

In the afternoon the Governor, acoompaniefl by the

· Collector, visited the weavers' quarter, next inspected the Collector's and Fo~t Offices, gave away prizes at the Salem College, and visited the London M~ion


After this fairly busy day, we dined at 7 o'clock and drove to the station, halting at a very :fin~archway erected by the late Station Master, and left at 9 o'clock for Coimbatore, where we amved in the early morning on the 3rd of April, and where we were met by the

Mr. S'k>kes, and

. No time was iost in commencing business, and after a drive around the town, we visited the Norm~ School, the Taluk Office, and the Municipal market; where an address was presented by the MunicipalitY,- and where the leading :nativ~ of the town were intro- duced to His Excellency. In replying to this address, the Governor took th~ opportunity to say that though heads of villages mi6ht not, 'When acting in 8 judiciai

Collector Mr. Wilfock, the Judge, many others.






• . eapacity, give universal satisfaction, the exis~gstate of things was brought about by no less distinguished an authority than Sir Thomas Munro, and that he would have to consider the 8ubject in all its bearings, and could not promise at present thato any changes should be made. ~e thought, however, that it was

, prohable that greater powers of supervision over the



I , ~ I 0




Village :Munsifs might be cdnceded to superior CO~"

A Bill to ~ringthis about and to remedy other def6 "

in the existing state of dam will shortly be befalt .

In fact where tb.~is"";tf

the Legislative Council.

competent Village Head, in :whom the people ha#- .

oonftdev.ce, he does a great deal of useful work. In a village in Tinnevelly, in which I resided, the sole

European inhabitant, for upwards of a year, the Muns~ had Ii capital couri-house, sat on a bench cove~d with green baize, 'conducted business with -much dignity, did substantial j1l8tice, and always had

-his hands full.

The jail was visited and various points were noted lor communication to the Sooretari@t, more parti. cularly concerning the treatment of juvenile criminals. Th~ Govemtnent horse-breeding establishment received attention, six stallions were inspected, and a dinner party concluded a long day. We slept in the train and awoke next morning

On the

way up the ghaut the Governor inspected the Burliar Gardens, where we were met by Mr. Lawson, and afterwards proceeded to Coonoor, where the General (Jommanding the Division and his Staff, Colonel Jago,


fJ,t Mettupalaiyam at the foot of the Hills.

Master of the Nfigiri Hounds, ltV- Burrows, the eol-

lector, and many others received us. After a brief

halt for breakfast, we rode into <?otacamund, where an address of welcome was read by the Munioipali'Y at

His ExcelleIicy would

like the plac~, and were assured, in return, that he

looked forward

Charing Cross, who· hoped that

with great conft~ence to find a happy

summer home among them on the ~ ilgiris.



1''- '




~--.--- --,

MAP otthe MADRAS PRESIDENCY .:II ~o Illuatfate Chapter II 01 Mr. "ee. l • N~ratlve
~o Illuatfate Chapter II 01 Mr. "ee. l •
Scale 1 Inch --= 128 MHos

t iO'tO-ll~CO~RAPHf:D IN (!aNl'RAL !l!HVih' Of













Departure from Oot&camund-Oor party-At MettapoIliem JAn&rnaJai Hill&-8alem-Renigunta-Sacred Tirupati-Nellore State Bailway- Kodur and Mamandur Beaerves-Sir Dietrich Brandis--Cuddapah- Guntakal-Southern Mahratta Railway-Bellary-Raja of Sandur-His State-Levtie-Military Hospital-Fort Church-MadrRa Otvalry Lines ~Me881"8. Sa.bapathy and Company's mills---Bir Bamasawmy's Lying-in Hospital-Thugs-Bn rout. to Hospett-Darojee tank-Our party- From Hospett to Vijianagar-An aooident-A panther at large-Humpi ruins-Duarte Barbosa-Old Vizianagar;-Pampatiswami temple-Pic- turesqut' sighte-Vigneswara Bwami-Mantapau.-Nimm's frontier- Fallen temples-Elephant stables-Deserted zenanu-Ryots' indi1fer- ence-MegastheneBon India-Vittalswami's ~goda-Indiansquirrels- Legend from Bama~Bathing ghaut-Torii-like mOllOliths-.lna gundi-Ooracles-Jain temples-Native club-London Mission schools

