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IhY<IeHHe upaacco-esponeacxax H B ocotienuocra HpaucKo"CJIaB!lHCKUX JUlHrBHCTH'IeCKHX OTHOWeIlH" HMeeT 60r1LTJIO acropmo. DomeR3- BeCTHbl .nOCTHJKeIlH)[ B oroii o6J1acTI1 B Tpy.n.aX YJKe XIX R rtepsoil nOJIOBRHbl XX B., a 'raxxe myfioKHe o6ooru.alOWHe pa60TbJ oresecrsenaux .113hIKOBellOB B 60-e roAM XX B. 0630P rrpo6JIeMaTHKH, KPHTH'iecKoe paceMOTpeHHe B3mAA01'i Pa3JIH'IHhlX HCCJIe.llOBaTeJ1eH, ooo6weHHe HX, aHaJJU3 HOB6iX O1'KrJMTHif B rrepffO£I £IO cepeO:HHI>I 60-x WIl.OB XX B. cOt{epJKB.TCII B OCHOBHOM B He6olIbWI1X no 061.eMY, HO oseas eMKHX Tpy.nax nsyx yseHblX - A. A. 3aJ1H3l:UIK a (eM. B OC06eHHOCTH era CTaTblO [3arlU3HJlK 1962]) U B.H.AoaeBa (uenua PH)! crarea H netionsuraa JCIUtra [A6aeB 1965]; B HaCTOJIwee spexs rexer STOH KHlH1t C .nonOJlHeHUjiMH H MHome 60Jlee nosanae CTaTbH codpansr BMeCTe H nepesnaaasr, CM. [A6aeB 1995]). Ileansre CBe)leHHSI conepxarcs TaKJKe B paoorax YKaJaHHOro nepnona H B fionee nO:mHJ.lX J.lCCllelIOBaHIDIX STHX H npyrax aBTOPOB, [.lie aaamtaupyiorCJ[ KOHKpeTHble HCT()pH'IecKJ1e COOTBeTCTBHSI MeX)ly Jl3bIJCaMH nayx ceMeH H BTOpH'UlLle apeansnsre 11 TI1nOJIorn'leCKHe CXO:.K,!leHIDI. PaccMaTpHBaJOTCSI. 06II1J.fe qepTLI BO 4lparMeHTax HCTOPH'IecKOii cpoHeTHKH H MOp¢o.nOll1l1, B JleKCHKe (ocofenuo npHcTaJJLHoe BHHMaHHe YJleJ111J10Cb OHOMaCTJ.fKe), B 3JleMeHTaX MHCPo.nOfHH H T .1I. Ocofieano BIDKHbI B 3TOM nnaae TPY.IIbl B.H Tonoposa H O.H.Tpyt5aQeBa (ca. «Jlnreparypa»). qacTb 3THX pa60T OTpaJKeHa raxxe B 0630PHOk paoore X.EupH6aJMa [oupH6ayM 1987].

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nOJ]p06Hee 06 sranax 'VleHeHKlJ apaacsoro COCTOSlHHlI na «BeTBH» CM. TaKJKe [Morgenstierne 1945, 228-232, 1974; Marg. 10, 338-342; Buddruss 1977; CrB.sJ·<I>, 42-43, 48, 55; 3.1leJ1bMaH 19921-

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5

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B npasauxe coaepuretmo OT'leTJlHBO BldcrynalOT .o:UaJleKTHWe HJlH. BO BCIlKOM cnysae, apeansaae sapaaarsr, BhIlIBHBWHeC}I B ax UCTOPHKO-$>HeTl1'-IeCKHX "IepTax: 1) «nponsaayrsra», OOJla.QatOIlIHH onpeneneaasrua HHHOBauIDIMH UellTpaJIbHbIH non-apean H 60Jlee apxaasaae (JlUOO pasBHBWHe C05CTBeHHlde IDIHOBaWm) MapmHa,JIbHlde, 'ITO 0Tp83ll110CL, nanpaaep, B peqmexcex UH,lI,oeBponeHcKHx nanararrsnux cornacastx, KOTOpne, BOnpeKH pacxoxeay MHeHHJO, He craHOBHlTHCb eH6IDUIHTaMH no aceay npaJI.3i>lKOBOM)' 06weHpaHCKOM)' apeany; 2) 3amUIHhlH H BOCTO'lHblH non-ape anst , B KOTOpLIX no-paJHOMY npeobpasoeanacs p$excbl HHJlO~ upaHCKHX JBOHXHX (n DT'IaCTn mYXH:t) COImWHb1X. Ilocnesnee 'lJIt:HeHHe "- nepepocno sareu B l'eHt!TH'ICCKOe pa3MelKeBaHHe acex HpauCKHX "3hlKOB.

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§ 5. KaK yxe roBOPIfJIOCb, OCHOBHbIMU npnauaxaxn renerasecxoro "IJ1eHeHIDI HpauCKHX X3bIKOB XBmlIOTCSl onpeneneanae acropaxo-tponeTH"IecKHe HHaODau"" B Ka)KJJ:OH U3 rpynn. B nOHCKax :lICe nplBHaKOB ax paCXOI,lJ,eHH.lI aa 60Jlee BblCOKHX lI3b1KOBhlX YPOBHlIX (MOP¢0J10ro-CHHTaKCII'IecXOM, J1eKCH'leCxoM) npHXOIlHTC.lI )"IRTblBaTb c}'lUeCTBeHHbJe acropaxo-runonorasecxae H3MeHeHilli B ax CHCTeMax. B peaynsrare xopeHHOH rtepecrpoiixa MopcpOJlOrn-CUHTaKCH'IeCJWU C"CreMbl apaacxax

7

g3LIKOB B 3nOXH, nOCJIe)1,OBaBWHe sa npeaaeapaacxoa, rpynaconpenellHMblMH wm BOBce He onpe.lleJ1HMblMH OKa3aJlHCb COOTBeTCr»WI B HC'Ie3- H)'BlllHX ::IJreMCHTaX .apeBHeH qmexC"" " a4xfmxCOR. B HTOre BblHBJteHHC 06LUHX MarepHaJIbHblX perpneKCOB JijleBHHX MOp¢OJ]OrH'IeCKHX MeMeHTOB y.r.ae1'CJI Jl:aJJeKO He scerna. K TOMY :lKe BbUlCHWlOCb, "lTO HH on"" H3 HeMHQrnX Bbwe.rumUIHXCX Tpa.rmUHOHHO KJlaCCH¢HllHpytOlQI-IX MOp¢Q1l0- fH'IeCKHX npH3H.UWB 3ana.nHoR HJm BOCTQ'IHOH rpynns; "paaCKHX il3bl~ EOB rra nerre TaKOBblM He SSIDleTClI: KIDI\LlMli 83 HKX npKCYLU mmu, <facm .liI3b1XOB TOti HJ1H HHOH rpynnbl. (Y'rpaTa 60JIhIlJOH 'IacTH .npeBHHX aq,- 41111(C08 H qmeKcHH CKa3blBaeTClI, eCTeCTBCHlIO, " na reuermecroa cpasHemUI HPaHCK1IX Sl3bIKOS C npyrnMH, B 'IaCTHOCTIi CJlaSlIHcKHMH.)

Tax: :lKe cnafio ¢HKcHpyeTClI 'i1J.eHCHHe "paHCK-MX jl3b1KOB ua reaeraseCIeRe rpynmt H nonrpynnu (KaK H CTenCHb reuerasecxoro pO.nCTBa apaaCWX R3I>lKOB C lIpyllfMH tUJ.L[oeBporreikxHMH) B .rteKCMKe: ffanH<JHe ~ OTcyrersae onpeaeneansu .nexcea, C1JHTaBlIleec» 'TpaIUfUHOHHO K!laCCM~HUHpytOl.lUfM, B pesynsrare 60J1ee rny50r.::oro HCCJle,[lOsatfIDI nexcasecxoro $JnlJA "PaHCKflX .IIlbiKOB, C n09.BJIeHHeM GOJlee nOJlHIIIX CJ10sapeH 14 r.n. TO:lKe OKaJa]IOCb reserasecxn HeCy:tJJ:ecTBeHHLIM. B Crul3H C 3TI1M OOcrOJITeJIbCTBOM rrpOll)'KTHBHbIMH npe)lCTal3JUllOTC.II nOUCKH CJ10Boo6pa30BaTeJThHblX MO.n:erreH. CpeACTB CJIOEoo6pa30BaHHll. a masaoe, MBTepuanbHblX cnoaootipa- 3_yro1QHX aneMeHTOB, ymy6neHHoe H3yqeHHe KOTOPblX - )lCJiO 6)iltYIIlero.

CJiauHcKHe JllLIKH

§ 6. B rexeaae nocneauax ~TUJleTHR aecpaaaeuuo yaenaxanncs HaW" 3HaHHJI 06 HH.lJ:oeBponeitcKHX 1I3hlKax Espoma, HX HCTOPHH H reaerasecxax R3aJ1MOOTHOlUeHH.IIX, B oc06eHHocTH 0 cnaBlIHCKHX Jl3bIKaX H HX reHeTH'IecKHX oraoureaasx K llpyfllM R3blr.::aM rpynnu «carsu». B <faCTHOCTH. rrOjJBI1JIOCh MHOro pador, pacCMaTPHsalOIQUX rrp06JIeMY reHeTIf'feCKHX oTHorueHHH CllBIDIHCKHX H3hlKOB C OanTHHCKHMH (6aJJTHHcr.::YID rpynny OGpaJ)'lOT, leaK Hl8ecTHO, J1HTOBCKHH. naTbIIlICKHH, B1IMepLImH B XVII B. npYCCKU". HJIH npeaaenpyccxas, H npeJlIlOJlO)KJITeJlhHO JlTIDIJKCr.::U" - 1I3Wr.::H. CHllbHO pasonremnaeca Me~y C060H U HaXO,ll,lIrnaecs KaK 0111 ira «pa3HbIX sranax» YXO)la OT "Pa5I3bIKOBOW COCTOSlHJ.UI:),

C}'U(ecTBycT HeMaJIO reopHH 6a.rrro-cnaWi'HCKUX oTHorueHMH. Hx nepexeus npasonarca, B 'IaCTHOCTH, O.H.Tpy5aqeRhlM (eM. [Tpy6a'!eB 1983, 2381 co CCbUIKaMU aa paGoTbi npenurecrseuuaxoar-. OCHoBHble TeOpU" CBO,!lSlTCJI K cnenyiouuus: 1) cyLUeCTBORaJI e)lRHbIH fiarrro-cnaBJiIHCKHH npID:I3hlK, HJ1H np8jl3blKOB<UI 06WHOCTb (Illneaxep, EpYfMaH); 2) rrpmrCXOJ1;H.!Io He3aBHCHMOe, napaJIJIeJIbHOe pa3BHTHe 6JIH3KHX Garr-

B

ndktrnx H cnaasrrcxax D.HaneKTOB (Meae): 3) pa3J1H<tml Me~y 6aJ1THii:CKKMH H CJIaS.IIHCKHMH .113bJKaMH fibUlH ew,e aa )'pas He HH.l\oesponeHCKHX ):I HanellOS, a 33TeM, nocne BbUl:eJIeHIDI apHHues, npOH30lWIO BTOpH1.JHOe cUrlHiKeHHe 6anrnltcKoro H cn3B"-HCKOro .113hlKOSOro MHpa H 06pa30BaHHe 6aJlTO-CJIaMHCKOH 06W,HOCTIi, HO 6e3 ofimero npW:I3bJKa (3H)l;3eJ1HH); 4) 6blJla JJ:peBHSI.II 06WHOCTb 6anTHi.tcKHX H CJ1aBSlHCKHX liI3bJKOB, 33TeM JJ,lIl.fTeJIbHhlH nepepsts Ii HOBoe c6.rlHiKeHHe (P03Ba.uOBCKuH); 5) cn3B.11HCKuH 06p330BancJ:I H3 nepHtpepHRHblx .lIHaneKTOB '6anTHHCKoro. Bee aTH rarroTe3Y OCHOBaHhl rJ1aBHblM 06pa30M na ananuae cpaBHeHlt.l:l HCTOPHKo-cpoHen'I'.fecKHX 3aKOHOB J.f aa 3THMOJIOrHn OTJl:eJIbHblX (xors H cyurecraeaastx) MOp¢leM If CJIOB (B OCHOSHOM MecToHMeHHH).

CyweCTByKlT H npyrae reopau 0 B33HMOOTHOWeHH.l:IX 6aJ1THRCKOro H CJIaB.IIHCKoro, xoropue paccMaTpH8alOTcliI B [Tpydaxea 1983, 238-239], C OTLle.rJbHblM 3HaJlH30M reopna MapTblHOB3, npennonaraiourero npoacXOiKlIeHHe npacnasaacxoro K.aJ( pe3YJIbTaT COe}1HHeHHSI aanaanoro npOTO- 6anTHHCKoro C HTaJ]liHCKliM (npa MHrpaUHH B XII B. JJ:O H.3.) H C H3- nOJKeHHeM upancxoro cynepcrpara [MapTbIH08 1978 (I), 43, 1978 (II), 102, 1981 (I), 104-106; Tpy6a'les 1983, 238],

P. EOWKOBI1'1 [1984. 30] C<fHTaeT, 'ITO cyurecreoeana He,I{OJ1raJI anoxa 6aJ1TO-ClIaB.IIHCKoro e,llHHCTBa (npasex 0 MecTe Ii apeaeua cymecrsosaHJ.flI 3TOM 63JlTO-CJIaSlIHClwH 06W:HocTIi MOiKHO TOJIhKO noraausarscs). OHa WlH.Il3Cb JlHWb CTOJlbKO, CKOJibKO 6hlJIO Hw6xOIlHMO. 'lT06bl pa3BHTHe CKJlOHeHH.sJ 8 06eHX rpynnax DOlWIO B OJJ.HOM Ii TOM :Ke narrpaaneHHH, HO He 6hlJ1a HaCTOJIbKO AJIHTeJlbHoH. 1fT05hl TO )ICe CJI)"IH.IlOCb C rnaroJlbHbIM cnpaxenaesr. OTCfO):I3 nopanrrensnoe CXO,UCTBO B "MeHHOM CKnOHeHHH npa pasnmaax B cnpsxeuan.

Cpo TaJGt(e cxemusecxoe OTlU>lIIeHHC K HPee H3HaW.iilbHOrO 6aJlTo~aB.IIHCKOro npassusa C.Ei.EepHUITeHII3 [Bepnurreaa 1961, 27 H CJI.], KOTOpblH paccaarpaaaer OTHOWeHHjf 6a.rrrHHCKOro H CJlaslIHCKOro K3K BTOPIf'lHoe «cooouiecrao», r.e, Jl3bJKOOOtl. C0103 (TaM xe, 31 1-1 CJI., 133. 154), 803- paxas K.EpyrMaHY H .upyrnM HCCJleJl:OSaTeJI.IIM, YCMarpHBaJOutHM H3Ha'laJIbHoe TecHoe reaenoreccoe pOLlCTBO Me}K}1,)' HHMH. npaCJJa8jfHCKHJ.f jf]blK OH B03BOllHT K 60J1ee pannesry nepaony, '{eM B03HHKHOBeHHe eroro COlOJa.

Bnecre C TeM MHorne HCCJleJl.OR3HHlI rrocnenanx ner, OC06eHHO B 06JIaCTH 3THMOJIOI1t.H H HCTOpH'leCKOH naarsoreorparpua (conepxauiae peKOHCTpYX:UHlO psna 06W:HX Jl)l.II OaJITHHCKHX H CJI3B.11HCKHX S:3bIKOB C.IloBOo6pa30SaTeJlbHblX MO.lleJleJ:i H nUH"H ceaaurasecxoro Pa3BHTHl:I, a TaKJKe Y'lHTblB3IOmHe OrpoMHMH .lIHaJIeKTHMH MarepHaJI, S TOM '1HCJ1e He OTpaxeHHhIH panee B cneunansaoit rnrreparype), HMeIOT peayrrsraTOM yraepxneaae (ana, so SCSIKOM cnysae, OCHOB3TeJlbH}'IO 6aJy .IUUI Hero) a cyrn;eCT80BaHHH B .npeBHOCTH aKCIUU03liBHblX 63J1TO-cJIaB.IIHCKUX

9

reaerusecxax asoraocc H - B KOHe'lUOM cxere - 0 B03MO:lKHOCTH cymeCTBOBallllll eJ{I{Hoii B reHeTH'IeCICOM nnaae npaasuxoaon 6anTO~CJIaJ3jlHCKOD CHCTeMLI (eM. HCTopHrW-JIeKCHKorpa¢H'IecxHe If ~HMO}I01WleCKMe pa60rn 10. B. Orxymu HKOBa , A.E.AmIKHHa H B oc06eHHocTH o606ll1ruow:ue TPYJ{hl pa3HhlX JIeT B.H.TonopOBa B pa311eJIe «Jlareparypa»),

He 6y.!zy'IH cneUHaJIHCTOM B aaunon o6J1acTH, He 6epYCh 8hlCKa3tdB3Th CHOe cyxneune, n03ToMY C113BIIHCKHH H 6aJITHnCKHH xarepnaa B .aanuoH pa60re 6y.aeT cputypHpOBaTb B paanensaox BHJIe.

§ 7. Ilponecc BLUleJleHH.II rrpacnaesacxoro .113tdKa xapaKTepU30BaJ1C.II nojll!.rleHHeM onpeneneaasix HHHOsaU"D no cpaBHeHHIO C aanoesponencxax ua pa3HLlX 1I3hlKOBLIX YPOBHlIX: B ¢oHeTuKe, MOPrpOJIOnIloI, CHHT8KCUce. C110BOO6paIDHaHUH [BepHWTeHH 1961, 1974; OOWKOBW{ 1984, 30-32].

§ 8. CJTaMHcKHe J13LIKH .lJ:e.IDlTC~, B CBOIO 0'1 ep ellh , aa TP" OCH08Hble reHeTH'IeCKHe rpynnu: 1) :ElOCTO'lHOC11aB.11HClme: PYCCKHH, YKpaHHclCHH, oe.rrOPyCCKHH (C1.IwraeTC.II, 1fT'O OHH nOBOJlbHO II03)J;HO - B XIV-XV BB. BbI.Il:eJIHJIHCh HJ otiuiero - npeBHepyeCKoro 1I3b1Ka); 2) aananuocnaasnCK"e: nOJIbCKHIl c npHMbIK8lOrn;HMH K HeMY .l1.l1aJ1eKTHbIMH apeanaua - Kawy6cKHM H CJI0BHHCKHM; no.rta6CKI1H, HJII1 3arra6cKHH (1I3b1K, aa KOTOpOM roBOPllJIH uexoma CJlaBH.He aa 3nL6ofi H KOTOPLIH BblMep B XVUl 8.); 'IeWCKHH " CJIOBarutHH; 6nH3KHH K 't.JeWCKOMY sepxHenYJKHUKHH H 6mIlKHit K nOJlheKOMY HIDKHeJl}')K.HUKHU (naa nOCJlenHHX CH)1bHO repuanaJOBaHbl); 3) IDJ«HocnBIUIHCKlfe: 'lCThipe ;t(HBhlX R3h1XB - CJlOBeHCKHif, cepocKoxOPS8TCK"H, M8Ke'[{oHcKHH H 60JlrapCKI1M:; O,[("H BhlMepwHH .lI3LIK - crapOCJIaB.IIIHCKHH - C mlMaTHI1KaMH X-XI DB.

Pa3.riH'lIUI Me~y 3THMH TpeMSI rpyrmaaa - D UCTOPH'IecKOH t:I>oHemxe, OT.lJ:eJJhHJ,JJ( MOp<JleMax, ranax nepenoeaana H ap. (nonpooaee [BepnlUre"H 1961, 37 H CJI., 225 H CJI., 1974; hOUIKOBH<I 1984, 32-341). TeM CaMblM, B OTl1H'1He OT UPaHCKHX J13hlKOB, xneaeuae CJUlB.IIHCKOIO[ 06ll1HOCTH aa rpynnsr ODHpaeTC~ ua cyurecrsennue WlSi KaXCl.OH It] HUX OCHOBHhle xepru aa pasaux .113hlKOBhlX ypoausx - B HCTOpHqeCKOH t:I>oHeTHKe. MOp$mornu " cnoeooopaaoeaaan (eM. B COOTBeTCTS)'IOllIHX pasaeaax),

OBJIAcrn PACDPOCTPAHEHIlll. KOHTAKTbI • .R3LIKOBLIE CQI03bI

§ 9. KaK H]BecTHO, 0 npaponane nnnoesponeacxoro .113b1Ka ReT eaaHOro MHenHlI. 3TOT q,aKT aarnsnao nOKa3aH B C03naHROH ,[lJK.M3JIJlopu xapre npaaasrsoeux apeanoa, rrpennonaraexux aBTOPaMH OCHOBHhlX

10

rpynoa, H3)],aHHblX nocne 1960 r. [Mallory 1989, 144]. Buecre c TeM Hexoropue K3 3THX. apeanos MOryI' 6bITb RIlOJIHe pellJIbHblMH .IVBI pa3HblX nepaonos cYW;ecTBoHaHWI np<UlJLIKa (0 nOHSlTIIH «nepBOHaIJaJlbHOCTH» nePROna H apeana npaaasnca eM_ [raMKPeJl~. Haaaos 1984 II, 865 H CJ1.D. B CIlSJH C aTHM ].neCh 6ynyr np"HHMaTbC9" BO BHHMaH"e TOJIhKO (TaKJlCe rarrorerasasre) apeanu «npaponaa» 60JIee noanaero nepaona lUI.Il upaaCKHX H CJlaB.llHCKHX JlJblKOB.

§ 10. 0 npaponaae HPaHCKOH ceMbH TalC'Ke HeT enaaoro MHeHWI.

HaH60J1ee peaJlHCTJ.f'lHOH npe.uCTIUlJI.IleTC.Il o6m3:S1 apHHcKM npaponaaa, COOTHOCHMaH co CTenHO" nonccoa OT IO)KHOpYCCKMX creneii 11.0 CpenHeft AJH". rne KO'leBaJIH HOCm-enH apHHCKHX !lHaJleKTOB H orxyna 3aTeM OHIi paenpOCTpaIDIJIHCh B MeCTa HX 60JIee noaaaero 06HTaHWI, nocreoeHHO yrpasaaaa j[3b1KOBOe e.uHHCTBO (0630p MHeHHH 06 HX rrpapoaaae " 0 nyrsx pacnpocrpaaenns CM. TaKJKe tOBJIr, 73-75; OPaHCKHA 1979. 51-52]).

np" '3TOM cosepmeaao MeBM)].HO, 'ITO B OTJlH'IHe O'T CJlaB51.HCKHX H JlPyrux HH):tOeBponei.tcKUX !l3blKOB Esporrsr, 0 npapomme KOTOpblX Be.Il:yrc$l .llHCKYCCHH, HO xoropne ace xe pacnpocrpaneau B oruocaremao KOMnaKTHOM apearre - Eapone, "paHCKUe ~3blKH UH B OJ{HOM H3 peraoHOB HX HhlHeIIIHero 6WTOBaltIDI He XBJUlKlTCg aBTOXTOHHbIMH. I1x pacnpoeT_PaHeHHe na nCTOpH'IecK)'IO H cOHpeMeHHYIO lUHPOK)'IO repparopmo EBPa.JUH conpoaoxaanocs pa3HoBpeMeuHwMH H pasaoranasnsa KOHTIlKTaMO C ll3.hlKaMH pasaux ceMeH (CM. (OpaHCKHH 1979, 66 H cn.], 0 KOHraxrax HOCHTeJIeH HH,!]OHpaHCKHx H 3aTeM HpaHCKHX '[IHaJ1eKTOB C CPI1HHO-yrpaMH eM. raxxe [Minissi 1970; Harmatta 1978; A6aeB 1995, 458 " ClI., 472 H cn.; JIYWHHKOB3 1990]). B CHIlJH C aTUM ocofio cyurecrBeHHYtO POJIh B H3yq:eHuH HCTOp"n apaacxax ~3bIKOB urpatOT cseneaas o Tex apearrsnux o6W,HOCTIlx, B xoropsre BXOAAT (wm BXOllHJlH npexae) "paHCKUe n3h1KH B pa3HbIX peruoaax.

B HCCJIeJ{OBaHHXX nOCJle,[lHUX lleCSlTI1JIeTHH oOJ1ee 9"BHhlMH CTanD pesynsraru BXOJlC,lleHIDI ceMbH B UeJIOM J1H60 OTJleJIhHblX ee KOMnOHeHTOB B paanususre sropa-nnre 06W:HOCTH xousepreuruoro npOUCXO)KJl:eHH1I., BICJlIO'Ia!I J'l3h1KOBhle COlO3bl.

Hau60J1ee lIpnlM npencraarrreneu TaKHX orimaocrea J'lBJUleTc.1I 6oJ1bwaH U,eHTpanbHOa30aiCKHH lI3blKOBOii COlO3 (UA5IC - TepMHH B.H.Tonopoaa), OXBaTblBalOUlHH J'l3hlKH pa:mn'lHhlX ceMeH " rpynn: 'IaCTh JJ3hlKOB BOeTO'IHOnpaHcKoH reaernsecxoa rpynnsr, ornensnsre .lI3blKH aanannoHpaHCKOH rpyrtrrsr; HypHCTaHCKHe l.I3bIKH; llap,[lClme; 'faCTI, HH.IlOapUHCKHX; HeKOTOpb1e HeHH.UoeBponeHcKHe J'l3bIKH apeana (rpynny I'HMaJIaHCKHX Jl3blKOH. ornem-asre oCTpoBHhle .llpaBH)J.HHCKHe, UJOJIUPOBaHHblH lI3.bIK 6ypyuracxn), 3TOT 9"3bIKOBOi! COI03, BOJHI-IKWHH aa QTHOCHTeJ1bHO e.rtHHOM

11

cy6crpaTe (npenrtonoxurensuo na 113blKe 5ypyuraCKll B em paanea coCrollHH" llJlH Ha poncreeassrx eMY JlJbHCaX Ii .lUlaJ1eKTax). llWlBJI.IleT p.llil o6wH.x CTPYK:ryPHblK sepr s tlJoHOJIOrHH, .I>IOpq,0J10fHH. CHHTaKCHce, nnacru 06weii J1eKCHKH, HeKOTOpbJe cnosooopaaoaarensnue MOllenH, a TaKJCe CHCTeMY «cspsrrax» xareropaa tl: 3J1eMeHTOB !iI3bIKOSOro MblU1JIeHUH, }'Ka3b.UlafOlI..lHX Ha TO, liTO cy6cTparoM nOCl1)'IKIVl llJb1J( 3KTHBIWll:

HIllOJIOlllH, 2no He HcK1IIO':IaeT nocneayouiero UeMeHTlIJp0BaHIDI naanoro ~BbIKOBOro C0103a llam,HeHWHM KOHsepreHTHhTM passaraea oxaaaaumxcs B pasuux sonax ern apeana 513bIKOB, onuaxo ::meMeHTbl o6wero cy6cTpaTa BbtlI8JI.IlIOTC.Il aaecs rrpaK1'H<JeCKH H3 scex :JI3J.,JKOBblX YPOBH.lIX, so scex noncucrexax [Torropos 1965; 3.nem,MaH 1980),

Bayrpu 3TOfO COKna npOCne:lKHSaIOTCH orrpe.neneHHbIe non-apearrsr, sacrs KOTOpMX npencrasnser C050H cscero poaa MHKpOC0103bl, xapaxrePH3YWlLl).J:ecli Ha60poM CB0I1X JIexc»qeCKHX II CTPyxTYPHblX 3JIeMeHTOB. a B uexcropux CJIyqMIX - H 3]leMeHTOB 1I1hIKOBQm MbIIllJleIIH!iI, OAHH III TaKHX MHKpOCOlO30B oxsarsraaer na.MUpo-rtl:Hll)'KyruCKI1.H peruon, coCTMWHH In rpex IIpKO Bblpa:.KeHHblX non-apeanoa, B TOM lfficne H onuoro BOCTO'lHo}lpaHDJ;l3bl'iHom: 31'0 TaK Ha3blBaeMa5I rpynna naMHpCKHX .IJ'3b1- XOI!. (B COCTaBe reHeTH"IeCKH 611U3KHX SJ3bIKOB " llHarJeKTOB uryraano-pyUiaHCKOH rpyrmu, POllCTBeHHOrO liM, JlO 06oc06l1eHHoro 1I3tyJUIMCKoro Jl3blKa H 60nee ynaneassrx reHeTH',eClCH saxaacxoro, HWKaWHMCKoro C CaHfllH'iCKHM, a TaJGKe - no P'J,lzy '1epr - MylUVKaHCXOro 513b1Xa C HJ.l,!l,fa), eocxonsurax K pa3HblM llpeBHHM B()C:TO'lHOHpauCKhM llHaJIeKTaM, pa3BHBumx TeM He MeRee 8eCbMa CXOJlHble rpoaonoravecxne H MOPCPOJlOrO-CHHTaKCH':IeCKHe crp)'KTYPbI H MMelOlll.HX 6o.rrhIIlOH IDIaCT o5meft neKCHKH, 3'nl ODWHOCTb CJlO~H.1JaCl> 5.rJ.aroJlllp.ll eliHUOM}' cyocrpaTY. XOHBepreHT· HOMy paaaarmo CaM"X JIaHHblX 1I3bIKOS npa UX KOHTaKTax. a TaK)Ke 6naroMPII a;:J.CTpaTHOMY (a Qac-ru4HO cynepcrparaoay) B03.UeikTBHIO TaII:lKHKCKOro !l3blKa (u pO)lCTBeHHhIX eMY Tan;KHKCKo-nepclUlcKo-):laPU J{"anexron), XOTOPhlH aa IIpOTll:.KeHHM MHornx CTOJIeTJri.i sanaercs B 3TOM apeane 513hlKOM KyJlb'I)'phi U Me::t::3Tmf4ecKoro 06meHH5I (ca. nanpmrep, [rpIOH6epr, CTe6J1I1JH - KaMeHCKM" 1974; OPUtlCKUH 1979. 188-191]),

OceTHHCKuU )l3bfK BXO.!lHT 6 apean K3BKa3CKlfX }f]LlKOB, BbIXS1UUI cy6- crparnue xeprsr, CBOHcrBeHHble n OCJJe)lHHM , KaK " .apyrotf HH,UOeBpOneficKliH H'3hIK apeana - apM5IHCKHH [AG OH_(f), 75-78; Afiaen 1956 (1), 1970, 1978].

I1MeeTCli H pxn npyrax, GOJIee 4aCTHbiX apeansnsrx 06u.lumel-mH.

Kpone roro, so MHorHX HpaHcKHx il3h1KaX H<lGmo.[{aerc5I 6oJIl,llloe KOJIHxecrso apeansasix 3JleMeHTOB. 0651JaHHbIX npOHCXO;:t;,lleHHeM p.alJ1U':IHblM npoueccau - enOHTaHHbIM H KOHTaKTHhlM (eM" aanpnstep, fOBJIr, 76-99, Kap1'b1 3-14]).

12

§ 11. B nocnenane )J;eC5ITlmeTH5I yrO'-lHl1JIHCb nexoropue CBe)J;eHIDI 06 apeane CnaBJlHClwii: npapoaaasi H apeilJIax 6WTOBaHHl1 CJIaIDlHCKHX JI:JhIKOH B pasaae nep110)J;bI 11 06 HX. pamnsx KOHTaKTaX C 6WlrniicKHMH H .Il.pyrHMH Jl3bIKaMH. B xasecrae CJlaIDlHCKOH npapOJl.HHbl Ha3h1BaIOT «)lyuaHcKHH peraou», rea 60nee <ITO C reopnetl JIYHaii:clwH npapOJl.HHLI cnasxa CBJIaana :II KOHu;enllHSI uearpanuroeaponencxoro apeana .Il.peBHHX annoeaponenuee. Ilpa :ilTOM aarepecso, "ITO KOHTaKTbI 03.JITHHCKoro 513b1KOSOro MHpa C Jl.aKO-WaxHHCKHM e lIJ TblCJI"IeJIerHH J]O H.::I. He 3aTpOHYJIH CJ1aB1IHCKHX Jl3b1KOB, a KOHTaKTbl cnassu B I..J.eHTpam,HOH: Espone (a 10M qHClIe BO II ThlCJI"IeJIeTHH no H.3. C HJlIIHPUUUaM" u np.) npoXOJl:H1lH Gel ysacrus 6anTOB [Tpy6aqeB 1983, 240-243].

1':1:3 BTOPU'-IHhlX KOHBepreHTHLJX omeJUtHemiH, B xoropsre BXOwrr CJIaBJlHCKUe 513bIKH, BffiKHbIM JlHJl5H!TCl{ HaJU:I'IHe EaJIKaHCKom Jl3h1KOBOro COI03a, xyaa nOMHMO <laCT" CJIaWIIICKHX BXOrolT TaIGKe OTJIeJlbHbIe HHJ]Deaponencxae Sl3blKH (rpenecxnn, aJI6aHCKHH., P)'MblHCKHH H np.) H HeHH)J;oeBponeHcKHe (HanpHMep. TypelfKHe )J;HaJ1eKTbI, OTqaCTH I'aI'a)'3CKHH: 1I3b1K). 0 CmlBJIHCKOM JaCeJleHHH DaJ1KaH CM. [EepHWTeHH 1961. 82].

H3 MeHee xpynasrx Jl3bIKOBbIX COlO30B, B KOTOpLJe BXO,IlllT CJIaruIHCKHe 1I3b1KH H ,!J.HaJIeKTbJ, cneayer OTMeTHTb BLJJl&l1eHHblM OTHOCHTeJIhHO He)J;aBHO JillblKOBOH COlOl B roro-nocrosnroii npH6aJITHKe (T3K HalbIBaeMblH Peipus-Bund), ueurpox xoroporo ~BJUleTCg 3CTOHCKHH SJ:3biK. 06 OJl.HOH Hl lBomocc, XapaKTepHOH Will 3TOIU COlma, oYJl.eT CKaJaHO B pasnene «Moprponorza H CHHTaKCHC»,

§ 12. C TO'-IKH 3peHIDl npauHCTHKH OC06blu HHTepee WUI o6c}X!J.aeMait np06J1eMbI npencraansxrr HpauCKHf'.; 5i3'b1KH aananaoro 3pean:3 (aesaBHCHMO OT HX retrerauecsoii npanaanexnocrx K Jall3JIHOHpaHCKOH WlH BOCTO'-lHOHPaHCKOH rpynne) , KOH'TaK'l'Hp)'lOllllle lUIU xouraxrnpoaaaume npexne C HeHpaHCKHMH Jl3hlKaMH Eaponu, BKJIIO'-IaJI CJIaBJIHCKHe.

B :.:tTOM IUl&He H3H60JIee HHTepeceH )J,ID[ Hac CKHQlc}(o-oceTHHCKHH MHp. C ODHOR CTOPOHhl, KaK yxe roBOPH1l0Cb, cy6cTpamoe KaBKa3CKOe B03.ll.eUCTBHe If npononxaroutaecs KOHTaKTbI C KaBKa3CKHMH ~'3bIKaMH C6J1H.lK31OT B THn0J10rn<feCKOM nnane oceraacxmi ~3b1K KaK C HHMH, TaX H C ewe OllHHM lumoesponeHCKHM :il3b1KQM apeana - apMJIHCKHM. C )J;pyrOH CTOPOHhI, npoaonxenae B OCeTHHCKOM Jl3bIKe CKJ.I$::KHX !l.HaJIeKTOB, B 'rexenae }1)IHTeJIbHOro speaeuu B33HMO}lenCTBOBaBWHX co CJI3IDi1HCKHMH H 'lacTH'IHO C oanndkKHMH H repMaHCKHMH. a TaKXe C CPHHHO-yrOpCKUMH. 06YCJlOBWIO HaJUI'IHe B HeM onpenenennoro KOJlWleCTBa npjlMhiX JleKCHqecKHX 3a"MCTBOBaHHU H P5lIJ.a CT'pYKT)'pHhlX '-Iepr. 06~ WHX, BO BCJlKOM cnysae, lIJIJI xacra arax XlbIKOB (noapotiaee CM. [3aJIH3- IDiK 1962; A6aeB 1965]); OTDeJJbHbIe HJ 3TIiX '1epT 6yJl.YT paccxorpeasr HHJKe. B KOHTeKCTe KOHKperHbIX 06IIUIOCTeH.

13

HeMaJlblH jurrepec /VI" paccaarpanaeaort npo6J1eMLI npencraanxer H nepcancxaa Sl3b1K na paaasrx 3TaJIax ero HCTOpUU • .lJ.JuI Hac :meeb Ba3.:Hbl He 'j'OJIbKO IIBHLle aneaenru em 83aHMo.n;enCTBIDI. co CJIaBSlHCKHMK ,1I;HaneKTaMH H - noanaee - C pyceKItM Sl3blKOM (8 xoae KOHTaKTOB B cepepe MaTepua.rtbHOH H ,[lYXOBHOH Ky.n:bryphI, 0 1£eM HeO,1l;HOKpaTHO rIHCaJIH pa3JlJ{qHble HCene}1,OIlaTeJlH, cu., aanpsesep, [Tonopoa 1971, 1978, 1979, 1983, 1989. 1995]), HO H Te '1epTbI aayrpeanero p3.3BHTIDI crPYKTYPhl atom H3bIKa, xoropue HMelOT onpeneneauue napannenasau B JiI3ld.KaX DilJIKaHCKoro sssucoaoro COlma (eM. [A6aeB 1965; 3)leJibMaH 1989J) 11: npoacxoxneaae KOTOPblX HynaeTCSI B ,n.ononHHTeJ1bHOM 06'hl.1CHeHHH.

§ 13. B TUlane paanax "paHCKO-cnaBIlHcKHX KOHTaKTOB OCOGblH HHTepee npeacraanaer cOGOH TaK Ha3bl8aeMblH (,lzyuakCKHH: peraoa».

no MHeHHIO Q,H. Tpy6a'leea, CJ1aIUlHCKO-HpaHCKHe KOHTaKTbI OTHOCSiTCSl K nepaony He pauee cepeaansr I rucaxeneraa ,11;0 H.3. (CM. lTpy6aQes 1992 (II), 23]). B 3fiOX.Y KOHTaKTOB B «II.yuaifcKoM peraoae» cnaeaa co CKHq,aMlf H, BOOMo:lKHO, C HlU(oaputtualot.H OIm B06paml upaHcKHe aneaenTbI, U :9TO 6.,lJ10 He B rny6mmif npeBHOCTH [Tpytiaxea 1983, 249-250]. 06 apeanax KOHTaKTHpOBatfHlJ HOeHTeJ!eH apaacxax llHaneKTOII C OaJITaMH, CJI3.BHHaMH, roTaMH ex, raiose [Tonopos, Tpy6aQeB 1962, 231; ITep--CIIJ1aBHHeKHH 1964, 135; Tcnopos 1983, TaM xe OOJlee pruUOOI rurreparypa].

Hnrepecna CBe.LleHIDl: 0 KOHTaKTaX aocnreneti HpaHCKHX )lHaJleKTOB (CKH~OB) C HOCHTeJlllMH latra.QHOCJ1aIDlHCKHX U 06 apaucxnx 38HMCTBOBaHIDIX (TaK H33b1BaeMbIX «polono-iranica», TIIIIa >!«go)pam 'rocnoann'. OX8aTH8mHX TOJibKO qaCTb sananaocnaesncxux llHane1CT08. Gel cepfony:lKHUICUX), 0 KOTOPbIX B 6O-e roau erne He 5bV10 H3BeCTHO, eM. [Tpy5aqeB 1983, 256].

Ornensnyio npo6.n:eMY COCTaBJUleT B03MQ;4{HOCTb COXpaHeHHH eure B I rucsseneraa no H.3. 8 CKH~UH, B CeBepHOM Ilpaxepaovopee, aa reppwrOpUH npaaotiepexaoa YXPaHHld, B npenropssx Cesepsorc Kassaaa, HapSUI)' c upaHCKHM (CKH<J>cKHM), HfUloaPHHCKOro 3THlNecKOro KOMnoaerrra Ii COQTBeTCTBeHHO BOlMO;KHOeT.b npOHUKHOBeHJUI B CJULB5Jl:ICJ{He H3hlKH HH.IlOapHliCKUX 33HMeTROBaHU" (nQQP06Hee CM. [Tpy6al.JeB 1977, 24 Hen., 1978. 1979.41-42, 1983, 257-2.58, 1999]), xoropsie He BO scex cnysasx OTJlHQHMbI OT Hp<lHeKHX.

THIIOJIOm'IECKHE IJEPThl

§ 14. HeMaJIMH mrrepec npe;!lcT8BJDUOT apaacxo-cnaaaucxae 06wHe CHCTeMHble 'leprn, Pa3BHBlllHOC.ll B pesynsrsre 06utHX (HIM" CXOllHblX)

14

HCTOpHKO-THrrOJlorn'teCKUX npOLteCCOB. Hx aHaJIHJ nOKaJLlBaeT. 'ITO pasBHTHe TaXHX rarronoravecxn CXOJ1;HblX '1epT TO)Kt: 3HaQHMO nns cpaaseHID! MaTepHaJIa l3:3b1KOB 3THX nayx ceMeH, nOCKOJIbXY HX rrOXBJ1eHHe MOiKeT JlHKTOBaTbCl:! pa3HhlMH rrpw·nmaMM. Ona MOryr B03"HXHyrb: a) B Ka>K.ll:Ou H3 paccaarpaeaeasrx rpynrr He3aBHCHMo, lliJaron.apa HeKOTophlM 06mHM TeH,lleHUHlIM B pa3BHTHH qenose'lecKoro MbllWIeHHl3:, 6) TaKJKe He3aBHCHMO, HO B pe3YJ1bTaTe oourero cTHMYIIa B sane enauoro « rrepBOTOJ1'l!K a". o6YCJI08J1eHHoro KaKHMH-TO li.BJleHHXMH 06meHH)loeBponeHcKoH npacaereMbl ('ITO MOiKeT nponars cser na nexoropsie npanuanu paJBHTHX H DPYrnx HlI.!loeBponeHCKHX li3b1KOB). B) B 3aBHCHMOCTH OT HHOM3bI'IHOro B03- )leilcTBml B peaynsrare KOHTaKTOB c JlpyrnMH HH)J.OeBporreHCKHMH HJIH HeHH.ltOeBpOneHCKHMH :lI3bIK2.MH H T.)]. TaXHe n03)]HHe CXO:lK1l,eHHX MOJYl' 6bITb '!HCTO CTp)'KTYPHLlMH HJ1H CTHMYJlHPOBa'TbCIl HeruMM KOHTeHCHBHhlMH CXOJlCTBaMM.

§ 15. Ilpa HCCJIe,nOBaHHH HPaHCKOH XJblKOBOH CeMbH BLlCBeTHJIHCb PaJJlH'lHble nyrn HCTopux.o-TMnOJlOIWleCKIDt Tpa"C~MaUHH pa3HbIX npaaCKHX lBbIKOB (eM. [OIITHH5I I-II]), noaaonmomae )'C'TaHOBHTb XaK OIlpe.!J.eneaasre 06ll1He JIHHDH pa3BHTWJ. TaK H 're OTJTH'lJili. OT «reaepansasrx nyTeH», xoropue ua6.luo.llaJOTC5:I B Pa3:IIH'lHLlX li.3b1Kax (nlWH! apeanax), Cpe.u.u TaKHX OTKJIOHeH8H UMelOTCB '1ePTbI, B03HHKWHe MaroM-Pi! CnOHTaHHbIM 83MeHeHIDIM cncreusr xoaspernoro 5:l3bIKa, a TalUKe qepThl, 06a3aHHble C8O- 8M npoHCXOlK.U.eHHeM Pa3HOBpeMeHHl.IM H Pa:JHOTHIIHblM KOHTaKTaM. HeTOpHKO-'rHnonoIWlecKas!: 'fpaHc$opMall.loH!. CJ1aSSIHCKHX '113hIKOB. MeHee pa3HO· otipasaa. Conocraanenae PJI,IlU THnOJIOrn<leeKHX sepr HPaHCKHX H CJlaBjJHcxax H]LlKOfl n03BOlliIeT ySlCHUTb coornoureuae renernsecxon H mn0J10IllqeCKOH COCTaB.IDuOW,HX B 06mei1 xacce eXOJK,[leHHH 3THX 5:l3h1.KOSLIX ceMeH.

B03MO)K.HOCTH CPABHEHHB

§ 16. Bee CKa3aHHoe Bblwe 3aCTaBWlO He TOJILKO aepayrsca K pacCMOTpeHHfO ornensnsrx xapaxrepasrx CYp}'K1'YP H aneMeHTOB, xoropsre KBaJmclJUUUpOBaJIHCb npexne KaK 06lL1He ,!J..Jl.\l. HpaHCKHX H CJIaIDIHCKHX Jf3hIKOB erne C MOMeHTa HX npasssnosux COCTOli.HHH. HO H nonsrrarecs npoaaarnuapoaan, JaHOBO npoHCXOJK,[leHHe psaa OTHOeUTe.JThHO n03ll.HHX xapaKTepHCTHK HeKOTOpl>lX HPaHCKHX B3b1KOB H nO~HHX CXOlKJl.eHHH co CJIaaJlHCKMMH.

15

K3K Iill,ll,HO "3 npe.I'lCT3RTIf':HHOro 6emoro o6:mpa. cpasaeaue MflTepuana HJblKOB :HUX nBYX Beneit U]lll 1I0Jl.-BeTBen HH,[lOeBpOrreUCKUX !13MKOB. OTHOCIIl.UHXCSI K rpynne «caT3M», - 3a,aa'la OTHKl,Ub He npocraa, nOCKQJlbKY B npouecce 'raxoro HCCJ1eJl,OBaHi1:8 npI1XOllHTCS!. Y'iI1TbIBflTb ueJlbTff psn OOcrOS!.TeJ1bCTB "X acropua " neonanaxosyio creneas HX asy'IeHHOCTH. B 'I aCTHQCTH , B xone cpaaneuaa rrOCTOSlHHO npnXOnJIITCS HMeTb B BM)J,Y CJ1ei.lytOllJ,He MOMeHThI.

I. ..H3b1KH npancKOH H CnaBJiI}Jcl(OH ceMeH IIMe~)T pa3H}'IQ CreDeHI> .<'IHyrpHceMeuHoiJ:» ,!!HBepreHIlH": "paHCK}fe pa30lDJJHCb Hf':cpaBHHlio paasure H my6)Ke. 'ieM caasaacxae, H nx RaMHoro fionsrue. 3TOMY HeMaJlO cnOC06CTBOBa)10 HX apeanee pacnpocrpauenne ua 06111HpHble TeppHTOpU" ERpa3HH. 31:0 06CTO>lTerJbCTBO sarpyrtaser cpasneaae HpaH~ CKHX 93b1KOB co CJ1aBlIHCKHMH no npanunrty «ceMbK c ceaseii» UJiM «npaarstx C nprul3hlKOM», O)lHaKO B cnysasx neKCH"IeCI(HX 3aHMCTBoBa· HUH 03 ltpaHCKHX jJ3b1KOB II aenpancxue (a llaCTHOCT", cnassncxue) 06~ rterxaer aaxoxnerrae KOHKpeTHoro ffpaHcKoro 1I3bn;;:a~ucro<{HHKa.

II. 713LIKH Hp<lHCKOH ff CJIallJlHCKOii ceMeii: HMeIOT pasayio CTeneRI> lIOxasaanoro BHCUlHero pO)l.CTBa C ,!!PyrHMll MJnKHMH llM aauocsponeaCKHMIi 1I3hlKaMIi. n03TOMY B KO,1le IiX cpasneaaa Heo6xo.ll.HMO 1l pa3J1W{lIOU creneau Y'lUTLlBaTb CBH.!IeTeJ1bCTBa zpyrux 1I3blKOB, ponCTBeHH'LJ.X TeM H .l1.PyrnM no OTJIeJILHOCHI. ll.rur peKOHCTp)'KlJ.lfH paaaero COCT051HVlj!. HpaHCKUX 1I3blKOB 8eChMa cyutecraenau CBJ.I.1IereJIbCTRa HypHCTaHCKI1X, HHnoapUHCKUX H Jlap.nCKUX 1I3bIKOB, a raxxe pexoacrpyapyeaue 3J1eMeHTh! «npoaexyro-rnux» npaasuxoa rex reaerasecxax rpynn, B KOTOpMe OHlf SX0.1lIUUf na paJHhlX ararrax HempHff. Csaaeremcrea iKe 6aJI- 111HCKHX 513bIKOB ,'lJUI H3yqeliml HC10PifH CJJaBlIHCKHX, no Bcell BepO:8THOern, zrparor pons cxopee {,60KOBOro ocseuteaaa», 'IeM Heo6xo)UiMOro onopuoro 3Jlf;':MeHTa peKOHCTpYKUIUi.

Ill. 513b1KH "paHCKOU 1I CJJaB~HCKOR ceMeR HMeKIT pa3H)'IO a6comOTH)'IO R OTHOCHTeJ1hlfYlO xpouonoraro npocnexaeaeaoro npesnentnero np3JI3LlKoBOro YPOBWL 3TO 'lacTH'lHO nonrsepxnaerca a6COJIlOTHOH XpOHOnOfRe" crapeaumx llaM1lTHHKOII OT~eJIbHblX ~JblKOII. Cp., c O}J;HOH CTOPOHhI, ~3hJK Asecru, cyurecraoaasuraa, nO-BH.llllMOMY. yxe K nasany II TblCII'leneTHH .110 ".a. 11 rIepe.aaBaeMLIii: II ycrtrsrx TeKCTaX KaK MHHf1- M)'M C sroro nepnona (cp, MlleHHe M.EoHC 0 BpeMeH:Jf nponosean 3apaT)'IllTphl MeJK)lY 1700 " 1500 IT. )10 H.~. [Boyce 1975, 1979}), " q,HKCllposannue TeKCTl>I HaCKarIbHhIX nannacea npeaaenepcancxoro 513blKa VI-IV BS. ,ll,O H.3., a c .r:tpyroj:.j C'TOPOHhl, naM~THHK" crapocnaaaucxoro 1I3bIKa X-XI BII. n.s., r.e. srroxa, xoropas lIJIli HpaHCKHX "3bIKOB e-mTaeTCJi He apeBHeit U ll:a)Ke He Cpell:Heu. a HOBOi:f. 3TO OTpffiKaeTCSI 1I aa onpeneneuaa OTHDCHTeJIhHOH H a6COflIOTHOH XPOHOflOllfH npasauxosoro

16

COCTOBHmI. IIpIDI::JbIKOBWI CHCTeMa UPaHCKHX Jl3hIKOII MaIIO OTJ1HlJ.aefCliI OT HH)lOHpanCKOH. H ee cyw,eCTBOBaHHe OTHOCHTC!iI ycnosao K CaMOMY aasany II TLIC$l'leJle1Wi HJIH cxopee K KOHDY III TbIC$I'ieJleTUJI lIO H.:3., )"IHThiBIDI. 'ITO H3bIK ABecTbI YJKe UMeeT lIpKO supaxeaasre naanexraue qeP'fbI. Pa3BHBIUHecH 3HalJ.HTe.lIbHO noanaee pacnana npaapaacxoro coCTO!iHHS (no MHeHHIO B.I1.A6aeBa, pacnan apuilcKoH 06W:HOCTH cnenyer OTHOCun. K III TbICHtIeJleTH10 lIO H.3. [A6aeB 1995. 464]). npWl3blKOBaJI CHCTeMa CJIaBJIHCKHX jl3blKOB npencraer B 3Ha'lHTe.lIbHOH Mepe «rtpoasaHyrOH» B CBOeM Pa3I1HTHH, n aa .... ano ee pacnana MO)KeT QTHOCHTbC5I KO BTOPOH IIO]JOBHHe I ThlCH'IeJlenUl H.S. (c Hau60Jlee p3HHHM aranox, QTHOCHIlUfMC5I KO BpeMeHH lIO III-II BB. no H.3.), npa .... eM 3aKaH'iHBaeTCK npacnaasncraa nepnoa B X-Xli BB., CM. [EepHIUTeHH 1961, 49-51. 182]. 3TH llaTbi COOTBeTCTBytOT anoxaa coananas nHCbMeHHhlX IIaMJITHHKOB rax Ha3b1BaeMOrn HOBOHpaHcKoro nepaona,

IIPHXOllHTC!i )"IiITbmUb TaK)Ke apeansny» n xpOHOnOI'H'leCKytO crpaTHcPl-IKaUHIO npW13LIK8 UK ,ll,IUI "paHCKOH, TaK H JJ.fIH CJ]aB1IHCKOH ceMbH, T .e. B03MO)KHhle cyuiecrseaasre pa3JlH'IH.lI MelKJl.Y paHHI-IM H n03)lHHM COCTOHHueM OTHOCHTeJlbHO 06meH npSCHcreMbi. H naanexrayro HeD,lJ,HOPO,ll,HOCTb npasasnca npa pacnpocrpanenan ero aa 6o.rree IUIH MeHee 06- WHpHblH apean, JI.mr "paHCKHx 1l3b1KOB 3TO 6w1H pasnaxaa MelKlIY nearPaJIbHblM H MaprnHaJlbHblMH non-apeanaaa, a T21DKe MelKJl)' 3an2,!lHhlM H BOCTOqHblM apeanaua (nocnennee CTaJlO 3areM K1I8CCH¢:HKauHoHHblM ,!CUI HpaRCKHX .lI3bIKOB); )lillI CJ]aB.lIHCKHX !il3bIKOB tfJIeHeHHe npaaauxoeoro ape ana 6blJIO eme 60nee ,npo6HbIM.

IV . .sI3bIKH npaacxae H CJlaBJIHCKlte H3yq:eHhl /WICKO He B O.IIHHaKOBOH crerreaa, ECJUI CJIaB.lIHCKHe IllhlKH npaKTH'IeCKH BCe HaIIlJIH caoe OCBeureuae B Ha)"iHOH nareparype, B CJIOBap.llX (BKJlIO'IIDI aTHMOJlOIlt'leCKHe), TO OOJIhlUrui "IaCTb «MaJlbIX» HPaRCKH)'; H3LIKOB (oco6eHHO na repprrropaa Adnaaacraua H Hpaua) enie H)l}K.ltaeTCIl B nOIl06HoH cPHKcaUHH H HCCJle,l{OBaHHH. MaTepHaII MHornx H3 HHX la¢HKCHpoBaH OTHOCHTenl>HO cPparneHTapHO (naoma B BH.![e He60JIhIUHX TeKCTOB H CIIHCKOII CJlOB), npH"leM C pamon CTeneHLlO .lIOCTOBePHOCTH. Orcioaa - pa3HIDI crerrens H3yqeHHOCTH UX CHHxpOHHoro COCTOHHHIl H HX HCTOpUU.

V . .5I3b1KH HpaHCKHe H CJIaBjJHCKHe O'leHb pesxo pa3J1HlJ.aJOTCJI B nnaHe coxpaHHOCTH B HliX JlpeBHH),; :meMeHTOB It nOJlCHCTeM B q,oHOJIOrUlt (OC06eHHO B BOKaJIH3Me). B Mop¢:OJlOrnH (OCOOeHHO HMeHHon), a TaK)Ke II nnane CHHTaKCH'IeCJ{HX CTPYKTYP.

06 3TJiIX palJIH'lHHX 6y.n;eT CIUi3aHO nonpotinee B COOTBeTCTB}'lOru:HX pasnenax, 3llech JKe )'MecTHO nomepsayrs, 'ITO BCe ~TH ¢:m::roPbl uanaraarr onpeaenenmre orpaameaaa aa B03MO)l(HOCTIf cpasneaas HpaHCKHX H CJIasHHcKUX IllhIKOB. OC06eHHO B Mop¢:onoro-CHHn\KCH'IeCKOM acnexre.

23aK 53

17

§ 17, HecMOTpH aa see 3TH H npyrae pa:mHln~, 0 KOTOphlX 6yneT CKa:mHO B COOTBeTCTB)'lOU{l'lX paanenax, npHHaJ].,e)KHOC'th " apancxax, H CJlaBl:IHCKHX jl3b1KOB K 60JlhlllOH HHJlOeBpOneucKoH cexse 11 nepenJleTelIHe cy.ue6 sacra H Tex }f apyrux JlltBHO YJKe CQ3JlarIH cTHMyn .IlIDI HX cpasueaas.

flpH 3TOM HCCJTei1:0HaHID! ~3bIKOB H HpaHcKoH, H CJIarulHCKQH ceMhH He TOJ1bKO B CpaBHlITeJ(bHO-IiCTOpH<:IeCKOM, HO H B HCTOPHKo--rHnOJlOrH'-IeCKOM H apeaJIbHOM acrrexrax, ocoeerrao pa3BePHyJ;WHecJ1 a IlOCJIe.uHHe necsnoteras, BhllfSHJUf PH)); HemBeCTHhlX paaee cyurecraenasrx MOMeHTOB KaK B CJ1HXPOHHLIX CI1CTeMaX <lTMX jf3L1KOB, TaK H B CrreU'1:¢IHKe FIX ,ll;MaxpoHM'leCKoro paSEHTWI. 3YO 1l03EOJtWiO }TD'lHFITb Hawn 3HaH fHi , C OllHOH CTOpOHbl, 0 IlHyrpeHHHx, CIlOHTaHHhlX Ii3MeHeHKIIX B «CTOP"" KOHKpeTHWX "paReKH"-. CIIaBHHCKH:X R .a:pyr RX IDUIoeBponeHCKHX 1I3bLKOB Esponu 11 ASHH, a C .o:pylOff - 0 rex 'IepTax, KOTOphle MomH 6hlTL npM06pereHbl I1MM 6naro.a.apl! KOHTaKT.llM H BHelllHMM sOJ.lleHCTBIffiM.

B pesynsrare H;u.lenUn.fCb 3aHOBO HeKoTopble xonrypsr rex 06ll{HOcTeH (reHem'leCKHX, mnonofH'lecKHx, a pea7bHWX) , B KOTOPbIC BXQ)lllT 3TH oeMhH B Ll,eJIOM H HX OT,UeJ1bHf,fe IlpetJ;CTI!BHTeIlH (wm rpynnsr TaKMX npeacrasarenea), A 3TO nOJB01tHnO, B CHOro oxepene, nepecaorpers sexoropae. craaruae yxe Tpa.o:JfUHOllHhlMH, xpecToMaTHlIHble CIIY'l8H aXO.ac,lleHHlI xapaxrepssrx CTpyKTypHblX sepr IVHf OTll:eIJbHblX MarepJtaJIh~ HblX 3I1eMeffTOH lIJblKOH ,aaUHbIX aeMe", BKRH.l'IWl 3THMOJIOrnn KOHKpeTHblX 0106, 1l0JI)"lHBWHe Il IIOC]lellHIlC roaa nosoe TOJ1KOBaHlte. B sexoropsrx CJI)"IMX B TaJ(OM nepecnorpe ayxaasorca lie TO)}hKO XPOHoJ(Of1f'leCKlte H apeanbHhle rp<lHHUhl 06p<lSOBaHID! rex UlI" HHblX 06IUHX .lI&J1eHHii, no H npWUUlbi HX BOJHHKHOBeHIDi H ,U<lJKe cauo npeacraanenae 06 llX .ueikTBHTeJU.Hoii rum MUHMOU OOUVWCTH,

3A,[(A qIl HCCJIE,nOBAHIDI

§ 18. 3aKJuo'lIDJ 0030p npo611eMb.I HCTOpH'IeCKHX OTHOIUeHHH "pallCKHX M CJHUlJiHCK]tX .lI3hlXOB, XOTe;JOCb 6bI erne pas nonuepxnyrs, 'HO B rpynax 60-)[ ronos (a TaJGKe aa llpe.DbUlymHX sranax H3)"leH!llI npo' 6.neMw) npa Ceplle3110M M my60KoM BHHMaHMU K reaermecxossy (cpasmrreJlbHO-HCTOpM'leCKoMY) H apeansaosry acrrexrau apancxo-eeponeaCX"X (M ocotieano J.iPaHCKO·CJIaRSIHcxm) CXO)1CTl>, BKJIIO'Iali 3T"MMOmJ.f

18

OT)1,eJIhHhlX CJlOB H UeJIblX MaCTOB neKCHKH. HecpaBHHMO xensure BHHMaHIDI ynenanocs HCTOPHKO-THIIOnOm1.IeCKOM)' acnexry npoenesru, XOT)l B p&ae pa60T rrOCnenHMX D.eC~THJleTHH npH paCCMOTpeHHH HeKOTOpMX HCTOPHKo-cpOHeTH<ieCKHX npon;ecCOB :nOT $IKTOp 'roxe Y'iHTblBaJlClI.

BMCCTe c reM Ha6mOllaeTCSI UeJlhlH pa3pSUl "paHCKO-CHaBSlHCKHX CXO)J,RbIX CHCTeMHb1X xepr. pa3BHBWHXC~ B pesynsrare CXOJlHblX ulHJlH 06WHX HCTOPHKO-THDOJIOmqecKHX npoueccos. Kparxas CBO,!U(a npaacxo-eaponeHCKHX (lIlU1lOqW1 upaacxo-cnaaaacxae) 06W:HOCTei1 C nonsrrxoti BhilIHnenas TeH)leHUH" K HX IIOS:BJlemno H pa3HHTHlO 6bV1a npennoxeaa panee (CM. [31leJIbMaH 1989, 1998]), O.!lHaKO npencraansercs Heo6xOD.HMb1M sepH)'TbCJI K HX paCCM01'peHHKl WlSl 60JTee 'IeTKoro pa3IJIaHH'IeHIDI: a) 06mHx TeHeTli'leCKHX (r.e. yuacnenosauaux OT eD.HHOH npaJI3btKOBOH - HtmOesporreiicxof - cncrexu) M3TepHaJIbHbIX '.OneMeHTOB, 6) CXOJlHbIX rnnonorasecxux (CTPYKTYPHbIX H conepxaremaax) xareropan, B) CXOJlHblX ruIll 06mHx SlMeH"", OOll.3aHHblX CBOHM nOS:BJleHHeM apearIhHhlM renJleHl.llUIM, IIKJllO<iaJI KOHTaKTHhle, r) 60JIee 111m sreaee CJl)"'l3HHbiX MaTePHaJ1bHhlX H/MH CTPYKTypHblX COBTI<I,IJ;eHHH.

B CB}!3" C WHMH 06CTO~TeJlbCTMMH nenecoofipaaao 06paTHTbC~ K HCTOpHH HpaucKO-CJlaBS:HcKHX oruoiueaaa npexne scero He B IIJIaHe 01'nensnux WleMeHToB, B01MO)l(HOCTH H.1m HeB01MO)l(HOCTH HX 3aHMCTBOBaHHS: H HCTO'lHJ1KOB raxoro 3aI1MCTHOllaHmI, a K HCTOpHH arux SI)bIKOBblX ceMeH B lI.eJlOM, K HX reHeTWieCKHM, THnOJTOrH'leCKHM » apeaJIbHblM cnell.H<lmqeCKJoIM 1JepTaM, xoropue COOTBeTCTB)'KlT HalliUM COBpeMeHHhlM 3HaHIDlM 0 "HX.

ITOCKOJlbKY 06mHe HpaHCKo-eBpOrreHCKl:le. BKJIJO'I<UI HPaHCKO-CJlaB~HCKHe, X3paKTepHCTHKH (H )'HacJTe,IlOBaHHhIe, H HHHOBallHOHHble) nposamrlOTCSI na p33HbiX ypOBIDIX CHCTeMbf 1I3b1K3, y,l106Hee paccuarpaaars HX HMeHHO no Jl3blKOBbIM ypOBHllM, onpeD.emIJI rrpH :nOM o6mHe SlRlIeHHH - KaK zipeaaae, rrpononxaiotuae :meMeHTbI eJlHHOH aaaoeaporrencxoa npacacresrsr, TaK II Gonee noaanae, CBlI3aHHbie C KOHTaKTaMH WIll C napanJIeJ]LllbIM He3aBHCHMhlM. HO CXO):lHblM pa3BHTHeM $I3blKOII 3THX ceMeN.

WOHETHKA H «IJOHOJIOmB

llAPA,llHIMATHKA

nPO~CCbI CTAHOBJIEHIDI H If)RJIHAI.J;HH DPAJl3bIKOBblX CIlCTEM

§ l. KaK YJKe rosopanocs, B xone CpaBHHTeJl},.}iO-H_CTOpR'I~OrO tiCCJle.uOBaHIDI HPaHC1UlX H CJIaIDIHCKHX JBhlKOB B nocnenuue rona 610mH yrOqHeHbI ocnosasre BeXH nx HCTOPHKo-rpOHeTH'IeCKoro pa3BIITHlI. Ilpa ~TOM BbllICHHJIOCb, <iTO TpaHC¢'oPMaIlHOHHlole rrpoueccsr, cortposoxnaeWHe Bbl'lJieHeHHe npruI3bIKOB 3THX rpyrm K3 60nee paanax npIDI3b1KOBblX OOlUHOCTel1, T .e. Hl OMee xpynuux BeTBel1 unnoeeponeacxoa Jl3bIKOBOIi CeMb", a 3aTeM " .(U{BepfeHIIHIO 3THX nprur3b1KOBbiX Jum.n:elITHbiX KORTHH:yyMOB, npOXOt!RJUf He COBC~{ no TOMy «(CIIeHapHKW, KOTOpblK npeano.narancs paaee npH IPoPM}'JIHpOBKe CXO}tCHm IVlH 06rn:HOC1H HpaHcKoro H CJIAIDlHCKOrO rryrea PaJBJITIDI. A nOCKOJIbKy B Tpan:Hlmu UMelOTC$I npeJ1nOJIO}KeRl.fSl 0 OOlIleflcTBHH upaacxux Sl3blKoe ua CnaB51.HCKHe B 06- naCTH cpoHeTHKH, UeJleC006pa3Ho sepayrsca K pacCMOTpeRlUO OCHOBlU:JX sranos CraHOBJIeHHlI Ii pa3BliTHI! cpoHeTHqeCKHX " ¢OHOIlOrnqeCKHX CHCTeM o6eHx 1I3bIKOBhlX ceMeH.

§ 2. Hccneaoeauas B :nOH ofinacrn B nocnemnre necsraneras 00300- JIIDIH BHeeT« nesoropue KOppeKTHBbl II psm nOJlo~eHHii reaeruaecxoro acnexra "CrOpIU'I "paHCKHx l!3b1KOB, nOCKOJIbKy J],JUI "paHCKHx li3bJKOB 3TOT acnexr npoaansercs npexne acero "MeHHO B HX CpaBHHTeJIbHO-HCropasecxos ¢rOHerHKe. rosnee, ¢rOHOlIOl1m (rrpa MeHee JlBHM" rroxasaHUJlX IlO)IC HC Te1l.f 60nee BblCOKIIX ypoBHeH, eM. CJIe,uj'IOll(He pamensr). I1Me1UJO Cp.aBHHTeJIbHO-HcropnqeCKaR q:,OHeTHKa H q,OHO.n:OfIDI npenoCTaBJI1I1OT HaM «reCTHpyKIJ..QHe» npll3HUKH B onpe):leJJeHHH MeCTa HPaJICKHX Jl3bIKOB cpenn npyrnx HH.l10HpalICKHX, ap"HCKHX H, HaKOHeu:, aunoeaponehcxax 113btJi:O II , a TatcKe B npencraaneaua 0 reneanorasecxoa crpyxrype c:ru.ioU HpaHclwM ceMbH. HMeHHo C onopoii na HCTOpHqecKYlO

20

cPoHeTHI;:Y HOBOe OCBemeHHe nonysnna, BO-nepSbIX, CaCTa» JlHaJIeKTHoro KOHTHHY]'Ma apHiicKOH BeTHH, K)'M BXO,IUfJIH npOTOHpaHCKlIe ,Q1I8JleKTbl, }I sransr em cPWUfaUHH, BO-BTOPhlX, OCHOBHhle 'IepTbI, IIBHBIUHeCIi npHlH8KOBblMH JI.IUl naanearnoro KOHTHHY}'Ma yxe 06meHpaHCKoro, HJm npanpaacxoro, COCTOJlHJ.tl(, H. B-Tpen.HX, ocuosaue «recrnpyiomae» np"~ :maKI1 ¢HJIHaUHH nocnenaero aa rpynnsr H nO,Qrpynnhi HpauCKHX IIlhlKOB H OTHOCHTeJlbHIDI XpOHOJIOI'HJI srarros aTOH ¢lJ.iJlHilUHH.

Tax, nosranaas 4IHJIHaUHJI apHiicKoH o6W,HOCTH, 0 KOTOpOH roBOP"'JIOCh so «BBeJleHHH», cPHKCHpyeTCJI npexne scero nanaMH HlMeHeHHJI HCTOpH'leCKOH q,OHeTHKH " TpaHC4>oPMaIJ."H ¢OHOJIOI'HH 1I3hIKOB, npOHCwe.aIUHX H3 :nou o6mHocTH.

KaK yxe roSOPHJIOCh, 83 113BecTHhiX HaM apIlHCKJ..IX H3hIKOB npe)KJ{e BCefO esutenarracs HypHCTaHCKlliI rpynna (C C06CTBeHHhlMH J1£HlOS3UIDlMH), npa coxpaaeuua ua KaKoe-TO apexs C06CTBeHHO HHJlOHpanCKom eJIHHcrsa, TO'IHee, KOHTHHY)'Ma JJ3blKOB HJIH .Il}IarIeKTQB, BWIBillI.lOmero pHJI 06lU.llX M3repllaJIbHhiX J.fHHOBaUHii:. }I yxe noannee III 3TOro KOHTHHY)'Ma BbUleJ1HJIHCh IIpaHCKIDi II HH)lOapHHCKali rpyrmsr; npennonoxarenuro, CaMOCTmrreJThnyIO BeTBL COCTaBllJHf npa :nOM TaK)Ke LIapJlCKHe 1I3h1KII HJIH xacrs H3 HHX, eM. [Koran 2000. 27]: B03MOlKHO. 6hJJJU H IIHble seTBR, He nonremune ,no aaurero BpeMeHH.

OcHOBHbIe HCTOPHKO-CPOHeTHqeclme nponeccu, conpoeoxnanurae sry ~J.UlHaUHIO, BK]1IOQaIOT II TOH HJ1H HHOH Mepe H 're rpancrpopaaunn, KOropue npHIDITO C'IHTaTh 06UUiMH y HpaHcKHx 1I3h1KOB co CJIaBlIHCKIIMII, II03TOMY HMeeT CMblCJ1 ocraaosarscs ua uax nonpoonee.

Pe«i:meKcbI aanoeeponeacxax cornacasix

Pe~eKchIH~oeBpOneHCKHX nanaransmax COrJlaCHhlX

§ 3. KaK H3BeCTHO, OMOH "3 05mHx HpaHCKO-CJIaBJIHCKHX 'IepT npHHSITO C'IHTan Tax: HaJLlBaeMyID acCHOHJIIIUHIO HHJloeBponeUCKHX nanaTaJIbHhlX cornacnux I, T .e, npexne scero orpaxenae HHJ1.0eBpOneHCKoH ¢OHeMhl *k B lIH.ne 06w,eupaHCKOH (KaK TIOJ1araJIH) *s H CJIaBJIHCKOH *S. Ha caMOM nene KapTHUa oxasanacs OOJ1ee CJ10)KHOH aaxe BHyrPH HpaHCKOii: 1I3blKOBOii ceMbH.

Orpaxeuae noanaeanaoeaponeacxax HaJ1aT3J1hHblX "'k. "'g, "'gh, KOTOpue - xepea sranu «caT:3MHbIX» *" k, "'g, "'gh H paHHeapHHCKHX a4$pHKaT "'c. *], *]h - J],aJIH n03Jl.HHe 06meapHHCKHe a4l4lpHiCaThl "'c, *j, *jh, eJlHHhle lVlII paaaero COCTOJIHillI xaxnoro H3 apHHCKHX .lI3hIKOB. ):lan:ee UX pa3BHTHe UIJIO pa3HhIMH ll)'TIIMH.

21

B HYPHCTaHCKHX H3bIKaX 3'lli rrOlJlHeapHHCKHe acpCPPHKaTbI np0A8HHynacs nnepen, B ,lleHTaJlbHhIH psm, He )'TpaTHB CMbI'lHOro 3JleMeHTa apraXymlUHH, H nepeuuJH B JleHTaJIhHbJe a¢¢pHXaThJ c. "'J(:> Z), 'ITO B UeJ10M aaxoaar ananoraio B xone paJ8HTIlSl HH.UOeBpOneHCKHX nanaransnux B CJ1aBJ1HCKHX .!f3hlKaJt. Hanpauep. B ilJblKe Kant due ',AecSlTI.· H3 apuacx. "'daca- < H.-e. "'dehr-I- 'necsrs, LlecSlTOX', cp. pyc. oecsm«.

B c06cTBeHHo IfH,l]OHpauCKHX I!3blKax, T .e. B MHll.oapHHCKHX, 113p.uCX"X " "panCKHX, 80 acex KOMnOHemax HH,IlOHpancKoro KOH11iH)'YMa coxpaHHJIaCb HX nanaramaas apTHKynJJUH.!f npa ocnatinenna 30JIeMeHTa CMhIqKU B mYXOM comaCHOM C em CRHpaHTH3aUHeH H nepexozosr *i > *.i. Oaesanno, B 3ana,!lHOH 'laCTU KOHTHH}'YMa :nOT npouecc sacrasno 3atp0HYJI H 3BOHKHe cornacaue C nepexonoa tIepeJ 06meHHll.OHpaHCKHe *j. "'jh COOTBeTCTBeHHO B "'jli, *jhli. Cp .• aanpmrep, orpaxesae H.-e. "'dekrp-t- 'JleCWTh, necarox' > npaapaacx, "'daca- > HH,lJ,OHpaH. "dasa-; H.-e. "'gen-, "'gne·, *gno· 'JHaTh' > apliHCK •• mmOHpan. "'jan-. "'jna'3HaTb'; H.-e. "'glejos· > apancs., H HH,lIOHpaH. "'jro.las- 'Mope, 60JihUIaJJ pexa; (BO.!UfOe) rrpocrpaacrso'.

,Ilarree B JlHaJleKTax oomero HH):IoapHiicKoro npaassnca npennonaraiorcs HX pe¢lJIeKCbI B sune *s. "I, *jh. C nepexonox 3aTeM - KO speaeau cosaaaas ~peBHeHH,U.HHCKHX naM.!fTHHKOB - npHAhiXaTeJlbHOrO '* Jh B h (aHaJlOIWiHO nepexony B pane cnysaes npyrax 3BOHKHX rrpanuxarensHbIX B h. BKJIKltIrui. coanasnran C l1.aHHoH !poHeMOH 3BytCOTHII "'jh H) H.-e. *gh. *gWh, HaJtOJlHBWnXCK B nosaumr nanaranasamra, eM. HHlKe). UpH coxpaaenaa B 3TO! nepaon s, f. B03MOIKHO, B KaKOH-TO Mepe aqxppHKaTHhiH xapaxrep I, Ge3 rtepexona em B cnnpaar *i HJIH *t, nonnepxaBaJIC.!f 06ruHMH CHCTeMHblMH (apeaJlbHblMH?) TeH,lleHUIDlMH LlHaJIeKTOB, J1ennHX B OCHOBY JlpeBHeHH,JUIi.icKHx UaMIITHHKOB. - OTcyrcTBHeM B CHCrexe q,OHeTHl£eCKHX npe)1JIOCbIJIOK (UpH HaJlHtfHH !PoHOJloruqeCKHX «HHID») AlUI 3BOHKHX uienesux nma "z, "'i. *t. Ha «HenpIUITHe» npeaaeHH.uUHCIGIM JJ3b1KOM 3BOHlCHX CH6ll.1lS1HTOB yKaJhlBaeT raxxe H CTa6H1JbHoe OTpOUKeHHe 60nee paHHHX HH.UOHpaHCIGIX 3BYIWTHnOB *::::. *i (H3 sapaasTaB H.-e. *s nepen 3BOHKHMH cornacnuxa) B BH.Ue d, ".

B nnanexrax oomeapancxoro COCTOJJHIUI cornacasre 3TOH rpynnu B H3u6onee paHHillf nepaon Pa3BHBaIlUCb He no nmy *c > *c > *s. KID( yrsepxaaerca B uexoropsrx CJ1aBgHOBe,uQeCKHX patiorax (co CChlJIKOH na asecndi:cKHH H HeHpaHCKHe .H3hIKH, HO De3 ysera apxaH3MOB 8 apancxax H3bIKaX. B TOM 'lHCJle If B caMOM aaecrancxov), a xepea STan WHIDIme-CBHCT.!fIllHX - rnyxoii *8 I{ 3BOHKOU "'iI} (nOCJIe,DJUUI npencraansna eJU:!HyKl ¢OHeMY B pe3YJIbTaTe yxe JaBepWHBIUerOCH K nOMY BpeMeHH B npaHpaHCKHX ,J],HWleKTax nponecca COBnan,eHIUI perpnexcoe apHHCKHX 3BOHKHX aclllipHpoBaHHhlX I{ 3EOHKHX HeaCflUpHpoBaHHbJX EO scex paaax, CM. HH)ICe).

22

Tom.KO nosnaee B 60JlLUlHHCTBe .IqleBHHX 8paHCKWI. ,lU[arreKTOB nearparnaom (na TOT nepuon) apeana B CB060.1l;HOH n03HU;HH (r,e, He B COC'r3- Be KOHCOHaHTHOit: rpynrtsr) 06lUeHpaH. "'1 nepexonar B s, a otimeapaa. "'iJj - B Z, C COBn<l,[leHHeM HX co 3Jl)'KOTl1nllMH *s, *z HHOro npoacxoxn.eHIDI ("3 pe¢neKCOB H.-e. *s nepen 3BOHKHM.H. Hl napHaHTOB *d nepea myxIfMH If 3BOHKHMH comaCHhlMH " np.), n03TOM)' B aneCTHHcKoM BCTpe<IaeM orpaxenne otimeapaa, "'s, *i B eaae s, Z B CBo60,lllioii n03:J.1- l\HH, no B llli,D.e IIIHllilll.\HX B nmHl\HH nepeu comocHblMH, 'ITO OcoOeHHO 3aMeTHO B xopnsx C qepelIOBaJlIDIMIf (8 OTJ1HqUe OT peqinexcos 3BOHKHX B !lpeBHeHH.lUdtcKOM). Cp., aanpaaep, aa. asan- : asn- 1) 'IUlMeHb'; 2) 'He- 60, He6eCHrui rsepns' (H3 *aian- : *a.in- < H.-e. *aken- - TO }ICe), a». n. zemu.draJah- 'JlIIHHOit: )1:0 KOJIeR', aa, n. iniim (au, e,IVI.) 'KOJIeHO'; as, II. inubyas·ci! « "'gnubhjos), aa, n. fra-snu- '):10 xonen' H T.lI. (cp. Il:p.-HH,II. jiinu- : jilu- 'KOlleHO' "3 npaannoapan. "'janu- : jnu-, npn OTpOOKeHHH II. 60Jlee n03.llHHX sssrxax: M3r. zan; xc. yslinu ; HIIIK. Zbflg « "'Zanu-ko.-) 'XOJIeHO' H r.n. [CrB7I-<P 89, 134]).

To xe caaoe MhI ecrpesaex B KOpWlX, otipaayexux nepernacosxoa rnna CAC- > CCA-, B PaJHblX apancxax Jl3bTKaX (anecs TaIOKe nammo OTJIH'lWl OT npeBHeHHllHHcKOro B pa3BllTHH pepnexcos 3BOHKHX nanaransHhlX B npexonconaaraoa nOlH1IHH). Cp., aanpmsep, orpaxeaae B apauCKHX g)LlKax npaapaaccoro xopus "'ian- : "'ilin- : "'ina- If "'sna- « *iniH '3HaTh. yaaaaars', - npononxamutero npannnonpaa. "'jan- : "'jlin- : "'jnJi(cp. ,!l;p.-HH,II. jemlJti, janite H r.n., npax, npow. sp, jiIata-) H3 H.-e. "'gen-. "'gena·, "'gne-. "'gna· '3HaTb' (cp. JInT. finoti, uepK..-CJJ3B. mati [Pok. lEW, 376-378; Mh. EWA-8, 599-6D1]):

OT xopas B clxJPMe "'ian-: OT npesenrnux OCHoa *ian~, "'iana- - as. r.,

n. zan- : zlin- 'saan,', as, r, paitiziinala 'erkennet an!', as. n. paiti.zanli! 'wird anerkennen', ava.zanqn 'sie werden gewahr'; np-rrepc. a-dana 'OR ysaan' (c d < *z); cp.-nepc., KJI. nepc. diinistan '3HaTb'; COI/l:. 6YM. z'n'JH3Tb'. C npeaeptiaaa raxxe: IIIynI. wizun-, pyw., 6apT. wizan-, cap. wjzon- « *!#kan-); Sl3L vazan- « "'abi-ian-); corn, ptz'n- ')'3HaBaTb'; XC. paysan- 'ysaaears': HWIC pbzin- : pszind '3HaTL, rrOHHMaTb; npmnaaars, C'IHTaTL, ysaaaan,'; ern. patin- : petind « "'pati-ian-, OT OCHOBbl *pati-iana- );

OT xopas B ct>oPMe *inii': 'JHaTh (lJeJIOBeKa), )'3HaBaTL' (H3 H.-e. '" gne-, '" gno-): OT npe3eHTHbiX OCHoa '" inli·, '" inti-sa- « '" inii-sa- - pec{m:eKc HHXOaTHBHOH OCBOBM, cp, JIaT. nOseD, rpex. ytyvWoxw) ~ np.-nepc. xiniisliliy (c HapameHl,leM HewfHMOJIOJU<feCKoru x- nepen J-); cp.-nepc. snas-, lUI. rrepc. siniis- 'saars, Y3HaBan.'; npOH3BO,Il,Hhie HMeHa OT *inii-: an, n. inlitar- '3HaTOK', Znoiira- (npeeocxoasas creneas) 'K,O aaaer ll)"lwe acex', aa, r. fraxsni, as.n. fraxsn! 'oJa60qeHHblH; OCM01'pHTeJ1bHblH' [Gersh. Phil. Ir., 7; CrB.sI-lIJ, 89].

23

§ 4_ DpH rowe" TeHJl:eHUHH K accH6wRUHH pedmexcoa naJIaTaJlLHhlX B CB06oJUIOH nO]HURH B 60JIbilieH qaCTJ.:I npaapancxax .uHaJ1eKTOB, qaCTb OKpaHHHblX ,!lHaJIeKT08 B rexeaae OTHOCHTeJIbHO )l)1HTeJIbHOro BpeMeHH COXpaH)lJ13 WRIDIWHH KOMnOHeHT B HX ]1lyq:3HHH, T .e, OU" apraxynapoBaJIHCb. nO-BH,UHMOMY, Kate *s, "'i (HJIll, BO BC.llKOM cnysae, C HeKHM «merrenaasm» q,OKYCOM, nma {), 0). 3"ro cnoco6CTBOBaJlO, B qacTUOCHf, OTpruKeHHJO nannux cornacnnx B naanexre-npenxe npesaeuepcancxoro B BH,LIe iJ. d (rrocneaaero npe.unOJIOiKHTeJI],HO '-(epe3 311UJ *0 [Brandenstein, Mayrhofer 1964, 38: Mayrhofer 1968, 8, n. 36J, apTHKY}UlLUtoHHoe OOOCHOBaHHe CM. TaKJKe [CrB.sJ-¢, 40-45]) J.I B ):!aJlbHeitureM OTJIH'lHID HX peqinexcos OT perpnexcoa 3B)'KoTHnoB '" S, "z (H3 H.-e. '" s H *d nepen comaCHLIMH). Harrpmtep, cpo npaapaacsoe "'da..~a- 'necsrs' (H3 HlUlOapaacxoro *dasQ-, cp. JIp.-HH.rt. dasa-, BOCXOLJjuuero K o6weapHikKoMY "'daea- H] Hll,[[OeBponeucKoro *debrz-t-), orxyna as. dasa-, HO np.vnepc. *da{Ja- > COBp. nepc, dah, npa fiUIT_ las, uryra, 01:', ocer. tires. corn, {js H T.Jl.; HH.UOHpaHCKoe *jraias- 'Mope, 60JIhIllrul pexa, (aonaoe) npocrpUHCTBO' H3 HHJtGeBponeilcKoro ""glejos- (OT H.-e. rJI. "-'clei- 'Tmb, crpyarscs', 3a<ilHKcHpOBaHHoro TOflbKO B HH.r:IOHpaHCKHX £:3IdKaX [Pole lEW, 401], cp. .np.-HHJI. jray- c npeseptioa upa- 'pacnpocrpans'rsca' [Mh. EWA-8, 606]): npanpan. *ira!uh- '0611IHPHbIH BonHblll MaCCHB (Mope, 60JlLIllruJ MHOroBO'!UUUI pexa)' > as, n. zrayah- 'Mope: MHPOBOll OKeaH (Vouru-kasa-); osepo"; np.-nepc. drayah- 'Mope' [Barth. AiW, 1701-1702]; cp-nepc, draya(b), .KJI. nepc. daryu.(b) 'Mope; oxean: 6oJIbUIWl pesa': COBp. rrepc. ddryd, rans; daryo 'pexa' (BKJIroQ3$[ ynorpeoneHHe B COCTaBe fH.D.POHHMOB), (YCT.) 'Mope'; naprp, zryh. Ilpa JIarJbHeHIlleM CTIliKeHHH rpynnsr ""ir- C coxpaaeanea !.lIHmllneH apHTHKyJl1!UHI1: itn.. i3i 'osepo'; pow. yoy - Ha3BBHHe oaepa; GapT. yoy 'MOKPbIH; CbIPO"; OTCWpesunm'; X3r. yuy 'OJePO; MaJIem.KHH HCKYCCTBeHHWH BO,!lOeM; npya': sax. tuy 'sonoeu'.

Pa3JIH'IHble OTKJIOHeHIUl OT trearpansuoa miHI-IH PaJBHTH)! 06Hapy;4(HBaIOT TaKXe npesaae "paHCKHe ,n;HaneKTLI CKHqJO-OCeTI1HCKOH H caxcKO-BaxaHcKOH rpynn, B qaCTHOCTH, B oceTHHCKOM 1I3blKe perpnexcu rrpaupae. *i COBllaJIH C *s (It (03)lHee - C *s), B pesynsrare qero B CoBpeMeHHOM oceTHHCKOM B HCKOHHOH rrexcuxe rrrcyrcrayer q,OHOJIOrWleCKW:! Onn03HUIDI S ....... S, a enanas fjJOHeMa lsI npe,!lCTaBJIeHU no .uHaJIeKTaM B BHJl.e 3ByKOTHUOB [s, S. $].

Ilns cacceo-eaxaacxon rpyrmsr noeaaarensau perpnexcu ofimeapasCKOH rpynrrsr * ,ill , coxpaaaamae illllIlllID;HH xapaKTep npanpaacxoro *i H npencratouiae B BHn.e He sp, KaK ao MHornx npyrnx HpaHCKHX lI'3blK3X (BKJlIO'Irur a8eCTHHCKI1A). a urarrsnrero s. Cp., aarrpmrep, npOJ.(OJI}I(eHIHI H.-e. *eklJo-s 'KOHL. lIOWa,Ub': apnitcx. *aeya- > rrpaapaa, *as~- (cp,

24

ll.p.~HfUI. a..fVU-) > xc, assa-, sax. yas, npa aa. aspa-, JIP.-nepc. asa- (B KOMnosnre asa-bara- 'BCaJJ:HHK'); npOJJ:OJDKeHH~ a-e. *kljon- ! fun- 'coriasa, nee' (cp, J1HT. iua, rea, suris 'nee, cofiaxa'; nar, canis, rpes, XU(l)V, xuv&;, fO'T. hun-d-s, HeM. HUM, pyc. CyiCa, npHToM 'ITO pyc. cQ6aKa MHOfUMH HCCJI~OBaTeJ]$IMH ClfHTaeTCjJ HPaHCKHM 3aHMCTBOBaHHeM H3 +spaka- [Pok. lEW, 632-633; Mh. KEWA-23, 402-403]) > apnitcx. *c!!On- : cun- > HHl(OHpaH., npaapan, *sljan- : sun- (cp, ap.-HHn. svan- : sun-, HOM .. 4I!Q, x.p, iunt-) > as. span- : siin- (HOM. spa), lK.p. suni- 'co- 6aKa' Ii " p(m 3 SO.ll Hhl,?: HH.nOnpaH., rrpanpaa, *slJa-ka- (cp, Jtp.-HHJl. .. {vaka'SOJlK' - "3 H.-e. *kijT}-ko-) > as. spaka- 'C06aKOBi-W.nhIR', MUll. +spaka(OiTaxa), np-nepc, "saka- (rrpu 3aKOHOMepHOM pamaran 3,IIeCh ·Srj- > r-): cp.-nepc. sak, lUI. nepc., 1'3,1:J;:.K. sag, coep. nepe. sag 'c06axa, nee', HO DUX, sac 'cofiaxa' « *.~lja-c'f-, C cy¢qn-IKCOM. x.p. *-ct. [Morg. IIFL 11, 469]). Ilonpotiaee 06 orpaxeann *i~ " rrpHMepbl CM. [Morg. IIFL II, 453,541; Morg. ID, 105; Cl'.-K 3CB..sI, 327; CfB..sI-€l> 81, 84, 119-120]).

OTJlU'IWl orpaxeaas 06meHpaHcKoH rpynnsr *ilj (H3 H.-e. *~) OT rpyrrubl *<~p ("3 H,-e. *sp) OTMe<ru.KYfCIl H R CKurpo-OCeTItHCKOii rpynne (rne C *i cosnana *.n. H B npeeaenepcnacxosr Jl3blKe (rae nepaas rpynna OTpaJKaeTC~ S HCKOHHbl1( CJlOBal( xax s, IlTOp~ coxpaaser CMbllfHblR 3J1eMeHT - sp).

§ 5. B cocraae )l(e KOHCOHaHTHhIX rpyrm, ocooeaao B lfaCTOTHhlX co'1eTaHHJlX «pedinexc rranaransrroro + t», wHrulmHH KOMrrOHeHT 06meapailcxax pedinexcos naxaransnux COXpaHJleTC.II BO scex 5I3bIKax HHJl.Oupascxoro Ml-lpa (BKJIIOq~ 1-1 aBeCTHHCKHH 1l3blK), nOCKOJIbKY pa3BIfTI1e WJlO "3}J;eCh ny-reM npeofipa308aHIDI rpynnu *kt > *tt > *ct > *st > *.~l. Hanpaxep, HHlIoeBponei1cKoe *okto(u)- <BoceMb' narro noanaeapnncxoe *actli(u)- u - nanee - HHl(OUPau:. *asta- > *rufa- > npaapan. *astli- > aBeCT. asta-, Ocoeenuo Ham.lUI.HO 3TO ofiaapyxaeaercs S rnarcnsnsrx OCHOBaX OT KopneR C HCXO)lOM na nanaTaTIhHblH. rue npesearnste OCHOBbI conepxar peqmeKcbl nanaraneasix B lllITepOOKaJIbHOH OOOHllHU, a UCTOpU'IC(:KHe npasacraa ua *-ta- (crasmae 3aTeM B 6o.rrhwHHcTue UPaHCKHX H3h1KOB OCHOBaMH npourejunero BpeMeHH) - B n03HU:"H nepen *t: cp., mmpUMep, H.-e. *kwek- > apnircx, *kac- > npanpan, *ka.f- "csrorpers' (cp . .llp.-HH):J.. "kai-, HaCT. ap. lWiate), OTKyJl.a npaapaa, rrpeaeirraas ocnona *kaia- (cp. aa, kaso-) ~ npnsacrae "kasta- > "'kruta- (IUyrH. Cis- : cUit, HU. ins- : krlit 'CMOTPen.'; cpo raxxe TIUIT. kat- C t < .f/, ocer, kest / kast C s < s"). To ::«:e B OTpaJKeHIDIX 3BOHKHX: H.-e. *yeih- 'nepeasararscs, exars' > apUHCIC" HH.llOHpaH. *¥ajh- (cp. np.-Hllll. vahati); II ll:paHcxux. sssrxax npe3eHTHaJI ocnosa npononxaer otipaaoaauue *yaia-, npauaCTHe - *Ijllita-, cpo as, vazaiti : vasta-, uryra, waz- : wiit, H3r. waz-, wez- : welt 'nnasars, xynarsca',

25

Xapaxrepao, 'lTO 3TO Obm HHlIOHpatlCKUH nyrs (auanorau MhI BH,l.I;HM B JlpeBllem-f,lUtHCKOM R3I>1Ke), HO He 06IlleapHHCK"H, nOCKOJlbKY B UypHCTaHCKHX HMeIOTCll: HenBYCMbICJleHHble CSHJJ:eTeJIbCTBa UHOro p33BHTHK 3THX rpynn na nocnenunx cranasx, a "MeHHO: *fit > *ct > sf (cp. B IBbIxe rrpacyrr asti 'socexs ' H3 60nee panaero *actii(u)- < noaarreapaacsoe *acta(u)- < nnnoeaponeacxoe *o/ao(u)-). TaKHM 06pa30M nonrsepxnaeTCSI: RarU{«He WI1II11mero KOMllOHeHT8 B apnfKyJlSl:UKH pec{llIeKCOB nanaTaJlbHhIX B H3H6oJlee pamuoro HHllOI1paHCK)'IO anoxy, 'ITO OTpa3HJlOCh B «paHCKUX K3MKax, K8K u B HH.I.IOapuikKHX, B OTllHtme cr HYPUCT8HCKHX.

§ 6. TeM caMbiM no npusaaxy QTpa)({eHH.Il n03,UHeHH.QOeBpOneHeKux fIaJI3TaJIbHblX .1l.HalleKTHMH KOHTIfHYYM 06weupaHcKom nprunblKoBOro nepaona 'illeHUJ1CII na pa31lH'lHbie apeanu: uearpansaua, WIR xoroporo 6hVI xapaxrepes OTHOCHTeJlhHQ paHHHJJ nepexoa *$ > r, *i/j> z, If 1&fapranansnae, rue npouecc H3MeHeHHH *8, *iJj OWl 3aMe)lJleH HJIU nouren UHb.!M nyrex. nO,llp06Hee L' DpHMepaMH CM. [CfBjI-4l, 38-45, 8 [)"'92 , 112 H cn.]; 06 orpaxemtn llHlloeBponeikKHx rtarraransnsrx B a3blKax apm1CI(OH ceM.bH B UeJIOM eM. raxxe ['3.lleJJbMaH 1992, 1994, 58-63J.

§ 7. B eJ1aIHlHCKHX II 6aJ1THHCKHX .113bIKax H3MeHemfe HH/1;OeBpOneHC"}lX nanararn.aux JIPOIlIJlO no-paanoxy " HelaBHCHMO npyr OT npyra. A.Meiie paccxarpasaer CJlaBaHCKHi.f H 6aJ1THHCKHH MarepHaJlbl paaaens»0 [Mej.je 1951, 24-25j. Buecre C TeM. no MHeHHIO C.E.EepHlliTeilHa. npaCJ1aBRHCKHH R3hlK B ,JUOXY, npezuuectaoaaamym OaJITO-ClIamIHcKoMy COID3Y, OTP<t)l(aJ1 aaaoesponeacxae nanaransusre B BHJle s. ;, r.e, OTJUl"lHblMH OT S, Z 3B)'KaMll (cv., nanpuuep, npacnas. smt- < H.-e. 0+< hz1tom, cp, as. satsm, nHT. simras t cro', npacnas. ~nate j, cp~ nUT. iinoti '3HaTb', npacnaa, a; 'SI' < H.-e. *cg(h)-om, cp, JIaT. ego, mIT. as U T . .I1:. [EepHIllTeHU 1961, 151-154]). no MHeHHIO O.H.Tpy6a'lcaa. «riparianTHifcKH" pe¢neK~ a-e. k ~ S HeH3BecTeH npacnasaacxoay, npoaenaaUleMY pasaarae k :> c > S. HaUTH 3Jleeh "o6uzym HHHOBaUlHO CHCTeMbl cornacnsrx" :iJJleMeHTapHo Heoo3MOlKHO, H He,naBwiR nonsrrxa llIMaJlhnrrnra npasro COOTHeCTH of B cnaa, piset» 'rrmner' ("3 sj!) n S B mIT. pies,! 'pacosars' .llOmKHa 6blTb orsepruyra KaK aaaxpoausa» [Tpy6a'leB 1983, 239J.