Sisters of the Convent of Good Shepherd-Entertainment at Prince of Wales' choultry-Peopl~'s-Association address-Technical education"':- 8anscrit address-Sbam fight-Burmese dacoits-Gooty-Bir Thomas -

Munro's tomb-Anantapur-Addreeses at Munro'. cutcherry-Repli

Buckacherla project-Pamedy cloths-DharmavaraJi ~Addre88at High school-Sir 14. E. Grant Dlrlr-Jubilee Park-People's Association addre88-Gooty fortresa-.Ascent of hill-A Mahratta General-Dhon~ ToomG trees-Hindry-Sir Arthur Cotton's canal-Kurnool-Bunkesala -Canal journey-Nawab of Banganapalle-ffis brother-in-law-Ad-

dresses-Local water-supply-Native entertaiJunent-Nandyal-Yerra- malaia-Viaduct--Visit to Ouddapah postponed-Ascent of ghaut- Results of Tour.

AT 8 o'clock on tha. morning of Tuesday, the 26th July 1887, we- left Oota-

osmund and proceeded out

of s raincloud -to 'the sun-

• H.E. the Lord Oonnemara. Mr. J. D. Bees, Private 8ecretary.


Stewart-Mackenzie, lAncers, Military Secretary





Lancers, A.D.C.


shine of Coonoor, ten miles, whenQe we descended into

the heat of the lower regions of Coimbatore.


f .'






Next morning, at 4 o'c18ck, the English mail was

delivered at Arkonam, where we breakfasted~

At 10

0'clock we proceeded by the ordinary train, througlf Karvetnagar Zemindari, to Renigunf:a, the station lor· the sacred town of Tiropati, which has recently be- come ~ junction for the State Railway to Nellore,

which, it is hoped, will enable the Government of

o Madras to grapple more e:ffec~y with famine, should

it unh.8ppily again attack Us, and which opens out.

a tract of

country. hitherto cut off from the district

served by the railway. The Engineers employed on the railway, here explained the progress of the line over which at present goods are being carried, and· which, in a month or two hence, will, it is hoped, be open for passenger traffic. Mr. Higgens, the Forest Ofllcer, hoo come hither to accompany us to Cuddapah, and, on the way through the Kodur and Mamandur Reserves, he described the operations now in progress in connection with forest preservation in those and other adjoining localities, of which he has special knowledge, having served in the Cuddapah district· . . for some ten years, and having himself been in charge of the forest operations in the district for five years. Like myself, he had sat at the feet of Sir Dietrich








Brandis, under the spell of whose energy and ability,

a love of forest business sinks deep into the soul. Arrived at Cuddapah, we were met by the Colleo- tor, Mr. Gabriel Stokes, the Judge, Buperintende:&t of Police, and others. Mr. Stokes then took ~us for a

drive when we saw the new office being built for the

Collector, and the chief sights of the to~ in whioh





cholera in a mild form "'8 present. The large tank


r •• there were signs of rain along the line as it passed

over fields cultivated with cholum, indigo, raggi, and

other crops. Mter dining at the Collector's a. and learning that cholera was on the ~ecrease, we 7eD:t to our carriages, which were shunted off into 8 siding on the railway, until 1-80 A.••• , when the mail train from

Madnts too~ u~ on to Gutakal. At

Guntakat junc-

tion, whence the branch line to Bellary leaves the main

Madras 'line, we' were met by Messrs. Wi~on and McClouhin, of the Southern Mahratta Railway Com- pany, who gave us much information" concerning the

proposed extension of that railway to join the Mysore

line, which has since been completed', and concerning the traffic on the seotion thereof which extftnds frbm

.Gadag to Hudgi, which, he said, was satisfactory and


.aq.joining the Collector's house was quite w


It will be remembered that the line from·

Guntakal to Bellary has quite recently been made

over to the Southern Mahratta Railway, the broad-

gauge line having been taken up and the rail laiD

down on the Indian J!letre gauge-the gauge on which

the whole of Southern Mahratta system is constructed. Mter passing through a plain of blaok cotton soil,

relieved by little

we reached Bellary at 10-45, where the Collector,

Mr. Winterbotham, the Judge," Mr. Golding~m, the

officers commanding the different regiments and bat- teries st4tioned at Bellary, and a ·large numb~r of

A gu~d of llonour of the

persons were assembled.