TID MHeHHIO P.OOWKOBHlIa, 8 }(3b1Kax rpynna «carsa» n3MeHeHue HHJlOe8pOrreHCKHX nanaransaax B a4'cpPHKaTbl H CPPHKaTHBHbIe q,OHeMbI npOHCXQJJ:IUlO pa3HMMH nyrsuu: a) k > C :> S (JlpeBHeHH.Il.mtCKU" U IlHTOBCKHU Jl3bIKH), g > i (mIToBCKU" >l3bIK) , gh > dih (> ih :> h npenaeUH,lI;HHCKHH >l3bIK) :> Iii > i (JlUTOBCKHH >l3bIK); 6) k > c > s (aaeCTHHCKHH, npesaenpyccxaa, lIaTbUllCJ{UH H npacnaasncxaa )l3bIKH), g, gh :> d(z)h :> dz :> Z (aBeCTHi.fcKHH, npeanenpyccsua, JlaThlllICKHH H npacnasaaCKIf" 1f3b1KH) [60WKOBH'I. 1984, 96J.

26

OJiHaKO cnenyer ewe paa nozrsepxayrs CKa3aHHoe asnue: npennono)Kemole 0 palBlolTIUl no nyrn k> c > S (XaK H g, gh > d(z)h > d: > z) .IJ)Ul J'I3hlKOB HpaHCKOH ceMhH, BKJIlOtUUl aBeCTHHCKHH, 11 xopae OWH6otIHO. B :nOH cxesre He )"iHThlllaIOTC" pe$IeKChl .npyrHx "paHCKHX "3hlKOfl, na 11 aaecrancxae pedinexcsr ytrfeHhI He 6Ce, nOCIWJlI>KY BHe pa3}'MHhIX 06"M1CHeHHH OCTaJOTCJI asecTHHCKHe xe apxaasau B BHJle coxpaueaus UlHnSll1l,ero xapaxrepa pe$IeKCOB HH,IlOesponei1cKHx nanaTaJIl.HhiX. B 110- 3"~"" nepea CMbNHbIMH ComaCHbIMH. A nOCJIeMHii ooo."cIDIeTcSI "MeHHO "pOxox,neHHeM aBeCTH~CKHMH pe¢neKcaMH "H~OeBporreHcKHx nanaTaJIbHblX "epe3 srarr o6w:eapmtcKHX ITan8TaJIhHI:>lX aq,¢pHKaT "'c, *j, *jh, C .naJIbUeHIIHH,1 pa3BHTHeM B JlaH"OH UO:lHQJtH no THny "'6> *j> "'8 (CM. npHBe~eHHbIH ssnne npHMep OTpa~eHIDI. H.-e. *okto(u)- II 8Hge aBeC"THHcxoro aSta-). Kposre roro, UpH OUMCHeUH" pa3BUTHll. xepes 3TaUbI Tuna *f> "'c> s C6pacMBafOTCjI co cseroa .upyrn:e HpaHCKHe Jl3hIKH, Cp~H KOTOphiX OC06eHHO 3Ha'lHMbl, KaK yxe roBOPHJlOCb, "3bIKH D.peBHeHpaHCKHX MaprHHaJ1bHhlX apearros. B 3TOM OTHOllIemfH aaanorox npennonaraeuoro p.nOUlKOBU'l:eM CJIaBSl:HCKOrO nym pa3BHTUSl (k > c :> S) SlMSIeTCSl csopee HypnCTaHCKHH Tun orpaxeaaa naJ1aTaJ)bHLlX, UO C nOnpaBKOH aa npoXO)KJl;eHHe 11M apHHcKoro srana B BHJle ITaJJaTaJI:E.HOH a¢¢pHKaTbI *e.

C TO':[KH 3peHHSl HCTOPHKO-¢OHeTH'leCKHX 38KOHCIl HeJIh3B HCKJIIO\J"Th npoxoxnenae perpnexcaxa IIaTlaTaJIhHbIX B npacnaasucxax D.HaJIeKTax. panaero nepaona (no 6amo-cn2BSlHcKOro 00103a) npennonaraeuoro C.Ii.EepHllITeUHOM srana HeKHX «3antyMJ1eHHbIX», MH, no ero onpeneJleHHIO, «MJlIXHX» cornacustx, OTmfllHhIX or S, Z. Orpaxeaae B JIHTOBCKOM Jl3bIKe HfWoellponeitcKHx nanaransnax B sane UJHIlJUUHX S H i B pasasrx n03HltHSlX CBHJleTe.nbCTByeT 0 B03MOIKHOM aH3JJOlWlHOM paarrex HX paaBHTRI1. H B npyrax oamHHCKRX i:3blKaX (C nocnenytouiea accH6wul.U.HeH B npyccxou H JIanUliCKOM). Cp., HarrpHMep, JIHT. ril.Hmt 'necart,' - JITOJ. desmit, pyc, oecsms; J1UT. a.~tuoni "socesrs' .- JlTW. aSluOlJi, pye. 6'OL"eMb; JlHT. iinoti 'arran,' -.. mur, zincit. pyc, 3/wmb; IIHT. as 'a' - IITW. es, CJlafl. (j)azo; mIT. iJJakiJ 'PblObJl. xocrs' -.. mID. asaka - TO IKe, pye. OCOIW; JlUT. a1tril.s 'OCTPbIH' -- 1ITllI. ass, ass 'CHJlbHbIH, OCTPblH' ~ pyc. ocmpwu H np, [Fraenkel LEW I. 18-19, 91; II, 1310-13111- Ilpn ::'ITOM IDiTOllCKHe pepnexcsr nonrsepxaator apllHCKHH nyrs paaaarns llH.1loeBpOnencsax ITaJIaTaJIbHhlX: lIepel srarur nanaransaux aCPCPPHKaT C nepexo.nOM B nanaransasre IKe uteneaue, ACCH6H.JUIUHlI nanaransmrx utenesstx B 060HX CJJy'lWlX (r.e. B qaCTH GanrnnCKHx jl3L!KOB H B GOJIbWHHCTBe HpaHCKHx) npa TaKOM xone pa3BHTHH l3:BJUleTCH BTOPI-I'lHOU.

§ 8. Tmm.M 06proOM, ,IlJUJ. :113blKOB rpynnu «carau», BKJIIO'I<UI: apHHCKHe, CnaBJIHCKHe H 6aJITHHCKHe, o6mHMH "BM"Cb OTcyrCTBHe CHCTeMHOU nenanaranaaaunn annoeaponeacxax nanaransrrux cornacasrx H

27

nponeccsr MX a¢q,pRKallHH no nepBOHa'IanbHOMy Tuny *i: > *c. OlIHaKO nOCJl~}'lOIl.{He nepexonsr *c B *6> *c, UJIH "'c B *e > *c > =s, HJIH *t B * C > * S > * S, ruUt * C B * C > * i > * s npoacxonana )"fCe naparrneJlhHO R He3aBll.CllMO B pasuax BeTBXX H naxe nO.Il,-BeTWIx rpynnu «carsa».

Xapaxrepao nUCKe, 'ITO OKOH'laTe.llhHbIH C,llBHf pe¢neKcoB nanaransHbIX B rpyrrny eHoManTos B CJlawrnCKHX Ii 60JlhWeH QaCTI1: "PaHCKfiX a3b1t(OB npoaaouren OTHOCHTeJlbHO nosnao - n03JKe nepexona aaaoesponeaexoro *S B onpenenennux n03HUIDlX s *.f H S CIJ3S. x (r.e. nocne OKOH'IaHIUJ ,E1ei1cTBWJ npasana RUKI, eM. "JOKe, ~ 11), B npOTJ.:lBHOM c_rryqae BenC'TRue srorn saxosa OXB8TKlIQ 6ld H HOBble s, Z m HHlIOCBPOnenCKHX nanararrsaax (ca. TaKlKe [Eepaurreiia 1961, 154]).

§ 9. Oco6oe aanenae npencraannor c060if TaK H3lblS3eloibIe «J(eHTyMoLle» CJIO'Sa B CJJaB.IJHCKHX. 6arrIHHcKlix li npaHCKl:IX a 3btKax , T.e. CROlla c k, II B)lecro O.:KHJlaeM.LlX s, z. B HeKOTopblx cnyqMx orpaxesae HH,UOeBponei1cKHx nanaransuux B Blf.!l.e k, g B C1IaBl!HCKHX a3blKax otTh~ aCHHeTCa KaK pe3YJIbTaT JlHCCHMHrulllHH, eCJlH B crroae YJKe conepxanca UCJ(OHllblU cH6urull:IT: cp., HanpHMep, p3CCMOTpeHHoe A.Meue orpaxeaae *gvezda B anne '<{em. hvezda, DOJIhCK. gwiazda, H.-Jlp>. gwezda. nonati. gjozda, lIP" pye. 36e3iJa, /HIT. ivaigzde, nTUI. zvaigzne, JJ:p.-rrpyc. swdigstan (axx.), CM. [Melle 1951, 24-25]. CIO.ua JKe A.Meue OTHOCHT H cJry<lafi orpaxeuas B BKUe k CpelU1HHQH naJIaTaJIhUQH, KQT.D.a 33 Hefi cneayer r: svekry, "PH .D.p.-HH.Il. iVaSrfi- 'ClleKPOBb' Ii T...I:I. (TaM iKe, 25). C.S.EepHIIITeHH e'lHTaeT TaKHe HRIleH}fJI pe3yJlbTaTOM xepencaasas mila *k -- *k B HH,LIoellponeHCKOM (EepHUITeHH 1961, l52 H CJl.], cp. HHJJ:Oeaponeacxue peKOHC'fpyKUH" B [Pok. lEW, 1043-1044 J: '" 5!:tekr~'csexpoas' H BTOpH'IHQe * slJekuro- 'csexop' (<<3 * suekruro- ), B lCOTOPhix npeanonaraercs xepeaoaaaae k - k. To *e OTpa.lKeHO B 3THMOJlOrnliX B [Sabaliauskas 1990, 45 H )1;1'.1. Cp, TaKJKe lIB. xrasura-, IIp.·HHll. svasuro-, IlHT. sesuras 'CDelCOP', YKalblBaroWHe H& HHJlDeBpOneHcKHH npororan '" slJekuro- c nanaransnua *k.

Or\HaKO 110 ",HOruX CJIY'lillIX 3TO .S!BJ1eHJ.Ie. C1pOIU IUBOpil, ).1Q1llKHO fu.m, IlpeJlMeTOM paCCMOTpeHMJi He CT01lbKO HCTopu'lecKoM q,OHeTHKH, cxonsKO 3iRM0J10nm:. no MHeHHIO O.H.Tpy6a'leBa, onpenenenasie «xeuryxuue» cnosa B npacnasancxou HOCilT oeccnopHO KYJlbTYPHWI. xapaxrep H aBJIilIOTCIl II 3H8'1ltTeJlbHOH creneua pe3YJIbTaTOM xensrcxoro MllilHKlI.

B xasecrse npmlepoB O.H. Tpy6a'leBbIM pacC'Ma1pHB!UOTCH HeKOTopbIe CJIOBa, OTHOCllILIHeCB K npaCIJaSBHeKoMY ¢OHnY. TaK, npacnas. "'korva - aaaeanue D,OMallJHero )KMBOTtlOrO - KYjlbTypHblH TepMHH, BOCx:oWiWllH (sepes CTa.AUIQ "'karava) K cpoPMe. 6mnKow K KeJ1bT. car(a)vos 'oneus'. nparou 'ITO CJlaBJIHCKOe CJlOBO )lOJl)KHO GWIO 6b1Tb * sOn'a, C pe¢aeKCOM S, KOTOP.hJU ecrs B cnas, >Ie ssrna - o60:ma1feHHe ,llHKoro ::t::HBOTHOfO.

28

Ilpacnaesacxua nepeaarr ero CROe 3By<laHHe *karava rulH *ko~va BMeCTe c ero axyroeoil HHTOHau,ReH OW1T"lkKOM), (nUT. hiI've), R KOTOPOM 3TO cnoso TO:lKe CTOUT H3onHPOBtlHHO (Tpy6a':leu 1983, 243]. To :lKe OTHOcrrrcs K npacnas. * lamb 'KOHb, 11 OlU 3,ll,h " Koropoe enaa nu om,emiH>leMO B oarry rpyrrny c *kom(o)nb, *kobm" "kobyla. EOJ1ee nepcrrexrnsno conoCTaRJIeHHe ero C xensr. (raIlJIbCKUM) "kankos I "konkos 'no uraas , , coxpaHIIBlUHMC>l B OCTaTO'IHblX ¢opMax U B aHTpOnOHHMaX H poncraeaauu JJ:p.-HCJ1. Ha- 'nOWa,LIb', hestr, JJ:p.-B.-HeM. hengist, HeM, Hengst ')Kepe6eu', rrpn 3TOM cpo ]JUT. iankus 'npOBOpHE.IH, 5b1crpblii', Bee ~TH CJIOHa BOCXO,!VIT B KOHe"IHOM C"IeTe K H.-e. *ka(n)k- 'cxaxars' C HOeOBWM HHcPHKCOM. KeJIbT. *kan1w- / *konko- 'CKaKYU' npa 3aUMCTBOBaHHH 6blJ1o anrepnpeTHPOBaHO KaK CJIaBIlHCKHH ,llHMHHyrHB C CY<P¢llKcarrbHbIM -k-, n03TOMY B CJIaIDltlCKOM nepBll'lHa cpopMa "konik», *konbJa., a "'konb - BTOpH"IHa, CJIOXH1IaCh yxe na CJJaBlIHCKOH nosae. 3'ro He e.!tHHCTBeHHbIH CJlY'laii 13- HMCTB08aHHIl H3 KeJIhTCKOm «JlOW8.lIHHoii» repuaaonornn, Cpo rannsCKO-ll3THHCKoe uaasamre nOHH mannus H3 xensr. *mandos H HeM, Pferd H3 rpe'leCKO-KeJIhTCKOro ru6pltJl.a paraveredus (nonpofixee CM. [Tpy6a'1eB 1983, 243, 254], TaM JKe mrreparypa).

Crolla :l(e OTHOCHTC'iI: «KaMeHHble» caosa B 6aJITHHCKW( H CJlaBBHCKHX. .lI3hlKaX, nma pyc. xauens, nar. akmuo, }ITW, akmens (npa HaJIH'IHll TalOKe mIT. aimuo H ii~menys 'ocrpae, JIe3BHe', JITW. asmens 'KJlHHOK, Jle3BHe'), "PH npaapaa. *a.{man- 'KaMeUh; lle60' (- ~He6eCHWI reepns'), cp, l1p,-HH,U. asman-, nepe. lisman 'HooO' OT H.-e. xopas *ak-, "'ok- 'OCTPhi", ocrpoxoaesaan: HMeroUJ;HH ocrpue I1'aHH; KtlMeHb' [Pok. lEW, 18-22; Fraenkel LEW I, 5; Sabaliauskas 1990,45; 3CIDI-l, 237] H np, (B '1aCTHOCTll, pye . .MOJIO/W H np.).

B.H.A6aeB OTHOCHT TaKHe CJIyqaH K xareropnn «nepexpecrnsrx "30- rnocc» u C'IllTaeT, qrO II CJlaWIHCKHX X3WKax "MeeT MecTO orpaxeaae H.-e. *k, >tOg, '" gh B BHJ\e KaK r, Z, TaK I-I.k. g [A6aeB 1968, 255-258, oco- 5eHHO c. 257], He ocnapaaax sroro rronoxenaa II cauoro nOHll.THX «nepexpecrnue H30rJIOCCbm II lleJlOM, XOTeJJOCh 6w )J;o6aBHTh, 'ITO KaX,!tblH CJIy'lalI, 8XOlUlWU" B TaK)'IO rpynny CJlOB c 3aKOHOMepHblMH HCKJUO'leH.HXMH, "Yl<.!I.aeTCjI BO BeOCTopoHHeM aHaJl.I-I3e 1-1 o6MlcHeHllH, nocKollbKY npnQHHhI srax llCKJllO'ieHH" xoryr 6blTb pa3JlH'IHbIMH: 4loHeTIf'lecKHMu (exmosas $JHeMH)'IO caararuamxy H npocoJJ:I-I'IeCKHe MOMeHTbI), MOp¢toJlOfH'ieCKHMll (nanpmrep, napanaraaraxecxoe BbipaBHHHaHHe B PalHhIe 1I3b1KOBhle snoxa), q,oHenno-cHHTaKC"'IeCKHM" (HanpHMep, c60" B annayre, C8H3aHHble C jlBJIeRMeM aneuruero CaJUIXH), JleKCH'IeCKHMH (paHHRe 3aHM.CTBOBaHIDl, He scerna nerxo pacnoauasaexue; H3MeHemUI. no ananoraa C apyraa, CXOj]HhlM no CeMaHTUKe, CJlOBOM H T.n.), COUUOJIHl:ll'BHCTH1IeCKHMH (ynOD.ot5JieHHe npoH3HeCeHID!. KaKOrO-m160 CJlOBa altaJlOTH<£HOMY CJlOBy «npeCTJ.OKHom» sasnca 8 D.aHHOM peraoae) H TJI..

29

P$exCbI BlQOCBponeiicKOA *s

§ 10, CXO.ll:HO, HO He BnOJlHe O)],HHaKOBO paaaasanace B "paHCKHX 11 CJIaJIj£HCKI1X JllWKaX HH):IOeBponei1cKruI ¢OHeMa "s - eJll1HCTBeHHasI nns annoesponeacxou CI1CTeMbI <ppHKaTHRHaJI ¢OHeMa, peaJU130BaBurasca B sane nsyx OCE{OBHbIX aJlJIoo:pOHOB - [s) 11 - nepen 3"bOHKHMH comaCHhlMH - [z].

flpaBHJIO RUK1

§ 11. Hune Mbl HMeeM 60JIee nonaoe npencraaneaae 0 <poHerHqeCKOM u q,oH0J10rnqeCKOM .ll:eHCTBHH 01l.HOrO In HaH6o.rree npeaanx H3MeHeHHii H.-e. *s B panxax TaK nasueaexoro npanana RUKJ, T.e. np3BHIIa, C,,?fJJacHO KOTOpOMy muroesponeacxas *s nOC,..'1e "r. *k (n pe¢uIeKCOB "'t""), '" k, * u, *!!, ,., i, * i, * a noasepranacs S IIlblKax rpynnbl «caT3M» onpeneneHHhlM HlMeHeHHSlM. Hau60.1Jee ofiuiae perpnexcsr - B 60J1blllHHCTBe apHHCKRX Jt3WKQB H B 6aJITI1"CKRX - WHIIltIUHe. §-06palHhle cornacnue IU!H - B npaCJI<lIDIHCKOM - x, s.

§ 12. B apnscxax SllDIKax H.-e. * s OTPlUKaJIacb B Hlf}Ie J-06pa3HhlX 3B)'KOB (cp, Ap.-HM. l, otiuieapan. *S) nocne "i (BKIllOqaJI *i < H.-e. *~), *u. *r (BKJUOqrur *r < *l), *k ("3 H.-e. *k, "'k") H nocne perpnexcoa u-e, -i. Ilpn ::lTOM Ha6J1101131OTC1iI onpeaeneaaue 3TaTIbI K3K npOTeK3- H"51 llaHHOIU rponernvecxoro npouecca, Tali: I-I CPOHO;IOfI-I3aUI-I" ero pe- 3ynbTaTOB.

YCTaHOB.lleHHlO 3THX ararros S apHHCKHX 1I3blKaX nOMOI'alOT xapaxrepHMe .HCKJIlOqeHmI: 1) OTp<3}J(eHHe » npaHypHCT.aHCKOM HH.D:OeSpOrreHcKoH *s s BMe S 1I0000e *u, np"TOM 'ITO 8 C06CTIleHHO llH,D,OHPaHCKHX 513blKax *s nocne *u nepexomrr B s-06pa3Hhre lB)'Kll, KaK I-I Il .n:pyrux 1I031-I UIDI X , cornacno 31'OMY npasany. Ilocrre *;, "'r, *k H nocne pepnexcos nairaTaJIbHbfX npaanno RUKI lleUCTByeT BO scex apltfiCKHX sereax; 2) coxpaHeHne S B rpynne sr B ll.peBHeH~HHcKOM, npHTOM qTO B "PUHCKI-IX 513"'Kax *s B aToH nOlHUH" uonaepraerca nepexony B s-06pa3Hble 3BYKH. Cp., nanpmrep, IIp.-HH)l. tisras, npa aa, tiSro 'TPH' (7IK.p.).

§ 13. B psne TpYJJ.OB lIepexoll * s > S paccaarpaaaercs KaK naJIaTMH- 3aUI1Jl, 'ITO, BO BC5IKOM cnysae ,WlSl apHikKI-IX 1iI3bIKOB, He coacex TaK. Ilpa 06ruefi cpOHeTH'-leCKOH TeHlIeHUHH K noaanemuo !lonOJ1HHTeJlbHOro $JKyca y * S DOCJTe yx:a3aHHb1X HHnoesponeilcKHX 3BytCOB xapaxrep 3TQf'O <lJoKyca aapsaposan B JaBHCHMOCTH OT xapaxrepa npeznnecreyiomern 3BytCa: nocrre *r, *k 11 B 60JIblllHHCTBe naanexroa nocrre "'u B03HHKaJ1 norronnarensuent la.QHeH3b1'1Hblii: (serrHPHbl") ¢OKYC. nopoxaas BeJI.IIPHso.saHHble (raepaue) uransurae 3B)'KOTHnbl [s, n a nocne *i 11 peqinexca *k (B03MO.llCHO, yxe npencraensmuero K 3TOMY BpeMeRH aq,cPpl-IK3ry

30

[c] HJUt [c]) B03HHKaJI ,IlOnOOHHTeJlbHblH CpeJlHeil3b1<1HblH (mlJlaTaJIbHblH) q:.OKYC, nopoJKII,WI nanaranaaoaauaue (MHfKHe) [i, iJ.

nepBOHa4aJIbHO 3TO 6hlJIU n03HI:(HOHHlde sapaaarsr, HaXOJ:mBWHeC5I B nonoxeaau LlOnOJIHHTeJlbHOH ):111CTPH5Yll.HH npyr c .n;pyrOM H co CBMeTlllllHM [sJ, B J!HarleKTax npanypncrancxoti 30HbI nOCJ1e *u q,oHeMa *s peWlH3DSaJIaCb. nO-BHIl.HMOMy. raxxe B BW\e Jla6HaJIH30BaHHOro CBHCTJlutero [SO]. Ilepea 3BDHKHMH cornacauan sucrynann COOTBerCTBeHHO BapHaHThI lz. i, i, t, z· J.

Ilosnaee - HOCJle OTlIeJleHH.\I HypHCTaHCKHX }lHaJIeKTOB " nepexona B HH)J;OHpaHCKHX JBblKaX perpnexcoa naJI3TaJIbIlbiX nepea cornacusnsa B s- H i-06pa3Hble 3BYKH - npexass Jl.OnOJIHHteJIbHaJi ):tHCTpH6YUHJl MelK,lzy CBHCT5IlUHMH H llIHDJlIllHMH OKa3aJIaCb pa3MblToH. <{TO cnOC06CTBOBaJlO ¢OHOJlOfH3aQHH onn03HQHH s ~ ,S, Ilpn :ilTOM s .n;peBHHX HIW,OHpauCKHX )J,HaJIeKTaX o6pa30sarIHcb T~e MUHHMaJIf>Hble nap}'] (rana all, asti '[OH] ecrs' < H.-e. *es-ri. HO as. asti- 'Mepa lllIlt'HHbl s sersipe IIaJIbQa' - np0H380,llHOe OT paaaeanaoeeporreacxoro "okto- 'qeTbIpe'). B uypncrauCKHX Jl)blKax CPOHOJIOfil3aUIDI :noil: onn03HUI-iH conpoaoxaanacs saxpenJleHHeM 3BYIWTHna [.n aa cpoHeMoH S, KaK H pepnexca "'k s nOJItUHH rtepen cornacasnr: CM. B JllbiKe rrpacys mlisu 'MblWb' < H.-e. "'mils'Mb[Wb, MbIUIua'; asle 'soceMb' H3 H.-e. *okto(u) [Kuiper 1978 (III), 101], npa npanpan. *miis·, *a.~ta(u).

Pear1H3aUH51 HOBOH CPOHeMbl .~ no apeanau ObLna pa3JUf'l}{OH: B lIpeBHHX naanexrax uypacrancxoa H llH}lOapHHCKoH rpynn, a raxxe B IOm-BOCTO'lHb[X HpauCKHX naanexrax ona peanmyercs BeJl1IpmOBaUHbIMH raepL{blMH 3B)'KOTHll<lMH. B 3arr3J{HOH 30He HpauCKJ.IX L{HaneKTOB - npeHMyurecrsenno nanaTaJlH30BaHHblMH, MHfKHMH, 'ITO orpaxaercs B ee ):IMbHeMlUHX pedinescax; cp. OTpIDKeHHe npaapaa, *gauSa- 'yxo', "maiia'oapaH' (H3 H.-e. *moiso- 'oapaH, OBQa; Ko::t::a. urxypa'), *mni.~i· 'osua' B BH.n;e: nurr, (adrr.) ywa!. mas, mei, uryru, rut, maY', PYUl. yow, mew, J13f. yavon, maw, HllIK. yuill. mel - c perpnexcaan rsepnoro J. HO K...T1. nepc, gos, mes H T.L{. C OTHOCHrenLHO MllfKllM j (nO):l60pKY npaMepOB eM. [OpaHCtmif 1979, 177-178]; IIoJ1.p06Hee 0 ifJoHeTH<leCKHX ¢aKTopax CM. rcrsa-e, 106-118; Pacrcpryeaa 1990, 71-75, 134--137, 210--212]).

npeBHeHH.l:tHjicKoe HCKJII04eHHe B SR,Lle sr Clm3aHO HMeHHO C 6eMOJIbHOCTblO anecs ~, cxomrotr c 6eMOObHOCTbIO r: apTHKYIDIIlJIOHHhlH ~)JIeMeHT nocranesecnspaocra BOcrrpHHHMaJICI!, sePOJlTHO, He KaK HHfepeHTHblH. a KaK pe30HaHCHbIH, OTHOCIiIlIH"CJI He K OLIHOMY cerMeH'I)' [$], a K KOHCOHaHTHOH rpynne [Jr] B uenou, r.e, KaK pe3YJIltTaT perpeccasuoa aCCHMH1IlIllHil co CTOPOHbI r; He 3HalJ:HMhlH cpOHOJIOmqeCKll H nOTOMY He BKJII04HBUlHHCJI B HCTOPHKO-¢OHOJIOrn'leCKIIH npouecc (ca. ssnrre).

31

Ilonpotiaee 06 nux npoueccax B apU"CKOH ceMbe CM. TaKlKe [Morgenstierne 1945, 232, 1974, 9, Morg, !D, 340; Buddruss 1977, 38; Eappoy 1976, 78; CrBSI·q" 47 '" CJI.~ 311.eJlbMaH 1994].

§ 14. B cnaIDIHCKUX l!3bIKaX 3TOT npouecc UMen HeCkOJJbKO aaoe pa3BHTUe: B cnysasx, xorna sa pe4meKCOM: H.-e. * ... B 3TOit nO'3lfUHH He C]IeIl.OBaJlH sspuaaste cornacaue p, t, k HJlH COHRHTbl, OHa orpaxanacs KaK npaCJ1aBlIHCKaII x, aanpuuep: a. -e. * snuso- > npacnas. * snuxa 'CROxa', H.-e. "molso- > npacnaa. "'mou > pyc . .Mex (cp. npanpan. =maiso'fiapaa'), H.-e. OIl saus-, sus- > npacnas. '" SO/.iX· 'CYXOH' " r.n.: nepen p, I, k sucrynana uransuras S. 06 apTHKYJ13UHOHHOH 6ale, oTHOcHTeJ1bHOH xpouonoraa B03HllKHOBeHHIl: x H 0 nyrsx p33BHTHSI snecs x BMec'l'O '" S (cp, pyc_ ACyxa - ""YUllW, yxo - yuo.::o) senacs JIHeKycclUI, O)lHaKO CaMO pacrtpeaeneuae .f H X aa nepasix nopax B "paCJl3SRHCKOM KaK 6ylITO coMHeHUID He nonaepraerca (eM. [Meije 1951, 26-30. 80-81. 105; EepuUITt:HH 1961. 154, 160- J 65: bOWKOIill'l 1984, 97-100, ocooeaao c. 99]). 06 HCKJJIO'IeHl~n B paHHeM npaC11l1IDIHCKOM eM. [Bepaurreim 1961, 161-165],

B 6aJI'IlfHCKHX .!!:}bJK<lX cH'I'YaQWI 600ee pasaooopasaa: B JlHTOBCKOM npasano RUKI ~ej%cTBoBano 06W'IHO npH rronoxeaaa *s IIOCJIe "'r H ""k. TIp" nOJIDJKeHHH ee nOCJ1e *i, "'u CJIe~bl !l03,ueHCTBIDI nom npasana Me· see JlCHN. Kax nOKaJaJI Il' caoen HCCJIeJ{OBamUI C.KapaJlJOHac. B csoaax C *i. "'u ero ):tefi"cT13He B 3ltaQHTeJlLHOH srepe OCJJa6JTeHO H sarymesaso RlIKRHHeM Ha cpoHOJIOCW.ecKHH ypOlteHl. co CTOPOHM MoprpO.llOnm H cnoB006paJOBaffWl. BKJlIOQ3roUUU:: re rum Ufn.re ¢OPMLr C peqmeKCaMH *0$ nOCRe "'i, *U B onpenenesasre n:ap2,UHl'MhI, rne OHK rrOJIBepralOTCH napa,llHrnaTIl'leCKOMY ynOJI06JIeHHIO, !m60 pedinexcu "'s OKa3f>lRa[{lTCIl B HKX, IIOnBepJKeHl>I aCCI1MruuUJ.fH, 1IJ.f60 rtornoutaiorca .Il.pyrHMH cocenHHMJ.f 3ByKOTunaMH. Bee ~TO pa3Ml>1BaeT CTpOHH)'IO acropaxo-rpouermeccyio cxexy [Kapamoaac 1966, 113-126J. B HeKQTOpLIX CJl)"l.<UlX na 0Tp3iKeHHe B BH,nC S BMeCTO *s MOryr RflIDITh H aCCHMHJUlTHBBhJe npoueccst (cp. JUIT. sausra "sacyxa' OT u-e. KOPHJl '" saus-, SUS- "cyxoii' H mrr. ausra <3apJl' OT H.-e. xopua *yes-, *ayes- • paccaerars , CBeTHTb' B ornacoaxe "'us·). eM. [3.11eIlbMaH 1994. 63-64}. B JIaTbIWCKOM Ii npesnenpyccsoa 110 scex :3THX cnysasx npencraaneua S BMeCTO OJKImaeMO:H *$, K3K H npa OTpa:>KeHHIi Ii. -e. ., k. H B WOM CJ1Y"lae raxxe IIO]MOJKHO npeanonoxars llTOPHlJHblU: nepexon "" S > S II nauaux 1I3b1KaX [EepHlUTeuH I 961, 1611; cp_ TaK nasuaaeaoe «Ma3ypeHHe» B Ma30BCKHX H MaIlOnOl1hCKHX rosopax nOJIhCKOrO 9:3LIKa H orcyrcrsae rposoaoraseccoro npoTHBOnOCTaBJIeHIDI S - S B OCeTHHCKOM. HMeeTC51 raxxe ran OTe3 a, cornacao KOTOPO:H xon 3TOI'D nponecca HMen apearrsayio 3asHCHMOCTL: uaxano npoueccy - nepexony *s II s-06pa3Hble 3B)'KH B nnanexrax HH.Jl.oesponeucKoro KOHTIi-

32

HYYMa - 6b1J1o nonoxeao B HeKOeM eLl,HHOM ,,-eHTJ>f:, no OTHomeHHIO K KOTOpoMy nporotiarmotcxae ;nHaneKTbl. HaXOnH11HCb na neputpepn» nannoro apeana, a rrepexoa 3TOro *s B X B npacnaasucxox 6bUI OllHHM 11:3 nepsux (nocne TpaHc¢opMauHii: rpynn "'sk > s n "'sg > S) C06CTBeHHO IlpaCJIaBBHCKHX rj>oHeTH'iecXHX H3MeHeHHH [4eKMaH 1981, 36-37].

§ 15. TaKHM 06pa30M, MI.l MO)fCeM KOHCTampOBaTb, 'ITO npasano RUKI ,ttetkTBOBaJlO BO scex apIDi:cKHx, CJIaWlHCKHX H 6aJl'ruifCKHX B3bIKax, HO ua .I.leUCTBHe ero B TOU HJIH HHOU rpynne nanaranacs llOnOJIHHTenb"we HHAHIUUJ,yanbHhle npasana H OIpaHH4eHH'II. np" nOM B cn3RSIHCKRX H B TOU sacrn apHHcnrx )l3bIKOB, me anaoeeponeacxne nanaransnsre nepemna B CH6HJll1HThI, .oeHCT8He npasana RUKl npomno H npeKpaTH1TOCb npexae, .. eM COflepWHJIaCb accntiansuas OaJIaTaJIbHblX; B npOTHBHOM CJ1Y'1ae :!iTO npaBHJTO QXBaTHJIO 6w H HX.

K 'iHcny sacraux npasnn, 06YCJIOBHBIlIHX HCKJlKl<feHWi Ol npasaaa RUKl, MO)fCRO oraecra ynoserayroe asnue B03JleHCTBHe aCCHMHJUITHBHhlX npoueccoa, a raxxe MOp$mOrKH H CJIOBOOOPH30BaHWl, IIhl3bIBalOUWX «aaKOHOMepHble HCKJIfO'IeHHlI» B pa3HbIX sasrxax. Cp., HanpHMep, as. usaiti 'CBeTaeT' < ".-e. *u.s-ske-t" rae O;Kl'lJl,ae.MWI *§ "B xopne *uS- nornouiaerca nOCJIe.II)'IOmeii: Ij<s B aasane nponysraanoro II npaHpHHcKOM H B 6oJ1ee noanaae 3noXH cy¢¢HKca "'-sa· H3 HH.ltDeBpOneHcKoro HHXoaTHBHOro cyqxpHKca *ske/o- (cp. HMeHHbIe ofipasoaaaaa OT 'roro iKe KOPHll, HanpHMep, as, r., II. usah- '(yrpeaaas) saps, paCCBeT'); TO xe B .np.-HH,Il. ucchati < H.-e. "us-ske-ti, npa JIHT. aMta H r.rr, Iloapoorree 0 rrpmnranax Bo:m:euC'roIDI TaKHX «3aKOHOMepHblx HCKJlIO'IeHHH» aa npasnno RUKI H 06 "]MeHeHKJlX no aHaJ10Dm: CM. [Kapamoaac 1966; Andersen 1968; CrB.9:-<ta, 47-49, 88; 3,QeJlbMaH 1994,63-65, 1995]. eM. Tau::e "HiKe, § 70" CJI.

Perpnexcsr HH,ll,oeBpoIIeHcKoH *s Il. J:lpyrn.x no:mumn(

§ 16. B apynrx n03HWVlX anaoesponeacsas *s II npacrraaancxox 113hlKe, KaK H B o6meapHHcKOM, COXpaIDleTCil B sane "'s (u 003U1l:HOHHO - nepea lSOHKMMH cornacnsraa - *z).

§ 17. B aparrcxax lICe Jl3b1KaX OHa rronseprnacs 3aTeM onpenenennsus HOBhlM 1t3MeHeHIDIM, noponaa PII.Il lUlBOl!.auHOHHblX npoaeccos: BO scex "paHCKHX ,llHaneKTax npaa]MKOBoro nepHOlla IlPOH3011IeJJ nepexo,Q *8 B *h B cBo60JJ:HOH nOlHUHH (r.e, II rraxane CJIOBa nepea fJIaCHhlMH H OT!l.e.nhHblMH cornacnsraa, B qaCTHOCTH *m, "'r, B cepemnre HJIH HCXO,tte CJ]OBa B COCe.rICTI~e C macHbIMH H nepen TeMJi )fCe corn8CHUMH), 'ITO xopeHHblM OOPa30M OTflH'IaeT HpaHCKHe JllLlKH OT HypHCTaHCKHX H H~OapHHCKHX2• Hnoraa rosopsr naxe 0 f'j>pOHTaJlhHOM CHCTeMHOM nepexone *8 B *h II 06meHpaHCKOM, Oll.HaxO ua CaMOM nene iTO He rax: nepexon

33l\l( 53

33

*s 8 *h 6blJt crporo n03UUHOHHblM H npoacxonan TOJlbKO B YKa3aH~ HLlX ¢OReTlI'iecKHX DQJlO)KeHHlIX. B cnysaax, Kama 33 '" S CJIe,QOBaJ1l1 rnyxne CMhl'IHble cornacnue (8KJ1lOQruJ: npnnaxaremaue). *t " "'n, JUI60 xorna rrepen "'S Haxo,a:HJlHCb "'t. "d, "'It, r.e. B no 3HlIHll X , KOHcepBHpyromHX ,OeHTa1IbH}'JO HHTeHCHBHyw aprnxynsuam, CH6HlliIJlTHrui rnyxas apTHKYJUlUHll "'s coxpaaaerca+; B n03HUHH nepen 3BOHKHMH CO~ maCHblMH coxpausercs ee peanasauas R BHJIe '" z. Cp., H3npJUdep. orpa::KeHHe *s B n3pMHT'Me en, "iHCJI3 rnarOn3-CRlI3KH: I-e JI. "ahmi « apm1CK. "asmi < a-e. "'es-mi), 2-e .II. "ahi « apHi.fcK. "asi < H.-e. "'es-ri), no 3-e !I. "'a5ti « apHHcK. "'asti <: H,-e. +es-ti), nosen. HaKJI. *(a)zdi, cp. 3B. zdi « apuacx. *(a)s-dhi < H.-e. *es-dhO. cp, TaXJKe 113['. Z(<1)nar 'cner' "3 npaapaa. "'snig- HJJH +snaig- H 'r.n, Ilonpofinee ° n03uUUOHHOM pacnpeneneaan npaapascxax pecpnexcca *s CM. [Bartholomae 1&95, 16-17].

TIp" CJIen:oBaHHH "'$ UOClIe "p 3a¢m:KcffPoBaHO H3MeHeHHe nma "ps > "'P (S03MO~O, no aHaJlOfHH C COO'l"ReTCTfI.)'JOIJUfM U3MeHeHHeM rpynnu, npO}1.0JI)K3lOUI.eH coseraaae *'p C pedinexcoa HtmoesponeiiciCOH nanararrsaoa: *p + *k > apatrcx. *pi: > "'pi> HpaH. *jS). ITOJl.p06Hee CM. [Bartholomae 1895, 5 H CJ1_: Benveniste 1968. 64; Opaacxaa 1979, 50. 57; CrB5£-¢, 23-24, 27: Pacropryesa 1990. 67-71].

§ 18. Y'tHThJBaJl HCe 3TH MOMeHT1H peqmeKcaUMM HH.U:oesporreifcKOM: *5, MOJKHO rosopars He 06 o6weM nepexone HtIlIOeSpOneHcKoH H apHitcKOH '" S B H:PaHCK)'lO *h, a 0 cooreercrsyiourea n03HLl.nOHHOM H3MeHeHHH » o HarlH'UtH R o6rueHpaHCKOii CHCTeMe eJlHHOii cpoHeMhI '" slhlz C sapuaaTaMH, o6YC1l0BJIeHHhlMH n03HqHeI1.

CllMOCTOIlTeJIbH}'lO tPoHonOflf'lecKytO 3Ha'lHMOCTb 3B)'KOTHn *[h] o6peJI rroszsee, B xose lraJ1bHeHWHx 1I3MeHeffHH B cacreve, 11 TOJIbKO nocze q,OHOJIOIlt3aLlHH h H TeM CaMblt.[ nOCJIe yrparsr q,OHeMOH S HaqanbHoU. HHTePSOKaJlbHOH H npynrx. n03HUMH, npOHCx.O,lJ;HT nOJlHlUI aCCHOHmUI.HSI perpnexcos o6meHpaHCKOH "'s « H.-e. *k) C nepeXO,UOM UX 8 S H COBnalleHHeM c [S] "3 npyrux HCTO'lHllKOB. B cnysae paHReu accH6W1i1L1"H pe- 4meKcoB "'s H cosrraneaas IiX C peqmeKc3MH apHHCKoH *s nepexoa *s > h 3aTPOHyJl 6bl }I 're M tl:pyme pe4meKcbl. Iloapotinee 063TMX nporreccax H HX OTHOCHTeJIbHOH XpOH0J10rnH CM. [CrB}(·ll>, 40-41, 50-54]. 3.uecb :IKe CJle.IlYeT noaxepxuyrs, 'iTO CBH.UeTeJlbCTBa OTHOCHTeJlbHOH XPOHO!lOOlH ¢OHeTWleCKHX H rpoaonorasecsnx H3MeHeHHH eute p33 YKa3hlBalOT na cpasuHTerrbHO rr03}1.HH" nepnoJi OKouqaTenbHOH accH6wnSlUHH p~eKcoB Htw:oeBponeHcKHx rranaransasrx B "paHeKHx 1I3bUCaX (rossee - B 6oJIhlIIHHCT8e 83 HUX). a TaJOKe na "HoH. QeM Eo CJI3BilHCKHX H 6anTHikKHX (H naxe II npyrnx apHHCIrnx) 113blKax. $JHollornLIecKHH cpOH. ua KOTOpOM nporesan naHHbrit npouecc.

34

Cp, MHeHHe 0 TpY.D.HOCTH pa:UpatlH'IeHmi THn0J10rn'leCKoro eXOJ:lCTSa H reaertrsecxoro pOJlCTBa CJIaBlIHCKHX, 6arrUrHCKHX H HHlIOHPaHCKJiX lnblKOS 'B OTHOlueHHH nepexona H.~e. *s > .~ H «BTOpoii.:-. nanaranmauau ryrrypansnux C TelHCOM 0 HeS01MO)KHOern B nocneanesr CJI)"Iae reaern'IeeKH a6r.u;eH 'Iepnl [EHpH6a)'M 1987, 30].

§ 19. Ocofioe paJBHTHe nOJ1yqHJIa unnoeeponeaccas H 06lll.eapHHCKasi *s B npaapaacxoa B n03HllHH rrepen "'y: auecs 06pa30B3Jlacb rpynna "'h!!. xoropas O'leHl, cxopo no-rrn no seeM naanexrax ofiineapaucxoro KOHTHHyj'Ma nepeuina B MOHoqmHeMY *x~', B HeKOTopbIX aaanexrax - B *hV (n.aBIIIYW S OT,[leJ1"HhIX Jl3MK3X pedinexcu B saue f). Hanpauep, npaapaa. *.;rViihar- 'cecrpa' < H.-e. *syesor-, cpo npacnas, "sestra-; npaapaa. *xVaiura- 'CBeKOp', Cpo npacnaa. *svekn; npaupaa. *xva-, *xvai- 'CBOft', Cpo pye. C60U H T.JJ..

§ 20. B CWillH C ZlTHM scrpesaromeeca B OTJleJlbHbIX rpynax yrsepxaeHHe 0 CXOllCTBe cnaasucxoro H apascxoro OTPruKeHIDI annoesponeacxoa * S S nexoropux cnysaax S Bu.ne x nyxaaercs B cymecrseaaoa yroxaeHHH. 3.1lecb llMeeT MeCTO nann. '1aCTH'-IHOe COBmmeHHe OTpa)f(eHH5:I * s B aeoaaaaxoasrx }],}I5:I HpaHCIGiX H CJIaBRHCKHX .l:I3"lKOB n03HI:(IDIx: B cna!'.lUiCKHX IBblKax x npencrasnser peqmeKCbl HHAOe!'.poneii.CK.OR *s, 00- SlBHBWHeC5I B pesynsrare .ll.eHCTBHll npasana RUKI. B UpauCKHX - 3TD npaupaacxne *h nna "'_xv, JIHlllb nOl.nHee U JIUlUb B OTJleJIhHbIX JIeKCeMax B paaasrx .l:IlbIKax rrepemenurae B x, a rnasnoe sra *h H *xv B03HHKJIH H3 nnnoeaponencxoa '" s KaK pas He B peJYlIb rare J]eiiCTBH5:I npasuna R UKJ, a 3Ha'lHTeJIbHO nosanee, ronsxo nOCJIe Taro, KaK lJ.eHCTBHe npaaana RUKI 3IUWH'lHJIOCb, H H3 *s B npyrax n03UQHRX.

TaKUM 06PaJOM, OHM He MOryr 6bIT" npeacraaneau B OllHOH 11 TOH xe HCTOPU'IecKOH n03HQHH H nO:3TOMY He MOryr paccxarpaearsca KaK perynapmae 3BytCOCOOTBeTCTBIDl. 3ro - noanaee » aenormoe COBnaQeHHe OTlleJIhHhJX 3B)XOS B OT.Il;eJlhHhlX j:l3ldKI.IX, HMeIOlIl;ee 'IHCTO Tunonorn-qeCK)'KJ 060lHOCTb (cp. ocnatinenne s » h B .lI"aneXTaX acnancxoro 5I3hIKa). Cp, COOTHoweHHe peqinexcoa H.-e. * s npa .ll.eHCTBH" npasana RUKI " SHe ero: npacnas. *soux- .... npaapaa. * MuS- 'COXHyn., cyxoii, cynn,' H3 H.-e. "saus- : sus- [Pot. lEW, 881]; rrpacnan. "bluxa- -- npanpatr, *p/fruia'6JIoxa' J.f3 npoaasonnoro na *-usa- OT H.-e. *blou- (bhlou-). plou- [Pok, IEW, 102]; rrpacnaa, *snuxa- -- npanpaa, *snuSii- 'cnoxa' H3 H.-e. "snuso- [Pot. JEW, 978). nepx.-cnaa. slsnc» -- npanpau. *hlJar-, *xvar(a *huyar·) 'cOJIHue' H3 u.-e. *syel-, suuel- H r.n. [Pok, lEW, 881] " np,

Pe.pneKCbI HH)toeBponeiicKHx 3BOHKHX COrJlaCHbIX

§ 21. EOJIee lleTanu3upOBaHHhJM erano same npencraanenae 06 0TPa~ }Kem1.H B "paHeKHX 513blKax OOllleapI-I"CKI-IX 1-1 (OO3MOlKHO, .a,H.MeKTHblx)

35

rr03,lJ.HeHH,Il;OeBponeHCKHX JBOHKHX COr;13CHblX: acnapapoaaaaax - neacnapapoaaausrx Cn COOTilerCTeeHHO ewe 60nee panaax HH)loeeponeiiCKUX J80HK:HX -.. rnyxnx rnOnaJ1UJOBaHHbIX, ecnn Cne,QOBaTb rnorransHOH TeOPH", 0 HeH eM. [Taaxpename, Hsanoa 19841).

TaK, crano OqeHH,lIHO, 'iTO e HYrHCTaHCXHX SIJhlX.aX OHn DTpa;KaJOTCJf KaK 3BOHKHe aeacnapapoeaauue CMbI'l.Hble, npu coxpanenan pa3JJH'I1U[ iI UX apraxynsnaa R co6CTBeHHO "H,IlOMpaHCKUX SIJbIKax. To ecn, ornennsurnecx OT apHHcKoH OOIlJ,HOeTll "ypHCTaHcKHe 51JhlKH OTHOCHTeIlI>HO CKOpo 6eCCJleJl:HO yrparana acnapaumo JBOHKHX acnzpapoaaaasrx (wm He pa3BWlH ee ao CPOHO,10D:l'-JeCKoro npasnaxa, eCJUI CJ1e,aOBaTb reopaa raMKpeJlHJJ:3e-l1BaHoBa [Fauxpenanae, HBaHOI! 1984 I, 10 " ClI.]), e TO IIpeMH KaK C06CTI!eHHO mmOHpaHCKHe i31>1KI{ p;onbwe COXpaHSIJ1H (MnH paJRWIH no WoHOJlOlWlecKoro npasnaxa) 3TOT 3.1JeMeHT apTHKYJVfUHH.

B Jl.peBHeHH.JlHRCKOM onnoanuas 380HKHX acUH:P"POBaHHI>1X ('"bh, *dh, *gh) H neacnapapoaaaaux (*b, *d, "'g) COXpaHl1J1aeb " cTa6HJ1U3HpOl!a· nacs, 11 ua 3TOM q,OHe 50J1ee YCTOH'IHI!O 1}(lHOJIorn:30!l.anaCb aHaJIOrH"l!HIDI. onn03HUHX rnyxax.