Bedtordshire Regiment was drawn up on the platform,

d.r~ogs, or rocky hills, at intervals,








where the Municipal Com~issioners presented an . address, which was briefly acknowledged.

After this the party drove to the Collector's house' with an escort of the 2nd Madras Lancers. At 4 P.K., the Raja o~ the tiny valley of Sandur came to pay his re~cts and present his gift or nazzar. The State of Bandur is an interesting survival of the Mahratta


Within his 160 square mil~s, the Raja

has pl:nary powers extending'to life and death, subject to the approval of the Madras Government. He is a

e comely, frank, and; well-mannered young man, speaking Hindustani well, and a very little English. With him were two of his relations and his Dewan or Minister, Mr. Firth. Lord Connemara told the Raja that he was glatt to hear that things were going on well in me little State, and th'ht it would be the constant aim. of the British Government·to afford every protection to Native States, which represent the old. families and past ~storyof the country. To this the Raja replied that he not only dwelt secure under the shadow of the British Raj, but was, in fact, British himself, and was not to be spoken of as separate. His Excellency said he hoped to welcome the Raja one day at Madras, and then he and his relatives departed, after presenting a number of t1'tlys of flowers, sweet- meats, betel, raisins, and the like, all of which were touched by the Governor. To this funotion succeeded a levee, at whick all the chief European and native inhabitants off-the town

and district eowere presented to the Governor, wh~ spoke a few words, in almost every -case, to tho~








introduced. The native officers of the regiments quar- tered at Be~· also' filed past. The buainess and pleasures of the day were not yet over, and at i past I) came a garden party at which the ladies of the station were presented. The country around Bellary, which not long sinoe had presented an arid and b~t-up appearance, was now groolll and not unpleasant to look at.

N ext m~rning,'the 29th, at i

past 6, the"e -was

a' parade of the troops of the ganison. The 2nd Madras Lancers, Field Batteri~s BfI and GIII, ~ya1 Artillery, the 6th Madras Native Infantry, and a wing -of the Bedfordshire Regiment, the other wing of which is in Madras, were on parade. Afterwards His Excel-

lency, in company with ColoneJ Parsons, Officiating

Brigadier-General, inspected the Military hQspitala -a fine building adjacent to the Parade Ground. The Fprt Church was next visited, in company with Mr~ Williams, the Chaplain, and, lastly, before returning home for breakfast, the lines of the Madras Cavalry Regiment. Colonels Parsons and Galloway explain~d the internal economy of the regiment, and the Veteri- nary Burgeon, who was present, testified to the healthi- ness of Bellary, as a station for horses. At 1 o'clock, the Mills of Messrs. Sabapathy and Co. were visited, and Mr. Sabapathy and some of his partners showed Lord Connemara over the extensive works and ex- plained the uses of the elaborate machinery. Up till nor spinning only was effected in these mills, but, of late, cloths have been woven whiOh are in large .~mand for local use. At ~ P.If., the Civil Hospital








and the District Jail claim~d attention. His Excel- lency W8I much interested by his visit to the former institution, and suggested the addition of a Lying-~ Hospital similar to that attaohed to the .Monegar . Choultry at Ma~ by the bounty of Sir Ramaswami '. Moode]liar. One of the patientS at the hospital had.