B .IlHaJIeKTaX 06l1{eupaHcKoro oOe 3TH cepaa JBOHKHX connana B e.I1HH)'IO $JHOJIOrH'IeCKyro cepmo, yrparas UpH3HaK aCIlHp"pOBaHHOCTH. B <f>oHOJIOI1.f'leCKOH TPaHCKpMnQHH OUH 0003Ha'laJOTC5I *b, "d, *g, O,!UUIKO HX q,OHeTM'IeCKIDI peanmanas no rpynnaM ,ll,HaneKTOB npaapaacxoro KOHTHH)lYMa 6wr3 HeOJIHHaKOBOit. ITpaKTH'IeCKU OCHOBHoe reHeTH'ICCKOe 'lJ'IeHeHHe npaucKoit ceMbH na sanaaayio H BOCT01JHyro rpynnu Ha1JaJlOCb HMeHHO C TpaHC¢OpMaQHH lBOHKHX npanuxarensaux " HenpHUbiXaTeJ1I>HhIX COrJIacHbIX.

§ 22. B npaapaacxnx aaanexrax BOCTO'IHOro apeana, rne, KaK H B npaaanoapaacxax ,UHaneKTax, acnapanas ynepxanacs norrsure H DIe, nO-I!H,!UiMOM)', OHa fibUla OTHOCHTeJIbHO CMnbHOH, B030Dna.n:HIIa acnHpHpoBaHHWl apTHKYJIRUHjI. peaJIHJOBaBlUaRCjI B CWIbHOH n03HllHH (a TarcoBoH 6bIlIO uaxano CJ10Ba) B rrpespameaaa acnapaposanaoro CMbNHOro B cnapaar (nepBOHa1JaJIbHO - TomKO ua 4K>HeTIl'leCKOM yposae, nOCKOJlbKY onn03HUH" 3BOHKHX cornacaux no IIPH1H3KY «CMbI1JHhlH ..... tnenesofi» erne He 6bI.110). no aHaJlOfHH C aClnIpHp08aIi'HblMH nOBeJlH ce6JJ pe¢vIeKCM lBOHKHX aeacnapapoaauaux. B pesynsrare B BOCT01JHOHPaHCK"X H31>lKax R annayre HaOOIlOLIaeTCli nepexon R CmIpaHThI 3BOHKlIX acnapapo- 8aHHhlX, a 3aTeM no aH3J10rnH C HHMH (npa yrpwre onn03HQMH acnnpaUHn y 3BOHKI1X) H 3BOHKHX HeaCl1llpHpORaHHbrX, r.e. no rnny *gh- > "'yIf no aaanoraa *g- > '"y- (TO JKe "dh- > "'0- H *d- "> ""0-, a TaIOKe *bh- > *v- " nesacroe *b- > *v-). TeM CaMbIM paspyureaae onnOlHUHH 3BOHKHX aclIHplipoBaHHblx ....., 3BOHKnx aeacnapapoaaauux e IlOCTO'iHOHpaHcKoM apel!Jle BblJBBJIO KOHTaMlmauHIO ax no rnny peanmaUHH q,oHOJlOrn'lecKoH

36

cepaa 3BOHKHX acrmpapoaanaux. Hanpaxep, npanpaa, *band- 'CB.II.3blBaTL, assars' > CorJI. fJm- [vand-l, nurr. wanday '3aID13Ka'; wyrn. vind-, ssr. vend- 'BJl3aTl., CBlI3blB3.Tb'; npaapaa. +gau- 'KOPOHa' > com. y'w, nWT. ywa, wyrn. taw (cp, aar, yew '6blK'); npaupaa. "danian- '3)'6' > corn. lmt'k, uryrn. Oindfm, 513r. oa.n (MH.<£. ocmdafi) H T.,Il., eM. [OPaIlexu" 1979, 132 H ClJ.; CfB.sJ-¢l, 142 H CJI.].

To <Ke npOH30WJIO B CpellUHHOH n03HQHH nepea cornacasns: rpynnsr mna *bh + t H no aRMorHH C HHMH "b + t OTpa3HJ1HCb (cornacno saXOHy Bapronoxe [Bartholomae 1895}) XaK 3BOHKHe *bdh co CBOHCTBeHHOit "paHCXHM 513hlK8M erne C "PaJI3hlKOBOro nepno,lla CnUpaHTH3aLUleH DpeKOHCOHaHTHoro cornacuoro Ii yrparofi acnnpauaa, T .e. B Bu,u;e npaaeKHX *wd. "vd. To )ICe npoaaoumo Ii c rpynmlMH *gh + t Ii no aaanoraa *g + t > *gdh > *yd. Harrpauep, IIH,1l0"paH. *dughtar- 'lIO'lL' > aa.n, duyoar-. cora, owyt- [ouyd·], asr, ooyd; B npaHpaHeKOM npH<£aCTHH OT KOpH" * gaib-: wyrn. wiiivd, aar, r' ovd 'BepHYJIC!'I' 113 *!!i- HlIH *aga- + *gitHa-. COlieTaHHlI nepeaaesasrsnsu *dh, "d C *1 OTpa::t:aIOTC!'I perymIpHO B Bn,ne st: np-nepc. basta- 'CB.II.3aHHhIif: uryru, vUsr, sar, v.hl 'CBJJ3hlBaTh' (OCH. npow. sp.) OT rtpaapan, "'basta- (1-13 H.-e. *bhrJdh- + -to-).

Ilpeanonaraexsre B -rpa.IlHUHOHHbIX TpY,ll8X nepexona aTHX rpynn B rrpaapaa, *fl. *xl C nOCJ1e.nyJOlQliM 03BOH<£eHHeM B BOCT.-UPaH, =vd. *yd BOBce He 51BJ1IHOTCSl Heo6xoLtUMLIMH, a na cpORe o<£eHb penxnx cnysaea .aeHCTBUTeJIhHOro OlBoH<£eHHH HHTepBOKaJlbHhlX KORCOHaHTHhlX rpynn B <ITHX xe ~3b1Kax npell,C1'aBIDlIQTCl{ MaJiOBepoSl.THblMH.

§ 23. B apeane aananasrx ,IlHaJleKTOB coornoureaae 6hJJ1o o6paTHblM: pauID151 yrpara acnapanaa 3BOHKHX npasena K COBIUUleHHlO JlByx apHHcKHX cepaa R e~HHYID cepaio lBOHKHX CMbIlIHhlX HeaenUp"pOBHHHLIX, a OTCIOna K orpaxemeo ax B aaxane CJ10Ba XaK "'b-, *d-, *g., a B cepenane cnona (TaKXe cornacao laKOH), Eapronosre) - B BHJle *h + *t " no ananom" *bh + *t > "'pI> ft; "« + *r, H no aHarIOfHH *gh + *! > *kr > XI. Cp, rrepc. band- : bast- 'W13aTb, CBiLlbIBaTb', gdw 'KOPOsa', dandan '1y6'~ a T8K.lKe duxtar ',n:O'lb' » IIp. (npliMepw ex, [OpauexHH 1979, 132 H CJI.; Pacropryesa 1990, passiml),

TaxHM oripasox .!IaHHbJe acropaxo-tpoaernaecxae H CPOHOJlODJI(eCKHe npoueccsr, cOnpOBOJK,UaHWHe .!lHBepreHUHIO I1paHCKHX JllhlKOB, OhlJIH cassansr e 60JIee paHHeH - 06w:eapHHcKOH - OmI03UUHeH nayx cepaa lBOHKHX COfJIaCHblX: acnapapoeaauux - aeacnapaposaansn (a B nnaae OTpa)KeHlU{ peaynsraros ,IleHeTBHII 3aKOHa Eapronoue - H C euie Oonee paHHei.f OIIII03Hll.HeH 3BOHKHX - rnyxax mOTTaJJH30BaHHblX COrnaCHb1X, eM. [Fasucpenanse, I1BaHOB 1984 J, 33-34. 405]).

§ 24. B CJIaBlIHCKHX )l3hlK8X. Kill{ H B 6anTHHCKHX, B CaMOM KOHCOHaHTH3Me CJIe,l{OB noanueaaaoeaponeacxoa onn03Hu,UH 3BOHKH" HenpH,llLlXa-

37

TeJILHLIX n npanuxaremnux uer: 380HKHe corrracasre npononxaior B OCHOBHblX n03HUHJlX xax 6hI e,!lHH)'JO cepmo 3BOHKJIX CMbI<lHblX cornacHbIX *b, *d, *g (nOCJIellFUHI - sne n03HUHH naJIaTaJIH3aUHH. CM. HIDKe). "3ToT ¢laKT JJ;aJKe noponan II caoe apeas COMHeHlU: B cymecTBOBaHHH ,Il.Byx cepH" JBOHKltX CQm3CHhlX B nOJ,IIHeM mmoeBporreHcKoM (CM. [BePHllITeUH 1961, 150]), O,llHaKO rrocnenyiourae HccneJ;OBaHHIi: o6Hap)?KKJIH Clle.LJ,LI onn03HUHH 3THX cepHH H B JJ;HaJleKTaX - rrpenxax CJlaBHHCKHX " OaJITH:HCKHX JlJbJKOB. HaoooJree JHa'lHM B 3TOM OTHOlleHHH JaKOH BUHTepa, CDmaCHO KOTOPOM)' B 3T'HX nuanexrax rnacasre YMHIDIJ1HCb nepea 3BOHKHMH Heacm[pHpOBaHHLIMH. HO coxpaaanacs nepen 3BOHK8- MH acrrupzpoeamunm [Winter 1978] (CM. rasxe anrepnperauaio STOro 3aKOHa B CBeTe HHJJ;OeBpOneHCKoH mOTTaJIH3auHH [Kcprnaanr 1985, 45]).

TaKHM 06PaJOM, B npacnasaacxoa H npa6aJ1THHCKOM, KaK H B npaHpaHCKOM., npoasoumo CJIIDlHHe B e.IIHH)'IO cepmo .IlBYX n03,!(HeHlIDOeBponeHcKHX cepuH JBOHKHX COmaCHbV{,

PecpneKCbI HHJJ.oeBponeilcKHX rJlYXUX cornacustx

§ 25. DOJIee JJ:eTarrLHO HCCJ1eJJ:OBaHa raxxe cYJl.b6a rnyxax comaCHLIX. B HYPHCTaHCKHX H3LIKax CJIeIl08 acnapanaa myXHX He 06Hapy.taiBaeTCH. Becsssa BePOllTHO, lITO KO BpeMeHH BbNJIeHeHlf$! HYPHCTaHCKOH BeTIm H3 apHHCKoH rpynnu cepaa rnyxax acnapaposaaaux comaCHLIX ew;e He 6.hlJIa <iXlHOJIOIW:lecKH H $JHeTl.f'leCKH ycmH'II.fBOH. Cyror no HeYCTOHqHBOCTH Ii HOOIl,HOpo.auOCTH HX perpnexcoe B apaacxnx H3b1Kax, 3Ta cepas He OOpeJJa ycrOWUUlOro CPOHOJIOIlftfecKOro craryca H B COOCTBeHHO HH)lOHpaHCKOM npassuxe. IIO-BHllHMOMY. ¢:oHOlIOfH4.eCKruI cepas rnyxax npuJI,blXaTeJIhHLlX OKOH'laTeJlLHO CCPOPMHpOBaJIaCb y;t::e B .llpeBHeHH.llUHCKOM.

B "paHCKI.fX Ji3 b1K8X , COmaCHQ -rpa.JHL(HH, apHHcKHe fJIYXHe npM,lIblxarenenue *ph, *th. *kh nepeuina B o6w;eupaH. *f, *fl, *x, pa3JUI'lHO OTpaJHBIlIHecH no SI3bIKaM. O,llH3IW CpaBHnTeJlhHO-HCTOpH'-recKue HCCJlenoaaaas q,oHenliCH U ¢OHOJIOrnH HpaHCK"X H3hlKOB OOCJIe;:J;HHX ner 00- Ka3aJ1H, 'lTO B .IIHaneKTax ofiuieapancxoro COCTOHHHJI HMeJIHCb nepetioa II OTpa;KeHHH 3TOH cepaa cornacaux, r.e., narrpmrep, npennonaraexas ap"HCK2.lI * kh nanexo He ecerna OTp3)KaeTCH Il BHJJ;e 05meHpaHCKOH "'x C CODTBeTCTB)'IOII{HMH pe$rreKCaMH, HMelOTCH npuuepu H OTpa:lKemlli ee B BH,n:e ofiuieapau. *k, a raxxe C aapHaHT3MH (apeaJILHblMI1 H HH.lUfBH,IlyaJIbHhlMH no H:lbIKaM) *klx. Oc06eHHo THforeeT K CMLI'IHDi.f apTHKyroIUHH aaxaacxna 51'3LIK. Cp., uanpavep, pasaue cnocoeu OTpa)!(eHH5I otinteapaa. *kan- II *xan- < *kan-II khan- 'HCTO'lHHK, PO)lHHK': 38, xan- 'KOnonen, PO)lHHK' (HOM. MH. xa), CT,-BaH)],iK. Jqk, sar, xex 'nona' « *xG-ka· npa acCHMHrulUHH ·k > -x C HaqaJIhllbIM x-), HO sax. kblk 'HCTO<mllK.

38

PO.D.HHK', cap. kewg 'HC'fO'-lH~K, ponHm;.:' (m. sax.), xc, khaJUi-, cp.-nepc. xiin H r.rr, np" .n;p.-Hu,n. khfi [A6aeB 1956 (II), 446); MarepllaJ1 BOCTO<lHOHpaHcKHx X3bIKOB CM. TaK:«e [CfBjf-fll, 140-142, 166-168, 186--187]. CIOJ]a :lKe OTHOCHTCX 06WeHpaHCKOe * kala- < 1I0M, XH:lKJma: nasyra', npoH3BOJIHoe OT rnarona "kan- 'xonars' (sax H npenstayuiee CJlOBO), O'rpa- 3HBilleeCg B 3aCBJ.f,IleTeJlhCTBOBaHHOM srarepuane KOHKpeTHbIX apaacxax H3hIKOB C Ha'Iruu,HblM *k-, HO B 3aHMCTBOBaHHOM 83 apancxoro zraanexra (CKHt1>CKoro1) YKpaHHCKOM xama - C HaqaJ1bHblM "'x-.

Xapaxrepnsr raxxe n03HUHOHHbIe orpaaasenas acnHpHpoBaHHbIX, KOTOpbIe C$JPMHPOBaJIHCh, nO-BH.n;HMOMy, erne B npaJIpaHCKHX naanexTaX HHD,OHpancx:oro KOHTHHYYMa: l!l;ecb, B OTnJ.f1lHe OT HHlIoapHikKHX X]b'KOS, B n03HUIDIX nocne S " HOCOBblX (O'leSWlHO, 6paSllm:x. H3 ce6Sl 'laCTL BO:myrnHOH CTPYH) npansrxarensasre (rnyxae H 3BOHlGIe) yrpa"lHsana acnupaumo, coxpaass CMbIlJKY (cp. +sth > st, *zdh :> zd, *ndh > nil H T.IT., cer, [Reichelt 1909, 39-40, 42-43; COKOJIOB 1961, 31, 1979, 155]; nonporiaee eM. [CrB51-<D. 24--26, 55-56]),

OPR 3TOM OTMe'laeTC}J KaK 6hl «sepxarnnce» COOTHOLUeHHe B HX OTpaxeaau C orpaxennexr cOOTBeTCTB)'IOm"X 3BOHKHX: eCJ1H B BOCTO'lHOM apeane JUfaJIeKTOB 06IIIeHpaHCKoro COCTOIIHH}I 3BOttKHe (npnnaxaremHMe, a no aHMOrnll C HliMII H RenpHJlblXaTe.llbHbJe) cnHpaH1'lBOBallHCb, rtpoxons nyrs rana *gh- > "'y- H no aHaJlOrHH *g- > "'r-, TO rnyxae orpaxanacs ITO rany *k > *k, *kh > *k1x. ,OmI 3ana,llHOro apeana COOTHOmesne 6bU10 06paTHhIM: ecrm 3BOHXHe CTpeMHJIHCh K eMbllJHOcrn, no THny *g > *g " no aHaJIOmH C uenpaauxarensmnra *gh > *g, TO Y myXHX rrpanuxareasaux aoaotinanana, xax npaaano, we.rreBaJI apraxynslIHII: *kh > "'x, XOTII nenpunsrxarensasre OTpa)KalOTCSI 06bl':lHO CM(,J'IHhlMU: *k > *k (ca. nonpotiaee [Cf'B.sJ.-q" 139-142, 166-168, 186--187; Pacropryesa 1990, 115, 121, 141-142, 179-183. 190--193.218--223]).

Cnosapaue paeXOJKlleHJIX a COOTHOllleHHH HPaHCKHX perpnexcos rnyxax acrrapaposaaasrx C HHJIOapHHCKHMU, rue 3Ta cepWl 6bUia CPOHDnonBOR3H3, B qaCTHOCTH C npesHej.HI,UHHcKHMH, nm::a3blB3I01', ':ITO R uenou pane cnysaea "panCKH" M3TepHaJI naer He.nBYCMhICJleHHy!o peKOHCTPYKllHIO npaapancxoro rrryxoro aenpanuxaremaoro 3B)'Kornna TaM, rJ];c HH.llOapHHCKHH HMeeT npH,Iu.1xaTeJIbHWH (aanpasrep, n03HUHoHHO - B nO]lO)KeHHH nocne *s), pe:lKe - H306opOT (cp, nepefon B usxane OT,ne}1bHblX enos). 3TH, a raxxe MHorne npyrne cpaKTbI yKa3hlBaIOT, 'ITO B 06rn:eapHilcKOM coeTOIIHHH rnyxue acnapaposaaasre erne He 6bIJIH CPOHOJlOfH30BaHLI H 'ITO CPOHOJIOllt3atUUl cornacastx 3TOH CepH" " npa"paHeKHX uteneaux pe¢neKCGB 60J1ee palIHHX rnyxnx aCnHp"pO'BaHHbIX (cxopee 3BYKOTHnOB, 'leM QJOHeM) npOHCXOllHJIa P33JIH'lHO no }lHaneKTaM HH.D:OHpaHcKoro H 3aTeM HH'!{oapHl1eKoro H ofiurenpaacxoro apealla.

39

C ':)THM CB.IIlaHO HarJIt:"IHe, uarrpaaep, TaKHX npeaneapancsnx ,QHaJIeKTHblX BapHaHTOB, KaK *kal1- II *xan-. "kiua- II *xata-, 0 KOTOpbIX roBOPHJIOCb suure If ua KOTophle 05hl"lHO 05paIUalOT BHHMalme B CB~3H C HpaHCKO-CJIaBJIHCKHMH 1I30mOCCaMH (eM. raxxe R paanene (J1eKcHxa», § 15).

§ 26. B01MO~UO. KaKHM-TO 06palOM 3TH CHCTeMHble nepeooa, o6ycJIORJIeHHble OTcyrcTBHeM CTa5IDIbHom rpoaonoravecxoro craryca r:JJXHx npaasrxarerrsaux B apHHCKHX ,QI-Hl.lleKTaX - npenxax HpaHcKHx H HHmdkKHx 1I1b1K08, - n0BJ11UJlH H HH orpaxeaae B pane apancxnx CJ]OB 06weapHHCKHX lBOHKIiX npl1,l(hlX3TeJ1hHLJX (Ii B OT,[(enhHI:.!X nexceuax - TaIOKe lBOHKHX aenpazurxarensnux) cornacasrx B BH.Qe myxIix uteneastx If HX pe$JreKCOB. Cp .• HanplfMep. npOLl()J1;KeHlf1l u-e. *dliiljer- (res, >I< daill-eres) 'neseps' B Billie Ta,IDK. IU1aJJ. Ii var (H3 fionee paaaero (h )ewar < npaupan. *OailjO.r.), lim. sewir (npa 3aKOHOMepHoM o1'(3)({eHIU! B arHo6cKHX naanexrax oS .-.. t H3 06w.eHpaH. *0), OCeT. tlw I lew (rne t < *0), HllIK. sew (C 3aKoHOMepHbiM npononxeaueu s < *0), nurr. lewar (me I MOJKeT npOltOJIJKaTh J.{ "'d. H *6) H T.rr., npoureaume npennonoxarensno sepea 3TanI:.! npaapancxoro naanexrnoro *&Qlljar- < noaaaeapaack. !Ula.J1. +thaiuar- < p3HHeapHHcK. *dhaiyar-; cp, TaK.JKe 06weHpaHCI::HH xopeiu *~af- 'TKaTh, MeCTH' (aanpuaep, nepc. bdj~, }I3f. waf- 'TKaTb, ssaan,') "l H.-e. *1jebh- (cp, HeM. weben) H np. (ooocaoaaaae " npavepu ex. TaJGKe [A6. H3CO.H II. 149, 406, Ill, 297 H CJI.; 3ne.JJbMaH 1982. 38-39, CrB5I-¢l, 24]).

Ilonpooaee CBl1)leTeJlbCTBa KOHCOHaHTH3Ma 06 sranax rpl1.1lHaUHH apntkKoH 06ll.UfOCTH eM. TaK;Ke [3neJ1bMaH 1992J.

§ 27. B CJTa811HCKHK H 6aJITHHcKliJt 1I3hlKax aanoeeponeacxae rnyxue cornacasie OTP33IDTHCh B OCHOBHblX n03Hll,mI.X s BH,lJ.e rnyxax xe "'p, =t, >l<k (BHe n03HUlm naJlaTaJIHlaUHH, CM .. mDKe). Onn03HUHJi rnyxnx no npasaaxy acnupauaa, orcyrcreosaamas na cpoHOJIOlWleCKOM ypoaae B n0311HeM anaoespcneacxoa 1I3hJKe, He BMpa60TaJlaCh M B .1UfaJIeKTHX - npenxax 3TUX 1I3bIKOB.

TeN caMblM B oTPa}Kem1H HllJl:OeBpOneHCKHX CMbI"IRhIX cornacnsrx pa3HhIX cepaa 6 UPaHCKHX H CJIaBSiHCKUX (Ii 6anTHHCKHX) lI3b1Kax aa- 6mOJIaeTCSi ennnas rennenuua K coxpamenaio xorraxecraa 3THX cepHH. OnHaKO HeT )J,OKa3aTeJIhCTB reaeraaecxon 06WHOCTH sroro npouecca.

PaHIDUI JlaJIaTallH33l(HJI ]aJ(HeJl3bfqHJ,lX COrJI8CHLIX

§ 28. KaK ('OBOPHJIOCb asnue (cv, npHMe'l. 1), npa CQBoar:teHHH B 113h1Kax rpynrns «caT3M» Hfl,lloesponeHcKHx senspaux (*k. *g, *gh) H

40

J1a6110~BeIUlpHhlX (r.e, J1a611aJ1IOOBaHHYX senspaux, ycnosao 0603l1a'laeMblX B BH)J;e *kw, *gW, *gWh) 06pa30BaJlCII e,nHHbIH plI)J; BeJlIIPHblX +k, *x. *gh . .llrulee, nepen J..IH)loeBponeMCKHMH *i, *e OHH nonaepraiorca nanaranasalUIH, B OCTaJIbHblX n03HU!UI.X OCTaJOTC.lJ lIe.rUl.pHbIMH. Ilpa :;n OM He BO ecex JlI3brKaX rpynrru "caT3M» 3Ta naJIaTaJIH3allHlI. HMeJia <t>OHO]JOfHqe~ CKHe nocnenCTBH.lJ. B ~uarreKTax -- npeDKax CJ13B.lJHCKHX u apU"CKHX .ll3hlKOIl (BKJIIO'I3.lI npaacxae, HH.llOapHHCKHe H nypncrancxae) HaMIO.11aH)TCII 06lUHe napannensnue ¢OHeTH'IeCKHe JlBJIeHH.lJ -- pa3BHTHe 3THX cornacustx B BH)J;e npOnBH:KeHHJI snepen H a¢'¢pHKaI..lHH (r.e, peana- 3aUHH B BH)J;e * c, * j, B apHHcKHX lI.3blKax TaK:Ke * j h < * gh) C nocneayIOlUen ¢OHOJIOrH3aUHen *c, *j, apaiicx. *Jh, cnas. *z. "PHTOM 'ITO tflOlieTH'IeCKUe ycnOBHSI " q,OHOJIOnflieCKHn q,OH TaKora H3MeHeHHii. (uanreaexoro B nsrreparype B TpaJIHWUlX PaJHhlX WKOJI TaK:Ke «nepsoa rtanaranaaauaeii» U "BTOpOt! rIaJIaTaJlH3aUJ.feH»)) B CJlaB.lJHCKHX il.3b!KaX " B apHHCXHX 6hUUl: HemeHTH'IHbl. B npaGamHHcxoM :+>:e perpnexcu BeJUIPHblX B "03"U"" nanaranusauaa OCTaJIHCb B c$epe senspuux rtartara)lH30saHHblX, He nepeiins B paapsn a$PpHKaT. Cp., HanpliMep, COOTBeT~ CTBHR rana H.-e. *kwefyer-. *k"eIMor- 'xerupe' > pyc. uemupe, Ap.-HH)l;. catvar-, npaapaa, *cattplr-, HO mn. keturt; H.-e. *g"7yos 'XHBOH' > pyc. )i(USOU, scum», ~p.~HH.Il:. Ii "paHpaH. *jja!l- (cp, TaK)I(e B KOHKpeTHblx HpaHcKHx 1I3bIKax: .!I3r. zaw- 'BbJlKHTb nocne TlixenoH Gone3HH', sra. iu'XHTb'). HO JlHT. 8,_VvGS 'lKHBOH'.

Xapaxrepao saxpenneune pasaux perpnexcos HH,lIoeBponeHCKHX BeJI.lJPHbIX H na6HO-BeJI.lJPHblX B ""poCTOH)} H naJIaTaJlH30BaHHOll n03HUlliIX B pa3HbIX OCHOBax OT onnoro H roro iKe annoesponeacsoro KOpHl! npa BOJMO:lKHOH CeMaHrH'leCKOH nonnepxxe raxoro pa3Me)Kea<lUIDl H nansHeHwen nonspasanna q,OPM c BblpaGOTKOH aaanorasecsnx: H.-e. *kwo-, >l<k"'e-, x.p. *kwa-; >l<k"'ei- - aonpocarensnoe MeCTOHMeHHe [Pok, lEW, 644-647J - npaapau. "ka- H *ca~, aanpuxep. as, e,n.l.I. M. " Cpo p. rea, kuhya H cahya (cp, )J;p.~HH.Il:. kasya), nar. kahma! H cahmai (cp. np.-HHll. kasmiii) HAp •• COBp. T3.1])K. ki 'no', c1 ''ITO, X3Xoii:; (0 )KHBOTHOM) KTO', ssr, COOTBeTCTBeHHO ki - Cig (HMeHHIDI. KJIaCCH~HKaI.lH.lJ B HpaHCKHX lI.3b1KaX CTpOlnC.ll no "PH3HaKY «flHl.IHOCn. - ne-na-uroci s»); cpo TaK:Ke npacnas. */a,-tn - "'Cb-tO (C qaCTHueit -to) H "POllOJllKaJOIUHe ary ormo- 3HUHKJ pye. KInO - «ma (UpH HMeHHon XJlaCCH<pHKauHH «onyuresnen!lblH -- aeoayiuesneaauit»).

B .D:aJIbHellllleM B psne "paHCKJ.fX .lIJbII(OB, xax " B CJlaJ.l.jlHCKHX, npoJ1.0JllKaeTCJI reaneauas K n03HI..IHOHHOH nanaranasauaa ),\l..ure.lJ3bIQHblX cornacaux, npll1.JeM neoaaaaxosaa B pa3JlWiHb]X :!I.3hlKax. 06 3TOM 6y,!!,eT CKa3aHO Hll::lKe.

41

Pe4meKcbI HH)lOeOpOneUCKUX rJl8CHhiX

~ 29. CI1CTeMa HpaJIeKOrO BOKaJII13Ma rrpeacrannser Co6oH pe3YJIhTaT nocreneasoro «cBepThI8aHuN» UH,'l:Oe8poneHcKoH Cl1CTeMhl tIO .!lE)'X macnux ¢olleM euie B otnneapuacxo« COCTmItUlH: KpancoH a 11 iJ.OJIroH a (cOOTBeTCTBeHHO In u-e. KpaTICUX "'e, "'n, *a M nonrax "'e, "'0. *a), HMeeTcs TaK)I{e asyxoran fil (IH H.-e. * ... B onpeaeneunux n03HI.UIRX), contra)lafOllJJ'I" c npaHpaHCKUM cnorosser llapHatfTOM eOHaHT8 [iJ. Kposre roro, B03MO~HO, B Hau6oJ1ee pamnoro npanpaacxyio snoxy cyurecraosa» JByKOTHn [iiI <:: [til H3 cnoruasrx BapHaHTOB uHlloeBponeHculx HOCOBhlX coHaHTOB; snOCJle)lCTBHH ::lTOT tal coenan C maCHblM a, O)1,H8KO B pane ClIOB ocrasan cnea B BH,Ue «STOPOI-I» nanaranaaauua IUlIIoe8poneHCKHX 3a,uHeIi3YQHblX, xcropsre B rrmuu:"u nepen 06hflJHblM rnacnuu a ue nanaranmoaanacs (xapaxrepno, "fTO B )]'peBHe!UJ.LIUHCKOM 113h!Ke c ero CHJlbHOH TeHJleHlllleil: K napanaraaraxecxosty BbJpasHHBaHHIO srn cneuu «aenpaaansnori» nanaranasauaa 6WUi CHIlTht). Ilonpofinee 06 nOM asyKOTl1ne H M3Tepl1aTIhi CM., nanpuaep, [Barth, AiW, 487, 494, 603; Reichelt 1909, 46, 11 0; Kent 1950. 27, 36; COKOJIOS 1979, 144. 150, 153-154; C rosin. 62--63; C rOMW, 45---46, 5]-53; Cf'B.5I-(fl, 30-31).

TeM caMblM B npanpaucxyio snoxy coficraenno BOKaJllHM 6hlJI npe;:\craanen acero IIB)'MJI D1aCHblMI1 ¢One1rH1J.m:: a u ii.

§ 30. CHCTeMa npacnaaancxoro SOKaJIH3Ma CCPOpMHpOllaXIaCb B pesynsrare nocrerteuusrx H3MeHeHllH 1U1.llOeBpOneiicKHx rnacnux, a raxxe aa cuer BHe)]'peHHll B rpoHOJIOrnqecK)'lO CHCTeMY BOKa1JH3Ma :meMeHTOB cnoroaux sapaanroa naaoeeponeacmx CORaJlTOB (*u, *u, "'i, *j). 3.ueeb na pannea TIane npOVlCx.D.!I.HT cosnaneaae HlUloesponeitcKHX llOJ1rHX *a 11 *8 B npacnassncxyio *(i, KaK H BO MHOntX .upymx HH)lOeBpOneHcKHx sssrxax (BKlII04<Ul apaacxae], a aunoeaponettcxax KpaTKHx *ii H *6 - B npacnaasncxyio *6; xapaxreperr T3K:.Ke nepexoa KpaTl'::OH H.-e. *e - B npacnaasucxyio *e, a Il,OnrOH H.-e. "'e - B npacnaasncxyio *e (8 OT)1U'me OT HpaHCKI1X); oruevaerca " pll)l npyrax 6oJ1ee "f3CTBblX npoueccos [BepHWTeHH 1961, 133-134, 143-149]. BnOCJ1eJlCTBHH npoHCXO,lU1T 11.0- nonuarensaue lf3MeHeHIDI, B '1aCTIIOCHr paJ8HTHe csepxxparxax (ltJl1.I - no Il.pyrOH TepMHHOJIOHII1 - pe.uytJ:l1pOMHHh!X) rnacasrx b, t> H3 KpaTKHX i, U COOTBeTC'fBeHII04, parsurae ¢oHeMbl y lf3 ii 11 pan iJ.p}'T1tX (eM. nonpofiaee [oepHIlITeHH 1961. 176--180. 204 11. cJI.D.

COCTaB npacnasancxoro BOKaTIH3Ma Ka4eCTseHHO "Holi, '1eM B npaapHHel(OM 11 npaHp3HCKOM Sl3b1K3X, - npencraaneasr ¢OHeMbi a, o, e, e, i, b, y, b. Xapaxrep Jl]MeHeUMH " ¢,OPMHPOBaffIDI ~TOH H01mti CHCTeMhJ B npaauane OTJIltQeH OT IIpOu:ecCOB, Ha6mo.ll.aBlUI1XClI. B apakcxux ssuxax, nOCKonbKY B c:nWSlHCKHX coxpananacs xasecraeausie onn03H~HH rnacaax

42

(If pa3BI1JIIfCb HOBbie), lID 6hma cBepHyra HH)l;OeBponeikKruI KOJIH'-IecTaennas ormoaauas OJ]HOKa'leCTBeHllhlX rnacnux t$OHeM (Tuna u - a, o - 0 II T.n.). TeM CaMhlM 3LJ;eCb aupatioraaa 3aBHCHMOCTh xonasecraa rnacaoro 01 ero xaxecraa. HC"Ie3JHI CHCTeMa crapux ilIi¢TOHfUll; npH 3TOM HHJ10ellpOneHCKHe llHrjrrOHIH, conepxasnrae nocoaue m, n, nepemna B pa3PM H83MlH30BaHllhIX q,OHeM-MOHo$rOHrOIl, 06pa30llaB II pe3YllbTa1"e HOCOBble rnacaue: pet» < "penktos, zob» < "zombos. Moaorpronnoanaa HH)l;OeeponeficKHX J]H¢TOHfOB c COHaHT~IH j If ¥ nopollHJla HDBMe rnacuue W r .n.

Pet}meKCLI HH.n;oeBponeiicKHX COH8HTOB

§ 31. B rrpaapaucxoii CI-lCTeMe KpOMe e05CTBeHHO cornacasrx U macHblX sa $lHOJIOrnqeCKOM yposue erne coxpaaaercs OCTaTOqHO pa3PM cpoHeM-COllalITOB: Ii/, IIji, Irl, xoropue 6bmH n~CTaRJ1eHbl HH $:lHe1"HqeCKOM ypoane pa3JUf-':llIbIMH aapaarrraaa, 3aBHCHMbIMH OT xapaxrepa cnora H or n03H1IHH B CJlOBe. npoCJle)fCUBaIOTCJI sapaatrru: 1) cnoroasre - C aapaaumrMH: a) B BHJ]e maCIIl,IX 3B)'KOB-MOHcxj:rroHfUB p, 7), [u, ill, lr = er, re 1; 6) B BHJle CJJa6hIX .uH¢TOfITOB [iI, iJjJ, [iy, ay]; [u~, ayJ, [uw, awl; frr] = [art arJ; 2) aecnorosue - C BapHaJ.lIDIMu: a) [y, n, [w, !!]. [r] .8 nOlHUID1X Son-, VSonV; 6) [11. [y], [rl B n03HUIDIli. VSon, VSonC. B qepe,nOBaHH.I{X npHHHMarm ysacrae H CKJlbHbTe .IlHcpTOHrn, O)J;HU:O )l)1JI sroro nepaona ax ),[O)l(HO paccnarpnaan, KaK 6HcpoHeMHhle couerauua. Iloanaee, nocne snoJI.I.{ ApeBHHX 1IID.1lITHHK.OB p;npM ¢oHeM-ooHaHToR m::QH'·(aTeJlhHO pacrn:ellnsercs na rnacaere " cosopnue cornacaue y, w (HI.l1Jl1-I V - B Jl3l>IKaX, me yrpaseaa onn03HUIDI ry6l1o-ry6Hblx H ry6HO-3y6HhlX), r.

Oc060 cnenyer CKa3aTb 06 orpaxenaa B "paHCKHx S13LIKax UHJ1oeJl.poneacxoro * a «(U1Ba))), xoroputi ClJH1"ae'fClI cnorossra sap"aHToM rpouesnr-rrapnarana (na 'ITO I-IMelOTC.II He TOJIbKO CHCTeMHlde, HO H aprnxyJIJIUHOHHWe OCHOSaHHJI, eM. [Crenauos, 3.QeJlhMaJl 1976, 229. 251-258]). TPaIlHUIlOHHO cqHTae1"CH, '-ITO *a R IlpeBHeHpaHcKoM cocrosuaa 01pa3H]1CH B nepeox errore B sane i, B cpeanuuax - B BHJ{e HyJIX 3B)'Ka, B OTnH'IHe OT IlpeBHeHHlIHHcKoro. me npoCJleJKHBaeTCJI OTpClXeHHe *a B BlUle i TaKJKe 11 B CpellHHHbTX cnorax, Cp., xanpnuep, npaHpaH. *pitar- (as. HOM. pita) ,..,. IIp.-HUlI. pilar- 'oreu' H3 H.-e. piJte(r)- (rea, petr-es, petr-os), HO npaapaa, "dugdar- -.. np.umn. duhitar- ')10%' 1-13 a-e. *dhug(h)ater[Meii.e 1938. 125-1261. O.nHaKO Hccne,nOBaHHJI 70-80-x ronoa noxaaana, "ITO yxe B 1I3blKe ABeCThl ara JaKOHOMepHOCTh lie cotirnonaerca. 3.uOCb QT.Me"UUOlO[ cyurecraenusie HCKJ1lO'teH}IJI, 'facTI. KOTOPblX 051.SICIDIeTClI 3THMOJlOfl-lqeCKH. '{acTb - onpeJ\eneUHhlMH MO~HOJIOrn'lecKHMH yc.rrORUJlMH H

43

06palOBaHlffiMH no aHaJIO[lUf (cp. coxpaaeaae j < *a II D.BycnO)KHOH C1l0- Bolj>opMe H aunanenae B TJlex- H 601lee C1IO)KHoii. nanpnaep, aa. en.s. HOM. pita, 3KK. ptarsm, nar. pi{)r'e, MH.'1. HOM. ptaro, nar. ptar{)byo; cp, TaK)Ke qX'P"MI>I. npouasonuue OT *pitar-: (p)far- - ja6ri-, tUirya-). Bull"MO, pacnpeneneaae pe41JleKCOB * a no eJIOrdM OTHOCHTeJIbHO pauo 3aTyureBbrBWIOCb nOlllHeiiuufMu TeH.ll.elUJ;IDIMH. Ilonpotiaee 0 perpnexcax *a B npesnax "PaHCKHX jllhJK3X eM. [Brandenstein, Mayrhofer 1964, 34; Insler 1971; Kuiper 1976, 1978 (I), 90-91, 1978 (II), 84-86; Ravnses 1981; Beekes 1981, 1988, 50, TaM .lICe aHaJlH:3 mrreparypsr J. Bonee lI03)1- HHe ocotisie pedmexcn *(1, OTJm'lHbIe OT *i, lie OTMe'l8lOTCjI.

§ 32. Xapaxrep orpaxeaas }lpeSHHX COHaHTOB II npacnaasucxoa UK xe recno CrullaH CO crpJKTYPoH cnora, KOroP1>JM HMeJ1 II CJ13MHCXHX Sl3LIKax reanenusno K OTKpbITOCTH. EC1IU CO'leTaHHR rnacnux C HOCOBblMH 3J1eMeHTaMH J],aJIH H83aJ1H30BaHHble rnacnue, TO eOlleT3HHB macnstx C (WanHbIMH .1I3JIH HOBbIe cnorosue nnaamre, TaKHM 06PaJOM, COH3HTbl KaK oco6b1fi KJJ3CC cpOHeM, BhTcryrr3lOIlIHH II BMe CJIOroBblX H uecnorossrx n03HUHOHHbIX BapH3HTOB, 3,IIeCh yxe He cyuiecrayer, Cy.nh6a HH.noeBPOneacxoro *a B cnassucxnx Sl3hlKax )lHCKYCCHOHHa [BepHllneHH 1961, 147-148]. Iloapotiaee 06 orpaxermax COHaHTOB CM. (Till-f :Ke, 207).

C)OHEMHhIH COCTAB nPAHPAHCKOro " nPACJIABSlHCKOrO

§ 33. B pe3YJlbT3Te onHC3HHblX asnue npoueccoa rporronormecxaa CHCTeM3 06mel-lp3HcKoro nepnona supacoausaercs B cnenyiouie« BHlle.

PeKDHCTPYHP),lDTCS rpoHeMhl TpeX pa3PJI}J;OB, HJ1H nO.!tCHCTeM: KOHCOHaHTHaSi nO,!ICHCTeMa tlpe.1lCT3BJ1eH3 cornacnsran (BCe£J1.a uecnoroofipa- 3}'lOIl.IHMH) cpoHeM3MH: BOKaJIH'IeCKasJ noncacreua - fJl3CH1>IMH (acerna CJlOro06p33)'Kll.llHMH) ¢oHeM3MH; nO}lCI1CTeM3 COH3HTOB - cpoHeM3MH, xoropue MOryr BbICT)'llarh KaK CJ1oro06pa3ytOIlIHe H necnoroodpaaysoume, B 3a.BHCHMOCTIf OT II03HUIDl..

Co6cTBeHHO KOHCOH3HTH3lI IIO,!J;CHCTeMa ornueapaacxoro .lI3bIK3 surna)1111' CJIe.nylOJJ..tHM 06p330M: Ill}'MHble - 33,QHe)l3bJ'IRhle g (C peaJIH33UHew no apeanaa B aane [g. rD, k, x; nepenaesasmnae CMblQHLIe d (c apeansHldMI1 Bapl13HTaMH [d, 01). t, {j (He BO scex }lH3JleKT3X ¢OHOJIOrH30BaBWasJcs); a¢¢PHKaTbI c, j; ry6HbJe b (C peaJIHl3UHeH B BH,Ue rh. v, w] - noCJ1ellmdl: BapHaHT, COBn3.1l3BWHfi c lw] - aecnorossra B3PHafiTOM COHaHTa - B llHaJIeKT3X, rne OTcyrcrBOBaJI ry6nO-3yt)Hoti: psm), p. f (He BO acex .1IHaJIeKTaX <POHOJIOl1flOB3SllfWlCB); CH6Km1HTff3li: rpyrrrra H perpnexcsr

44

60JIee crapux CH6W1gHTOB .<. iii (1'13 HH,Il;OeBponei-icKHx nanaransaax), S/hlz (In H.-e. *s 11 H3 'ir<d B onpenenerursrx II03HUugX), .vi (H3 H.-e. "'.I' " nanaransnux B onpenenenusrx nOl"UIUIX)~ 60JIee n03J1HlUI ¢OHeMa XV [XW, h"'l (o6pa30BaBlli3JICSi "3 co'teTaHH" *s!.' ", pexe, "3 SapHaHTOB *k)~ conopaue m, n H I (OTHOCHTeJ1hHO pell,KIDI, HO He nO,1l.BepfU.lIDICIf, aonpexu TPaJl.HUHOHHOM)' MHeHHKl, ¢POUTaJlbHOMY oouieapnncxoxy P0TaUH3MY), np0}lOJT:t::3KlUUle cooreercrayiouiae apUHCKHe 11 aunoeeponencxae.

BOKaJIH'IeCKilli IIoACHCTeMa npeACT3H!1eHa ecero J1B)'MlI tP0ueMaMH, YCJlOBHO 0603HaQaeMb1MH K8K a H ii,

TIOJl:CHCTeMa couauroa coxpaaserca B BlfJle cpOlleM y, 1 11 r co CJIO:lKHOH CHCTeMOH ClIOmBhlX H aecnoroasrx BapHaUTOB H sapaauaa, TIo,IJ.po6- aee 0 CTaHOBlIeHHH oGW.eHpauCKOH CHCTeMbl u 0 ee nOCJIeJzyromeH nanaMilKe CM. raxxe [CrB5I-<l>, 23-68l

§ 34. npaCJIaB:HHCK3JI CHCTeM3 xapaKTepH3yeTCJI cneJl:)'JOUl.HM COCTaBOM q,oHeM H OCHOBHhlX 3B)'K0THnoB.

Cornacnue: wyMHhle - B3pblBHlde p, t, k. b, d, g (H3 COOTBeTCTB)'lOW.HX HHJl.OeBporrej.{cKHx): acp¢pHK3ThI C, c, dz [3], (di) - B OCHOHHOM H3 COBn3BIlJHX l1H/.I.oeBponeHcKHx BeIDlpHhIX " JIa6ll0-BelI}lpHblX B onpenenennux n03HUIDiX; i}>pmCaTHDHhle crapue s, Z; HOBble x, S, i; couopuae r I, m, n, i. OllJJa6HaJlhHru! WHJlH na6HO·Jl:eHTaTIhHruI (no n03HUlf)!M) v; nanaranaaoaauuue aonue, lll)'MHhle H couopnsre t', d', p', b', 1', r', n', m'.

o COCTa»e rnacasrx CM. asnne.

ilo.o:poGHee 06 oGW;ecJlarulHCKOM cpOHeMHoM COCTaBe H ern CTaHORlIeHHH CM. [Eepnurreiiu 1961, 123 H CJI.: '4eKMaH 1979; EOWKOBH'I 1984. 38-39],

§ 35. Xapaxrepno, qTO, B D1'JlH'iHe OT npaapaacxoro, CPWlHaJ.IHH KOTOpOro BhffiBJUUlaCb no onpeaeneaasnr KOHCOHaUTUhlM npH3HaKaM, <\nuu{all."Sl. rrpacllaBSl.HCKOTO lR3MeHyercSl. UeJlhlM. P'iUloM ~t\eTH1.(ecK\\](' H3MeHeHH", oxsarueaiomax KaK KOHCOHaHTI13M, TaK H BOKaJIHlM H HeKOTOPble nocnenosarernnocra cpoHeM. 0 lUu~epreHUHH npaCJIaBBHCKoro HOI nnanesrsr H BIIOCJIe,IJ.CTBHH - ua rpynnsr CJIaBJIHCKHX "3hlKOH H 0 xosmnexce IIPH1HaKOB. oGpa3yroWHX H30rJ]OCCbJ, CM. [5epUWTeHH 1961, 37 H CJI" 66 H ClI., 188-190, 211 H CJI •• 225 11 CJI.J.

TaK, aanpmaep, J1JlSl BOCT04HOCJIallilHCKOH o6mHOCTH B oUnaCTH cpo· ueTHKH obmH xapaxrepnu: TaK Ha3hlBaeMoe IIOJlHOrJlaCHe B OTpalKeHHH npeaanx rtnasnstx - 80pOfUJ, "",O/WKO, 6epec; onpeneneaaue npoueccsr II ¢lOpMHpOBaHl1l1 Cl'lCleMbl a¢tPpHKaT (cosnaaeaae {:' 113 k' H c' H3 tj, kt', a raxxe IHMeHeHHe acp¢pHKaTbI j' II i', T.e. cosnaneaae pe<l>JIeKCOIl g', z', d'y; COOTBeTCTBHe HaQaJIhHOH 0- B pane CJlOB BOCTO<nIOCJIaBHUCKoH rpyrmsr KOMIUle.Kcy je- B Jarla.D.HOCmlMHCKliX H lQ)KIlOCJI3BBHCKHX assrxax (cp. pyc. oou« - jedim., osepo ...., jezero • .a:p.-pyc. Onena ...., Jelena, PYC. OCeHf1, anetu, ocemp H r.n.), 'bCTh sepr pa3JJ.eJUleTCJI BOCTQl£HOCJ1a·

45

MHCKHMH jj3bIKaMH C 1O~(ffOClIaSHHCKHMH, aanpmsep, THnbI H3MeHeHHSI orrpeaenemurx IIpaCJIaB.IIllCKHX C04eT3HHii: kve, gve B eve, dzve (> lVI?) (pyc, III/em, seesoa); ynpomeaae rtpacnaesncxnx rpynn II, dl B I (pye. 20PJiO, MeJia) - C HeKJII{)4eHHilMH (B .[(p.-IlCKOBCKOM H .[(p.-HOSropo,!l.CKOM zmanexrax HaXO.!UlM na HX MeCTe kl H gl ) H ap.

YepTbt, KOTOPble YBJ!SIIOTC.II 06WHMH MSI BOCT04HOCJIaWIHCKHX H 3ana,n:HOCJIaB$lHCKHX, OTHOCl{TeSl K 06J1acTH Mop$mornH. 061l1,Hii nonpooHbI" ochop npH3HaKOB 'VIeHeHHJI CJlaBJIHCKofi ceMhH na rpa rpynnbl li3blKOB CM, [Bepaurrean 1961, 225 H CJI,; DOWKORH'I 1984, 33-36],

§ 36, TaKHM o6pa30M, npoueccu eTaHOBJIeHH.II npaapaacxoa IT npaCJIaB$lHCKQH cpoHeMHoH napaaaruaraxa rrponcxonnrrn napa1IJIeJIhHO H He3aBHCHMO apyr OT npyra: npaHpaHcKall BhlKPHCTaJlJ1H30RblBarracb H3 oonee paHHHX - HH;l.OHpaHCKOI1, 06weapHl1cKoll. aaaoeeponeacsof - nOOTaIlHO, npacnaaancxas rpOpMHpoBanach CBOHMH nyrJlMH, 061l1,HX xarepzam-aux HHHOmu.lHH, KOTophle 06pa30HaJlHCh 6b1 B 3noxy nocne npoueccoa, 06WHX ,IV1J1 Been rpyrmsr «carsx», He aafirnonaerca, CnenoBaTe1IbHO, Her CBH,IleTenheTB 50nee TeCHOro renerasecxoro pOJ[CTBa Me)K,[l)' HpaHCKHMH H CJIaBilHCKI1MH .lI3blKaMl1.

BTOiJnqHblE nAPAJDIEJIH:

CY.llh6A 3A)1:HESI3blqHbIX COfJIACHLlX

§ 37. Cy,m.6a saiuessusnax cornacuux B snoxy nocne npWl3hlKOBOH B cnaBllHCKHX 11 HpaHcKHx .lI3blKaX 3aCJI)')KHsaer ornensaoro paccxorpeHIDI, nOCKOIThK)' CXO.[(CTBO I1X paJBHTHSI COBepweHHo O"lfeBH,!l;HO, Ilpn STOM cymeCTBeHHO, <frO onpeneneanas '1aCTb TaKon 06W:HoeTH HaXOlIHTCJI B pycrre cxopee THnOnOrH4eCKHX TelllIeHuHH B aprnKYJUlUHOHHOH rponernxe, 4eM R PYCJIe HCTOpH'IeCKOH <floHOJIOfHH (CM, 06 :nOM, B '1aCTHOCTH, [BblcoTcKHn 1978]), 'ITO CIIHMaer, BO BCIlKOM CJlY4ae, <JaCTh B03pa)f(eHHH npOTIlB cXO.[(CTBa 3THX npoueccoa, HO He oreesaer o.uH03Ha'iHO HOI nonpoc 06 06r.u;HOCTH I1X npH4"H,

§ 38, Ofinme napannensnsre qepThI pa3BI1THll: cornacmrx 38lIHe5l3b1'1~ rroro psna Haomo.!{aIOTC.lI y;Ke C npaasuxoeoro COCTO.llHHJI CJlaB5IIICKOH H apHHCKO" ReTBeM HHJ\OeBpOneifcKoft ceMbH, Harroonee 51pK8SI H3 HHX - reHlleHUHJI K nanaTaJIH3al.J,HH, uatiruonaeaaa B 3THX 513hlKax c HIIJ[oeBpo~ neacxoro nepaona, Bsnne roBOpHJ10Ch 0 npacytueir HH)10eBpOneHcKHM ,n:HaneKTaM rp)'IIIIhI «carsa» cPoHerH'IeCKOH Tell).{eHUHH K nanaT3.JIH3aUHH 31l,1{HeSl3b14HhlX cornacnsrx (*k. *g, *gh) nepen HHlI,oeBponei:fcIGiMH *i, *e, C OlIHOH CTOPOHbl, H 0 Ij)oIlOJlOnt'leCKOM cne.a;CTBHH 3'fOM nanararrmauau,

46

T.e. 0 BM'lJleHeHH" H3 HHX CaMOCTOXTeJIbHblX tiloHeM *C, *J, *i 6 CJ13a}!UCKUX It UU,IlOHpaHCKHX }!3h1KaJt, - C npyron, npHTOM 'ITO B npatianraaCKOM, KOTOPblH no -upyrItM nOK83aTeml.M 3Ha"nrreJIbHO 6JIl-t:lKe K npaCJ1aBII HCKO My. 'IeM npaapHHCKHR. TaKOR nepexon He npoaaotnen (npmsepu CM. II § 28).

B "paUCKH:i }{]blKaX OLl,HUM U3 3THM0J10rn'leCKHX IIOCJIen;CTIIHH sroro rpoaonorasecxoro rrepexona gBHJ]C}! npouecc pacurennenns aexoropux J1eKCeM, OOYCJ10KlleHHhIH TeM, 'ITO OJlHH " TOT ]IKe HlUoeBpoIIeHCKHH KOpens, rne BeJJ}{ptlblH cornacaua Mor nonaaars II n03HUH11 nepe.a rnacmrMH *a, *0, *e npa 1JepeLlOBaHn}!X rnacnsix, II .uarIbHeHWeM pacuiennsercs na )],Ba, OTlUlomUICh OT nepaoaasansaoro H B ceaanraxe. Cp .• aanpaaep, nepc, casp-, casb- 'npunanars, npauennarscx' (rrpaapaa. *cap-sa- c xerareaoa), myrn. cep- 'mynars' « *ciip-aia-), farcep- 'pa3Y3HaBaTh, paccnpaurasars; aaurymraars' « *fra-cap-aja-), ssr. f:}njav- 'co6npan', nponcurenurae OT npaapaa. KOPHJI *t:ap- < H.-e. "kep-, npn Ta,U;.K . nrran. qap-, uiyra. anjiiv-, pyur., 6apT. injav- 'XBaTaTb' or npaapaa. xopna *ko.p- < H.-e. »kap-, *kop-,

§ 39. B ,UaJIhHeHrneM II oraensnsrx "panCKUX 5I3hIKaX, KaK " R CJJaB.IiIHCKHX, npO)],OJ1)KaeTC5I TeHll.eHUHSI K n03HuHoHHOH nanarannsauaa 3a.llHeJl.3bI'lHblX cornacaux, npH'-1.eM HeOllHHaKOIla51 B pa3JIH'IHblX 5I3blKaX, ,Ua]IKe OJlH3KOpO)],CTBCHHbIX, H He scerna peanaayeaas aa <j:IoHOJIOrH'leCKOM yposne.

TaK, sanpauep, B cesepnonaaapcxax '13h1KaX aa KaKOM-TO srane nepen rnacuuau nepennero p5IJ{a (anecs B 3TOT PM BXOJlllT H peqmeKchl 05meHpaHCKHx rnacasrx *a, *(i, KOTOpble B TOT rrepnon oxaaanacs B ,UHanexrax - npenxax .n:auHblX Sl3blKOB CllBHHyrblMH snepen H cytKeHHbIMH) 3B}'KOTHIIbl, OTHOCll1l.lHeC'I K 06meHpaHCKOH 4JoHeMe "k, nepexonsr B *k KIlH pearrH3}'lOTC5I B BH.Qe 3BYKOTHna *[k]. 3areM B H3h1KaX rnyruaHo-pylllaHCKOH rpyrmsr sra *k naer C, a B .113ryJI'IMCKOM R3hlKe coxpausercs KaK CaMOCTOJlTeJlbH<la cpOHeMa k WI", pexe (B TOM 'IHCJ1e " II n03HUHn nepeiJ, pe<flJ1eKCaMH *0, xoropue B WOM JL3blKe B HeflTpanhHOH n01HQIUI OTpa:lKalOTCJI nosnaee R BH,rIe maCHOH sanaero psna Il), ,UenaJIaTaJIH3yerCSI, KaK 6bl «aoaapaurascs» B 3<WHHH pan 11 OTPlUKruICb B mme k (cp., nanpUMep, 06meHpaH. +kata- 'XHXHHa, nOM' > ces.-rraa. >i<kad(aJ- > lliyrH, Cid, HO 5I3f. k~d 'll.mt').

Hurepecno, 'ITO B mymaao-pymaacxon rpynne 5I3bIKOIl B TOT xe nepuon npOH30rneJI H CABHf npaapancxoro *{: > c (a raxxe npaapan, *g > r > i; j, npaapan. *] > 3, npaapan, *x > .f) B rex )Xe n03HUH5IX (rtpaaepu aa npaapaa. *6 CM. asnne).

naliaTaJIH3aUWI 06WeHpaHCKOH "k C pa3JlHQHblMH tpoH0J10nl1JeCKHMH peaynsraraaa aatimonaercs n B npyrax upaacxax .Il3bIKax. HMelOTclI

47

CJlY'laH KaK rrepexona *k > k H CT3H0BJ1eHIUI onn03HUUU lid - lid (aanpaaep, B DuroPCKOM naanexre oceTuHcKOro S3b1Ka, B MytI,!J)KaHCKOM jl3b1Ke), TaK " nansaenuree "pO,J:lOJl.lKeHHe npouecca - c nepeXODOM *k > {: (aanpauep, B naWTO, BaXaHCKOM, B UPOHCKOM .!IHaJleKTe ocermrcxoro :ll3bIKa). HHblMH eJlOIlaMH, B apaacxax Jl3bIK3X Ha6mOlia1OTC5I paauue CTMUU npODBH.lKeml51 snepen 3ruJ,He5l3Lf'.IHblX CMMQHhIX cornacmax B rtanaraxaayiourax n03HUHSlX. Ilpa 3TOM TaKUMH n03HUHSlMII B p33HbIX IBblK3X MOryr BblcTynaTb naeaaue oxpyxeans paamr-moro npoucxoxneHH5I; HX COCTaB H HCTOp»5I eTaHOBJIeHH5I no Sl3blKaM HHlIHBHllyaIIbHhl.

Xapaxrepuo, 'ITO 3MHell:3blQHWe CMhlllHhle MOJYf BbllIRfUITh IT<maTaJlHsoaannue BapHaHTbI - BTUlOTh DO nanaransusrx - II B rex assrxax, me HeT onn03HUHH naJIaT3JlH3aUHH, "PH ~TOM cpenaesaermue sapnarrru 1140- JYf co BpeMeHeM CT3Tb QCHOBHblMH. TaKOBO, narrpaaep, HX pa3BlITHe B eoBpeMeHHoM nepcancxox JJ3b1Ke " II pyiuancxoa (XOTII H C HeKOToPblMH .... aCTHhlMH pa3J1WUUlMH). TaKHM OOPa30M, pamue ranu nanaranaaanau B UpaHCKHX Jl3bIKaX He scerna HMelOT llbIXOD na q,OHOJlOnt'lecKJrii YP0BeHb.

§ 40. AHanOrH'IHbl rrpoueccu II B CJ1aB~HCKJ.tX 1l:3bIKaX, l-IMelOlltHe pesymraraaa naJIaTarIH)aUHlO C rpOHOJIOfH'IeCKHMlf rrepexonaxn rnna k > c, g > J, x > s, § nepen rJIaCHblMH nepenaero PJl,[la, nonpofinee eM. [Eepunrreiia 1961, 200-202]. Xap3KTepH3 TaKJKe TaK H31hlBaeMWI ~(TPeThS nanaranasanas» - k > c', g > 3', x > s', I', asnstaaexas rrpeaWecTByroW:HMH rnacasnra nepenaero paaa [EepHwTeHH 1961. 208).

§ 41. Macro HHTepecHoro .u:aIOT Ha6nJOlleHHlI nan UJ;e.rreBWMH cornacHWMH, npOHcwe.u:IITHMl-I H3 BapHaHTOB rpoHeM 3MHe5l3bltJffOro psna,

TaK, B03HHKWWI H3 B3PH3HTOB HHnoHpaHcKHX *k H "'k(h) ureneaas "'x B SI3b1KaX 60J1brueH 'IaCT" upaucxoro apeana C.QBHHynaCb B YByJI~PHbtii plJ.!I Ii peanuayerca KaK [xl B MeffbrueH tJaCTU Jl3WKOB apearra, OCODeHHO B 5I3bIK3X Ilauapo-Fannysymcxoro peraoaa, <pOHeMa x nonycxaer eapaaHTbI, a same - csofionsoe aapsapoaauae saanesssrmoro l-I ysynspnoro [xl xl. Taxon canar tJ3CTl-IlIHO 061VlCHHeTC5I ee eMH)KemreM C oomeapaaeKO" (HJJl-I 'I)'Tb 60Jlee n03llHeH, HO OXB3THBweH no-rrn aecs HPaRCKHii apean npesaero nepHO.!I3) ¢OneMO" "'xv, rrpoacurennrea B OCIIOB1-I0M H3 o6w:eapHa.cKoro CO'leTIlJIW[ >II sit (nonpoonee 06 ee apTHK}'JlSUHH H srecre :8 CHCTeMe CM. TaK)Ke [3.n.e.rrbMaH 1977; CrB5I-(J). 51-53]). Bo 8CJlKOM CJI)"Iae, OTO.n.BHH)'TOCTb HpaR. "'x Ha33,U no cpasaeaaio C 3a,nHeIl3b1'1HWMH CMbIllHblMH O'leBHnHa, H aTO oTPa3HJ10Cb II .n.a.JIbHeihueM rra ee HCTOPHH: xpoae 513hlKOB uryrnauo-pymancxoft rpyrmsr, npauannexamen K n3MHpO-rHlmYKYillCXOMY peraoay, ona HHf.l]e He Bbl5IBIlSleT $oHonornqeCKHX pe3YJIbTaTOB naJJaTaJJl13aUHH. CpallHI1MbIX co CMhl'lHbIMl-I (ua rpOHeTH'IeCKOM WOBHe II HCTOPHH 5I3hlKOB roro lKe penrona OHB: peKOHCTp}'HpyroTCI1 B BlUe *i, HO 3aTeM OTOD,&liTalOTCJI aaaan).

48

§ 42. Ewe CJIO)l(Hee OOCTOHT .!leJIO co 3BOHICOH ureneaoz KaK}')ICe fOBOpIVlOCb, 0611.l;eHpaHCKaJI 3BOHKruI. 33.[]HelJ3bJ<fHaJl 4xmeMa, ycnosao o60:malfaeMru! KaK CMbI'IHID1 *g, orpaxaercs KaK utenesaa r B pasnsrx n03llUWiX B pa3JlH'IHbIX HPaHCKHX 1I3b1Kax. Ocofiemro xapaxrepna ee peMH3aUHJl B BMe *y- B aaxane CJIODa BO acex Sl3hlKax reaeranecxoa SOCTOllROHPaHCKOR lllyn:"bl C cauoro npesnero nepuona - AHaJleKTOB oGruel1paHCKoro (H ewe GOJ1ee pannero) COCTOll.HWI. Ilpn 3TOM *y oronsaraercs B )'BYJIlIPH)'lQ 30llY npaKTIl'leCKH yx_e BO scex "paHCK"Hx Sl3blKax. If sra paHHJlJl yeynapaaauas raxxe BJIHJleT aa ee HC'ropl-!JO, 06oco6HBW}'JO ee OT HCTOPMH 3a,JJ:HeSl3hl4HblX CMhI'IHIoIX cornacasrx. TOJIhKO e,IlHH"lIHhle 1I3t.IXH, H see B TOM lICe peruoae, Bb!Jil8JT1UOT peaynsrarsr ee rranaT31lH3aUl'!H: B sane q,O.HeMHhlX H3MeHeHlfH (nma "'y > i B lI3bIKax myraauo-pyurancxoa rpyrmu) IfJIH B BHJle 1l03HUHOHHbIX nanaranaacaanasrx sapnatrroa B rrpotnnosr (nina *y B MCTOPHH Jil3ryJUIMCKom N, B03MOJKHO, MYHJJ.JKaHcKoro Jil3bIKOB). B nOJJ.aB.mnOIIleM )ICe GOJlbmllHCTBe H3blKOB *y, xax H *x, He nonnepraercs nanaramnanaa (naxe Il rex sasrxax, me CMM'J.Hbte neIKO nanaranasysrrcs). Cu. OTpa)KeUUe npaapaucxoro *gari'ropa' (cp . .np.-HH.il. giri-): aa, gairi-, myra, fir, xyc}:l. irer, pym., 6aPT. zer, cap. zer 'K_aMeHb', np" sar. yur 'KaMeHb, CKMa, ropa'.

Ilosanenue B SaxaHCKOM Ji3blKe ,nonOJIHHTeJJbHOro uransurero KOMnoHeHTa y 60nee paaaax *r H "'x, r.e, asysauae llX perpnexcos COQTHeTCTaenao KaK t II i. B TOM lIHCJIe H II uenanaramnyouren rr03HWfH (cp, sax. y!»w 'xoposa' < *gay(a)-), TPYAHO O):tH03Ha'lHO TpaKTOBaTh KaK nanararnr- 3aO:8]O, TeM Donee 'ITO Il BH)le i npencraer H pecj_:meKC JJ.peIlHeHpaHCKOH * XV (uanpserep, sax, XblY 'cecrpa' < npaapan. "xvahar- < H.-e. "'sljesor-).

TaKHM o6pa30M, apaacxae Sl3bIKU aarnanao .ueMoHcYpHPYIOT naaxpoHU'IeCKHe cnencrans TOH apTHKYilllUHOHHOH aCHMMeTpuH, KOTOPWi 6bUTa csoticrseuua CMbl'{HbIM " ULefleBbIM cornacsua 3a.!J;HeH3bl"ltlOro PRD.a B npeamrx "paHCKHx ,UH3JleKTax, KaK H B paJHLIX npyrax H3blKax xnpa, BK,.'1lO'la)l pyccxae roaopu [BldCOTCKHH 1978], a "MeHno: CMld'lHMe {)bUlH 33JJ.Hep.llJJ.Hhl H JIefKO nanararmaosanacs H nponsaranac], snepea npa onpeneneaasrx YCJlOBH.lIX. lll.eJIeBble HMeJ1H TeH,IIeHlIHlO OTOIl.BMraTbCR aaaan, armors no yaynxpaoro pSI)Ia. a yxperraauracs B HeM, OHH yrpasnBaIlH CBH3b C 3aJtHeJl3bltIHhlMH H He 1l0JJ.!J;aB3JlHCb CBOHCTBeUHOH nocnenHIfM naJI3TanH3aUllH (naxe B TIanaTaJIH3)'JOIlJ,HX TI03IfLlH.llX).

Xapaxrepno, "ITO JIa6Hanlf3aUHll nOlLll3BaJIHCb H re H .upyrne, "IeMY ecrs npaxepu B HpaHCKllX H3h!KaX (eM. HJDKe).

§ 43. CncJJ.YeT OTMeTHTb eute OIl.HY Ba::KH)'IO ,IJ,JI.ll Hac oco6eHHOCT.b 3BOHKOH *r B HCTOpHH M{laHCKHX jf3hlKOB.

Kax fOIlOPHJIOCb, npeanemnee 'lIIeHCHHe lIHaJICKTOB 06meHpaHCKoro npaK3.hIKOWro OOCl'OBHlliI H3 'llilla.DH)'IO « BOCTQqH)'lO ~y"llhl Bhlpa3ill1OCh,

43aK 53

49

nOMllMO npoxero, B COOTBeTC'ffiIDIX 3BOHKIIX aanayrasrx comacmax, BKJIIOqIDI sananasie CMLI'IHble b-, do, g- -- BOCTO'iHble lII,eJIeJ3Lle v- (no naaJIeKTaM, me OTCyrcTBOBaJla ry6Ro-3y6HaJI Gala B HHJJ:e myxoH f, ara cpolleMa peanaaosanacs KaK w-), 15-, y -. nOCKOJlbIeY Ie reaerasecxoa eocTO'lHOl1pancKOIt. rpynne OTHOC5lTes: 1I3b1KH paaasrx perncaos - ()T naurro " «ManniX» $13blKOR naAfHpo-rHH.!I)'KymCIWro peraoua 11.0 CKUq,CKHX I1.HaJIeKTOB (rrpenxos COBpeMeHHOlO ocernacxoro g3h1Ka), :na 'lepTa npencrannaer HeMaJlbrn: nnrepec C TO'IKH 3pemUI B03Mo:lKHOro xoaraxraoro BJaHMOJJ:eUCTBllil co CnaH.IIHCKJ.JMH .113bIKaMH.

Xapasrepao, 'ITO B anoxa nocne 06ll1eHpaHcKofi: H otnueaocrovaonpaHcKoH B xone HCTOPHH OTj:{eJILHhlX HpaHCKHX Sl3hlKOB, aanpasrep, oceTJUlCKOro, .5:Irn06cKoro. HWK2WHMcxoro, B CMY p23HblX n03D.HH)[ npW::HW Ha6mo)l;aeTCJI KaK Obi BTOPH'IHblii «OO3BpaT)~ 'taCTH 3BQHICHX WeJIeBblX qx,HeM B onuopsnaue 11M 3BOHKHe CMLl'lHhle: B OCeTHHCKOM 3TO peaynsrar ycnnenas aHJlaYJ1WH HHTeHCHBHOCTH B ap'THKymiQJH-r 3BOHKHX, B OCTaJlbHblX sauxax - CBOH, "HbIe rrpH'IHHbl (nO.IJ.p06Hee CM. [CrB51-<I>, 213)). OJJ;HaKQ "'y npa 3TOM HHKOr;na He nepexonnr B CMbNHyw "s. nOCKOJIbKY OHa pee rrpHHa.u.rte)l(llT K YBYJlIlPHOMY PMY " He OTO)l(J1,eCTBJllIel'Cj( C 33,AHepMHoil g. (To )ICe OTHOCllTC$1 K B3aHMOOTHOlUeHIUlM mYXHx x H k, eM. HHlKe.) )J,ruKe OCeTHHCKHii )l3bIK, "PH ero T)lrOTeHHH K CMbI'IHOH aPTHKyIDIUHH aanayrnux 3lI0HKHX cornacaux, COXpaID3:eT meneeyio YBYlliIPH)'IO Y B aaropcxoa nnanexre (KaK oOJJee apXaH'lHOM C TO'lJ(H 3peHIDI UCTOpn<recKoH ¢OHeTHKH); H HpOHCKOM ~e .IJ.HWIeKTe, me TeH,JJ;eHUHIl K CMhlqHOCTH Bee .IKe B0306JIa.IJ.aJ1a, pe3YJIbTaTOM raxon HHTeHcutPHKaUHu apraKyJI'HLum *y gBI1JIC'H ee nepexon He B 3a)1,He1l3bI'III)'iO *g, a B )'ByJl~PH}'lO .IKe rnyxyro CMl,IqIl)'lO q - KaK ellHHCTBeml}'fO CMbI'IHyro q,OHeM), sroro apTHKYJUlUl10HHOro p'H.IJ.a, cp. ocer. qus /yos 'yxo' < upanpan. *gausa-.

B I1HTepBOKanbHOH )ICe n03Hu,I1H nepexon * g > y npOJ.lCXOll:HJT npaxTHtIeCK}f BO scex DpaHCICDX H)blKaX - Jana,.!{HblX If BOCrol1HhlX.

TaKHM 06pa30M, 3aKOHOMepHOCTb nOllBJIeHHIl 3BOHKO" utenesoii y (D3 oonee paHH"X o6111.eapJ.lHCKHX *g- " "'glt-) B CKmpCKOM H ocerancrOM, xax Ii coxpaaenae em UMeHHO m:eJIeBOH aptHKyJIIlUHH sonpexn n03,JlHHM TeH,lleHIlHIlM, 11)1$1 Hac ocotieuuo Ba)(CUbl KaK CBHll,e1'eJIbCTBa TOro, <fTO ::!TH pe¢JleKCbl npaHpaHCKOH *g p3.3BHBaJIHCb H 061ll,eM pycne BHyrpeHHHX HCTOPHKo-q:.OHeTH'JeCKIfX 3aKOHOB OO)1hWOH reueraseccon rpynnsr "paHCKHX 1I3hIKOB, OXBaTHBWdi OrpoMHblll apean EBpa3UH.

§ 44. Ilepexon B OTHOCHTeJIbHO )'3KOM apeane CJTa8~HCK"X lIlb.KOB - B lO)KHOBeJnlKopyccKHX rosopax, B YKpaHHCKQM, 6eJlOpyccKOM, '-IerucKoM, CJIOBaUKOM, BepxHeJI)')KHuKoM (noannee raxxe 8 CJIOBeHCKOM 'H3blKe H 'truc2BCKOM rosope cepocxoxopaarcxoro 513b1Ka) - npacnaesncxoa *8 > Y > h CJIaBHCTbI paccaarpasaror KaK. pesynsrar CnOHTaHHoro BHyrpHCJTaBIIHcKoro pa3BHTIDI.

50

C.E.BepHW'reHH nonpodao 3HarIHJHpyeT STOT nponecc, TpaKTY5I ero xax cnOHTaHH)'ID cnapaarasarrmo npaCJI3Bl1HCKOH *g, )IMeBW)'ID nepBOHa'laJIbHO He ¢loHOJIOrn'leCKue. a cpUJHOnOrn'leCKHe npIif'lHHbI [BepawTeHH 1961, 297J H npOHCXOllUBlllYfO B CJl3Bl1HCKliX g3bIKaX Ii )1,H3- nexrax npennonoxnrensao B XII-XIV SB. H.3. B onpenenenuoa apeane (cu. [6epHWTeHH 1961, 292-297), C xaproa nsomocc sroro nepexona, c. 295). AHaJIOrn"IHO rpaxryior STOT nepexoa H npyrne aaropu (CM., uanpaxep, (Cynpyu 1989. 16; 60WKOBH'I 1984, ]00-102)).

HMelOTCg pll3JIH'IHbJe o6wlcHeHIDl npH'IHH H BpeMeHM CnHPaHTHJaIlHH "« H nepexona ee B h B STHX $l3bIKax. TaK. npennonaraercs, B -qaCTHOCTH (ca. [Bensea 1993J), CBlIJb HeKOTOphIX HJMeHeHHH CJIaBJiHCKHX 3MHeHe6HblX c npoueccox naaeans pe.LIYll.UP0BaHHbIX rnacasrx - B BHlle CneJzylOlll,eH .nH3X POHH'IecKOH uenosxe: «I) nanenne pe,nyuupOBaHHhlX, X-XII BB.; 2) reHeJHC H KOHKypeHLUUI nepsaxaux crpeccoaux KOJle6auuH, XI-XII BB.; 3) o606111emre H)UI saryxaaae cnanra gly - y. XII-XIII BB.; 4) saryxaane HJlH paJBHTHe cnanra xiI} - ¥I?J, XUI-XIV BB.; 5) saxpenneHHe HJIH saryxanae C!.llIf<1eHHll 3a,nHeHe6Hhlx. XTI-XIV 8B.; 6) BTOPHlfHWI Jl:HsepreHUIDI x, XIV-XVI BB.; 7) cyxeaae COCTaBa finoxa, XVII-XX BB.» [Ee.IDIeB 1993, 75J,

He3aBHCHMo OT npMHSl.TIDI WIll HenpHIDl'fIDI HaMil :flOM 33Bll)J,HO CHHXpo"HJHpOBaHHOH ,ll.IVI see" CJIaWlHCKOH ceMhH xapranu (Manosep0.llTHoH yxe B CWlY TaICHX paaasrx pe3YJlbTaTOB npu e.nHHOM DOTOKe q,oHeTHqeCKHX H <Jx!HOJIOIlf1:lecIOtX TpaHCCPOPMaQHH H CJIHlllKOM noaasea narupoexe) y.nHBHTeJJbHa Calla necrpora pe3YJIhTaTQ8 no $l3L1KaM npoueccoa rpanc¢opMaUHH B p31P".Ue cornacmax, casaanmrx C npoueccon nanenna pe.nyunpOBaHHbIX.

§ 45. Buecre C TeM, KaK naurer B.H.A6aeB, LLIHpOKaII RCTOPHqecKWI.

JlOKaJlH3aUH~ cKHr:pcnrx H poncrneanax HM BOCTO'lHOHpaHcKHx naanexTaB ua BOCTO'lHO-EBponeikKOH paBIIHHe H UK KOHTaKTbI 8 ::'ITOM apeane co cnaBlIHcKHM MHPOM, HOCHBLLIHe B onpeaenennsre OTpeJKIf BpeMeHH Jl:OBOJlbHO TeCHb'U xapaxrep, HaBO,IVlT na npennonoxeuae 0 np.llMOM HJlU KOCBeHHOM MUaH"H aa WeJ1eB)'IO apTHKyJIlIUHIO perpnexcos '" g B IIHll:e r > h B aexoropux cnassacxux Jl3bIKaX apeana HMeHHO ,I:laHHhJX KOHTaKTOB (eM. [A6aeB 1965. 41-52, 1995. 332-342], C BOCnpOHJBelleHHeM xaprsr pacnpocrpanenas r B CJIaBJlHCKHX lI3blKax C.E.EepHLLlTeHHa [A6aeB 1965, 45. 1995, 336J). B nOJlb3Y rnnoreasr KOHTaKTHoro rrpoucXO.:KJ],eHH$I nepexona '" g > r > h B ,naHHblX cnaWlHCKHX $l3hIKaX rOBopUT TO, 'ITO CmtpaHTH3aU;ID1 *g B OTHOeHTeJlbHO 3aMKHyroM apeane CJlaBl'IHCKHX 51 JhlKO e, coartanaioureu B nenoa C pacnpocrpaaesnea MWlHml HpaHCKHX (CKH¢o-capMaTCKHX) .!l..HaJIeKTOB, ,I:leHCTBlITeJlhHO Moma npo- 1130lITH rron B03,neUCTBHeM HJIM npa nonaepxxe co CTOPOHld npoH3HOCHrensmax HaBblKOB HOCMTeneu 3THX ,n1tan.eKToB.

4*

51

B npammne raxoe BJUUlHHe BnOJIRe BePO.llTHO. nOCKOJIbKY TeH,LleHll,HH K c6nH::KeflHIO apntKyJl.UOpHhlX 3JIeMeH'l'OB c aHaJIOTHlfHhlMH B «npeCTH)KHOM» .113hlKe peraoaa - He peJ1KOCTb B paanux H31>IKax " naanexrax. H Tefl,[leHl.{H'1I K peanH311I.lHH B apeansso orpanaxeunoa '1acnl. .nHaJleKTOB na q,OHeTH'IeCKOM yposae llIeJIeBOM apTHKyJI.IIl.lHH 3BOHKOro g 1I unne {yl H.illi [h] BnOJ1He BOJMO)K1I3. Bjaecre C TeM paJJIH'IHble HCC.IIeJ10BaHHlI HCTOPH" 33.r:me1I3hILfHblX COfJIaCHblx B C]laBIlHCKHX HJhIK3X nOKa3hIB31OT, 'ITO npe)J.IIQ]lO)({eHHe 0 nepexoae B ifacT" IBhlKOB *g > r B pesynsrare npHMOro B0311eHCTBHX CKHCPCKOH CTHXJ.Ut 6blJlO 6hl ynpOll.leHHeM. Ilpouecc nepeYCTpOHCTBa Bcen nO)lCHCTeMbI laLIHe1l.3bi'iHl>i.X cornacnax HMen B ::1THX SI)hJKax 3Ha'llITe.TlbHO fionee CJlO~HbI" XQ)l (II B coocreeano rpoueraseCKOM, :Ii B apeansaox acnexre) II, rrO-SllJl.l1MOMy. 6oJIl>wyro rrpOTlI)KeHHOCTh BO spesrea«, '{eM 3TO xasanocs etne aecxomxo tJ:eClITHJIeTHM: Ha3a,II.

Ilpa aTOM ofiparnoe 803JlenCTBHe B BH,lIe SJUHIHIUI C.IIaIDIHCJCoH cpenu aa npancxyio s npouecce nepexoaa *g > r s nannux BOCTO'JIIOHpaHCKIIX Sl3hlKax OhUIO OM HeB03MD)I{HO B CMY Taro, 'ITO 3TOT rrpouecc B HpaHCKHX HlblKllX 6but CIICTeMHhlM (nOCKOJIbKY OXSaTblBaJI ace PMbl COrnacuux), pacnpOCTpaHMJIClI na BCJO CeMbIO (a aa-rane CJIOBa - aa OClO BOCTO'lHOHpaHCKYJO rpynny) eo BCeM apeane J1a.JIeKO sa npenenaxa I(OHT3KTHbiX co CJIaIDlIICK.HMH lIlbIKaMH peraouoa (BKJIlO'l<UI .ll:l.Ja.lleKTbI - npeaxa naurro H :upyrnx M3b1KOH, KOHTaKTbl KOTOphlX co CJIallMHCKHMH He nonpaayaeaatorcs) H onepexan COOTSeTCTB)'IOw;HH CJIaBMHcKI.fii: cnsar Ita rucsxeneras.

§ 46. HeCKOJILKO enos 0 CS1I3BX cornacnux 3a,nHeB3b('1Horo H YBYJUlpHorn PSl,IIOB c ]Ia6HaJIH3aUHeM: U C naOUaJIhlIhlM !»mOM [Bsrcorcxaii 1978].

CIDIJb sanuesasmroro H )'BYJlSlpHOrO pMOS C Jla6HllJlbHblM H onpeneJleHH<UI !IHaxpOHl1<feCK<UI rrpeeacrsenaocrs Me;t{.LJ,y HHMH Ha6mOllalOTC.II B HCTOP"H H "paHCKHx, H cnaWlHCKHX 1I3b(KOB. Tlpa 3TOM caMH npoueccsr anorna ,QHaMe1paJIbHO TIpOTHBOnOJlO:KHbl. Ilns OT)(eJIbHhiX npaacxax MlblKOB (aanpuuep, nepcancxoro, ranxasccoro, napa, 6eJIY)l)KCKoro) xapasrepuu c}!)"Ian nepexona 3BOHK0i1 ry6Hoii cornacaon *w (npoaonxaiomea npaHpaHCKHH COHaHT *rJ) B 3B<1fome )jCe yaynlIp""'e 1-1 3<WHCil3bIlfHhIe cornacaue sepea sranu *y' > *g. > g. Pexe oraexaercs nansaeauraa naJIaTWl"33IU1Sl H nepexon g (m *w) B j. Hanpauep, npaapan. *y.rka'BOJlK' :> K.T1. nepc. gl4rg, coap. nepc, gorg, HUDK. gurg; npaapau. *yI(m)Sari 'nsanuars" > oe,.'I. gist, OpM. [istu (xepea sranu *y'iM :> *yist > *gist). ,ll..ru!: nexcropsrx .Il.pyrnx 1I3h1KOB Xap3KTepeU o6paTHhlii npouecc - nepexon rnyxoa Jla6HaJIH]0B3HHOH "'xv s Jla6ua.rJbHble cornacnste. Ilepexoa *xv S rnyxyto f npOCJIeJKeH B MHJlUti:CKOM lI]b[Ke, a raxxe B .113bTKax, I1p~QIlJKaIOIl{I1X MH,llMHCKHH (rum pO.ll.CTBeHHhle eMY I-tpyrne ~peHHHe ,D.Ma· nexrsr), B '1aCTHOCTH, B Cl1BeHJlH, xypa. AHaJIOIll'lHOe lIBJIeHHe OTMe\leHO

52

B OTlI.enl>HMX CJ10BaX OCeTHHCKoro S:l3I:.1Ka. Ilepexon * XV B 3SOHKYlO w x_apaKTepell ,[IJUI 6enYll)KCKoro H3.hIKa.

Ooparnue npoueccu, r.e. na6HaJlH3aUHJI 3BOHKHX H lle.rJa6J1a1IU3aUIUl rnyxnx cornacuux, 'Ipe3Bld<JaHHO penxa (CM., uanpaxep, 1I3f. tax': '06:lKH~ rarscs' - pesynsrar qaCTH'mOll ,IJ,eJla6l!.WlHJaUHI-I *tap~ sepes '3'l'an *taf·).

HHblMH CJlOBaMH, B HpaHCKJlX lI3bIKax 'oIaCTGTHOCTb JIa6naJI.H3au.HH H '1aCTM''lHOH (lUI« nOIllIOR) lleJIa6HarJHJOIUH" B 3BOHKOH " myxoH cepnxx rrporasononoxaa TOU, KOTOPilli Ha6mo.n:aeTeli B pyccxnx lIHaJIeKTaX JtIlll COfJIaCHblX sannero psna (cu., aanpaaep, pyc. naan. [oxPW>I] 'OBUM'). O,lJ;HaKO caaa B3aHMOCBM3aHHOCTb .'1a6HaJlhHoro H BeJ1j1pHOro (M yaynsprroro) q,OKYCOB - 1'3 xe, 310 pasasre cnocofisr BblplUCeHW:I 06rnei:f 6eMOJIbHOCTH na6MaJII>HhlM H BellilpHIJM (HlHJIH YSY.illlpHhlM) cpOKyCaMH, npu KOTOPOR na6HanhH.hl" '3JleMeHT MoxeT CTaHOBl'ITbCM TO OCHOBHhlM, TO corryrcrayiouuoa KOMnOHeHTOM apTHKyJI9l1HH (wm:, HHa'ie. JIHHeWHblM H BHe.nH.HeHHhlM).

Cp. B CBSI)H C 3TIfM, C O.llHOH cropoma, 003,[[HIOIO - rrocne auneneHUl! In ceaepaonanapcroa rpynnhl - JIa6HaJIH3aUHlO 3a.ll,He~3hf'lHbIX H YSYJISlPHblX cornacaux B lI3ryAAMCKOM, oxearusuryio CMbl'lHbIe H uienenste s cocencrse co peq,JIeKCaMH J1a6HWlhUoro COHaRTa 11 ,'1a6HaJIU30BaHHbIMH rnacasnra, B peaynsrare <rem 3,I1;ecI> otipaaosanacs ocotias rpoaonoraseCKWI cepns Jla6HaJIH30SaHHLlX COfJIaeHMX (k', s'. .r', y". i". q"), a C Jl.pyroti:

CTOPOHbI, THK H33MBaeMYID JIa6HO-SeJl9:pH3atJ.HIO COfJIaCHbJX k, g, X B npaCJ1aID1HCKOM SllbTKe B II03HUW:lX nepen ii, ii. 6, 9 « on, um), npa '!HeTOR »eJISipmallHH B nO:l,1.{lli-lH nepea fl, C nocreneaaoa yrpa1'OM. ~TOK JIa- 6HO-lIe.rUlpH3H11HH CJlaBJlHCKHMH 1I3b1KaMH (UpH coxpanenaa ee s JTY:lKHU;KOM H nOJlhCKOM jl3b1XU H nOHhIHe). Ilonpofinee 06 aTOM HBJlem.m cu. [EOlllKOBH'I 1984, 92-93; Kamrsms 1994 J.

OJ{HaKO raxas B38HMOCBjl3b nayx q,oxycos - 32,!lHeSl3bl'iHoro (UJIH YSyJISlpHOro) J.I rytiuoro - U npoueccu MeRbl W - y" > g H T.n. Ha6J11Onaxrrcs He TOJThKO B HH,UOespOneHCKHX H3bJK3X, HO H BO MHOrHX npyrux, B1UI1O'iilll jl3hlKH aMepHKaHCKHX HH,UeHUee, H B aTOM IlJIaHe npancxae 5LJhlKH, KaK H Cm\B5lHCKRe, "llyr s 06meM pycne pa3BHTHli q,OHenl<reCICHX ¢peKBeHTaJIHii

§ 47. TaKHM 06pruOM, B'f0pULJHhle rrpoueccsr, npeoopasoauaaamae 3!Ul.He93bl1.J.HbH! cornacnue, npOTeKHJIH B apaacxnx H CJIaIDlHCKHX 113b1KOIX napannensno H Ue3aSl1Cl1MO. B ~oti: 06naCTl1 !>:mom THrrO)1011l'leeKH otiutero, HO HeT rrpl!MWt CBH,IJ;eTeJIhCTB I"eHeTH'IeCKH 06UJ,HX "POllecCOB. E.uHHCTBeHHblH MOMeHT, 3aCTaBmilOUlHH 3a.llYMaTbC:il 0 B01MOIKHOCUX e6.miIKeHJUI, - nepexoa *g > y B npancxax 91hlKax If *g > *y > h B ne- 60JILWOM apeane CJlall:BHCKHX, KOTOPJ>lH MO:.KeT 6bITh eOOTHeceH c apeanou KOHTaKTHpOBaHJfjI 3THX M3bIKOB.

CHHTAI'MATHKA

§ 48. Ilapannena M~y HpaReKHMH H p2.J.1IWIHb]MH annoeaponeaCKHMH 513bIKaMH ERpOnhJ, RKJU04aJ1 CJIaBSlRCK.He, OTMeqalOTCJI raxxe npa o6pameHHH K OTPeJKaM pexa, 66nLIIHlM, qeM q,oHeMa IDIH 3B)IKOTHn, B qaCTHOCTH K ::meMelITaM cpoHe],olHoH CHHTafMaTHKH. 3aMe'leHO UpH 3TOM, "ITO B HCTOpHH HpaHCKHX II3E.IKOB, KaK H npyrux aanoeaponencsax, JlRlleHWI ¢oHeMHon CHHTarMaTHKH, " B 'IaCTHQCTH reaneanaa B $JPMHposanaa CTp)'K1)'pbl cnora H C}10Ba, MOryr npHBO.IIHTb K onpeneneunsns He TOJrbKO CPOHOJIOIlf'leCKHM, HO H MopcpoHOnOrHqeCKHM nOCJle.u:CTBIDi:M. o KOTOpblX 6Y.!leT CKaJau:O aaxe,

§ 49. ,llmI q,oHeMHOil: CHHT3rnaTHKH o6u..leHpaHcKoro COCTOJlHIDl H npeauax HPaHCKHX nHaJleKTOB (If BO MHornx 1I1bIKax - nOHbIHe) xapaKrepasr nse Tel\lleHUHH: 1) Ha'laJIO crrora H - ocoeesao - CJlOBa crpeMHTeli rtpanars ctpYKTYPY CV - npn MaKCHMaJILHO HHT¢HCHBHOH apraxynsunn nasansuoro COmaCHOI'D nepen maCHLlM; OTCIO):l3. - «npaxpuaauue» aanayrnoro rnacaoro cornacaoa rtporesoa; ynpo~HHe annayraux KOHCOHaHTHbIX rpynn nyrex acCHMH.JIJIUHH. BCTaBKH rnacnax B HR'IaJIbH)'lO KOHCOHaHTH)'lQ rpyrrny, MeTaTe3b( H np.; 2) II KOHCOHaHTHOH rpynne, oco6eHIIO Cpe./UiHHOH, nepSLrH KOMnOHeHT crpexurca K MaKCHMaIIbHOH B03.IIymHOCTH, '3B)'4HOCT8 H MHHHMaJIbHOH HHTeHCHBHQCTH II apmKyllilLum, UP" 06paTHOM COOTHoweHHH B nOCJIeAHeM xosmoueare (CM. cxexy aa e. 54; 060cHoBaHHe eM. [CfB5I-¢l, 60J)~ OTClO.Jla B pane ~3b1KOB reH.IIeAuIDI K Cn"paHTH'3auHH nepsoro xounouenra KOHCOHaHTHoit: rpynnu, K MeTaTe3e (c RblAOCOM snepen «CJIa6hlX», ocofenao COHOpHhlX. cornacasrx) H ue)lblH psn apyrax JlMe"H". B pesynsrare cnOBO H cnor CTpeMlITCli K HD.eaJIbHOH crpysrype, UP" xoropoz OHK lIa'fHHaIOTCH HffTeHCHIIHI.IM no apTHKymm,HH cornacnuu, sa HUM eneayer rnacasnl, aanee MO.lKeT cnenoBaT£, comaCHhfH WlH KOHCDH8HTHaJI rpynaa, HMelOIQruI B TaKOM CJT)"lae BHD. CC(C), me nocrrenaaii cornacuuii, KaK Hau60nee HHTeHCHBHhJU, HB'IHHaeT CJIe~}'IOWHH eaor, 3rnM TaIOKe npeaonpeaexsercs 60JIbWoe IWJIHl{ecTBO npasan, BJ1H.IIIOIJ..lHX aa nocneaysouiee pa3BlITHe asuxa.

CXe.M(l HHTeHCHBHQCTh apTHK yllSlU;HH

CC

3ByqHOCTI>, BO:mynIHOCTb

S4

HaHOO]Jee OT'lernJ.fBblMH npencraior re TeHlIeHU"H, xoropsre CB~3aHbJ C CO'leTaeMOCTLIO, npesearanaea B pa3HLIX n03HUWlX cornacmrx cpOHeM II CJ10roBh1X " aecnorossrx sapIlaHTOB COHaHTOB B ~peBH"X ll3hIKax H C nanpaanenaex nOCJIeIl)'lOllI;J-fX H3MeHemdi:.

B rrpaapancxou CQCTOjlHHH If B Hau60nee npeaaex H3 aadmxcapoB3HHbIX iljblKOB - 3BecTIIi.tcKOM - lIorryeKalOTcSI rpynnbl HecnOroBblX 3ByKomnOB, npe)lCTaB.}UlIOLI.IUX cornacaue ¢OHeMbi U HCCJIOmBhIe BapuaRTbI cpOHeM-COHaHTOB; ycnOBHO MO.lKHO Ha31!aTh UX KOHCOHaHTHhlMH rpynnaxa. 06h1lfHO OHU COCTOIIT H3 nayx-rpex KOMnOHeHTOB (penxo - lfeThlpex), IlpHQeM lI1ISI Ha'laJIbHOH n03HUHH xpyr TaKHX rpyno orpana"lIeH H no KOJ1HlleC7BY KOMIlOHeH'IOB, H no HX COCTaBy5. CXO~Hoe "0]]0- )KeHHe Ha6mOllaeTCSI B .QpCBHenepCH,UCKOM lI.3bIKe6, Gonee ynanenno» OT 06lll.eHpaucKoro npOTOTHna (CM. TaI{)Ke [OHTI1IU1 1, 37-43]). OUHaKo 3)leCb yxe He TOJIbKO cymeC'TBeHHO MeHbllle KOHCOHaHTHhIX rpynn ('ITO MO::t:eT GblTb OTHeCeHO H 3<1 cuer MeHhllJero xoprtyca TeKCTOB), HO HMeroTC'll " rpa¢HqeCKHe eBKlleTeJlbCTIl.a Teu,UeHUHH K HX ynpouseaaso: K eT,:I)KeHHIO (B HalJaJIh!10li " cpe,UHHHOM nomUHH, cp. npaapas *aSllU'nourans' "3 H.~e. "ekuo- - ap-nepc. asa-; IIpaIlpaH. ~HaJI. *sl}a-ka- OT npaHpaH. *"fyan- . sun- 'cofiaxa' H3 H.~e" *kyon- : kun- - np.srrepc, *~u-ka· > nepe. sag; rtpanparr *putra- 'cua' > i'l:p.-nepc. puca-) JIn60 K pa36HBKe HX BeTaBHhlM xparxna maCHhlM (3a¢HKCHpOBaHO TOJIbKO B Ha'Ia1IbHOH n03HUHH: npanpan. *drulja 'xpenxaa', cp. )lp.~HH.lI. dhruva- - .n:p -nepe. duruva-s. Ilansneamee pa3BHTHe 1I3b1KOB - nOTOMKOB ztpeanenepcnncxoro - nO)J,TBepJK,l{aeT He)J(e.'laTeJlbHOCTb B }[3bIKax ~nuA reirerasecxoa BeTBH aanayrnnx KOHeOHaHTHblX rpynn, nepepocmyio K anoxe xnaccaxecxoro nepcnncxoro lI3MKa B "PilMOH sartper ua CTe<IeHHe eornacaux B a anayre , KOTOPblH neacrsyer nOHhIHe B COBpeMeHHblX nepCIUl.CKOM, Ta.u;KHKeKOM H napa (CM. HHJKe)

Bo MHOmx npyrax HpaHeKHX >l3LIKaX raxoa sanper orcyrcrsyer, 0)lH8KO <fJOHonOfH'IeCKHe KOHCOHaHTllhle rpyrmsr '1aCTO peanaaytorca aa <fJoHeTH"lIeeKOM yposne C BCTaBKO" rnacnoro 3ByKa (He scema OTOJK,IlecTBJISieMoro C onpenenemrott cpOHeMoii) lIHGO e maeHOH npOTe30H, rrepesonaureu 3TH rpyrrnu B epe,UHHH}'IO rr03Hl{HIO, rne OH" nonycrnusr (CM. HIIJt::e)

B HpaHCKHX lr3b1KaX caM COCTaIl. KOHCOH8HTHWX rpynn " IIOPAAOK HX KOMnOHeHToB B pasuoe BpeM5I T8K)Ke nonneprarnrcs pa:mH'IHblM orpanaqeHHlIM: H uauansaue, H cpeaannue KOHCOHaHTHhie rpynnu xapaxrepaJOBaJlHCb TeH,IJ.eHI.{HeH K HaJIIIlJUIO B HHX He GOJIee O~HOH llJ)'MHOM CMhI<JHoii COmaeHOH.