endeavoured to burn

Jrimself by drinking. kerosine oil

and then setting fire to his clothes. A sad case was that or a pilgrim on his rettim from Ramesvaram to Benares, whose- strength failed him by the way. Such cases are by no means uncommon in this district. The poorer pilgrims 8ucc~b, on the road, to disea"e and fatigue, and their miseries are frequently alIe-_ viated in institutions such 8S these. At the Jail, two venerable-looking prisoners, who had been convicted 8S -rhug~and had spent 30 yearA in prison, seemed, at first sight, to be :fitting subjects for mercy, 8S did ~ State prisoner from Malabar; but here, as in the ~e of Lord Lytton's Frontier petitioner, the consti- tuted "authorities have "first to be QOnsulted. After a

brief visit to the European Club, there was only just time to keep an engagement to dine with theBedford- shire Regiment; to which succeeded a very enjoyable dance given by the residents of the station at th~ Masonio Hall. The ,Governor rtwlied briefly to the kindly words of welcome uttered, on behalf of the hosts, by Mr. Goldingham, the District Judge. Dis- tances are very great in Be~, and, at 2 A.M., when the party retired to bed; · all its membel'l· thought they had done a pretty good day's work.

Next morning, at· 11, a start was made for HOI-




pet by the Southern Mahrltta Rail~ay,and the greater part of the three and-a-half hours- occupied in accom·

p1ishing the 40 miles that intervened were spent in getting through arrears o~ papers which had accumu- lated in ilie hands of the Private Secretary in the last . -two days.· There was time, however, to ob8E'JVe the country as we P8:ssed through it, and the most notice-

able features were the DaJ;ojee tank, and the flourishing little forest reserve abutting on its waterspre8d. lJesides the members of the Governor's staff, Mr. and- Mrs.

Winterbotham, Mr.

and M~s. Campbell,

and Major

Vernon accompanied the railway were fields of young

.On either side of the

cho~lUIl all the way-•


.Mter lmiching at the station; we drove in our own

carriages the seven miles intervening between Hospet

and Kamalapur, one of the two little _villa~s which

now mark the site of the once famous city of Vijia-



On the way one of our carnages broke down;


the axle giving way. This damage was speedily

repaired, in a temporary fashion, by the resC?urceful

I natives of the place. On the way we got news of tlie presence of a panther in the rocks hard by, .and most of our party went off w,ith rifles and police carbines

r to shoot it. The animal, frightened by this war-like


and ,yen more


by the



natives who surrounded the cave in which he had

been seen tf) take refuge, decl~ed to leave it, though

.efforts were made to smoke him out, and worry and

frighten l1im out in every conceivable way.

On the morning of the 31st, soon after daybreak,

we drove to Pampapatiswami temple at Hampi, the






othep of the two villages rn the ruins of Vijianagur. Duarte Bkrbosa, a traveller of the 16th century, whose works have been published by the H.aklu~Societt, gives a most interesting account of the gl9riell of ~

Vijianagur before it was sacked by the king


!Jeejapore, the ruins of whose capital Me briefly referred to at the end of chapter XIII. Amongst

• - other jhings, he says that th~ king was always waited upon by_ women, and that th~ fairest ladies in the

kingdom followed the camp in war, so that the brave who distinguished themselves in battle might at once receive their reward. The editor of the volume in the · Hakluyt series above referred to, has pointed out that Plato provided in his Republic, that the bravest men might kiss, and be kissed by the loveliest women,

wfthout Btint or reserve. •


• A good road wound round the· rocky hills, on, which, and between which, and around which, the. great oity once extended. A channel from the Tun-

~abhadra, on the banks 9£ which river

the city stood,

inigates the deserted site. Hence it is that, unlike the ruins of most of the cities of old times, those:.of Vijianagur present a pleasing and attractive aspect to the traveller. After passing ruined temples and many-pillared, the m\p.s of a columned hall stand close by the road, and here the rice-cultivation -presses up to the deserted dwelling. Next, a long and regular street of ruined pavilions is reaohed, between which !jes a green cluster of coco4nut trees which glisten in the morning sun. The ground is .

everywhere uneven, and on most of the little hills are



gigantic boulders with tiny temples perched upon the upp'er stones, and below cavern dwellings, partly ~atural~Bdpartly carved. At one point on the road- side is a: 'colossal image of Vign.esvamswami, the god who removes o~stacles; and a little beyond this is the main. street, at one end of which is the Sivite -temple of Pampapatiewami, whose hea~h is still warm- and to whose festival tens of thousands of- nativ~ still flock in the spring. In a broad and handsome street, flanked on either side, as everywhere in this ·historio city, by pillared halls or mantapams, are crowded together the few native huts that make up the modem . village -of, Hampi. To the west of this street flows 'the Tungabhadra, and, at the lower end thereof, a

flight of steps leads over a saddle,

on the other side of

which is a valley between the rocky hills: leading





. again to· the ·scribed, and

river, through a street like that just de-. with the usual temple at ~he end remote

from the water. Above this rises a hill of greater height and of easier access than most of tho8~ arounq By the roughest of stone steps you may ascend to the

little temple that -crowns its summit, whence a fine

view can be ob~ined of the ruined city, as' a whole.

On every side you see fall~n temples and pavilions,

and rocky hills cove~d'Yith huge boulders, and little valleys below them marked like chessboards with small ·square nelds of rice divided by little green banks. ft one point the remains of an ancient bridge may be seen leading across to the dominions o~ the Nizam of Hyde~bad, between whose t~ITitorie8 and

ours the river is ~e boundary. WOOd5, or, as ono






would say· in India, garden:, of cocoanut trees relieve

the monownyof cultivation, and across the river in the

Nizam's country nothing meets the eye but a 'tangle t of rocky hills and stony valleys between. On almost ., every hill were huge rooking stones-or sto~esthat

looked-as if they might have rocked-poised across

larger horizontal rocks.

Such stones exist nowhere

else, 1UJless it be in the fabulous city of Kor, of which

we have lately heard so much. On many of these

rocks are little kiosques, three pillars and a hood, light and airy structures that a breath of wind might, you would S8Y, almost lift into river or valley below. Elephant stables, zenanas, where squirrels and blood- suckers revel in the fermer home of beauty and in- trigue, concert hall and council chamber, make up a vi;ion or the past, while around it the patient and .contented ryot cultivates his rice and cocoanuts, thinks little of the past, and, notwithstandiJig his supposed passion for representative go~emment, absolutely

nothing of the future.

His indifference is sublime.

Is .it not reoorded that, when Mussulman and Hindu were fighting for supremacy in the south of India, he .went on with his cultivation and barely took" the trouble to ask who had gained the day, and did not Megasthenes take note of ~. similar phenomenon upwards of 2,000 years ago? The finest of the temples lies in one of the most ~olitary of the clefts in the hills of heaped-up boulders of gneiss. The carving and the architecture of Vit- talswami's pagoda are not surpassed in the south of India. Three large white monkeys were in posses-






. sion, and they made way with reluctance for two EUTopeans. There are no 90y8 about here, and, if

there were, Hindu boys do not throw stones at animals.


~'-Monkeys and squirrels therefore walk about with the

confidence begotten of experience. Not the English . squirrel, but a small and pretty beast with t~ gold marks down his back. These are the marks of. the :8n~ers of Rama, who op.ce sttoked his anceB;or, in token of appreciation, since which day all squirrels

wea,r a coat of the sa~e


_On the path leading

from this temple to the Bteps of the bathing ghAt is a stone arch, one transverse and- two upright monoliths, curiously like the Torii found in front of every Shinto temple in Japan, but here said to have been used as . scales on which to weigh rich pilgrims, who had to - give to the god their own weight in gol<k In -all these ruins the sacred banyan (Ficus religiosa) hurries

on the work of destruction. It sprouts in the cleft:

- of the temples, and ~ines around the stones to the ultimate destruction of the/ edifice it adorns. The mango and the tamarind, less sacred and destructive, beautify the precincts of the holy places Our camp here as elsewhere was most comfortable, thanks to the excellent arrangements made by the servants under the direction of the Military Secretary. .Captain W yndham-Quin, when he awoke every morn- ing, would send his servant to "see if Polliam butler was- there, and if so, to ask him where we are, and where we are going next." Such confidence had we in our native retainers. At Anagundi, on the other side of the Tunga-



bhadra, dwell some represeIftatives of the fallen house of Vijianagur. AcroE the river is a ferry; the transit is accomplished in coracles, I:ound bamboo-ba8ke~, made water-tight by bufralo hides. You would find . little difterence between them and the coracle of the ~ 8evern. or the gouffa of the Tigris, each of which . appears, at ~t sight, in its own way, unique•