CyweeTBeHHO, "ITO sra TeHlleHUWI oxaaanaci, npncymen IIO'ITH scea .rrpeBHHM npaHpaucKHM .n:HaneKTaM, B OTJIH<IHe or CHHXPOHHhlX "M .IlHa-

55

nexros - npe,l1.KOII HH.QOapMHCKHX H3blKOB. Bnaronapa aTONY OHa MO;t(eT paccxarpaearscs KaK ewe O'[II-IH lUIaeeI11mKaU;MOHHLlH reHeTl1"1eCKHH "pHJHaK, OTJlHlJRIOlUHll npancxze H3LIKH OT HHlloapHHCKHX H nOTIOJl~ UlIlOllUI:M, S HHorna 11 npenonpeaenaioutaa HX OCHOIIHhle <'"CTOPHKO-CPOaeravecxae» T.e. HeTopHKO-CPOHOJlOfHlJecKHe, Pa3.llMlJHH, OTHOCJlIllHeeH K c(j>epe cpOHeMHOH napanarxarusa (MX nepesens H MUTepHaJILi eM. fOPaHCKHH 1979, 52-571).

§ 50. B nocneayiouiew pa3BHHm npaKTIP·Ie(;KM scex HpaHcKHx 1I3bJKOB Ha6J1IOlUlIOTC}I cpaKTbl ynpomeaaa npefiHHx KOHCOHaHTHblX rpynn rnll1 I1X rpaactpopaauaa, OHn paJJlH'IHbI no H3b1KUM, O,UHaKO npeotinaASIOI..lI;IiM uarrpaaneaaea H3MeHer(HH noxra BClOny 6hlJIO ycrpauenae «HeY)106Hb1X)) rpynn JIMDO npHBe)]eHHe HX x yxa3aHHOMY onTHMaJJbHOMY nilly - aa cpoHeTH'IeCKOM, a 3aTeM '1aCTO H aa rponononruecxou ypoaae (oe0OOHHo HamlLlIHbl ::ITM lf3MeHeHHlI II coapeaemnax Jl3bJKax npa anarrraunn 3aHNeTROBaHHM.). C <.ITOli CHHTarMaTHqecKOH reanenuaes CIlil3aHbI MHorne nansneiimae ~OHeTH'JeeK"e H ~OHOJIOrnqeeKHe "POueccsr H napanaraaraaeckoro, H cmrraraanorecxoro IIJIaHa, I(QTopble .IIBI1.lIHCb 6mDKaHllJHMH i-I 60nee YLlaJleHHblMH H onocpeaoaamnrxa cnenCTBHilMH ).(aHHOH «orrr HMH3 au J.:I H)) CTPYKTYPbJ KOHCOHaHTHOH rpynnu. PaCCMOTpHM H.i1HGonee MRRble H3 TaKHX CJIel(CTRHH.

§ 51, YJKe II. npesneupancxax .113b1KaX HaJlHUO pesyns I ar npouecca cnHpaHTH3aUHH CMbI'IHOro cornacaoro, oco6eHIIO rnyxoro, II. (l03HU"" nepen comaCHLIM (BKJllO'JaJI H HeCJ10fOBOU sapaanr COHaHTa). 3TOT npouecc, HaqaSllIHUe.ll, O'leBH)J,HO, aa cPOHeTH'1eCKOM ypOIIHe eute B rrpa"paHCKMX ,1U1aJ1eXTaX o5memUIOHpaJlCKoro "3l>JKOBOro IWHTHHYYMa. noponan 3aTeM YCTOHtfHBbIH cPOHonont'JeCKHH nepexon rnyxnx C~LlqHbIX B meneasre B 3TOH n03HUHH (*p > "f, *1 > *~, *k > *x). O)J;HaKO npoH301llen 3TOT nepexon He BO scex npeBHHX naanex'rax, a II. TeX, me yxe 6bma nonrorosneaaas JpYHK)'R.IIUHOHHIDI 6a33, C03lIaHHalI C"HpaHTHbIM orpaxesnex B pa3JlH'IHI:.lX n03HUHHX HH,!lOHpalleKHX rnyxnx CMhI'IHbfX npanuxarern.asrx (*p(h) > */. *t(h) > *~, *k(h) > *x, ex, asrure).

B TP3,lJ;HIUiOHlIOH HpaHHeTHKe C'JHTaJIOCb. 'ITO crmpaHTH3aUIDI rnyxnx CMf>r'lHbLX rrepen eOmaC.ffMMK ilBJIileTC.II ra,wH- iKe o6w:enpaHCKOH 06.113aTenbHOH seproa, KaK H CflHpaHTH3aIlUH rnyxnx CMMlIHltlX npaauxarernHMX B paanaxssrx nOJMUHilX, r.e, OnllMM H3 KJlaeCH~MKaUHOHHbIX reneTM'IeeKHX HHHosaUHOHHblX o6w,eHpaHeKI1X npmaaxoa, OTtJ;emllO!UHX 3TH .9.3bIKH OT HH.llOapHHCKI1X (eM. [B artholomae 1895, 6 II cn.]; nozpotiuee [OpaHcKHll 1979, 53-55]). Onnaxo BK.TIIO'leHHe B peKOHeTp)'KUHIO Marepaana ncex HpaHCKMX ~3bIKOB, a lie rorrsxo ApeRHHX, noxasano, 'lTO aro He COBeeN TUK: 06a tJ;aHHbIX npnsaaxa OXBRTbrRaJIH 60.1JblllHHeTBO, HQ He Bee apesnne npaapancxae )J;HarIeKTlrJ. B '1aeTH npesnax BOCTOqUOHpaH-

56

CKHX ,!IHaJIeKTOB, me He npoHCXO,lUUl (HlIH He BCeCJJ.a npoacxonan) nepexon rnyxax npHllLlxaTeJlbllbIX B meneaere (a TaK::Ke B pane CJIytW.eB B aseCTllUCKOM ssuxe), He npoaaoumo H Cm[paHTH3auHH npeKOHCOHaHTHOro rnyxoro CMblliHOro, BO BCgKOM CJ1yqae aa $JHOJIOIWUX:KOM yposue. 3nech HMeIOTCIl npHMephl coxpaneaas CMbI'IHOro xapaxrepa nepaoro KOM:nOHeHTa TaKHX rpyrm, a TiUUKe CJJy<laH npeoopaaonaaaa :;ITHX rpynn, He nonpaayaeeaioutae npoaexyrosuoro srana B sane cnHpaHTH3aUHH nepaoro KOMnOHeHTa. eM. pa311HTMe rpynnu *lr: B oonhWHHCTse 1BblKOB - Qepe3 aran *(/r (aanpnxep, "putra- 'caa', "trai- '11'H': all. pu(Jra-, {trio, np-nepc. pw;:a-, rio. cp.-nepc. pus, se, nepc. pesiir, se. nap4J. Man. pwhr, hry U T • .II.), HO II HeKOTopbIX BOCTollHoHpaHC'::HX - C coxpaaeanea *t 1Iu60 CMbNHOro anexeara B apTHKyJl!ilUHH pedinexcoe rpyrmsi (aanpauep, sax. patr, ruym. puc, lI3T. poe 'CbIH'; aax. truy, nurr. dre, xc, drai 'TPH' - C 03BOHQeHUeM "'r > d no ananonm c *dulja 'JJ:Ba'; sar. cuy 'TPU' H T.,!J;.). Xap3KTepHO, qTO JJ:IDKe onH3KOpO,ll;CTIleHHwe .lI3bIKU BbIgBmHOT HCTOpH'IeCKUe pa3JUf'lHg UJIH xonefiaazs B apTHKyIDIUHH rana *trlD'r (nonpconee [OBJlr, 84-85; CrB}I-¢t. 26, 172-175 H cn.: Edelman 1980, 299; OpanCKJiH 1979. 60]). 0 XpOHOJlOfHqeCKOH COOTHeceHHOCTH TaKHX Kone6auHH CM. raxxe [CT.-K. 3CB5I, 31].

Ilpa :nOM na cpOHeTHqeCKOM yposne reanemras K cnaparrrzaanaa npeKOHCOHaHTHhIX CMhI'IHbJX rnyxux BOOJIHe MOfJIa cymecraosars, ne nepexoas aa ¢OHOJlOI1f'leCKH" ypoBeHh. Bo BC.lIKOM cJ1}1'1ae, TaKIDI cpO HeTH'IeCKIDI TeltJIeHn:IDI OTMeqaerCa B fionee n03D}fHe anOXH. npH'leM Ii B rex SllMKax, me HX HCTOPR'IecKrul $JHOnQruqecKaSI CnnpaNtH3a1lW! He rtpolfCXO,UliI1a. 06 :;ITOM CSu.n:eTeJ1bCTByeT $lHeTJI'leCKa.lI anarrrauas OTUOC"TeJlbHO n03.IIHHX 3auMCTBOBauHH (CM., aanpmrep, apati, vaqt 'BpeMJI', raqs 'raaen', npoH3HocHMbie B 60nbwHHcue "PaHCKHX :t3blKO& cpeaaeaaaarcxoro peraoua B BlUle [v/waxr, rQXs J, rtpu OC03HaHHH tPoHOJIOrnlleCKOro /ql).

CnUpaHTH3al.{IUI lKe 3BOHKHX CMbJ<lHblX, OKaJaBUlHXCg B npeKOHCOHaHTHOH n03HUllH, oraesaercs 3HallHTellhHO pexe H 06bl'lJ:lO na ¢OHenrqeCKOM, a He sa q,oHOJIOnNecKOM yposne (cp, as. yzar- 'rern., CTp)'HTJ.CjI' - rrpa OTCyrCTBHH anecs q,OHeMbI Y - H3 wee paaaero *giar- _, .up.-lnJ,rl. ksar-, np.vnepc. *xsar- > T8,lI)K. soridan). 3BOHKJ.fe CMblQHhle B pxne rpynn (nanpaaep, nepen HeClIOrOBbIM I13PUaHTOM coaaara), OCO- 6eHHO B annayre (6.rraro.uapil .npyroH TeH.lleHlUfll - K aanaynroa HUTeHCHBHOCTH, CM. HH)Ke), sootiure He 6wm CKJIOHHbI K cnUpaHTH3aU:HH (cp. aa. briitar- ~ .Ilp.-HH,IJ;. bhriitar- - np.vnepc, "briuar- > raax. barodar; all. dvan- <J1eTeTb' J.f np.). B01MO)J(HO, ~TO 6bIJIO CB.ll3aHO "MeHlm C ax lBOHKOCTbIO, r.e, 6om.weH 3B)"IHOCTLIO H MeHhllIeH HHTeHClfBHOCTbIO,

51

'{eM Y COOTlleTCTByKlmHX mYXHX. B CpeJl:HHHOH iKe nosauaa cnapaara- 3aUH.II npeKOHCOHaHTUbIX lROHKHX ua q,oHeTH':IecKoM yposae 06h1'lHa (ocofieano jjBHO na rr03)J;HHX wan ax, BKJIIOl(a51 coapesreaaue, cp raax, narep. abr ..... nUM. awr 'oGllaKo').

Cneayer OrQ BOp Hn.C5I" , «ro crraparrrrnarras arorayrrrsrx JBOHKRX CM!,I'fH!,IX H3 CPOHOJlOIllI.JeCKOM ypoaae Morna 6bITh OTCJleIKeH3 nnun, B sarranHOHpaHCKHX I!JbIKaX, nOCKOIIbKY B BOcro'lHOHpaHCKHX, xax yxe rosopa]JOCb, B pamnoto npaapancxyio anoxy 3BOHKHe aanayrasre cornacnsie - npesosansnste H npeXOHCOHaHTHble - OTP33HJIUCb KaK perpnexcsr UIt,lJ,OHpaHCKHX JBOHKHK npD,lJ;blXaTeJIhHblX B BH)J;e JBOHKHX crmpairros (nonpotinee lCrB~-1>, 57-59, 213-2151). OllH3KO H3-Ja OTCyrcTB8Sf B .apeBHIOIO snoxy tpononoraseccon OnnOJ8UHH CMbl'lHh!X .... uteneaux Y 3BOHkHX Mbl MOIKeM Bbll!BHTb JIUUIb xoceeunue rpoHeTH':leCKHe npH3HaKH 3TOll TeH,lJ.eHU"H.

TeM C3MblM cnapaaraaauas rJIyxHX CMbI'lHblX B npeKoHCOHaHTHOH n03HUHH, 6YJl)"lH O,QHHM HJ cnocoooa npH6JTJ.DKeHIDI K apraxynauaonuo OnTHMaJ1hHOM)' rany KOHcoHaHTHoll rpyrrnbl, HaMeTHBWHCh etue B npaHpaHcKHx ,ll,HaJIeKTaX HHAOHpaHCKoll o6lU,HOCTH aa ¢OHeTl1'leCKOM yposae, npO.1:1B8JTaCb na ¢oHOJIOrn':lecKoM yposne rromnee, " He BO scex npaucxax HJblKax. a TOJlLKO B rex, rae nna 3TOro 6hlJla cpOH0J10rH':lecK3Sf G33a. CrrHpaHTH3aU:HSI 3BOHKHX, 60JIee orpauaseuuas n01HU:HOHHO H lIHaJIeKTHO, HMeJIa H .MeHee "BHbIe ncropasecxne IIOCJIe,a:cTBloVl

TaKllM 06pa30M, O,llHOH H3 xnaccurpasauaoansrx reHeTHtfeCXHX sepr, OTJIH'-IalOllIHX HpaHCKHe >l3b1KH OT "H~OapHi.fcKHX (,[lJLII KOTOPMX !ITa Tefi)J;eHUHH He 6l>ma xapaxrepsa), HBJI:JleTCH HMeHHO HaJIHqHe HpKO Bhlpa· JKeH,HoH rpOHeTH'iCCKOH renaeauaa K cnHpaHTH3aUHH rnyxax H rrpexoaCOHaRTHOM n03HUHH, a He cppoHTaJIbHblll nepexon anec» CMbI'IHbIX myXHX B urenesue, KOTOPblH HOCHJI Obi xapaxrep oriureupaacxoro «HCTOPHxo-rpoueruxecxorc», T.e. HCTOPHlW-¢OHOJIOrH'leCKOm, saxona.

§ 52 B pa3J1H'i1:{blX HP3HCKHX .lI3blKaX aa pasnsix ararrax, Ha'lHH<UI C npeanero, Ha6moJlarorcll cnynaa MeraTeJhi KOMTIOHeHTOB KOIiCOHaHTHblX rpynrr, TaK:lKe nanpaaneaaotl aa npH6JIHiKeHHe rpynnu K OnTHMaJl!,HOMY rany: 60JIee JB)"IHblH, BO:mYWHbrli H MeHee HHTeHCI1BHWH (06w'1H0 - COHOPHblll, ureneaoa) KOMITOHell1 CT3BIITCll nepea xenee 3By<lHbIM, B03- .nyLtIHWM H GOJIee HHTeHCHBHblM (OOhl'lHO - IlJ)'MHbIM, CMbI':lHblM). TaKHe npHMepw HMelOTCSI )"Ke B aseCTHHCKOM H3blKe (cp aa. igar- 'Te'lh, CTp)'HTbClI' sapany C riar-, "3 60JIee pamrero *giar-, CM. BblllJe, § 51), OnHaKO ocoeenuo ~fHOro HX. B 60nee IT0311HJ1:X 1I3h1KaX H naxe B naanexT'dX· cp npaapaa, '"yapra- 'caer' (83 H -e *!,Up. 'cunars', cp, !lp.-RHII. vapra- 'H3CbIDb') > aa, vafra-, cp -nepc. vafr, HO K1I. nepc., coap. rrepc , Ta,lJ::)K. half; npaapaa, *cakra- 'KOJ1ecO' (83 H.-e. *k""ekw/os, Cpo rpex,

58

XV"~' .n.p -HHJJ.. calera-) > as, caxra-, HO K.l1. nepc., COBp. nepc., T3Jl.:lK. Zarx; nepc. mrrep. mtforusam 'nponaso " a B ronope Wc4laxaHa (uepes aran *mifru1am) ffllffusilm H r n, To JKe npa aaanrauaa 3aHMCTBOB3HHH, aanpaxep, apati, ttf! 'petienox' - CHBeH.n.H (J1paH), pOWOPBCKHH (3ana.nHhI" TIaMHp) ulf, napa relf; apati, fikr 'MhIClIh' - Ce):IeH (Hpan) {irk; apa6. tajru/tba - pasr. aapa tarjoba 'np8KTHK3', pyc, noonoc - napa pantus.

3m )f(e Ha6.ruo.uae1"Cjl na cruse HCTOpHlIeCKHX MOpcpeM, xoma yrpanzaaeres HX npo.D.)'KTHBHOCTL H COCe;:J.CTBO cornacastx nepecraer om:ymaTbCjI K8K MoprpeMHbIH WOB. Hanpaaep, npaupaH. *xvap-w- . hup-sa- - npeseuruaa HHXOannrnag ocaoaa OT lcopm *x"ap- : hup- 'cnan,' ("1 H.-e. '" suep- sup-) c cy¢. "'-50- (H3 apHHCK. "'-sea- < H.-e. HHxoaTHIlHoro cy¢. *-skelo-) - KJ1 nepc, xu~p-, XUJb-, nepc. xosb- 'cnars"; *cap-saOT KOpIDI *cap- 'CX.»aTbIB3n.' ("3 11.-e. *kep-) C 'reM :lKe Cy$:lwlKCOM - KJl. nepc , COBp. nepc {usP-. casb-, ranx iasp- 'rrpnmmars, npHCTaBaTL'.

llOCKOJIhKY " MeraTe3a KOHCOHaHTHbiX rpynn, 11 «OCJIa6JIeHHe» nepaoro cornacnoro rpyrmbJ (eM. suure) Ha'-lHH3IOTCiI B ));peBHeHllI)'IO anoxy H npO):lOJl)KaIOTC}I nOHbIHe. MOJKHO npocnemrrs 8 p33HLIX j[3hJKaX no pasHhIM nexcexaa pa3JlH'lH)'IO OTHOCHTeJlbH)'IO XpOHOJIonno ~rDX npouecCOB Hanpaxep, B KJI. nepc., T<\lIJK. carx 'xoneco", barf 'cuer' MeTaTe3a npOH30WJIa nccne cnHpaHTH3al.{HH llIYMHLlX nepen *r: *k > x, *p > f, a B aa, igar- 'Te'lb' (D3 *giar·, CM. ssmre) unn B OCeT, Iyrk', nepc, risk, sar. raXk, myra. rai{ 'f1iHJIa' H3 Gonee panaero *riksa- < "'likSa- < nanoapaa. "'hkta- (cp • .n.p.-HHJJ:. l!k~ii-) MeTare3a 6b1J1a OTHOCHTenbHO paaneji, H CMhI'-lHhlll cornacusni, OK83aBllIHCh B ncxone KOHCOHaHTHOH rpyrmu, He ycnen nonaeprayrscs cnapaaraaauan (TO JKe B KlI. nepc, xusp- 'cnars', casp- 'npacraaan,', eM, asnue).

HHTepeCHLI B waM nnane ¢taKThI HaJIH'iHlI ~ orcyrcrnaa MeTaTe3ld B cnysasx, xorna KOHCOHaHTHrui rpynna COCTOnT 1-13 .D.BYX O));HHaKOBO CJIa- 6wx COmaeHbJX, ocofieano - m nsyx COHOpHhlX. 3));eCb OTMe'-lillOTCiI pamwmx no Sllb1lCaM, o6ycnos.neHHbIe Jmoo pall1HtlHOK I!. palHblX Sl3b1KaX crenenuo «CJla60cTI!» KOMrrOueHTOB rpynrtsr. nu60 npyrnMH q,OHeTI1'-leCKHMH npHl(HHaMH (uanpaaep, COBMeCTHMOCThKJ B rOM "]In HHOM :H3bIKe onpeaeneaaax JIOKaJlbHhlX pMOS cornacaux, Pa:mH4HblMH accouaanaaMH, ananoruea H r.n ), Cp, ae, urvaui-, npa .a:p -"HD.. vrata-; apa6. ruxsat - nap" rosxat 'ocsofioxnenae" (B napa [s] cnacee. '1eM YSYmlPlihl" [x), K TOMY )({e coveranne sC, me C - cnHpaHT, snecs OTHOCI-I'reJIbHO '1aCTO H noroay npaasrsao), HUVK, mrrep. daryo 'pexa' - Man. dayro, nUIJK JUITep. buryo 'UHHOBKa' - Man. buyro, TaLlJK. narep,

, dunyo 'MHp, BCeJJ.eHHWl:' - AHM. duyno ([y) 3,D.CCb 60Jlee CJIa6b1H. '1eM [r], en]); pOllIo sawr 1f3 mrv 'Kl-lnapHc' It: TJI.. HMeIOTC~ }I npsuo npornso-

59

nonoxaue mObl MeT3Te3bI no pa3HbIM .113blKaM Ii aaanexraa: cp, coseraHWI m H r B nepc. narep, narm. 'WU'KHH' "3 "nam-ra-, HO B cenea vemr-asnujt H3 ver-m-asnuft H T.lI. Cnyxaea ssuroca Bllepe.Ll. oonee HHTeHCHBHoro KOMnOHeHTa O'leHb HeMHoro (cp. napa motfi - mufti 'My<fJTHH'),

B HeKOTopMX Jl3MK8X MeT8Te3a scrpevaercs OCo6eHHO 'lacm, npH'!eM KOJlH'·leCTBO H COCTaB Ta:iClfX rpynn H THnhl MeTaTe3 MOryr xoneoarscs. B :nOM IIJ1aRe xapaxrepau /1,HarJeKTbI TI3IllTO - cp. B xarraarapcsoii /1,HaneKTHOH rpynne: m9ka '3eMJUl', rwa3 'lIeHL', HO k$t)[ 'rsnyn,', B neurasapcxon lIHaJleKTHOH rpynne COOTBeTCTBeHHO: yn;ka. wraJ, HO ikt)i. B ocernacxoa Jl.3b1Ke MeTaTeJa aanayrnon rpynnu, BJCJIKlQ8BllIeM r, C BhJH(}COM r anepen (r.e, Cr- > rC-) erana ,[lHaXpOHHQeCKHM 3aKOHOM H T.):l.

§ 53. B acropaa HpauCKHx Si3bJKOB 06llU1e npasana cpoHellfHoH CHHTaJ'MaTHKH H xacrnue npaaana pea.nH38UHH cornacasrx II. KOHCommTHblX rpynnax TeeHO crul3aHhi C OnTUMaII)'HoH CTPYKTypOH C1I0ra, He ronsxo 6ylI)"IH 3aBHCHMhlMH OT aee, HO H BO:meHCTB~ na aee cymecraenaua 06PaJOM. XOTJI np0611eMa C1I0ro):leJ1eHHJI B npesaax HpaHCKHx .113b1KaX paapatioraua cna60. MarepHa1I noxaauaaer, <ITO npa paCCMOTpeHHOH esrwe onTHMa.rn.HoH cTpYKTYPe KOHCOHaHTHOH rpyrmu, nanpnuep B nocne)J;OBaTenhHOCTH B CJlOBe CCVC(C)CVC(C)CV ... nepen IIHKOM cnora B lill.I1e rnacaoro 3BYKOTHna (npencraansrornero maCH)'IO ~meMY HJlH CJIOroBOH sapaaar conarrra) oxassrsancs apraxynsnaormo HaH60Jlee HHTeUCHBH),]" KOMnOHeliT rpynnu, a rrocne rnacaoro - HaH60Jlee lB}"IHbIH. B03.Il.YWHblH H HaHMeHee HHTeHcHBHbIH. 31'0 OTHOCHTC.II H K CpeLUfIUIl>IM, H K aanayrasnr rpynnau, Ha'iHHlliI (cyns no perpnexcax IlpeBHHX ClIOBQ¢OpM) C npaapaucxnx nHaIleKTOB. l1pancKHH srarepaan nOKa3b1B3er, B qaCTHOCTH, 'ITO TaK Ha3blBaeMa.II «paMO«HaH KOHCTPYKUHJl» C1I0ra, npn KOTOPOH HaH60Jlee COHopHLle cornacnsie OKR3bIBaJIHCb. 6bI B cepeaaae, 6J1H:lKe K BOKaIlH'l:eCKOMY TIHKy cnora, '1eM W)'MHble, He ~B!U.eTC.II YUHaepcansaoa, KaKOBOH OHa ClfHTaeTC.II B uexoropsrx TeopeTH«eCKHX pafioTax. ,llruI HpaHCKHX Jl:3bIKOB OHa. aaotiopor, aexenarensaa, aPTHK)'JUIUH(lHRO <<Heyt(06Ha>> B rrepsos CBOeii: lJaCTIf - no IlHKa crrora. fiMeHHo aa 3TOM orpeaxe error nonaeprancs H nonsepraerca TpaIlc$JpMaU;H.IIM C npeapanteaaex fionee paHHHX rtccxenosarensnocreii C,C2-, xax )'iKe roBOPHJlOCh, B rtccnenoaarensuocra Tlfna C,YC2- "JiH C2CI-. HlU'! - TIP" CTJI)KeHH.IIX ~ II Co.

B pesynsrare eCJUI CJIOrH rnna CV, eve OKaJhlSaJmCb OTHOCHTeJIbHO YCTOH'IHBblMH B ,IUfaxpOHHH HMeHHO B ~noj{ crpyxrype, TO C1Ior, conep~BlliHj.J TpH (H 6011ee) uecnorossrx anesrerrra, H3MeHSl1lCSI same. crpeM.IIeb K ci pyKType CVCC(C), B KOTOPO" KOHCOHaHTHa.II rpynila paaueutanacs 6bJ rrocne cnorosoro naxa " 6hJJIa 6bl apntK)IJl.llUHOHHO «yn06HOih>

60

(ewe 6MhUle npwnm .lI.ml I-I3MeHeHIDr HMeml. COOTBeTCTBeHHO CJ10rn WlH nOCJIeJJ,OBaTeJJbHOCTH Tuna CCVCC .. .).

§ 54. B suoxy nocne IIpeBHeHpaHCKJill{ UaMRTHJilKOB (a crxacra JiI B IU nepxon, 0 '1eM csanerenscreyer nanucanne B HHX. OT.!leJIbHblX enos) B pAAe H3hlKOB BMpa6aruBaeTC.lI sanper na aunayraue KOHCOHaHTH!.le rpynnsr (¢oHeTJ.f"eCKUe " ¢OHOJlOflflleCKl'le), ocofenao HBHMH II nepcancrCOM, Ta,nJKHKCKOM, napa, .IIfHo6CKOM H aexoropsrx npyrax, B 60JlbIDUHCTBe "paHCKlIX 5:l3blKOB raxoro sanpera HeT, HO npelInO'ITHTeJlbHO OZlHO~ cornacaoe Ha'lanO CJlOBa. )l..ruI em $:meTH'IecKol1 peanusauaa (n 3aTeM - rpoaonorasecxoro saxpenneaas) HCnOJIh3}'1OTC.II onpenenenasre - pa3Hhle no Jl3blKaM - cnocoou S1IIDfHHaUHH npesnax aunayraux KOHCOHaHTaux rpynrr, HHOrIla 3TH cnocoeu pa3J1IfliHhl B pasnue snOXH HCTOPHH onaoro }l roro JKe H3bIKa mr60 B pa3HhJX ero JJ:HaneKTaX. Ha6mOllaJOTCH H pasnasaa Me:t<.ny OTlleJIhHhlMH JleKeeMaMH.

Hanpanep, B n:peBHenepCH,QCKOM Jl3blKe naxeranacs rpoaeraxecxaa reH.neHU1UI K pa36HBKe annayrnon KOHCOHaHTHOH rpynnu BCTaBHblM KpaTKHM maCHb1M (CM. ssrure). B JlMbHeHllJeM ."::ITa TeHJJ:eHlUl:51 npononxanacs H pa3Il.HBanacb. W XOTII cpeIlHenepCHllCKMI rpaq,HKa - B OCHORHOM KOHCOHaHTHaH - aTUX BCTaBOK 06bI'lHO He ¢tHKCHPYeT, K rrosorrepCH,IlCKOM)' nepuony, r.e, K nepaony ~3blKa KJ1accJ{t{ecKoH nepcancxott mrreparypsr (061l.1eMY srany .wm COBpeMeHHblX nepcancxoro. Ta.IDKHKCKOro H napa), Mill 3aCTaeM Y)Ke npaKTHQeCKH Cq,0pMupOBaBlUHHCSI sanper na crexenae cornacuux B aHJJaYTe - 00 :aTOM CBH)leTeJlbCTB)'IOT KaK OrpOMHblU xopnyc CTUXOTBOPHbIX TeKCTOB, me Tpaz:mUHOHHbIH paaxep «apya» <ieTKO ¢HKCHPYeT cnoru H HX lVUfTeJlbHOCTb, TaK H ornensaue TeKCTIJ C Ha,uOHcaHHhIMH omaCOBKaMH. Jlpa npononxeaaa ll.eikTBHSI 3TOro sanpera nouuue cnocof 3JlHMHHauHH Ha<iaJIhHhlX KOHCOHaHTHblX rpynrr qaCTH"IHO H3MeHUJlC)l,

TaK., B HCKOHHO apancxnx CJ10BaX B <popMax npesnero 06pasOBaHHX QTMelJaeTCIl 06b1qH~ BCTaBKa xparxoro rnacaoro, npoacurernuas, xax npaSWIO, B OTHOCHTeJlbHO paHHfOID snoxy H He 3aBHCliWaH OT Tom, Dbma JIM 3Ta rpynna KO BpeMeRH nOJlBJIeHHH BCTaBKH «Y1l06Hoih (r.e, c nepssnr cna6hIM, a BTOpUM CHJlbHLIM KOMnOHeHTa~m) J1JIH "HeYJIo6Hoii» (c 05paTHblM COOTHOmeHHeM KOMlloHeHToB). Cp., uanpauep, B «y.I\OOHhlX» rpynnax: +stiir-aka- '3Se3,ll.ll' > nepc. setare, Ta,Il)K. sitora, *stunn- 'xononua, CTon6' > nepc, sotun, Ta,rr)l(, sutun; "sparaia- (01' KOpH.II *spur-) > nepc . . ~epar-. TamK .. ~upor- 'spyqaTL' W'i r.n.; B «"ey).l.06HbIX~} rpynnax: *brarar'6pUT' > nepc, beradar, Ta,11)K. barodar; "draugu- 'JlO:lKb' > nepc. doruy, ranx. d«ruy; R CTaRWHX «orpaHH'!.eHHo yn06HblMH» B ilpesHeHpaHeKHx 513b1KaX; +xratu- (H3 60Jlee pannero *kratu·, cp, ~p.-Htm. kratu-) 'Pa3YM' > nepc. xerlid, TaQ:«:. xirad H r.n,

61

B uacroatuee JKe SpeM)I, aanpauep, B nepCH)lCKOM .!13b1Ke npa anartTaUHH 3aHMCTBOBaHHOH J1eKCHKH B npocropesaa Ha6mo,UaeTcl3: ;!IH¢¢e~ peHUHpOBaHH:WH nOllXO;IJ; K pa3JIWIHblM aHJIayrHblM KOHCOHaHTHblM rpynuau, B «HeYllo6HhIe» rpynnu no-npexaeay BCTaBJUleTCJI KpaTKHU macHbIM, H rpYIma YHHl.ITO::KaeTC:H: doroike ')]'PO:llCKH' , b( 0 )lok '6JlOK' , k(e)liSe 'IUlHwe'. K «Yllo6HOU» rpynne 'lame HapaWHBaeTCII npOTeTH"IeCKOUi' rnacrraa - C CDxpaHeHHeM caMoH rpyrrrrsr, HO jr?Ke B KaqeCTBe HHTepBOKa.rtbHOH: estekan 'CTaKaH', espumik: 'cnyrnnx' H T.Il. O)J;HaKO H 3)J;eCh B03MO:llCHhl BapHaHThI: estlindlir 11.5etlindar ·C'raH)),aPT'.

CXO)J;Hble Jl8.I1emu BCTpe"laIOTCH. B pa3JIH'IHbIX HpaHCKHX sssrxax (cp. ocer. t"yruba H3 pyc. mpy6a, cteqal 'SOJlHa' H3 rpya. c"qali 'BO)J;a' « T.n., rrpHTOM 'ITO np.!IMOrO aanpera ua asycornacuoe Ha'laJIO B oceTHHCKOM Her).

CT.:ilKeHWe KOHCOH3HTHOH rpynnsr B CJ],"HytO COrJlacHy.IO, npOHCXOllHBwee B pa3J1H'IHbIX HpaHCKHX 1I3bIKaX B pasnue .;IOOX" H B annayrnoa, H B CpeJtHHHOH n03HUH)lX, raxxe cnOC06CTBOBaJ10 HC'Ie3HOBeHHIO annayrnux rpynn. 11 .ua::Ke B ssuxax, rne na HHX He 6bIJ10 3 anper a, B0306J1MaJlO OJ]HOCOfJIaCHOe Ha'l8JIO (n crpysrypu Ha'IarrbHoro cnora Cv~, cve·, CVCC-),

§ 55. AHJlayrnblH COfJIaCHMH, KaK H cornacasm, JaMLIK310llIHM KO"COHaHTH)'lO rpynny, H3XQ.WICb nepen rnaCHblM, CTpeMHTC.!I K MaKCHMaJlbHOI1 HHTeHCHBHOCTH B apn1KyJllHJ;HH. C :;ITHM, a TaK::Ke C xapaxreposr cpo. HeTH'IeCKOH peanmaunn ynapenua (eM. paanen «AKUeHTHble CHCTeMhI») B HpaHCKHX 1I3bIKaX cesaana COOiiCTBeHH3lI 60IILlllHHCTBY 113 HHX H.PKO asrpaxeuaaa TeHJJ.eHUHJI K aanayrnos I-IHTeHCHBHOCTH, KOTOPaII CJI)'XHT nOrpaHH'IHblM CHrHMOM H reM caMhlM cnocotiov opraHH3aIJ,HH CJlOBa H CpeJJ:CTBOM snenenas pexeaoro nOTOKa na CJlOBa.

B paaasrx "paucKHX }l3bIKaX ')TO SlBJleHHe ).IOCTHraeTC.lI Pa3JlH'IHblMH $>HOJIOrn'IeCKHMH H q,oHe'rH'IecKHMH cpe))'CTBaMH (BKmO'I3II {(H3f)bITOqH:we» - He.ll.H¢¢epeHu,HlUIhHhle ,IlJI1l: .ll;aHHOro il3hlKa - 3J1eMeHTbl aPTHxynsuaa). Bo MHornx 5I3bIK3X HHTeHCHHHOCTh aunayraoil npeSOKaJIbHOH rnyxoa CMhf<fffOH IlOlI'IepKHSaerciI ee peMH3auHeii: KaK acmrpaposannoji (uanpuvep, B TaJ.I:lKI-fKCKOM, nepcancxou, oceTHHcKOM). a 3BOHKOH CMbll(HOil: - KaK Hen0J1H03BOHKOH C HHTeHcHBHOH CMhI<iKOH H T . n. B HeKOTO· phIX 1f3bIKax nepen HCTopH<JecKH rnacnuv aanayrox Bhlpa6aTblaaerCSI cornacnas nporesa - ua cpoHeTlitlecKoM, a 3aTeM H na q,OHOJIOI"H'-leCKOM YPoBHe, nanpauep: "r{.~a- 'Me,uBe.llh' > '" srsa- > nepc, xirs, UIyrA. yurx; "aisma- 'rnea' > rrepc. xesm U T.~.

B .n:nRXpomfM no seaer K orrpe,lleJJeHHbIM «JaKDHOMepHbIM HCKJIIO<Je· HHSlM» B HCTOpuKo-¢oHeTH<JecKHx saxouax H K BhIpa60TKe HOBblX npaBRJI H3MeHeHillI uasarn.asrx cornacaux,

62

Taxoasr CHCTeMHbJe <(!iCKJIK)qeHHIl:» B }[3hlKaX CKH4m-OCeTHI-ICKoli nO)lrpynm>l (H OT,{UCTl-l R CaKCKl1X) H3 06w,eUOCTO'-IHOHPaHCKOru npaaana CntlpaHTlloro OTpa)KeHH~ 05U(eHpaHCKHX annayrasrx 3BOHKI-IX. Kax rosopHJ10Ch ssuue, O}];H"1.1 "3 OCHOUHhlX npH3HaKOB, npOTHBOnOCTaRJ1IiJOIll,"X DPY'" Jl:pyry ,'I.He 60JIblllHe rexerasecxae rpynnsr HpaHeKHX 1I3b1KO(l ~ sanannyio H IlOCT01.J:Hyro, sansercs orpaxeaae B HHx rtpanpaacxax aunayrliblX 3BOHKHX B BH.D,e COOTBeTCTIlH.lI: aart-upan. CMblqHblX +b-, *d-. =s- -BOCT.-.i1paH. ennparrroa *v- (n *w·), *0', "Y" Ha 3TOM cpOHe npononxenae nx B OT,lleJIhHbJX 1i3blKax, reneTH'IeCKH oruocsmaxcs K IlQCTO'lHOH rpyrme, B BH)le CMbJ'IHbIX, BhlrJIAAHT liBHhlM OTlUIOHeHHeM. Taxoso n0J10.lKeHHe Il CKH$o-oceTHHeKOH nonrpyrme (cp, ocer, b-, do, HpOH. q- l.IlI1r. r-), MeHee nOCJ1ell,OllaTeJIbHO 0110 06HapYiKI1BaeTCJI B CaKeKHX ,Ul1aJ1eKTaX. AHa.'10rnQHble npoueccsr H36mo}];aJOTCJI B rroncacrene .l1.eHTMbHblX eornacasrx OT.l1.eJIhHhlX Jl3bTKOB cpenneasuarcxoro apeana (B .IIrH06cKOM, HIIIKalllHMCKOM, orxacrn caHrJIH'ICKOM, B pane CJI06 aaxancxoro Jl3blKa). I1MeKI'TcSI. KOCBeHHb[e Clm.a:e1'eJlhC'fB'3 Taro, 'ITO CMbl'-ll-lOCTh aUJ1ayrHblx 31l0HKHX 3}];eCf> aropnuua.

B ocernacxoa Jl3blKe HX CMbT'IHOCTh oUhliemreTCSI. HHTeHcHcpHKal1Heii: apTHKY11.lIUl1H 6<mee paauux 3BOHKllX ureneasrx B aunayre, Ilpn 3TOM, HanpHMep, nepexon BOCT.-HpaH. *v- B ocer, b- saxearnn H PM enos C Ha'laJIhHhlM *y- (cp. OCeT. byjyn / bijun 'BUTh, ",T~TH' 113 npanpaa. *f!ai· 'BUTb'); npa MeTaTe3e *v- coxpansercs (cp. QCeT. eervad / eervadse H3 socr-npan. *vra/ar- '5paT'); B COBpeMeHHOM OCeTHHCKOM aunayruaa vB RCKOHHOU J]eKCHKe - KpaHHe peJJ:Ka.

HHTepecHa R :nOM nnane cY.rlb6a socr.vapan. *y- (H3 I1HDOHp. *g-, *gh-); nOCKOJIhKY uieneaas *r OTHOCHTeJJhHO paao CMeeTIiJlaCb 8:3 3aLIHeJBbl'lHOfO pxaa B YBYlI.IIPHblH, nocnenytouree YCHJIeHHe ee apraxynsuaa, peaJIHlORaIlWeeCJI na q,OHOJlOIW'leCKOM yposue TD]lbKO B HPOHCKOM ~Hanexre, np"BeJlO K nepexony He B 3a,JJ:Hea3b1'iH)'lO *g-, a B ysynxpnyio q(ca. aume, § 22).

Orpaxeuae aunayrnoro 31l0HKoro neuransuoro B llH,Ue CMhl4HOro B OT,UenhHblX BOCTo4HoHpaHcKHx )l3b1KaX CpeJIHeH AlH" (suuxaunorcxon, caHrJIH'lCKOM, JlrHOOCKOM) npOHCXOJ[HJIO B pesynsrare KaK oco6oro cnonTaHHOro Pa38HTHJl HX rpononorasecxnx cncrex (aanpauep, B 2nIo6CKOM He nOJ1)"lWl ycrOU\Ul.BOll q,oH0J1m1.l.Jal . .1HH *(6)), TaK " my6oKoro 2ACTp3.'fsore BJIIDIHH.II co CTOPOHbT MeCTHblx. 3an3.l1.H0l1paHCKHX .113hIKOB (B OCHOBHOM T3)l.lKHKCKOro ~ a3b1JCa nHebMeHHOU "YJlbTyphl II lingua franca persona).

TaKllM 06P330M, onUJOHeHHJI OT HCTOPHKo-cpoHenf'leCKHX :laKOHOIl, onpenenaiontax rem:TI1'1ecK)'IO KJlaCeHcpHKaUHIO HpaHCKHX 23hIKOB, »BOnace BTOPH1.J:HbIMR, CJljfJaHHb!MH R 6oJJ:bllleH xepe C TeHJl,eHUl1eH auJlayrHoH

63

apTHKYJlJUl.HOHHOtf HHTeHCHBHOCTU H B MeHbUieH - C HHOIBbTl(HhJM B03~ .ueiteTfmeM (uoapofiuee CM. [3.!1.eJIbMaH 1984. 17-19; CrB5I-<l>, 146-147, 169-171, 188-189, 213-214J).

HMe.EOTCII H apyme, 6ruree qacmble nOCJIe,IlCTBI-LIl reH)leHl(HH K aanayrHOit HHTeHeHBU()L.111 B paausrx li3b1KaX. TaK. HHTeHcwtmKaL\lt}[ annayruoro JOOHKOro asneana B ncropaa rtepcancxoru, Ta,l:I;KJ1KCKom H napa ua srane MeJKJzy cpe.!IHenepCl-IJICKHMH H KIJaCCH'IeCKUMll nepCHlJ.CKUMI1 TeKCTa}rm nepexo,ll, HR'IaJIbHOm v- (H3 npaHpaH. COHaHTa *y) B b- (nanpanep, cp.-nepc. vafr H3 *l,!ap-ra- 'cner' > lIepc., Ta,lVK. barf; cp -nepc. VI.H "nsaauars" H3 *IjI(m).I:ati- > nepc., Ta.IDK. bist U r.n.), ananououro oceTHHCKOMY.lJ3b1KY. B03MO)l(HO, C TIO" )l(e TeH,II,eHll,HeH CB~3aHO orpaxenne B nannstx J1.3L1Kax B HaqanbHOH n03HIUfH np.vnepc, ()- (aa 06meHpaH *.~ < u-e. *k) B BH.ll.e He "'h, KaK B cepenane cnoaa, a 60nee uHTeHcHIlHoH s[Pacropryesa J 990, 127- J 28]. C aeso xe CB~3aHF.I 11 TaKl1e ):(HRxpou",JeCKHe 3aKOftOMepHOCTI1, KaK nepexou IIU'IarJbHOro 3B)'K0THna *r- 11 CI11I1>HYlO cpoHeMY Y- B KYP.IICKOM. «HCKJ1lOqeHHJI.» B OTpa:lKe"HU "HH)l:OnpaH. *$s aarrayre nepen !JlacHhlMH - B Bll,!.l,e pedinexcos He *h-, KaK O.IKW]WJ.OCb fibl, a *.~- B p:R".'l.e BOCTOl(HOHpaHCKHX :R"3b1KOB B rnaronsnsrx OCHOsax: npn HX xeaaupeaynnuxauua (noupotiaee 06 ~THX OCHOBaX CM. lCrB~-<l>, 102-103]), U xaome apyrue sacrnue npaaana B palIlHqHblX :R"3bIKax.

§ 56. nOCKOJIbKY CJIor, conepxasuras Gonee nsyx HecJ10l'OBhIX sneMeHTOB. CTpeMI1JlC.lJ J{ CTp)'Kl)'pe C1 VC2C3(C4), me c, H C3 (HJUI C4), uaxonsuraeca nepen rnacnuu, UMenH ('ibl MaKcuMYM apTHKymfuHoHHOH HHTeHCHBHOCTH, a C2 6h1.fl 6N. H3H5oJIee cJla5h1M, sra TelUleHUHJI BJIl-LIlna aa pedmexcsr JlpeBHHX CJIOroB, B o6meupaHcK)'Kl snoxy npHHHMasllIHx ysacrae B a6naYfHbix '1epe)l.OB3lilt}[X. Ocotieuuo x:apaKTepHbl 11 TIOM nnaHe xopnesue cnora, coaepxaanme cpe.Il}lHHblH couaur 'nma ICIRC2-1 (rne C I - COrJIaCHhlH HJlH HecJIOroBOH. sapuanr couairra, R - conanr, C2 - cornacaua) If HMeBllIue B pa3Hbix 06pa30BaHH:R"X a61IayrHble TU~ nu: C\tC- : CarC- : CraC- (rae r - ReCJIoroBoH sapuanr couaura), uanpaxep, npaapaa. *trs- '60JITbC}l' C BapHalITaMU *trs- : r!&ras- : tars-; *grb- 'XBaTaTh' - *grh- : grah- : garb-; *pr.~~ 'cnpauntaart,' - *prs- : pl/rai- : pars-, KaK npaBWIO. HX upononxena» B He~Jlpe8HH"- "'paHCKHX SJ.3L1Kax nonpaayxeearor B xaxecrse npororanoa cnora Tuna CV re, ocoGeHUO ecna C J - mYXOH COfJIaCHblH. HCKJllO"leHH" HeMHoro, U OHU CB:R"3aHhl OfiW'IHO C HapameHHeM aecnoroasrx 3JleMeHTOB cy4l<l>uKca, xorna 06palOBblmLllaCb nocnenoaai eJlbHOCTb CCVCC~ (nanpauep, *trp'repners, HCIIldTldBaTh HYJK.aY' - OCHOBa *t{p-ja- > *rrajiu-. orpasnamascs JaTeM B SIlL caf- 'aopoaars', rne c~ < *rr-, H B HlllK. tbl'bf- 'aoposan,'),

B KOHe'iHOM csere :.:ITO JlBJIeHHe CB}l3aIlO co cnocofiana orpaxenas apenaax COHaHTOB, xorna ona BbJ:C1)'Dan.U B CJlOroSOM napaarrre.

64

KaK H3BeCTHO. H3 OOtlleHH.QoeBponeHCKHX conaaros ""1. *(!. *r. *1. *m, *n, *i}IH npH ynOTpe6JIeHHH UX B cnorosoa n03HU"H TOJ1hKO *i. *u. *,1 r.tocm pea'1H30naTbCJI KaK «qUCTble» rnacsue 3B)'KOTIHlLI - 6.riaroJlaPJI [lPUCTOMY pacumpexmo roliOCOS0J1 tlIeJIH. COHaHTbl xe, npOH3HOCl1Mbie I! necnoroaou napaaare C 06J1:3aTeJlbHOH CMbI'-1KOH - HOCOIlOH (*m, *n) UJIH narepansuoii (*1) - ]JuGa C Bll6paUHeii: (*r), raxon B03MOXHOCTH fie UMeJlU. Hx peaJIU3al(J.HI B CJIOroBOit nOJ"U"H nonpasyueaaer 60Jlee C]JO)KH)'JO, He O~HOpOD.H)'JO na BCeM npOTJI)KeHHH, apTIfKymiUHJO (npencraaneuae 0 peaJIH3aUHH. nanpassep, "r B BH,!(e [r-r-r], a *1 B BH~e [r-r-r-r] H T.n., OLIelib }laJIeKO OT peansuocm). KaK nOKa3LIBaJOT HX petPJlCKCbl, 'fl"'-e B npeBHOCTH OHH 6blJlH upe,ncrasJIeHbl UeJlblMI1 CflOfal>IH. Ilna BH6paHTa *r aro 5hlJIH cnorn rana [raj, [arl, pexe L.'w"], f"ral (me 3 - rnaCHhIH npH:lByK), a ,UJIl:I CMbllJHO-OPOXO,uJlblX */, */'fI, *1} - JIH60 aHaJIOrH411hle cnorn, mloo couopaue cornacuste, HO C nHKOM cnora - pe:3KItM YCH.'1eHHeM B0311yuIHOii CTPYH - ua KalwM-HliGYl(b ysacrxe 3S)"laHHJI. 3TOT nUK cnora - npa pa3pYUleHHH CHCTeMhl COHaHTOR KaK ocotioro K_'1aCCa cpOHeM - aaxpennsercs B BHl1.e maCHOfO ;;meMeHTa rana e, a, i H r.n. (cp, H.-e. *r> rpex. o«, ao, cr-cnas. pi; xensr. rio ar, ,up.-HHJ], ri If LIp.).

nO-RH,l1HMOMY. yxe B- IfIUOHpaHCK)'IO anoxy B rrpaHpaHCKHX /IHaJleKTax COllaHTbI ororo xrtacca R CJ10roBOM n03HUHH nepen OLl,tIHM COf.·IaCHhlM HMelIH rennenumo K apraxynsuaa .nma (ar], OTP3)Ka5ICb BnOClJeIlCTIlHll B BH.Ue CQ4eTaHHJI Nrl (CM. as. srs, npencraansmmee O}lHH cnor). Cp., uanpmrep, npH'IaCTJ.flJ na *-ta OT KopHeR Tuna *CR-, rne «nyneBa5I») ornacosxa KOpHR OOYCJlOBHJIa CTP}'KTypy *C~ta-. r,e, *Carta-: or KOPHJI *bar- 'HeeTH' - *brta- ['"barra-J > nepc. bord, Ta,Q)K. hurd, Kyp,ll,. bar, Jl3C. vag, nurr, war (B nOClIe)lHHX 1I1hlKax KOHe'lHaJI cornacuas - perpnexc rpyrmu * rr); or KOpHJI * mar- t yMHpaTb' - * m[ta- [* marta- J > nepc, mord, TaJDK. murdo Kypll. mer, Jl3T. m3!? HIIlT. mar; or KOpH.!I *kar'nenars' - +krta- [*k3rla-l, noanuee TaK)Ke *knrta- > nepc., Tall;K. kard, uiyra. cud, .!I3L keg H T.)].. 3THM rrpaapascxae ,llHaJleKTLI B ITJIaHe CHHTarnaTHKH na ¢OHeTH'IeCKOM yponne ODIW'iaJlHCb OT npaHHllHHCKHX, B KOTOPhlX cnorosoa BapHaHT *r peaJIH30BaJICH, BepOSITHO, B BH.Ue *fr31 H npa ,[laJIbHeHUIeM pa3pYUleHHIf COHaRTOB OTPa3HJIC.II B sane rt (cp a-mrua-, sanskrit- If r.n.),

TaKHe pa3JIli4HJI B peanmauna CJIoroBhIX BapHaHTOB COUaRTOB SlBIllilOTCJI KOCBeUtlblMH CBH,!I,ererrhCTBaMH 'rorc, 'ITO nx rrpe.n,orrpeJ],emUlH HeK~e mn:l1MaJIbHble CTpYUypbI He TGJ1bKO KOHCOHaHTttOH rpynrtu (re B .IlpeBHHX llpaHCKHX .IlHaTIeKTaX, HO Cr B HH.IlHHCKHX), HO H trenoro cnoca, a raxxe orpesxa, BKJHO'laJOmero cnorosue H necnoroaue 3SYKOTHnhI (CVrC(a)~ B npesnnx HPaHCKHX uaanexrax, HO CrVC(a)- B UHllHHCKHX).