I pass over the Jsin temples ~nd a modem Hindu

temple, on the sloping steps of which you may see

the graceful Brahmin woman emerging like a Hindu Venus from the river with aM her dripping garments

clinging round her shapely form. Two pleasant day~ have been spent in visiting these ruins, but two pages' of description may prove too. much. Midday on the third dai, the 1st of August, we started back for

Bellary, \ driving to

Hospet, where, as at Kamalapur,

-Cholera, now, as in'the palmy days of Vijianagur, one of-. the scourges of the country, had made its dreaded


trate of the Bellary district, with his wife, lives 'in a

Mussalman tomb which has been converted into a dwelling-house. Nothing can be less sepulchral, nevertheless, than the air of the place pr the appear- ance of its inhabitants.

room was just found for a

_,At Hospet an Assistant to the Magis-

Arrived at Bellary,

little rest," and next day, on the 2nd, the usual round commenced of functions, inspections, ·and inte~W8. The People's Association, by their chosen aelegates, had sometmg. to say about inigation projects, the

affairs, and what not; the nati va

conduct of public









officials, who desired intEtviews, had also to be re- •

ceived. .• In the afternoon, the firat place_ to visit was

the Native Club, where lawyers, merchants, Govern-


town, play billiards, read the papers, and abvse the

Next came the


and other native gentlemen of Be~ary

just like Englishmen.


London Mission S~hooI8, where some hundreds of Canarese and Telugu. boys are educated English-wise. The Bible is taught in the school; but there is no effort made to convert the pupils. One of the senior boys read an address, in which he said that all the boys were His Excellency's children. Lord Conne- mara, in reply, said it was true that, in one sense, he was the father of a very large fa~y of over thirty millions; that, in my case, he hoped. tha' all his children who were studying in that school would pass , the examinations' for which they might go up, and, if-

they.failed, would try again. The Convent of the , Good Shepherd proved a most interesting institution, and the Sisters, clad in white serge and black hood~ had made their surroundings, in the hideous canton- ment of Bellary, as charming a8 spotless cleanliness and good taste could !Dake them. A pleasant dinner with the 2nd Ma<Ira, Lancers, which regiment had recently returned from Burma, ~as not the last event of the day, for, to it succeeded an entertainment at the Native Hostelry, or Choultry, built t.o com~emorate the .visit of the Prince of Wales. Here a long address was read by the People's Association, .dealing with irrigation, the alleged corruption of native officials,





and other suhjects. To !his the Governor replied promisin.8' to look further into the Tangabhadra pro- ject, with which he was already acquainted, and, with j-. referen~to what was said.about the native officialS'.;J ~ to cOIlSlder the rules relating to the length of· .Q1e ~ ,r' . tenure. of their appointments in one locality. His Excellency expressed himself strongly averse to fre-

quent changee.


1fe went to bed with songs in Canarese, Telugu., and Hindustani ringing in our ears, and, after a short

night, got up early on the 3rd of August to visit the Protestant Orphanage and the High School, and to breakfast with the 6th Madras Infantry. At the Orphanage, occasion was taken to express satisfaction at the practical turn that education took in that iItlJtitutien,where a carpentry clJlss for boys is main- tained. At the High School, a Sanscrit address,

composed in honour of the Governor, was read by of the masters. In the aftemoon,. a native officer of the 2nd Madras Lanoers gave an entertainment, to which all . 'our party were bidden. The most in~eresting event in the programme was a realistio representation of the capture of a village of Burmese. dacoits by a squadron of the regiment, which has r~ently returned from that country. With leaves and palms a sha~ village was made, from behind which the daooits fusilladed the advancing Lancers, who came on, nevertheless, accompanied by 'their- interpreter, m the national cos~ tume, mounted on -a Pegu pony. The dacoits were speedily routed, and, as they ran away, when c~augh~









threw themselves on the·ground before the horses' fore legs, and cried for mercy. The chief of the ~it8, the Boh, was finally tried for his life, found