S ),lI<: 53

65

§ 57. HeCKO!lhKO J.IHOH npencraer xapraaa crpyxrypa cnora H CJ10Ba B CJIaBlIHCItHX .Il3MKax. 3)J.ech OTHOCHTe/IbHO paao B0306!1auanH TeH}leHUHH It HHOMy CTpoeHHIO KOHCOHaItTHbiX rpynn " II. OTKpbllm.ty cnory.

§ 58 Cocraa KOHCOHaHTHhlX rpynn B npacnaeaucxosr (HX nepeseas H aaanas CM. [MeHe 1951, 102-116; Bepaurrena 1961, 136-141]) B OpHHuane MaJIO ornmen \IT COCTaBa npaHpaHCKHX " .npeBHHX HpaHcKHx rpylln aecnoroaux W1eMeHToB1• OCHOBHoe OT!lH'IJile cocroar B TeH):leHUHSlX H3- MeHelllnl 3THX rpynn, a HMeHHO B TOM, 'ITO B npaCnaBJlHCKHH nepnon II noannee He Ha6nlOI1aeTCH CBOHCTBeHHoil: HpaHCKHM H3blKaM TeH;l,eHQHH It OCJIa6neHl-lKJ nepsoro KOMnOHeHra TaKOH rpynrur, OrMeqalQTCH C!I)"'I3H nnCCHM"lHIUHH B HHJlOeBpOneRcKHX rpynnax C n051BJIeHlleM BCTaBHhlX *1, *d R paHHenp3CJI3RSIHCKHe rpynnu *sr, *:r « *gr) una nepexona npeKOHCOHaHTIlOH *p nepea *t B .1': CM., aanpauep, emus. stryj« '.!llill,SI no oruy' (H OO31r. na-cmopox 'QT<JHM'), rae sr- < *pt- B Gonee panueu *ptrujo(H3 H.-e. *parrUlJjo-s '.IUI,IJ.SI no onry' - "P0H'3BO,!l.HOro OT *patir- 'oren'), cp. OTpmKeHHe 3TOM. rpynIIhl B .np.-HH,!l. piqvya-, an. tidrya-, Xapas'repao TaKJKe ynpoiuenae rpynnst nyrea arm:MHHaUHH nepaoro KOMIIOHeHTa, rana *p! > t, *kl > t, *bd > dB onpeneneauux YCJ10BHSlX. aanpauep, np acn as. *netbjb 'rmeM'lHHHK', cpo aa, naptiya- (nonpofinee CM. [Meae 1951, 103 D.

tilYHKUlfoHHposamfe KOHCOHalfTHblX rpyTIII B panneu H 60nee nomHeM COCT051HIUl npaCJ1aBSIHCKOro TeCHO CB513aHO co CTPYKTYPOH CJIOf3 H cnoaa " COOTBe1'CTBeHHO C xapaxrepo» aunayra H c npHHUHnaMH cnoro,!{eneHIDL

§ 59. B C31aRSlHCKlfX IBblKax B PaHlIHH npaCJ1aSlIHCKUM. nepaon CJ10m MOfJIH 6un OTltpUThlMH H 3aKphlThlMH, HO yxe K n03,!{HeMY COCTOSIHHIO upacnaasucxorc CTaHOBHTCI! Sl8HOH TeH,lJ,eHUHlI K OTKPblTOMY cnory (nonpoonee eM. [Bepuurretiu 1 % 1, 141 D. 3m nposaanocs B PMe <PaKTOPOB, B rrepsyio osepeas B U3::KHBaHHH saxpsrrux ClIOroB, B cnoco6ax BOKarunauHH COHaHTOB H B 3JJeMeHTax eayrpacnoroson mpMOHHH.

Kax )'K33b1BaeT C.n .Bepuurrean, TeH,ll.eHUU)I K OTKPMTOMY cnory ocoGeHuo ycananacs B nepaoa pacnana npasauxa ua nnanejcrst, nOCKOJlbKY npoaaanacs B HHX HeOJl:UHaKOBO. B 'lHCJIe ee np0.llBJ1eu"" 6WlO naneaae KOHelJHblX com3CHhIX, B nepBytO ouepezu, 3yOHblX t, d, S (Tuna tod > to), H paasarae npOTeTH'IeCKHX corrracnsrx nepen aHJ1ayrHbIM fJIaCHhlM (cp, pyc, euopa - ae, udra-, IIp.-HfUl. udra-, JIHT. udra-; npacnas. e~mb > iesfflb, cp, npaapaa. *ahmi, np.-HH.IJ.. asmi "3 H.-e. "'es-ml). K noM. .lKe 'PYIme )IBJleHHH OTHOCHTC)I 11 i13MeHeHl-le cnoropasaena: KOHe<JHiUl COrnacaas cnora OTX.OLUWa II. nOC31e.nylOIUeM)' CJ10ry (nonpoonee, c npaaepaM", CM. [Bepaurreaa 1961. 182, 1 &4-187]).

C TeH.!l,eHQJileil: K OTKPhITOMY CJ10ry CIDl3aHbI H cnocofisr BOKa.rtH3aUHH annoeeponeacmx COHaUTOB B cnoroaoa n03HIIHH H - TeM CaMbIM -

66

npeoripasoaanne paHHHX npacrraBJIHCKHX Lt:H<irroHroB, BKJTJO'taJOlI1UX nnasasre r, l. B npOTUBOBeC HPaHC:KHM .lllhIKaM, xoropste npeoopasyror cnor Tuna C~C no THIly eVRC c I'iO~Meu"eM rnacnoro npH3B)IKa nepen COIIOPHhlM :meMeHTOM (ex, § 56). enaBJlIICKHe 513blKH (KaK H HH.ClOapHllcxae) BhUlRflIHOT npOTHBonOJIOiKHytO HanpaBJIeHHOCTh - paauue npacnassncxae CO'teTaHUl3: Tuna TorT, ToIT, Ter'I', TelT B KliKHocnaBl3:HCKI.fX. ssuxax (qeWeKOM H CJlOBaQKoM) npecopaayiorcs B TraT, Tre]', Tla'T, Tle'T, B Jl3hlKaX JleXHTCKOH rpynnsr - B TroT, TreT, TloT. TleT, a B BOCTO'-lHOCJIaSlIflCKHX 1I3hlKax peaJIH3YeTCSI TIOlIHOmaCl1e. Cp., aanpauep, 60J1r. «paea, epaa, 6pe3G, 6p.!li!. 6J1amo; nOJIhCK. krowa, ogrod, brtoza, bloto, mleko; pye. KOPO(Ja. eopoo, 6epega, tiepez, 6oJWmo, .MOJlOIW. 3ro l!RTIeHHe, Ha3hJBaeMOe B HeKorophlx patiorax «cnaIDIHcKoH MeTare:3oli», - xapaxrepaun npaaaax CJIaB>lHCKHX )l3b1KOB, Jl.HaMeTpaJIhHO npOTHBOnonOiKHLl" HpaHcKoMY. Ilonpotiaee 06 3TOM JlBJIeHHH eM. [6epHlllTeMH 1961, 216 H CJI.], 06b>lcHeHIDI, MaTepH3JThI H narapossa (TaM xe, 217-219).

Teanemms K OTJ(PblTOMY cnory cnocoocreoaana raxxe ycxcpeaaio CT>I)KeHHH J1.HCProHroB B MOHoqrroHrn. O)l;HaKO cnenyer OTMeTHTh, '-lTO CTglKeHHe J1.H4rrOHroB "poHCXOll,HT H H 1I3b1KaX, me Her TaxOH reH.ll;eHQHH, BKJlIO'IaSI HpaHCKHe. XOTl1 H3Jl,O npasnars, 'ITO COXpaHeHHe S 'taCTH HPaHCKHX l:I3b1KOB perpnexcoa CJ1a6LIX J1.UcPTOHroS, B03MO'KHO, B 3Ha'IHTeJlLHO~ CTeneHH 06g3aHO npenrro-mrrerrsaoa CTpyx:rype cnora nina evrC.

C rennenunea K OTKPblTOMY cnory cassano TaKXe raxoe 'ilBJIeHHe B CJlaSHHCKHX g3LIKaX, KaK BH)'TPUCJlOroBaJl aKKOMOJlaQHll - B01Jl.eHCTBUe rnacasrx aa npernuecrayioutae cornacaue. fuOT nponecc HMen pesynsraTOM BHyrPHCJIoroBYID rapMOHHKl, KOTOP3.11 nosaonana KBaJlUqlHUHpOBaTh TaKHe «rapMOHHlfHbIe)} cnorn KaK CJ10rO¢OHeMld, WIH cwmaGeMbl, cymeCTBOBaBIlIHe aexorope BpeMSI B HCTOpn.l1 C]laAAHCKHX H3LIKOB. liHorna :<ITO HBJIeHHe TpaKT)'fOT KaK CJIOrOBOH CHHrapMOHH3M, OJiHaKO sro He coscev TOllHO no J1.BYM "PH':lHHaM. Bo-nepnux, CUHrapMOHH3M - JlBJIeHUe MOp¢loHOJIOrnqecKoe: no enoco6 opraHH33UHH CJ10B3, TO'IHee, enOBO¢OPMld KaK lIeJlOCTHOH ej(HHHUbi. He OrpaHHlI"BaKl.l1.leflCH npenenana C110ra. BO-BTOPbIX, 'renneuuua K sayrpacnoroson rapMOHHH He npaeena ua npaxrnxe K rpyrmorponeaaa, 3 OCTanaCL na yposne cpOHeTK'leCKOH TeHlleHUHH. Paapyureaae TaKHX «rapMOHH'-IHblX» cnoros CW:l3LIBaJOT C anoxoti yrpaThI CBepXKpaTKHX maCHLIX H YCT3HOBJIeHIDI OTHOCHTeJlhHOH C3MOCTOSTenbHOCTH rnacuux H cornacnsrx. Jlonporiaee 06 ~TOM HMeHH" CM. [Bepaurreiia 1961, 257-259; )KypaBJIeB B.K. 1961, 1963, 1965, 1966, 1967 (II) J.

C ::ITOH :IKe reunernnren CIDl3aHbI " uexoropue "Hble aCCHMUJUITHBHble npouecca (B WHPOKOM CMLICJ1e sroro CJ10Ba) H orpaaaseans B cnaBSIH· CKHX g3h1KaX, 0 KOTOPhlX 6YJleT CKa3aHO H")lCe.

67

§ 60. TaKHM 06p a30M , C"HTarMaTH'IeCKUe TeH,ll,eHUHH l1panCKHX H CJlaBl1HCKHX SllblKOB - C04eTaeMOCTb pasnux paspanoa cpOHeM, CTpyKTypa cnora " CJIOHa H T .n. - HeO.ll.HHaKOBDI. )'IKe HaqUHWI C IlPall31:.1KOBWX COCTORHHU. ):{arrLHeHIUHe K3MeHeHlliI B paamrsnux "paHCKKX H cnasaaCKKX l13bJKaX cnOCOOCTIIOBaJU{ euie 60J1LWeMY pdCXO)l(,l.leHHIO B CTpoeHHH cnora H CJlQBa H B B03MO~IQCTHX cPOHOIlOIl1JaJ.JHH nexoropux 3B)'KOTHIlQB.

BTOPHq}JhlE nAP AJlJlEJIH; ACCHMH.JUIQ"H H AKKOMOUAIJ,IDl.

AHAJIOfilll

§ 61. Hatimonaercs UeJlLIH paa BTOpH'IHWX HlMeneHHii:, Bbl3BaHHblX B Jl3blKaX 06eHX ceMeH KaK q,oHeMHoH 11 cpoHeTH1feCKOH CHHTandaTHKOH, TaK H CPOHOJlOIll'leCKoil: aaanornea.

§ 62. B npaacxax 1I3bIKax, Ha'lHU<U( C npaapaacxoro rrepuona, 3TH .lJBJIeHHJJ laMeTIJLI H B BOKaJlJ.I)Me, H B KOHCOlJaHTHlMe. AHaJIH] acex l:rBJlemIH .. roro nnana - neJIO 6y.zlj'llU.fX HCCne.!lOBaHH". snecs IKe pacCMOTpHM JJHIllL HeCKOJIbKO xapacrepinax cnysaea, HMeIOutl1X napannena B HCropHH CJlaBRHCKHX H npyrax annoesponencxux Sl3h1K013 EBpOnLl.

ACCWUlJUIUHH H 8KKOMO,!l;3UUJI

§ 63. CHJIbHasJ: TeH.UeHUHIl K perpeccnsnon aCCHMHJJSlUHH (rnacaux H cornacaux) 11 K aKKOMO.ll.aLl,IW npencrasnaer c060" O.n.HY H3 cytnecrseaHF.lX 06rn.HX reH,Ll;eHUI1H B cpoHeMHoH CllHTafMaTHKe H "paHCKHx, " CJIaBRUCKHX 513bIKOB, H3'1HHru:I C my6oKoil: npesaocra. lIMeHDo raxoe - perpeccuauoe - HanpaBJIeHHe aCCHMIiJU!THBHbIX npoueccos naer pe3yJ1bT3- TbJ aa ~OHOlIOrn'leCKOM ypollHe B COCT8Be H «noseneuan» Kat( maCHbJX QJOHeM, YaK H - ocofieaao "PKO - cornacaux. 3Ha'lHl'e.nbHO pexe B HPaHCKHX }(lbTKax, KaK H B CJlall!lHCKHX, Ha6J1IO.!laeTCM o6paTlwe nanpasneuse ynO.a:06HTeJIhHhIX npoueccos.

no $mOJIont'lecKHM peJy.'lbTaTaM 3TH npouecca mm:6oJlee HpKO npoMBHJlHCb 13 nanaramnauaa cornacnux, ocoeeuao 3a;:ufeM3LI'IHLIX *k, »«:

H B lIa6Ha'lHlaUHH, 0 lJeM rosopanocs BLIwe (eM. § 37~).

Ha ¢OHenf'leCKOM ypOBHe TaKHe SlBJ1eHIDI Ha6mo,ll3IOTCll B C3MblX pasnux HpanCK"X H cn3B.ilHCKHX 5I3bIKaX. 11 xors aa 060JpHMOM "PaHCKOM M3repna.lIe He Hat'imO.!laerCJl raxoro QT'IeTJlHOOro peaynsrara nono6HL1x npoueccos BHyrPHCJIOroBOH aKKoMo~aUHH, KaK cnaBSlHCKHe cnorosas

68

rapMOHIDl II CHJUIa6eMa (CM. BWWe, § 59), TeH,lJ;eHL{I1H K e.IlHHOMY pesoHaRCHOM}' ocj_)0pMJIeHHto nocnenoearem-nocra CV BIIOJIHe OT4eTJlHBhl. 3neM.eHTbl perpeCCHBHOIt acCHMlUlllUHH C BhlllOIlQM sa npenenu cnora rrpencraaneau B KOHCOHaHTH3Me Ii eoxanaasre npaacxux Sl3bJKOB.

§ 64. CKJII.a OTHOCHTCIl anenresa i, U B aBeCTHHCKOM jI:JhIKe - KaK Ha'laJIhHhIH MeMeHT B03.l1eUCTBIDI ,IlHe3Horo H 6eMOJIhHOro peaonaucos co CTOPOHhl COOTBeTCTB)'IOWRX rnacasix II COHaHTOB aa npenurecrsyroW"ll maCHb1H. Ca., aanpnuep, as. visaiti- 'II.~uaTh' < *YI(m)Vati-; as. jaidi 'y,l1aph' < *judi (uMnepaTIIB); aa, haurva- 'see, BCe' < *har(u)lja-; aa, paoirya- 'nepBhlif < ·pary.(j)i.a- " r.n. TaKaJI srteureaa - SlBJleHHe, THnOn0[114OCKH CX0.l1HOe C «rrpeJlOMJIeHIIeM» B repMaHcKHx 1I3hlKaX (CM. [Cretinuu- KaMeHCKHH. M .11. 1962, t 53 D.

KaK 6w npOllOJDKeHHeM 3TOro rtpouecca B 60Jlee n03l1HHX Sl3h1KaX ()KHBbIX U BhlMepwHx) npencraer U3MeHeHIIe rnacasrx npennrecrsyrourefa CJ10ra non B03JJ;eHCTBHeM rnacasix H OTlIeJTbHblX cornacasrx nOCJ1eJI)'iOutero cnora nuoo cornacaux, aaspsisaionrax LlaHHhIH CJTor, T.e. snnenae, nexamee B cpOHeTH'IeCKOH 6a3e Jlml pa3BHTHSI MOPCPOHonoru'leCKoro SlBJleHIDI - }'MIIayra (CM. pasnen «3neMeHThl MOP¢OHOJlOrHH», § 9-13).

3TOT iKe THn acCHMHJlJIUHH u aKKOMO}laumf B paanaxnsre rrepaonsr acropaa HpaHCKUX Sl3hlKOB noponan II OTneJJbHhlX U3 HUX H :;meMeHTbI rapuoaaa. TaKORa. aarrpuaep, 6WJl<J BHyrpHC1l0roBIDI rapMoHHSI ua onpeJIeJJeHHOM arane HCTOPHH ceeepaonaaapcxax 1I3hlKOB (myrnano-pyuraaCKOll rpyrmn U 1I3rynSiMcKoro), peaynsrarosr xero jlBIUIHCh nanaranasanas 3a,uHe1l3bI4HhlX cornacnax (XOT)) H B pa3JIH'mOH C1eneHH no jJ3hIKaM) H na6naJIH3aIl;IUI B .lI3TYJIll:II1CKOM (nonpofiuee [CrB5I-41, 130-133. 142-143]), OT'IaCTH cxonasie co CJIaSllHCKUMH. Me:lKCnOroBaSI rapMOHHJI BCTpe'laeTCSI pexe (cp., nanpauep, '1acTH'IH)1O f'dPMOHHIO rnacaux nrryrpa O.1UlOrO CJIOBa B ransncxou H BaXaHCKOM Sl3h1Kax). Ilpu 3TOM cUHrapMoHH3M KaK MOP¢OHOJIOIW.lecXoe JlRlTeHHe anecs He COCTOKJICSI, HecMOTPSI aa arrmernHaTJilBHhIH xapaxrep napanarn UeJTOro psna upaHCKHX Sl3h.KOB.

B STOM :lKe - HCTOpHKO-THnOJIoru"lJeCKOM - pycne npOXOJVIT H MHOme .npyme CXOl\Hble CJlaBSlHCKo-apUMCKHe I}lOHeTII'IeCKUe npoueccta, TaKue, HanpIlMep, KaK ITll,QeHIIe peJlyrlHpOBaHHbDC rnacaux (B CJlaBXHCKHX, HeKOTOp.bIX "PaHCKIIX, a TaK:)Ke B .IIaP.l1CKHX H3hlKax KallIMupH H IIIHHa) , MOTHpoB<UlHe cornacnnx (B CJlaBSIHCKHX H OT}:{eJJI.HhlX H)'pHCTaHCKUX) H r.n.

§ 65. B KOHCOHaHTlf3Me apaacxnx H - B MeHbllleit crenena - cnaMHCKUX 113hIKOH HllTepecHbl H3MeHeHIDI aroro Tuna, Bhl3BaHHhle rrpouecCilMH aCCHMHJlJIUHH H aaarrorna B TpauC¢tOPMauHH MeMeHTOB nOJlCHCTeMI.) npaupancxax H rtpacnasaacxax CH6HIDIHTOB.

Y)Ke CaM COCTaB 3TOH cepau q,OfleM II npasrpancxoa (nocrenemro acCH6HJIHpOilaBlUHXCSI * S, * i U noc-reneHHO pe¢OHOJIOIli3OBaBllIHXCjJ. >I< .slh/z

69

H * Sf£) H CHCTeMa HX 4epe.D.OBaHHH B "P<UI3bIKOBOM COCTOllHllH HpaHCKHX Sl3bIKOB, B ero apeansuux eapaaarax H B 1l3b1KaX .upeBHHX naWiTlIHKOB (CM. lCfB5I-(f>, 47-54; Pacropryesa 1990, 67-75]) noxasuaaror, 'ITO, uaqHHlllI C npesaax ,llHMeXTOB. 3Ta CHCTeMa He Obma CTaOHJIbHoH. HeCTaOHJIbHOCTh ee ycanasanacs, nOMHMo nposero, coxpaueaaeu s TOT TIePHO.!] CJlOBO«xJPM. nOCTpOeHHIdX B 60nee paaaae :!InOXH C C06J1KllleHHeM "paBHJI HHllOHpaHcKoro (H HH,lloeBpOneHcKoro) a6nayra 1-1 "paBI-IJla RUKI u BKJ1Kl'laBWHX "'IepeJlOBaHlf1l rana H.-e. "~es : us > uunoapan. *!f'Is : l!S (cp . .up.-HHn:. vas : u~) > npaHpaH. *~ah : us; a 'raxxe H.-e. *k(e) : kr » HH.Il.OHpaH. "s(a) : st > §t (cp . .up.-HHJJ: •• i(a) ; ~O > npaapan. *s( a) : st (cp. aa, s( a) : It, np-rrepc. "( a} : st). Hecxonuco uporue Oblll3 npaC}JaBlIHCKalI CRCTeMa, HO H B Hell PY,!{UMeHThl 'lepe.uoBatlHH HH.!]oeBPOneHcKoH 3IIOXH C03,!(aBaJIH onpeaerrennsre CJ10)KHOCTH.

Bee sro Bhl3b1saJ10 cnysaa $lHeTH'IecKOll aeeID,mrul:UHH, a raiose KOHT<lMHHaUHU H U3MeHeHHIl no aHaJIOrHH pasaux nexcex H ¢OpM, ynonofineaas cpoHeMHoro cocrasa aexoropux nexcex, npOH3BOllHbLX OT enanoro KOpIDI (noxa He yrpa'lHBarraCb HX CeMaHTH'lecKag H 3THMOJloruqeCK3lI CBSl3b), pa3J1H'lHblX 4>oPM. Bxo,WnIJ;HX B eJlHHYJO rtapanarxy, H r.n.

§ 66. AceHMHruIUHSI ¢cHeM STOH cepHH HaMIO):taeTCJI B "patl:eKHX JI3blxax He- TOJ1bKO upesnero nepno)1a (cp., mmpnMep. oTpa:KeHHe nH.JWaTHBaoro cy¢qmKca H.-e. "'-sfelo· B lIH,Ue npaapaiicxoro "'-.~ca- > npaapau, *-sa-, npa HHlIoap. -ccha-, HO npacnaa, *-sk·), HO H II 60nee JIBHOM BH.Ue II JI3h1KaX GOllee n03,UHHX nepuoaos. Xapaxrepao, 'lTO llleeb aCCHMHJ1.sIUHH nonsepxesu He TQnbKO COCe)lHHe cornacmre, HO H pasaenennsre macHblMH cornacuue B npeaenax cnora H cnosa. Cp., aartpzxep, Ta,Jl)K. SUS 'nerxoe (aaar.)' BMeCTO * suS. "PH aa, susi- 'nerxae"; ranx, sabus 'BOWb' IIMeeTO "sabuJ < "spiS- < npaupaa. "'s1jis~ (npa aa, spis-); ransc, siStan 'Clt,!l;eTb, cecn,' BMeCTO *.fistan H3 60nee paaaero nisastan.

ACCHMHm1UHH CHOHJlIIHTOB OTMe'laeTCH H B npyrax nnnoesponeqcxax sssrxax rpynml <:<eaT3M)). Cp., aanpaxep, IIp.-HHll. suska- 'CYXOH' BMeeTO "suska- ll3 nnnonpaa. *sus-ka- (npa all. huska-) < H.-e. "sus-ko-; lIHT. saiisas 'CYXOH', sausra 'sacyxa' BMecTC "sa uias , "'sausra. H3 H.-e. "saus- : sus- [Pok. lEW, 880-881] (npa JlHT. ausra '3apJI'. me B OTCyrCTBHe H3'1aJlbHOro s- npasano RUKI nepeseno H.-e. *-s- > "'·s·).

§ 67. Xapaxrepno, 'lTO OTMe'leHHa.sJ B pamreu npacnaasncxou mrceHMHmllI.H)I B onpeneneaaux KOHCOHaHTHbIX rpynnax, Tun a * sr > '" str rEepHw1'eHH 1961. 139], .Il1lSJ paaaero COCTOSIHID! npaapaucxoro He npocnexanaerca. B HpaHCKHX )I3blKax D.HCCHMHJ1)1lJ,HJI OTMe'laeTC)I JIlllllb crmpa,IUi'lecKH H fJiaBHblM OOPa30M B Bu,ne Bblna,I:[eHIDI O.!]HOro li3 OoUHOKa'lecTBeHHbIX cornacnstx HJIH cnoros (T .e. B BHIle BbllaIleHHSI O)lHOH li3 r "PH HaJlH'lHH II cnose nayx r [Boromorioa 1976] HJIH TaK Ha3blBaeMoH fanJIOJIOnm, OTMe'laeMOH yxe B ssuxe ABeCTbI, CM. [Beekes 1988, 103]).

70

AHaJIOfUJI

§ 68. Eme GOlIee CJIOiKHLI HlMeHeHIDl, BLlJLlBaeMLle ananoruea, B TOM '1HCJle H B CJIOBaX, conepxanrnx npeaaae CHGHrulHTLl. 1'13 HUX MO)l{HO asrnernrn, nsa rnrra: t) 3HaJIOnm '1RCTO cpOHeTU'IeCKHe R 2) ananoruu, CIDIJalIHble C MOp$)JI0rH'IeCKHMH U ClIoBOo6pa30BaTeJIbHblMH npoueccaMH, T.e. 06yc.rroBJIeHHble onpeneneaasnra BHllaMH ceaarrrasecxoro OTO)l{,lJ.eCTBJleUH.lJ rex IDIU HHblX CJI0l!o¢'OPM C ll.pyrnMH CJIOBOCPOPMaMU.

§ 69. K rrepaoay nmy OTHOCHTCg nepexon HH,Il;OHpaH. *s B o6~eapan. *s nOCJ1e JIa6HaJIbHblX cornacnsrx, npoacxonasumri, nO-BH.llHMOMY, no ananornn C nepexonox *$ > *s B TOil: )fCe n03HUHH, KOTOphlH C~PMHPOl!aJlCR pansure, )]0 yrparsr ¢oHeMO" >t:s nransntero KOMnOHeHTa apraKyllilLlHH (CM. § 3). Cp. 3aKOHOMepHhlR nepexon *ps > is: aa. fluman'X03RHH eKOTa' (npu .n:p.-HHD:. pasuman-); KJI. rrepc. Jupiin. Ta,IJ;)IC .fubon, (:upon 'nacryx, Qa5aH' H3 *flu-piina-, me *flu- < *p(a)su-, cpo as. pasu'CKOT' H3 H.-e. >t:pek- [Pok. lEW. 797]; TO xe Bas. flarama-, KJI. rrepc. sarm 'crsur' H3 *fsarma- < "psarma- (?) H3 H.-e. *kormo-, cp. cr.vcnas. cpax» [Pok. lEW, 615].

K CJI)"IailM CPOHeTH':IecKOH aaanorau MO)KeT OTHOCHTbCR, aanpaxep, nepexon 'Ips> Is: as, drafia-, KJI. nepc. dirafi ':3HaM5I' (npn .np.-HH.D;. drapsa.-) H3 H.-e. "drep- : drop- + s (cp, [Bartholomae 1895, 17; Pok. lEW, 211]); as. aft 'sona' - HOM, e,a."'i. OT *iip· + s; B03MO)KHO, CfO.D;a ::t:e OTHOCHTCl1 as. nafSu - JIOKaTHB MH,'i. OT napiit- ; napt- 'BilyK' H3 a-e. *nept-su rtpz paHHeM BJ,]na.n:eHHH *+: O.D,HaKO B nOCJle.D;HHX rrpauepax He HCIUIIO'IeHa H MopCP0J10m':leCKIUI aaanoras, KaK. B CJlaSRHCKJ.tX Jl:3bJKaX (ex, HH)I(e).

§ 70. 113 J.t3MeHeHH" no ananoraa, ceasaaaux c JIeKCH'IeeKHMH H MOp¢OJIOrnqeCKHMH napa.n:HI'MaMU OT xopaen C CHGHJ1S1HTaMH B npaHpaHCKHH U npaemlBJIHCKHH nepaonu, HaHl50nee xapaxrepnsr cnenyiourae.

§ 71. A. CTa6HmnaUHSI eanaoro aasarrsaoro KopHeBoro CH6HJISlHTa, HHe 3aBHCHMOCTH or 06JIHKa npesopaesax :meMeHTOB. TaKOBbI OTMe'iaBumecs B npesneapaacxax 1I3hlKax (KaK H B .n:pesHeHH,[l,HHCKOM) nepefioa nasansnoro xopaesoro otimeapau. *h- (H3 * SO, cp. '[]'p.-HHJ]. s-) H * i- B CJ1y<13l1X, xorna OHU yxe He 6bmn 06ycnoRJIeHhl CPOHeTH'IecKOH n03HLlHej:j.

TaK, npaapaacxna xopens * had- 'CaIIHTbCH, CHlIeTb; cax an- , « HH,llOapan. *sad- < .L-e. * s ed- [Pok. lEW, 884-887)), ynorpeonsscs S rnaronsaux rpopxax OObl'lHO C npeaepriox "ni-, npH06peTaJI npa 3TOM saK:OHOMepHhIH: OMHK *-sad-. O.El,HaKO B npO.El,OJI)KeHffiX ¢OPM 3TOro marana yxe B lIpeSHOCTH Ha6mOlIaIOTeg sapaaarsr c 'Ii- npa cnenosanun ~OpIDI He HenOCpeJJ.CTBeHHO sa npeseptiov, a sa BCTaBruleMbiM nocne npeItep6a a)'IMeHTOM -a-: ap-nepc. HMnepq,eKT niya.§adayam '[.iI] YCTaHOBHJI,

71

nocaaan' (U B Il:p.-HH,lI. nyaiidnt), no auanoraa c <i>opMaMH npeseaca, HaqHHatomHMHCg na ni-s-,

B .uaJlbUeHWeM B g3I>1KaX, me npeeepti paao yrpasuean nponyxraaHOCTh U «npapacran» K KOPHIO, .uaHHhlii rnaron npO;:J:OJDKaeTCll C pe<l>neKCaMH KopHeBOH *s-, HanpHMep lUI. nepc. OCH. HaCT. lip. nLfin- :

OCR. npow. lip. nisast- (H3 "nisasta- < ""nj-sad-ta-), T8,It:IK. pasr, sin- : siSt (c coxpaaeaaeu S- H nocne yrparsr npesepoa) H T • .II.

B 1I31dKaX, rae npeaepfi ,!l,OJIbllIe COXpaHllJI npO.II)'KTHBHOCTb, KopeHh ,n:OJIbWe 1I0CnpHHHMaJICli KaK caaocrosremaas Mop¢eMa H np0,UO,lDKaJIC}I C pe$IeKcoM '" h- naxe npa nOC]]eJIYlOm:eM cpanietraa ero C npeaepfoa: cp., uanpauep, urym. nib- : niist, JIlL niD- : nayust (Dl ""ni-had-ja- : ni-hasta- < "ni-had-ta-) 'canarscs, CH,l1eTb'. JIlO60nhITHl:l HCTOPHli sroro rnarnna B HUIKalUHMCKDM :UhlKe: 3,1J.eCb OCH. HaCT. Bp. nid- « *ni-had-ja-) coxpaaaer CJJe.u;bI ornOCHTeJIbHO ,WIHTeJlhHOH II . naaxpoaaa npOll)'KTHIIHOCTH rrpesepria (H COOTBeTCTBeHHO CaMOCTOllTeJ1bHOCTH xopas) B CPOPMO- 06pa30llaHHH ('ITO eC'I'eCTBeHHO npn D3MetUleMOCTH rnarona no J1HUaJ,t H l.IHCJ13M), a OCH. IIpOlU. lip. nbY!ust, npo):(OJI::KaIDlll,aJI npH<JaCTHe (*ni-iasta- < "ni-sad-ta-], BbUlBJIXeT OTHOCHTeJlbHO paimee aacrsraaaue cpOPMbI (u COQTBeTCTBeHHO npapaurenue rrpeaeptia K KOpHlO).

Cxonasre nepefioa no aHaJ10ruD OTMe<JalOTCiI B CJlaBllHCKHX JllblKax II npo,!{OJI.:KeHnlIX rJIaIUJlOB OT STOIO )ICe aunoeaporreacxoro KOpHli c npelfIHKCOM na -i: Cpo CJ1aB. prisideti, pyc, npucecms C perpnexcoa H.-e. * rII liMe s-, HO CJIaB. pri-xod-, pri-xoditi, pyc. npuxodumb C 3aKOHOMepHblM perpnexcoa H.-e. '" S- II BH,Ile x- B npO,[lOJDKeHHH npoaasoanoro OT marana * sed- : '* sod- II ornacoaxe * sod- II 3Hal.leHUU 'HATH' (CM. [Pok. lEW, 884-887; Bepmtrrefia 1%1, 163-164)).

B npancxoa cease MHOro nepeeoes rasoro THTIa Ha6JIIo,UaeTCH yxe B SI3ldKe A eecru. Hanpassep, OT KOPHSI *haik- <JIHTb' « UH,UOl{Pau. "saik- < H.-e. *seikw- [Pok. lEW, 893-894]) HMelOTCJI, C ollHon cropoHbl, aa, n. fra-saek~m 'npOJIHBaHHe' (a6cOIlKlTHII C S BMeCTO *h, HapHJzy c «rrpaaansnuu» [ra-hixtem 'rrpOJlHThlH' - npas. M.p. en.s, B aKK.), C .IIpyroH - aa. n. paiti-hincaiti 'nponasaer' (c h BMeCTO '*§); OT KOpIDI *sra· 'CTOilTb, CTaIlHTh' < HHJl:OHpaH. "'sta- < H.-e. "'stii- [Pok. lEW, 1004-1010] - aa. paiti-stayatu 'ocTaHOBUJI' (c s BMeCTO "'s, cpo .n:p.-HfL't. pratif{hiiya-) UP" «rrpaBHJIbHOM» paiti-stiiiti K T.rr. (rronpofieee CM. rn artholomae 1895, 18; Reichelt 1909, 55]).

Hannsne TaxHX «KOpHen-l1BOHHHKOB» C s- : h- U C .5- : s- B snoxy, xorna npHQHHa ax rroaanenas 6b1JIa yrpaneaa, rrpHBe.TIO aopoacrpaiicxax JKpeUOB - KO.D.HlfIHKaTopoB Asecru K nOnbITKaM «HOPMaJIHlOllaTb» aaqaJIO KOPHII, coxpausa rrpn ::!TOM H 3J1eMeHT S B CJ10Bo<i>opMe. PeaynrraTOM :KIIHJIHCh ¢OpMLI C pacmenneaaea Ha'laJIbHOH xopaeaotl COmaCHO"

12

ua nOCJle,llOBaTeJIbUOCTb ,IlByx q,OHeM: S + h, .f + S, H3 KOTOPblX BTOpali c}loHeMa OTHOCHJlaCb K KOPHIO, a nepaas eocnpanaxanacs KaK 3aMhIKaK}was: npexopaesyro Mop¢eMy (snesretrr KOMn03HTa, npesepo HJIH 3J1eMeHT Y.!ISOeUWl B perrynnauapoaaaasrx OCHOBax). nanpaxep, aa, r. hus-haxa (HOM. e;VI. M.p.) ',Il06Ph1H non YT'I HK • npyr' BMecTO *hu·.faxa, cp. Ap.·HH,ll. su.ytikha (H3 H.-e. *su-, SU- 'XOPOUlHH, xopouso' [Pok, lEW, 1037-1038] H H.-e. *sekw- 'CJIe)l.OBaTb sa' [Pok, lEW, 896]); as. n. nis-hibaiti 'CH.QHT' BMecTO *ni-sioa· (cu. ssnuej: aa. n. ii-his-haxti 'CJIeJzyeT 3a' BMecTO *hisak/x· (peJIYIUlHLlHpoBaHHruI ocnoaa OT "hak/x- < H.-e. *sekw-, rne *hi· < I1H.1loI1paH.*si- < H.·e. "se- - 3J1eMeHT Y.llBoeHHlI), cp, .ctp.-lflI.Il. sisakti; aa, IT. hu.s-xvafa '[oa] 3acHYJI' (nep¢. aKT. 3-m JI. en.x.) < *hu-xvapa < aaaoapaa, *su-sljap-, cp. n:p.·HH.U. susviipa (c ~JIeMeHTOM ynaoeuaa upaupaa. *hu- < KH){ORpaH. "'su- OT npaapaa, ICOpIDl *xvap-, hVap- : hup- 'crrars; COH' 113 HH,lWHPau. *sy.ap- : sup- < ".-e. *r'lep- : sup- [Pok. lEW, 1048-1049]). Iloapooaee 06 :aTOM Tune ananoraxecxax H3MeHeHHH a sasrxe Asecru CM. [Reichelt 1909, 55-56].

B nexcevax, me nH,Il:OHpaH. "'51! yxe 3aKpenHJIOCL B sane lip. -apan. *x~ J hv> aBo xv, Taxoe pacmenneane HaOnlO,lIaeTCSI. 3HU'LJHTeJIbHO pexe - O'LJeHH,UHO, K nepHO.IlY KOJJ:H£lnlKUlI;I-IH Asecrsr 31'HMOJIOnf"leCKIDl CHJn" Me))(,!lY HeKOTopbIMH 4>oPMilMH U nexceaaxa C x~' H S 6hlJIa I! 3Haql1TeJIbHOH Mepe saryuresaaa H rrpsuue accouaauan Mex.uy HlIM" y:;Ke He B03- HHKaJlH (cu., HaIIpHMep, CO':leTaHHJI npesepoa paiti < "'pati C KOpIDIMH xVar-, xsah-, xVab· H r.n, [Barth. AiW, 1863, 1866, 1875 '" CJI.]).

113 "'HhIX THnOI! auanoran cnenyer oraenrrs I! HeKOTopLIX I!QCTO'fIJO"PaHCKHX 9.3i..tKax TpaHC¢opMaIl,U1O rnaronsaax <>CHOB O'I' KopHefi c *h- < H.-e. '" s- 110 rany peaynnanapoeamrux, C 3aMeHOH "'h- sa *-s- (u C noCJIe,uymw:eH 1paHctP0pMauHeH *-s-, 06bI<IHOH ,IlJI}I Ka)K,!J;oro 113 H3hIKOB), T.e. C H3MeHeHueM Ha':lalThHOH '1aCT" no tarry ,IIp.-HpaH. *hi-s"V-, KaK Y peJIYIllIHuHpOBaHHLlX C "H.ll:OMpaH. *ri-N - < H.-e. *.ti-sV - HJlH *.5<.I-SV-, XOTJI nCTOpH'IeCKH OHi-l He HMCJlH Y.!ISOeHHIf, 31'0 nenanocs, B03MO::KHO, P8,[(H H36elKaIlMJI yrpaThT "h- (CBOHCTBeHHOll ~tHOrnM BOCTO'fHOHpaHCKHM l!1blKaM) H coxpaneaaa aanaymoti I-IHTeHCHHHOC1:H. eM. myra. bitis·, 6.llK. blways-, xytP. bi/uways-, cap. bbt.lis- 'pacnyxars, HaJIYBaTi..CSI' < *upa-(hi-)Sik-.t-ja-, Kate 6lJ K3 IlTOPH'IHOro "'(hi-)saik- OT xopna "'haik(cp. aa. haek-) < HH,IlOHP3H. "'saik- < H.-e. *seikw-. B ,IlaJIbHeHllIeM B ~THX rnaronax *s sMecro *h saxpenarracs B cocraae KOPHSI., " pedinexcsr .., S rrpacyrcrsyior naxe -a npononxennsx npH'lacntH na >I< -ta H 01TJlaronsnux HMeR, He nonpasyaeaarourax HCTOpH'IeeKOH penynnaxanaa, XOTSJ B KaKOI1:-TO crenenu 3TOT npouecc 6hUl CB}}UH C <tmHeTI1'1ecKOH TeH.IleHUHeil: K aHJJaYTHOH HHTeHCHBltOCTH, CBOHCTseHHOH lIaHHhlM Sl3blKaM, CaM Bld50p HMeRJlO "'§ HMecTO *h YKa1b1BaeT, 'ITO 3aMeHa npOlJJOUDIa

73

roma, KOr)Ia <repe.o:osaHHe h- : §- B fiJoPMax npymx rnaronoa ewe He npemtTCTIlOBaJ10 OTO)K.lleCTBJIemno STHX $JPM xax npeacrasarenea enaHail: JleKceMbf, H 'lTO TaKaR JaMeHa 6I>VIa 06JllaHa aHaJlOnm c 3THMH rna['QI1aMH (MaTepHaTl CM. ICfB5I-Il>, 102-103]).

§ 72. E. Cra6HJlH3aUID1 eaanoro KOHe'lHoro xopaesoro CU6H.Jl.HHT2, SHe Ja.Jl.HCHMOCrH OT o6nHKa rrocrxopaeesrx 3J1eMeHTOB. Ciona OTHOC5ITCJl MHOfO'-1HCJJeHHhle npHMephl paauoapeaeaaux nepetioes R pa:llIH'IHhlx. HpaHcKHx li3b1K3X B HCXOlle rnaronsaeax KopHeR, BblcrynalOll.I,HX B palHhlX $:lPMax, aanpaxep B oCHOBax aacrosurero epexeuu (H3 .npeSHHX npesearuux OCHOS, me CH6HJI5IHTLI Mom" OKa3aTLCH " nepen rrtacasra, H nepen COrnaCHLIM Cy¢cpHKca WIll <l>nex.CHH), B ocaosax npomemnero BpeMeHH (m npll'-lacTIiH npouremuero BpeMeH") H B QITJIarOJIhHhlX HMeaax (rne CH6HJU1HThI npaKTII'IecKH acerna OK33hlBaJUfCh nepen COfJIaCRhIMH WIH nepen HeCJIoroBI>lMH BapHaHTaMH IIpeBHIIX COHaHroB),

Pe3}'J1LTarn aaanorna HanHUO Y:lKe B Aaecre: cp, an, vasna 'SOJIero, no BMe' (npz 3aKoHoMepRoM np-nepc, va.fna) < npaapaa. *1,!LJina- OT KOpHl! *~ai- c H.-e. *Ij£k. - no auanoruu C nepexonou *$ > S MeJKllY maCHhlMH B npyrax cpopMax OT 3TOm KOpIDI (cp, aa, usani, vasemi H r.n.); as. yasnO 'nO"lHTaHHe, nOlOIoHeHHe; xepreonpuaomeaae' (npa np-nepc, *yaina- > KJI. nepc. jasn 'npa3Jl.HHK') III npanpaa. "{aina- « HH.llOupan. * iajna·, cp. .lI.p.-UH.Il. yajna-) OT KOPHJI * iai- < a-e. * jag· - no aHan:ornn CaB. yaza-, CIO,ll.a ;t(e - ,ll.p.-nepc. u-frasta 'xopomeHbKo HaKaJaHHhIH'. 6YKB. 'xopouro-cnpomemuril' 03 +hu-frosta- < *-pra.i-ta- < H.-e. *prek-to- - no aHaJlOrHU C npeJeHTHOH OCHDOOH pars- : fras- C HHX03- THBHhlM CyrI>¢HKCOM "'-sa < >f.-SSG < *-ske (r.e. "'praS-sa- < +prek-ske-).

B )J.aJlhHeHmeM ::ITa auanorua yCH}lHBaeTC~, OC06eHHO OpH sxoxneHHH OCHOB aacrosurero apexeaa (H3 .upeBHHX npeseurusrx) H OCHOB npomeaurero apesseua (npO)lOJDKalOlUHX npenaae npU'IaCTUH lIJlD UOCTpoeHRhIX no UX Tuny) B e.ui'mylO npOll)'KTHBHyro napanarsry rnarona '" npH BKJIlO'IeHHH MexaHH1Ma BHyrpunapaJ]ofMaTH'IeCKoro BhIpaBHHBaHUH, 3n.eCb OTMe'laJO'rCH pasaouanpaaneuusre npoueccu, pasanxaioutaecs KaK Me:lKllY H3blKaMU (cp. H3L pis- : pist 'en paumnars' C s B QCROBe npour, ap, no aHaJlOrHU C ocaoaoa RaCT. sp., HO myra. wax· : weir 'rranars' 113 ofimeapan. Kopml *(!ai- C i B OCROBe RaCT. Bp. no aHaJlOrI1U C OCHOBO" "porn. ep.), TaK 11 Me)!()lY OT,n:eJlbHbIMO rnaronaaa OIlHOro Jl3bIKa. B psne CJI)"IaeB rasaa aHaJIOrUH xorna cnOC06CTIJOBaTb He 3aMeHe B "POllIlIOM oaaoro Cu6HlISUlTa .upyfHM, 3 «TopMO>KeHUlO» palBUTHH Tom }f(e cH6HJUIHTa - no 3HaJIOfHH C npyraua q,OPM3MH IDIH rn:aro.rraMH, r,a:e CI16WI.I:IHT ssrcryrraer B GOJ1ee apxaH<JHmi ¢opMe 611aro.uap)I «xoacepaapyioinea» q,OHeTH'leCKOH n03HIl.I1U (MarepUaJI CM_ [CfB.5I-cJ>, 108 H CII.]).

74

§ 73. B. CTa6HJ1H3aUIDI o611HKa rrocrxopaessrx 3.1TeMeHTOB, coaepxaIUHX CH6HJU1HTLI. sue 3allHCHMOCTH OT HCXO,[la KOPlUI HJlH npoxexyrosHbIX 3)}eMeHTOB. Cp, pedinexcsr 3HlUIHTHKH 3-ro 11., T.e. yxa3aTeJlbHoit, C otiureapan, *h- WIH *5-, B 3aBHCHMOCTH OT acxona npenurecraoaasurero CJIOBa: eJl.'!. reu-nar. *hai. *sai « HH.lIoHpaH. "sai, *.fai < H.-e. *sei), aKK. *him. *' sim n ·LA. B asecndt:cKoM npa coxpaaeuaa 4l0pM C h- H .~RapHaHThI c h- pacnpoCTpaIDIIOTC:l[ H ua raxze n03HUHH, rne no npasanaM OJKMJlaJtHCb 6bl BapliaHTbJ C s- (yezi hoi, ta! zi hOi, HO " yezi .fe). B npesaenepcancxoa, aaotiopor, reaepamraoaancs BapHaHT c 5- (adam-tim, adam-saiy, ura·saiy, avaiJa-saiy, CM. [Barth. AiW, 1721-1727, ocotieauo 1726, npaaes.l).