summary mill·


~ -gUilty, and executed on the spot with




.After which he got up, and walked

. home, and we went to dress' for dinner. The. inter- , preter on the Pegu pony was a great feature of the show, and no one could b.e shot or even aimed ~t, till this functionary declared him to be the right man. - Next morning, Thursday, 4th, at 5 o'clock, a large assembly of Bellary people and not a few ladies got up to see His Excellency leave and bid him good-

bye, and, before 10 o'clock, the train drew up at Gooty within sight of the high and precipitous rock, the abandoned fort on the top of which has, in its day,

played no unimport8nt a part in the histo~ of

Ceded Districts. In the cemetery at the foot of the hill is the cenota~h of Sir Thomas -Munro, whose remains were transferred to Madras, and who died at a village 19 miles away, while taking a last fond look at the people of this part of the· country, for whose ~elfare he had, long befbre he became Governor of Madras, laboured so wisely and so well. It is a hot drive of. 32 miles, between fields of young cholum and oo,stor-oil, along a road bordered with acacias, which, at one point, crosses the now dry bed of the Penner, to Anantapur, the capital of a new district lately created 'out of a portion of Bellary. EverythiIig here is quite new, and you step out of the house door into a wilderness. Howevm-, there was much to be learnt about the condition of the pepple,




the incidence of the extra. t:xation recently introduced

under Lord Ripon's self-government scheme, about the Forest Department, the new buildings which Go;. emment is erecting at large expense, and many other subjects of the like and of a different nature. The district, though till lately only a .piece of

Bellary, is 5,000 odd very dry square miles in extent. The povemor spent the greater part of the day in going through railway and irrigation schemes with

Colonel Hasted, and Mr. Nicholson, officers who know the district well, and have its welfare much at heart. In the afternoon, no less than four addresses we~ presented on the classic ground of MunrQ's office. In reply to these addresses, His Excellency said what


it gave him to visit the scenes of the earlier

career of that distinguished administrator, whose ex- • ample he thought every one in high office in India would do well to imitate. He promised -that the Bukacherla Irrigation Project should be reconsidered '

in the light of the new suggestions now· made ; and the various points touc4ed in the different addresses were replied to in the guarded manner necessary, as great care has- to be taken not to raise false hopes, or to accept too readily statemen~s which, however . plausible and made in perfect g&od faith, are merely ez parte statements. The cloths of Pamidy and the silks of Dharmavaram were hung around the room. The· native gentlemen present were introdu~ed to His Exoellency, who next proceeded to the High" School, where, as usb}, an address Was received and answered.

Lord Connemara took tlie oppo~tyto say that the,:




establishment of the scho~l·was· due to the visit of · his distinguished predecessor Sir M. E. Grant Duff. 'the Jubilee Park, in which, as in other good works, Mr. Nicholson is 80 much interested, the hospital, the

. new Collector's office, which seems at present all too



grand for the place, were next inspected

Assistant Commissioner of Salt Revenue ha~waited on His Excellency, in th~ course of the day, f9( the purpose of discussing the rise in the price of salt, which was refelTed to in the addresses, and which, it is to be hoped, is due, as the Governor trusted, "to local and temporary causes' only." In the big· tank, there was unfortunately not a drop of water; but on the way back to .Gooty, next morning, signs of rain were manifest, and when we got to our camp, the tents were wet through and. through. '. • In the aftemoon the People's Association presented an address of an. ordinary character with the usual references to irrigation works, and to the grateful recollection in which Sir Thomas Munro lives in the memory of the inhabitants, and not less Robertson; whose memory is as green 8S are the trees which he


planted allover the country. Within sight of the

fortress of Gooty, the central poillt around which Mahratta, Mussulmai and Hindu have often fought, and which, though frequently attacked, has never actually been taken, His Excellency admOllished the- members of the deputation to remember that taxa~on was certa1nly not less light in the days of rapin~ and of plunder, than it is now when life are . ," secure During dinner the blessed rain, for whick



26 o


we were all wishing, ,came c down in torrents, testing the power of our tents to a considerable extent. The lights attracted innumerable animals, things -creepIDg and things flying, and by the time coffee arrived very little of tlie table cloth could be seen. The most