B 6o.nee n03JlHHX :l£3blKaX Ha6.moDaeTC5I yxe nOJIHruI YHHClmKauWl: aapnanrn c "'s- (06w!HO pe$JeKcLI reu-nar, >l'sai) CTaHOB5ITC:l[ ytlHaepcartbHldMH rrpaxraxecxa )],.lUI scex 3anll,!J;HOHpaHCKHx Jl3b1KOB (cp. Tan. -(b)§, uraxpyna -(e)s, cp.-nepc.-as, lUI. rrepc., CORp. nepc., ranx. -as, napa -as, -es, ananexrsr q,apc:a -ii, -iii, -ei H D.P_. Ma3. -s H T.D..) H W151 '1aCTH BOCTO'lHORpaHcKHx (cp, com. Crapste nacsaa -sy, -5, 6YM., Myr., xp. -sy. MaH. -sy(y), -i, ~fH. -(i)s, -i); '1aCTb BOCTo"!HoHpaHcKHx l:I3blKOB YHmpHuapcsana pe¢.rieKcbI sapaaura *hai (cp. kOP, 3we n. en.s. h(yJ, xc. r, yii, IIIItT. 3-e n, en. H MH.q. ),e); B naMUpCXHX jl3blXaX ¢IopMa "hai OTpa3Hnact B BlUle rnaronsuoro ornenseaoro nOKaJaTeJUl 3-ro 11. en,x. OP" ¢lOp Max npowe.u.urnx BpeMen (xepea sran yrtorpetineans renaraaa :;JHKJillTHXU )l,I1l:! 0603HaQeHHl:! cy6r.eKTa lleHCTaHl:! B KOHCTpyKUHKX C nepexonHhlMH rnaronaxa) - B uryruano-pymancxon l:!lldKOBOll rpynne, aaxaaeXOM. HWKaIUHMCKOM 513b1Kax. -i, ssr. -ay. B OCeTHHCKOM Jl3b1Xe SITU eapaaarst saxpenanacs sa onpeJJ.eJIeHHbIMH rpaMMaTH'!eCKHMH ¢OpMaMH: 3HIUIHTHKa 3-ro JI. en.u, jre. tj I lB H D.HropcKoe ynapaoe MecTOHMeHHe je 'TOT' - H3 sapaanra "hal (rrocneaaee, B03MOIKflO, rrpa KOHTaMHHaU,JIH c perpnexcox npesuero }'Ka3aTem,Horo MeCTOHMeHWl: "'ha-). a :;JHKJIlITHK8 3·ro II. MH."!. SEe - H'3. aapaaara * sai (B03MOXHO. "PH KOHTaMHHaUHH C y.n.aPHbJM yKa3aTCJIbHbIM MeCTOHMeHHeM B ¢opMe *aiSlim).

§ 74. tlJopMooopalyIDwHe nQCTKOpHeSbie WleMetlTbl C cH6H1l5lHTaMH BWIBJlJUOTCJI rpyaaee, nocxonsxy MHorne H3 HHX B apancxax lI'3.hIKi\X yrpaneasr (xax H npyrae nocrxopseasre ¢OpMaHThJ. CM. HH::Ke). O.QHaKO Ii 3D.eCb B yuenearnex MaTepHaJIe Ha6.mOllalOTCK «c60H» aaanoravecxoro npOHCXOJ\.QeHIDl. K TalCUM MO:KeT OTHOCHThCS, B 'I aCTHOCTH , ynousnyTl,m same a:aeCTHHCKIIH JlOKaTIiB MH. ':lHCJIa nafiu (OT napiit- : napt'auyx'), ecJIH ycxarpasars snecs He npauoe npO,!{OJI)!(eHHe aunoeaporreilcxoro *nept-su- COT *nepo(- [Pol. lEW, 764J) C Bblna.QeHHeM *+ (CM, ssnne), a rpancrpopaanmo OKOH'IaHH5I no aaanornn C OKOH'IaHIDiMH noxaraaa MH. 'IHCJla QT TeMaTl{'IeCKHX OCHOB *-,/iSIJ.. me nOHBIleHHe 5

75

laKOHOMepllO (npa 06ll.1eH 'IeHAeHWUf ApeBHHX HPaHCKHX llHaJIelCTOB K reaarasauau CKJiOHeHIDI 3TO BnOJIHe repOHTHO). Cp, COOT8eTCTBytOllIytO npaapancxoii f 8 rroxasarene nOKaTIlBa MH. ,{"CJla *-aiSu CJlaHHHcKyto X B reHepaJ1H]OBaHHOM noxasatene JlOKaHlBa MH. 1.JUCJla (nanpaaep, ienan) [Melle 1951, 316-317]. eM. TaK:4Ce o6weupaHCKyKl npaaum.nyio ¢OpMy HOMUHaTltiBa en. qucrra aa '" •. ~, me B aaafionee paHHIOKl snoxy *t nepen *.s He ssmanano, B BH)].e "napiu-s > "napiis (auanoraxayic JIaT. neptis), rrpononxneinyiocs 3aKOHOMepHO B OTlIeJIbH!XX HpanCKHX JllblKaJI., cp., aanpauep, WYrH. nibos, xar, nabes, M)'lW:lK. nawes, TaIOK • .IlHaJ1. l( .napn nawosa (B03MO~HO, socrovuoapancxoe 3aTIMCTBOBUHue) 'BHYK'. To .lKe MOlKeT OTHOCHThClI K aa. aji (CM. asnne), eCJlH yCMaTpUBaTb 3)].eCb aaanonno C orpaxeaaex B HOMHHaTHBe <s > -$ nocrre BeJUlPHblX.

§ 75. Oc06HSlKoM CTOilT HeKOTopLIe <t>oPMaHThI, conepxanme cH6HilllHTbI, reaepanasauas KOTOPWX ,.BHO 3aBHCHT OT ax npO.IJ.}'KTuBHOCTH. TaK, uanpaxep, B rnaronsuon cacreae CHrMaTH'IecKHH Cy¢qJHKC aopacra, yrpaTJ.fBWHH npOllYKTHBHOCTb B aoupancxyio WlH panneapaacxyio snoxy, crporo nomaasercs npaaanax sepeaosauaa UMoupaH. :I<·s : -S > npaHp8H. *-h : -i. Cp, nOCTeneHHYID reHepaJIH3aJ..UUO IPOPM CllrMaTHQeCKoro aopucra C -x B p}I,lIe JlpeRHHX CJlaB1lHCKHX llHaJleKTOB [Meae 1951, 171, 201, 205 I1 CJI.].

Cy¢I¢lHKC :lKe, npononxaiouiaa HHXOaTHBHbU1 H.·e. *-skelo- (xepea sranLl apaacx. :I<-sea- > npaapau. <ssa- > <sa-, "P" Ap.-HH)l. *-sea :> -ccha; H CTaBIlI"" B 60J1bIllHHCTBe apaacxux jl3blKOB maronsasnr noxarareneu HerrepeXQHHOCTJ.J II CQCTOgHruJ, coxpaasn npoJ]YKTHBHOCTh B reseaae O'leHh ,lI.J111TeJlbHOrO BpeMeRH (nanpnxep, OR GhlJ1 npOn)'KTUBHblM naxe B paHHewyrHaRCKOM, }':iKe JIOCJIe pasneneaua myraano-pyiuancxon rpynJIbI) H 6hUI cymecTBeHHblM llJIlI jl3blKOB C SlpKO BblpXKeHHOll xareropaef rrepeXOJIHOCTll - aenepexonaocru B rnarone. 3"ro coxpaaano em B sane -j- (H BTOpH'fHOro -c- < .J-) B pa3H1>JX !J3bIKax B Pil.3JIH<JHhIX JI03HUH.!IX (8 TOM 'lHCJle U B Tex. me rpynnsr rana ·Cs, *Vs rronaepranacs paanaxHbIM H3MeHeHIDIM, CTII'I(eHHlIM H T.II.). r.e. aonpexa "POqUM ¢OHeTU'Ie· CKHM TeH.El.eHUHIfM H 38KOHOMepHocTSIM. (06 orpaxenan HHxoaTHBHoro cyq,qmKca B sane -sk B npaCJIaIDlHCKOM CM. auiue.)

.5JpX8.11 BlJpa:lKeHHOCTb -."- B :nOM cy¢q:mKce, «noaaanmoinas. B apanCKHX JI3b1K8X cocenuae 3BYKH H napytuasnuas HCTOPUKO-¢OHentqeCKHe aaxoau, BblSlBJ1l1eTCjI yxe B .IJ.peBHOCTH: eM. aa, usaiti 'paccseraer' (BMecTo oxunaessoro *uS-.~aitj; TO )ICe (<IIOll.aBJIeHHe>J. *.5 CM. B Ll.p.-HHJl. ucchati) "3 H,·e. "us-ske-ti. npa npS»WlbUOM OTpOULeHUH 'roro }f(C KOPR)! B as, uiah- 'yrpeUHJl.ll sapa' < H.-e. '"us·as· (nonpotiaee CM. HH)I(e; eM. raxxe § II " CJ1.). Ta ;«e OC06eHHOCTb aroro CY¢¢HKca HaMiO.uaeTCjI B noanaee, XOTJI B )KHllbIX il.3h1KaX C8MB CJlOBoq,OPMbI rtpencraior HHOf.IJ.a

76

Wa'lHTeJII>HO nepecrpoeaasneu B pesynvrare aenasaero 3aT)'XaHIDI ero npoll}'KTHBHOCTI,C cp, uryrn. ris-, ssr. raxs- 'ocrasarsca' < "rlk-sa- OT sopns "raik- < H.-e. *Ieikw- [Pok, lEW. 669] (rrpn wym. pirei- 'nocxnan' OT TOro .lICe KOpHSI C paHHHM pacnpocrpauarenex *·s H 3aTeJ.1 C nepexonoa *-k-s > *-x.s > -x); lUI. nepc. xusp-, xusb-, 6en. waps-, wasp-, wafs- 'CnaTI>' < np-xpaa. * xVap-sa- OT xopus * xVap- : hup- (H3 It.-e, *sljep- : sup-y; KJI. nepc. casp-, casb- 'npananars, npncraaars' < "'cap-sa· OT KOpHiI *cap· (H3 a-e. *kep-) H T.Jl.

Haomonarorcs lt MHome npyrae HCKJIlO'feHHiI H3 06WHX HCTOPHKO-q,OHeTHlJeCKHX npasaa pa3BHTHSI CHGHJUIHTOB B PaJHblX "paHCKHx H CJIaBilHCKHX il3blKax, casaauusie C B03.lleUCTImeM ananorna.

§ 76. Cnenyer euie paa nonvepxnyrs, 'lTD nOSIRJleHHe TaKHX «3aKOHOMepUbiX HCKJIIO'ieIlHH» non B0311eHCTBHeM aaanoran xapaxrepao npexne acero )],JUI rex cnosorpopa (H n03HUHU B HHX), KOTOPble etne HaXOllflTCJI B crpepe npO).{yKTHBHOCTI1 onpenenenuux CJIOB0l13MemtTeJIbHblX H C]lOBO- 06pa30SaTeJII>HI>IX q,opMaHTOB HJ1H MOlleJIen H KOTOpbJe He yrparnnu OC03HaBaeMYID 3THMOnOrH'leCKYID CBil31> ofiuiax WIeMeHTOB. TeM caMhlM cpoHn~OrHlJeCKal! aual0rn:li 1UeCb HaXO~HTCli B HepapXHlJecKoH 3aBHCH· MOCTH OT Mop<fiOJIOrn<leCKOH, cJIoBo06pa30BaTeJIbHOH Ii - B KOHe<{HOM csere - CeMaHTIftleCKOU aHaJlOrHH [KYPHJ10BH<{ 1962, t 12].

§ 77. Ilpn paaaeu xe (BO BCSlKOM cnysae, .110 yrparsr 'iepeIlOBaHHH CH6HJ1i1HTOB) saryxaaaa npollytcrHBHOCTH TaKHX oGpa'30BaHHH, rrpa yrpa're OC03HaHmi ceMaHTH<leCKOro e)J;J.fHCTBa CJlOBoq,OpM, "POH3BOJlHblX OT e.LIHHOro xopas HJIH OTHOCilIUHXOI K e,D.HHOMY napanurxarasecxoey PlUIY, aaanoras acseaaer, H aaxpennasorcx npaaamnue JIHHHH HX PaJBHTIDl. Cp, npononxeaax MeCTOlfMeHmI 2-ro JI. MH.'1. B B~e 3HKJIHTHKH: H.-e. "'ljes : J.lOS"> HH,UOHpaR. "*J.lUS (cp, ;up.-vum. vus) "> npli"MpaR. *~ah "> aa. vii, vii i'I T.J(., 110 npa passaraa ero xe C HYJIeBOH CT)'IleHI>IO ornaCOBKH (".-e. *US-) If c nepexonox B "HLIOHpaHCKOM *s > *s B COCTaBe yaapnoro MeCTOHMeHHiI: H.-e. *us- > nanoapan. *us- > npaapaa, *us- - B OCHOBe HH/lOHpaH. *usma- > npaupaa. *usma· > *smn- (nanpmrep, II ¢opMe reHHTHBa: HHl]OlfpaH, *usmilkam > as. yu.smiikam, timakam, IIp.-HH,.Q. yu~makam H r.n, - C BTOpH<JHhlM aapauienaea y- (no ananoraa C HOMHlIaTlfBOM) H C rpacpH'iecKlfM aa. «:d-), l1Illl 0603Ha'leHWI [s- D.

Taxne )f(e npasamaue 11HH"" pa3BHT"Si HaWnO,llaIOTCX B CXOJl""'X cnyrasx If B npyrax auaoeeponeacxax X31>IKax rpynnsr «carau», cp., aanptorep, npoaasonaae OT H.-e. *(a)!#!s- 'CIleTHTh (0 connue), paccserars' Wok. lEW. 86, 1174]: 1) C HH,Il,oeBponeucKlfMH ornacosxaaa *f!es- : yos(H C nepexonoa CH6Hm1HTa *.~ > npaapaa, *h) - np.-HH,Il,. vasar-han-, rne vasar- 'yrpo', viisara- 'yrpeuaan; .LIeHb', vasan-ta- 'secna', au, vayri 'seCHOH' (0'3 npaapaa. *yahri < HH,IlOHpaH. *lWsri)~ npaapaa, *lJiihar- >

77

np--nepc. "ahara- - Ha3BaHHe MeCRua, KJI. nepc, bahar, ranx, bahor 'aecaa' H r.n., cp. pyc. eecua, JIUT. VQsara 'nero' Ii r.rr.; 2) C lIH,I{oeBponeHCKMMlI omaCOIIKaMH "'us-, *aus· (II C nepexonou *.1' > HH)I;OHPaH. "'s"') - .lJ.p.-HH.U. tqas- (lIen:Htf. u.rar-); ae, uSah- (HOM. usa) 'yrpennsa sapa', C nocnenyiouraaa peq,neKcaMU "'J: uryra. afat <DOCJ1e3aBTpa', sar, afaw 'nocne-nocnesasrpa, xepea naa naa' « *api-usa-), 6eJI. posi 'nOCJle3aBTPa' « "upa-usah-}. cp. nUT. auJra 'yrpeHIDDI saps', aUita 'paccseraer' " T.n.

§ 78. TaKHM o6pa30M, BTOp"'IHhle ¢loHern'leCKHe H CPOHoJ[ofH'IeCKKe npoueccu, CIIR3aHHWe C lIBJIeHHR/IIH aCcmtHnl!UIIH. aKKOMOlIaUHH H C H3MeHeHlliIMlf no aHaJIOrnH, Ha6mo,llaeMble B HpaHcKHx H CJlallilHCKIIX R3bTKax, COBnaD,aIOT JlHWb '1aCTH'iHO, H COBna,ueHHlI HOCfl anecs THlIOJlOrn'leCKHH xapaxrep, He CBSlJaHHMH C B03MOlKHOCT5IMH ocooo MHJKOH reaeranecxon oOIItHOCTH.

78

AKIJ;EHTHLIE CHCTEMLI

§ 79. Axnearnsre CHCTeMhI. npanpaacxcro H npacnaesacxoro na nanHOM arane PaJBHTHJ[ HCTOpH'leCKHX HCCJIe.rlOBaHHH CpaBHHBaTh OqeHb Henerxo: xax no 06"beX:THBHbIM npH'IHHaM HX TpynHoH CBO,n:HMOCTH, T8K H no npWIHHaM. cym,eKTHBHbtM - HX xpakae HepaBHOMepHOH H3)":1eHJIOCTH,

nOCKOJn.X:Y npaapaacxas cpOHe-nlqecKIDI, qmHOJIOrHlJecKIDI " MOpCPOnOrnqeCKIDI CHCTeMbI peKOHCTPYHPYJOTCJ[ He BO acex CBOHX noncacreaax " ocooere TPYDHOCTH B03HHKalO, IIpH asrxone aa CerMeHTHbd, COCTaB npaasuxa, Y Hac 06'J,eKTHBHO orcyrcrsyer B03MO;KHOCTb aoccosnars eKOJIhKO-HH6y.D.b DOJInym KapTHHy npoconaceceoro XapaKTepa, SKJIIO'lIDI axuenraue aneuearsr. K TOMY lee eCJlI1 no axuerrronoraa cnaSllHCKHX H3LIKOB u no ee HCTOPHH HaIIHCaHbl cepseaasre H rny60KHe HCCJle.D,OBaHHJI (H3 pa60t paccaarpnaaeuoro nepuona CM. TPYJIbI B.M.l1nnu'I-CmlTbI'I3 [MJIJ1Wl-CSHTbI'l 19631. A.A.3aIIH3flHKB (3aJ1H3HSI'K 1 985J, B . A.,rt r.r6a lllhl60 1981, 1982, 1997; ,IJ.w60, 3a!IUITHHa, HHKOJIaeB 1990] H 60JIee noamrae: pa60Th1 E,KypHJlOBHqa. K.C.CTaHra. K.36emurra H np.; eM. T3K.*:e 0530p TpYJIOB B [EHpH6a)'M 1987, 88-93, 180-182]), TO axueurnsre CHCTeMhI MHornx .*:HBhlX J.fpaHCKHX JBbIKOB H H3MeHeHmI: 3THX CJ.fCTeM B HCTOpHH npaKTH'IecKH He H3yqeHbl.

KpOMe roro, B HameM pacnopsxeuaa, B OTJlH'IHe OT accnenoearenen CJIaBSI'HCKlIX l:I3blKOB., OTCyrcTB)'IDT mtCbMeHHble naMJITHHKJ.f 60JIee paHHHX

78

snox C 06mHalJeHHblMH aKueHTaMH_ Donee rom, 6CUIhIU<UI sacrs cpenaeBeKOBbIX TeKCTOB BblMepllIHX H JKHBblX jl3blKOII, HanHCaHHW£ P33HOBHllHOCT5IMH ceMHTHlJeCKoro nacsxa, He HMeeT 0603HalJeHIDl KpaTKHX rnacastx, lIa 11 ztonrae 0603Ha'leHbl He scerna tmeKBaTHO_ HCIUIIDlJeHHe COCTaRJUlIOT 6aKTpHikKHe TCKCThI, HanHC3HHble rpesecxna nHCbMOM, n caKCKHe, aanacaaaue IIllCbMOM 6paXMH II ero UeHTPaJIbHOa3HaTCKOM sapaaare: OHn HMelOT 6)'KBM ,WlI[ rnacaux, O,o:H3KO n anecs HCTHHHhlH $:>HeTl1'lecKHH xapaKTep rnacasrx B pane cnysaes ayxaaerca B peKOHcrp)'KUHH; axueaTbT xe B nlfCbMeHHOM rexcre He 0603Ha'leHbl.

B ClmlH C O1THM npaaauxcaas ax:lleHTH35I HpaHCKa>I CHCTeMa MO:>KeT 6bITb IIpellCTaRJ1eHa TOJIbKO na OCHOBlliiHH KOCBeHHhlX naansrx H TOJlbKO B BH,lIe ell,HHH'1llbJX q,parMeHTOB,

§ 80. Ha oCHOBaHHH MaTepHaJI3 reKCTOB Aaecra npennonaraerca, 'ITO B axuearuon CHCTeMe npaapaacxoro COCTOIIHHJI erne 6blJIH PYllHMeHTbI HH):(oeBponei1cKHx TOHOB. 3TO npeAII0J10)l(eHHe 6a:mpyercli B OCHOBHOM na HeKOTopbIX MeTpH':IecKHx 3aKOHOMepHocTliX H OTJl,CJJbHblX peqmeKcax rrpaasuxoaux maCHbIX B Asecre [Reichelt 1909, 70, 80--81; Kurylowicz 1925; COKOJIOB 1961. 35, 1979, 159-160]. O):(HaKO Gonee qeTKHX CJle,uOB TOHOBhlX onnmHUHH B apaacxax 113bIKax He 06HapYA(HB3eTCli.

Cocennae c npaucKHMH Jl3b]KaMH H poncrseaaae HM aexoropue IDUlO- 3pHHCKHe Ji3b1KH (naH.Il)Ka6H, naxana) If OTJIeJJ.bHble napncxae npaoopeT310T OTHOCHTeJlbHO HHHOBali.l'lOHHble TOHOBhle ormoannaa npa yrpare acnapauaa HCTOPWIecKHMH 3BOHKHMH npH.n.hlXaTeJlhHbIMH (5IBJ1eHHe, xopoWO otThSlCHHMoe C apTHK)'l1HUHOHHhlX n03HunH H3MeHeHHeM peXHMa pa- 60Thl ronOCOBbIX CillI30K, CM. [CreUaHOB, 3):(eIIhMaH 1976, 229, 256-258]). B CBJl3H C 3THM He HCKlIIO'IeHO, <ITO TOHOBbie onnosauaa B rrpaapaucsoa CHCTeMe (eCJIH OHH CYJl..IeCTBOBWIH) MOnTH 6b1Tb He TOJIbKO npeaaaxa, yaacnenoaanmnra "3 HHD,oeBponeHCJ(oJ1 CHCTeMhl, HO n, no KpaHHeu Mepe B 'laCTH cnysaes, - BTOPH'IHblMH, B03HHKIIIHMH B naanexrax paunero ofuueapaacxoro COCTOJlHHIf npH yrpare acnapauua cepneH 3BOHKHX acnnpupoeaaaux cornacuux. !lTO liBJIeHHe MoxeT 6blTb COnOCTaBJIeHO (HO TOJIbKO nm0110m:LJeCKH!) C B03HHKHOBeHHeM socxoasmero TOHa npu yrpare HH'uoeBponeHCKHX Jl3pHHrarrhHblx B paHHeM npaCJIaBJlHCKOM (eM. (EepHIll'feHH 1961, 1421).

§ 81. )J.IDI: apancxax li3hlKOB ornensaue up06J1eMbl rrpencraanaior: a) MeCTO y.n.apeHHJI (H11H - nepaoaasansao - ""ecTO J],BHJKeHmI. rona) B CJIOB0<l>opMe; 6) cpoHeTH'leCKWI peanasauaa Tom, 'ITO "PHHJlTO Ha3h1BaTb YJJ,apeHHeM, r.e. q,OHeTH'leCKHe cnocoeu, 06YC110BJUmaromHe BbIJleJleHHOCTh CJI0ra,

KaK H3BecTHO, 11 1900 r. A.Mei1e BbJllBHuyn m:nOTe3y, cornacao KOTQPO" B npeSHenepCH.IlCICOM Il'lhlKe ynapeuae H1 1'OHOOOrO CTWIO ClUIOBhIM

79

H 3aKpenWIOCb ua npeanocnenaea CJl ore , ecrta em rnacnua 6hVI il.O!lfHM, H aa TPeTbeM cnore OT KOHlI,a, ecnn maCHbIH npennocneaaero CJ10ra 6blIl KpaTKHM; TIO, no ero MHeHHIO, nOBJIHKIlO aa nocnenyiourae Mop$l:mOnt'1eCICHe H3MeHeHIUI II rrepcxacxou, CIDI3aHHbie C omaneaaeu '3aY.!l.apHblX cnoros, COCTaRrul BWYlX <JineKCHIO [Meillet 1900, 256-257]. Iloanaee p.rOTbO pacnpocrpaaan SlTO nOJIOJKeHHe aa npyrae Hp3J:lCKHe R3blKH [Gauthict 1916, 1914-1923, 29-3-&], H II .naJIhHeffIIJeM OHO crano 'rPMHlI,HOHHblM H 6bUlO nosropeao B UeJIOM pane pa60T (CM., Hanl'l-IMep, [Kurylowicz 1958,3691-1 CJJ., 1964 (II), 1975]).

BMeCTe C reM accrrenosaana pasnsrx HPaHCKHX l:I3h1KOB H HX I-ICTOPUU )'JKe c 20-x roJ]OB CBHl(eTeJIbCTBOllaJIlI, 'ITO 3TO nQJIO:lKeHHe H)I:lK.1lae-rCJI B psne KOppeKTupoBOK. q:,HKCaUl1l:1 MecTa y.napeHIDI no yx.a'3aHHOM:Y THny He pacnpOCTpaHI:IJIaCb ua MHome HpaHCKHe 1I3b1KH (u He OXBaTI1JIa ueJIblH paa nexcex B CaMOM !IpeBHenepCl1JICKOM), K TOMy )Ke B03MO)\(HOCTh BJlllllHlIl:I y.napeHHII na Mop<JiOJIOm'leCKHe npoueccsr oxasanacs npeysena'IeHHOH (CM. B pasaene «Moprponoru» H cauraxcuc»),

§ 82. TaK, B naanexrax - npenxax OCeTHHCKOro 1I3blKa ynapeaae '3aKpel1H.11OCh aa nepaox cnore, ecna OH conepxan CWIhHhlH (+- nonrau) rnacnsra, H na BTOPOM OT Ha'IaJIa, eCJlU maCHhIH nepsoro cnora 6hlJl cna6hlM [A6aeB 1924; A6. OR4J. 385-386; Gershevitch 1949, 61--63]. PH-rMI-I'IecKHe npaaana cormrncxoro g3hlKa OCHOBhIBaJIHCh na tpaxrope «raxensrx» - «JlefKHX» OCHOB: «T5I)I(eJIble» OCHOBhl. cortepxasurae 1) '[!O!lmH rnacaua, JlH50 2) KpaTKU" rnacHhlll, 3aKphlThlH llB)'MJI cornacHhlMU, nu60 3) HeCKOJIbKO cnoroa, nepersruaana na Ce6ll ynapeaue: C «nerKUMH» sroro He IIpOHCXOnIlIlO, H yaapenae nMaJIO aa cpneKcHIO [Tedesco 1926, 102 H CJI,; Gershevitch 1949, 62-63, 1954, 72 ll_ cn.]. OTKJIOHeHUjj OT TPa.IlUUUOHHOro TUIIa OTMe'laJIUCh 11 B npyrax g3hlKax:

OpMypH 1-1 napasra [Morgenstierne 1926, 17; Marg. IIFL I, 32]. B g3bIKe IIallITO (adiraacxoa) 6hlJlH 06Hap)1KeHbl cnensi npeauero xapaxrepa axuenryanaa, CXOjlHOro C BeJJ:H"'IeCKHM [Morgenstierne 1942 (I), 95-97]. BblCKa3h1BaJIHCb TaIOKe COMHeHHlI B BepHOCTH TPa,!J.HlI,HOHHOro nOJlO)l(eHIUl H npHBo,UH.I1HCb npHMephl cnenos 60JIee npellHeu axueuryauaa II Pa3HblX 1f3b1K8X, BKJlIO'IruI nepcnncxna (cp, orpaxenae B nepCHllCKOM g'3hIKe navad 'neaanocro' < *navati II P.IIJl npyrax) [Henning 1942. 52-53].

§ 83. TpYJU>1 70-x ronos U IIOCJIe,!l;)'IOWHX ner nO'3BOIlI-LIIH suaxarensao yrO'lHHTh Kap-rHHy pa3BHTHl:I axuenruux CHCTeM psna apaacxax 1I3h1KOB H BO'3MOJKHblX SlneMeHTOB axuetrryauan npaxpancxoro nepaoaa,

TaK, 6bUlH nozrrsepxneau 11 aa 60JIbWOM MaTepUaJIe noxasauu anea, sucxaaaaaue pauee F'Mopreucrsepne: B 1f3blKe naurro B UMeHHOH H rnaronsaofi CHCTeMax HaJIHllO qepTbl, xoropsre MOryr 06-bHCHJIThCJI KaK cnenu apxaasuoro p33HOMeCTHoro ynapeaas Tuna Be)lH'IecKOro [J{hI60

80

1970. 1974, 1989], eM. raxxe [Morg. 10]. Auanorasnsre CJ1enbI paaaoMecTHoro y.napeHHSI 6bllJl.f o6Hap}')KeHhl B Jl.Pyrnx Sl3hlKax, 8 ':IaCTHOCTH, B HH,Ilra. opxypa, napaxa, myruaacxox H np. (ex, pa6oTl>l [AbIOO 1972; E¢lHMOB 1979, 1986, 108-111, 1991, 276--278, 1997, 469-474; 3lteJIhMaH 1985: Iloauxynoesa 1988] H np.).

Bee 3TO n03B0J1HJIO ClIeJ1aTb BblROJI; B HpaHCKOM npassuxe uaxauyae era pacnana ewe cymeCTBOBaJIO apxaaxaoe PaJHOMe<:THoe ynapeaae TItna Be.IlH':IeCKOro. B sacra Sl.3hlKOB OHO npO)lO]DKaJTO cyurecrsoaan, aa npOTIDKeUHH ornOCHreJJbHO JVIHTe.JIbHOra BpeMeHH H nano onpeneneaasre pecf:meKChl, pasnsre no 1I3hlKaM (pasaue BIf,[lW OCHOII HMemt H rnarona, pa3JlH'IHlI HMeHHhlX H rnaronsaux rrapaaar», HeOllHOBpeMeHHOCTh npe~ 06paJOBaHIDf pa:JJIHqHblX CPOpM H T.)1.). Bo MHomx sasrxax npOHCXOIDlJlO saxpenneaae era Mecra, HO 3TOT npouecc wen rrapannensao H HeJaBHCHMO B PaJJlU'lHbIX j[3bIKax H JlHaneKTax, C paauoa CKOpOCTblO. OH 6bl1I CTHMyJmpOBaH pa3J1H'IHWMH npH'IHHaMH (OTC':IeTOM OT aauana HJHI KOHLla CJIOBOq,OpMhl, HaJJH'IHeM pasasrx HHbot norpaanxaux curaarroa CJ10Ba, «TlI)!(eCThIO» -.. «nerxocruo» QCHOBW) H rrpaaozran K qmKCaLtHH ynapenas Ita pa3JIH':IHhlX cnorax CJIOBo¢lopM, K Pa3JIH':IHblM aKUeHTHbIM cHCTeMaM.

[lpn 3TOM 8 pane il3b1KOB, B OCHOBHOM BOCTO'IHOHpaHcKoro apeana (He3aBHCHMO OT HX reHeTH':IecKoH rrpHIHI,J]f1e)!{HOCTH), rne YI1apeHHe B uaCTOlIWee spexa pa3HOMeCTHoe wm <i>J.fKCHpOBaHHoe aa cnpe)1eJIeHHOM CPOHeTHqCCKOM rum MoprpOJIOrn'-lecKoM yxacrxe cnoaa (nanpauep, aa OnpClIeJIeHHOM cnore ID1H MopcpeMe), OTMelJaIOTCll. cnenu OoJIee apxaasnoro pa3HOMeCTHoro ynapeua», T.e. CJICJlbl axnearyauaa senaxecxoro TJ.fna.

Hanpaxep, B MYH,lDKaHCKO.M 1I3bIKe, me ynapeane B JIH'IHblX .poP Max HCKOUllbiX rnaronoa nanaer aa OCHOBY (a B lIBYCJIO:lKHOH OCHOse - na BTOPOn- CJIor). P3.3JIH'laIOTC.II .!IBa KJ1aCca rJIaroJIOB, H OCHOBHhlM cpopManbH(,IM npH3HaKOM 3TOro pasnu .... HlI CJIylKHT nOK33aTeJIh 3-ro JI. en.v. B uacroame-eynymea BpeMeHH; W1.II I KJlacca - -i ruIH -r/-d, WUI II xnacca - TOJIbKO -!I-d. '3ro paJJ1HIfHe CB.ll3aHO C HeO,UHHaKOBblM oTp3)KeHHeM B HHX nOKaJaTeJHI npeseuca - nepSH':IHoro TeMaTH'IeCKoro aKTHBHoro "'-ati. Ero ofu,lIcHlum pa3JJH'IlleM "eXOM OCHOB: -j < *-ayati, -u-d < *-ati [Morg. lIFL II, 147; Fpronfiepr 1987,213], a TaK.lKe pa3BHTHeM *-yati > [-yayi) > -1, HO COBDa,JIeHHeM $-ayari H <an > *-(0)11 > -t c 3aKper1JJeHHeM -t sa nepexoaausru rnaronaaa, .J - sa uenepexoaauxa [C mMlll. 65-66,68].

MO:lKHO npennonoxars nUOKe, 'ITO B CTaHOBJlelU1H onn03HUHH arux OKOH':IaHHH cyweCTBeHHbIMH OKa3aJlHCh naa cpaKTopa: a) MCXOll OCHOB (nOCKOJ1bKY B 060HX CJI}"IalIX B HHTepBOKaJJhHOU nanaranaayiouiea n03UUHH *+ Momo /1.aTh -i), 6) aKll.eHTHa.II: xapaxrepaeraxa 3'THX CJ10Baq,OPM

61aK 53

81

B npoUlflOM (nOCI{OJlhKY npesnue rnaronsr C CHlIhHOfi omaCOBKOH, a TaJGKe KopHeBwe H TeMaTH'IeCKHe 6apUTOHaIThHhle MOfnH coxpa~Tb HeKOHeqHoe ynapenae B paHHeM:yIiJl.lK8HCKOM). ~ro BhI3blBaJIO paHHIOIO Pe..II)'KUHIO 3aynapHofi TeMaTHQecKOH rnacnoz "'a Ii *-ati " OTp8JKeHHe *-t- a nocrKOHCOHaHTHOH n03HLU1H B Blme -tl-d. B TO )Ke BpeMH rnarcnsr co CJla60H orrracoexoa, B TaK)Ke TeMaTHqeCKHe OKCHTOHaJlhHble coxpaasrra B 3TOO nepaon ynapsoe "'a B *-ati. orpaxas *-t- B HHTepBOKaJ1bHOfi nanaTaJIH3YIOIlle" nOlHU"H no rutty: <att » *-ati > *-ay > -, > -i (cp, B HHJIra -I), JIo,l(p06Hee eM. [Cf1H!-M, 86-90). BUOCIIencTBHH K CJVJbHMM rJlafOJIaM npHCOe)IHIDUlHCb no aHaJIOntH BTopwmble nepexorrxue M K8P8UfBHbIe rnaronsr (no rany nepaasnux aa "'-aia H C n03.uHMMH cy¢<I>m::CaMH), K cna5hlM rnaronax - nenepexozmae co CJ1a60H OrJIacOBIWH.

B peaynsrare HMeehl B "')'HJ1:KaHCKOM. HanpHMep. OT OCHOBh] avar'UPHHOCHTb' « *a-bara-) - 3-e rt, e.II.LJ. avit < *a-barati; or wof'nan, nnecrn, asaars' « *~afaia-) - 3-e n, en.s. weft « "'y Cif'aja ti); OT ay-, oy- 'HJITH, YXOiUlTh, exars' (OT KOpIDI *ai-) - 3-e JI. en.s. y. < "'ajari; OT ¢uyuw- 'nOBOpa'lHBaTbClI; B03BpallJ.aTbC~' « vhaca-gib-a- npa Bl'OPHLJHOU TeMaTH38UHH OT KOPfUI * gaib-) - 3-e JI. e;:v·f. ¢'UyUWI, rayawi no tPoPMe *~ca-gibatj.

Cp. TaIOKe OPMYPH nor. yoz-, KaH. yWaz- 'nanars' « *{aiia- OT KOpIDI *~ai-), HO OpMypH nor., ICBH. mr- 'yr"m:paTh' « *mr-la- OT KOpHlI *mar-) [E<I>HMOB 1986, 110]; myrn, rlWaZ- 'nerars' « *fra-Ijaia- OT KOPH.IJ *!!Qi·), urym. viir- 'uecra, npaaocura' « "bara- OT KOpH.lI *bar.), HO nryra. kay- 'peaars (pHTYaJIhHO) CKOT' « *kusa- OT KOPOSI *kauS-) LD.OJ1WxYll.oeBa 1988J; sar. waz- 'nnasars, xynarscs' « "'tu1ia- OT KOpHlI "'yai-), !:I3f. var- "aecra, rrpuaocars' « "'bara- OT KOpIDI "bar-), HO !:I3L kaw- 'peaars (pHTYaJlbHO) CKOO' « *kuSa- OT KOpHH "'kaus·) [CrB>I-M, 96] H T.Il.

Cneau npesnero pasaoaecrnoro YJ1apeHHH B rnarom.aax CHCTeMax (B OCHOBHOM B anne pa3JTHQHOra OTpa;)KeHH.lI rnacaux B HCTOpH'IeeKH 6apwromlpoflHHHhIX H OKCHTOHHP0flaHHMX rrpeserrrasrx OCHOBax) OTMe"IeHhI "IT B pane npyrnx 513hIKOB. 06HapY}I{eHUe era B HMeHHblX CHCTeMax aarpynneuo paapymeanex npeBHHX rranexanx napanarv H renepanmaUHeu HOBhIX noxasarenea MHO)KeCTBeHHOCTH 8ITl1IOTIfHaTHBHoro rnna.

§ 84. Ba)l(HbIM npe.uCT3BJD1eTClI TaX)I(e onpeaeneaae xapaxrepa $lueTHLJeCKOH peanM33UHH 'roro, qTO B "P8HCKHX !l3bIXaX xBa.rJwJmuHpye-rC!:I xaK ¢loHO.n.OfHl.!ecKHH :meMeur - YJIapeHHe, T.e, BbI1leJIeHHe cnora. 3KCnepHMeHTaJIhHhIe HCC}lenOBaHHH IIOCJleJIIUlX .lJ.ecHTHJIeTH" noxasanu, LITO B .lI3blKaX, He HMelOllJ.UX TOHOBhlX onnOJHUHH. B TOM 'lHCJIe " B )KHBhIX HPaHCK"X. ynapeuue, Ha3hlBaeMoe 06bILJHO CItllOBbIM, MO)l(eT peanmosarsell KOMrureKcoM psna Q>oHeTH'IeCKHX ¢aKTopou: 1) H3MeHeHHeM BblCOTW

82

OCHOBHOro TOHa, 2) 60JlbWeH HHTeHCHBHOCTblO (r.e. canon) 3ByqaHH.9. OCHOIlHOro TOHa B Y.Il.aPHOM cnore no cpa8HeHHIO C 6e3Y.Il.aPHbIM, 3) 6oJlLwen DlIHTeJlhHOCThIO ynapaoro rnacaoro KJIH cnora B uenox, 4) 60Jlbwei.f HHTeHCHBHOCThJ(l (H OT'ieTJlHBOCTbIO) apnucYJIJ.iUHH ynapnoro cnora OpH pe)1)'KUHH 6e3Y.llapHoro. Y)1eJJbHbli.f sec pa3Hbix KOMIIOHeHTOB Mo;t{eT 6b1Tb pa3JIH'IHbIM B pa3HblX .SJ.:lblK3X H B paansrx 3RYX:DBbIX KOHTeKCT3X, H ynapenne MOlKeT sapsaposars or npeaayiuecraemro CWlOBOrn lID npeHM}'llleCTBeHHO TOHHlIecKOro.

Bapsnposanae xapaxrepa CJIOBeCHOro YllapeHHSI natimonaercs 0 B pasnux HPaHCKHX g3h1Kax, B 13BHCHMOCTH cr cppa30Boro Y.!l3peHug H ot xapaxrepa "HTORau,ViVi cnoBOCO'teralUi.SJ.: IDl" npeJl,JlO)KeHH.SJ.: (HanpHMep, nOBecTBOBa:reJlbHOH, BOnpOCHTeJlLHOH, BOCKJlHuaTeJIbHOH '" T.lI. HHTOHaUUH npennO~eHH.9.; KOHeQHOU llJIH HeKOHe'lHOH "HTOHallHH cJlosa HITH CJIOBOCOl:feTaHOll B npe,U.J10:KeHl-Uf). TIPH HeHrpaJUBa~UH KaKoro-JlHOO H3 q,aKTopOII (II 'IacTHOCTU. OCHOBHOll) TOHa, II :JaBHCHMOCTH or ¢PaJOBOH HHTORaU"") YCHJlRBaeTCa pOJ1b Il.pyrnx: aanpustep, B nepcuncxoa H ran.llOiKCKOM .9.3hlKaX, rne ynapenae KOMlUIeKCHoe. npenayruecraenao TOHH'lecxoe, B ncxone npeMO)KeHIDI npa HeiirpaJIH3aUHH CJ10BecHOro axueara !ppa30BblM noasturenaea H1Ui nOHll)f(eHneM TOHa, KOMneHcaTopHO YCHJ1H' BaeTC~ pOJI" npyrax ¢aKTopOB - HHTeHCHBHOCTH OCHOIIHOro TOHa, 'IeTKOCTH apTHKYJI~UHH (~O ocofiemro outyruaerca B aprnxynsuaa CPOHOnorasecxoro psna HeYCTOnqH&blX rnacaux), CM. nonpocaee [HBaRoB 1972, 1975, 1977; Xacxaures 1983 J.

Xapaxrepno, 'ITO B pg,ne upaHCKHX g3b1KOB (nepc I-mCK OM, ranxasCKOM. OCeTHHCKOM. napaxa, M}'lIJUC3HCKOM H np.) OTMe"laIOTCSI cJla60cTb cnosecaoro y.!lapeHU.9. H ero JaJl.HCHMOeTb OT rppasoaoa npOCO,llHH (ca., HanpHMep, [Morg. IIFL I, 21, II, 34; A6. ose, 529 Hen.; 3allM[JIOlla 1963]). :7ra xepra HaXOLlHTCSI DO BJaHMOJaIlHCHMOCTI1 C ¢aKTOpOM I1H' TeHCHBHOCTH aPTHKYJISlUHI1 aanayrnoro cornacaoro B rrepaoa cnore CY-, K010Pblt:i B 3THX ~3hIKax arpaer pons norpannuuoro caruana H cnoco6- CTBYeT opraaasauuu CJIOBa (CM. asurre).

He HCKJlKllfeH aHaJIOrU'IHblH nepcaacxouy " T8.Il)KHKCKOMY KOMnJ1eKCRwn xapaxtep q,OHeTH'IecKOH peanasauaa ynapenas B npenuax aparrCKHX Sl3bIKax H B naanexrax npasasrxa ITOCJle yrparsr HM TOHOBhlX onno- 3U~H" (eCJIH npasnaears ox HarIHl:fHe B .l{OHpaHCKHH: nepnon).

§ 85. B .u:anbHeHweM B paJHbIX I1paHCKHX 113b1KaX uatirnonarorcs onpeJl.eJleHHble SlMeHIDI, xoropne MaryI' cannerenscrsoaan, 0 pa:lJnNHblX ."nax peamnauaa y.uapeHHl:[ B HCTOPH" ~1THX g3h1KOB. B xasecrse TaK"X CBHJJ:eTeJ]bCT8 asrc'rynasrr CJ1eJJ.YlOWHe HCTOPHKo-q,OHeTH"IeCKHe TeH,UeHl-um:.

B ':IaCTH IBbiKOB (OC06eHHO npaaaanexamax K BOCTO'tHOHpaHCKOH rpyrme) OTMe'laJOTCSI: 1) Ka'leCTBeHHM Pe.uyKU.l1ll peqmexcoa npesneupan-

83

C!QiX npenynapnux M npe)l-npeJIYJJ.apHhlX rrtacnsrx H MX OTJIH4Hoe OT yn:apHldX xasecraeanoe orpaxenae: cp »r HarJpHMep, pyui, virl;d '6paT' < *bratar- (B03MO:lKHO, B rpopae rea. e;o;.'1. "'br5tur). HO MH.'1. viradar < *br1itarah (cp. Ap."H")l. bhriita-. MH.4. bhrararah); pyur, ytk, 6apT. yoe 'OIl>Hb' < *fitr-, HO pym., oapr. arOiin 'Ollar' < *lIf)r-dfina-; 2) cJJa6aJl apraxynsimx H 3aTeM xomorecreeauas peJzyKUIDI 6e3y.naPHhlX maCHWX Ha'laJIbHblX CJlOroB, ornaneaae HatIaJ]bHWX cnoros, '.fT0 B npauuane - penxoe Ii'lilleHHe p,Jm nonasrrssonrero 60JIl>lliHHCTSa HpaHCKHX 113ldKOB C HX rsroii K aHJlayrHoH HHTeHCHBHOCTH, HO aepensoe AJIH cornnacxoro Ii srnofcxoro (B03MO)KHhrn JIOnOJlHlireJIhHhlH pesynsrar rpaxropa «TjlXeJlMX» OCHOB). Cp., narrpaxep, Jim. lifOr 'xersrpe' < *catljar-; JIm, tuxoy'yoHBaTb' < *pali.xvah-aja-; rmrr, sal 'JlIlauuaTb' HJ nparpopxa *ljlsati (c HHHOllaU;HOHHbIM ynapeaxeu), npa mOT. -wlit BO BTOpOH xacrn CJlO)((ltbIX "HCJ1HTeJIbHblX - H3 *-yisati (c apxaasasrx ynapeaneu) [Morg. EVP, 22). 3TH TeIWeHUHH MOryr paaaarscs "PM npeaxyuiecrBeHHO CH]]OBOM H JIOCTaT04HO CHJII>HOM y,llapemm B mranexrax - npenxax :nHX Sl3hlKOB.

B pane npyrax JllblKOB (ocotienao sanaanoapaacxax) OrMe'leHbl oopaT"hie reunenuaa: 1) CXO.D,Hoe HIlH OIUrnaxOBOe OTpa;KeHHe O,nH"X M rex xe npesnax fJlaCHI>IX B y.uapHoH Ii npen- HJIH npea-rrpeayaapnoa n03«((H«. Cp .• aanpuxep, nepc. J.Md, TauX. obod 'otiycrpoeaasra' < *a-pata-; 2) COXpaHeHHe B .rtJ.IaxpmHm 6e3ynapHblX annaymstx CJIoroB (npa B03~ MO}KHOii CHHKone uenocpencraeanux npenynapnsrx 11 npa crsxeaaa CJ10Ba B UeJIOM). eM. nepc. askar, ranx. oikor 'JlBUM", O'leBHltHbli.j:' < *1iljis-kiira-. :9TH TeH,lleHIU1H, nO-BH.1IH.MOMY. CBH,lleTeJlbCTB)'JOT 0. npemtylUeCTBeHHO TOHH'IecXOM u1KJIH ,UOCTaTOqHO CJlaOOM YJl,apeHHH B npomnoa, COnpoBO)f(,UaeMOM HHTeHCMBHOCTbto ap-rI1KyJljjUHH aanayraoro cnora.

§ 86. TaKHM o6pa30M, B panH"" rrpaaparrcxati rreprrozr JKlreHTHalI cncreaa Morna 5bI11. npencraanena paanouecrmnt ynapeaaea KOMrIJIeKCHOro xapaxrepa (B03MO"lKHO, npeavyurecrseuuo TOHH'IeCKoro) C 3JJeMeH'TaMli TOHOBblX onn03HUJ-di (yuaCJ1eIl,OSaHHbIX KJIH HHHosaUHOHHhlX) H B Ue1l0M 6blJla cxonnon C BellH'IecKOH, XOTa H He 06Sl3aTenbHO TOJK.!I.eCTBeHHa en B <£aCTHOCTIlX. B ,nanI>HeHWeM TOHOBMe OlIn03HUHR HC4e3atoT (OC,JBJJSlIl eJUiHH'IHble PY.D:HMeHThl), q,OHeTH<£eCKHU xapaxrep yaapeaas Il O,llHHX .lI3hlKaX OCTaeTCli npenuytuecraeuuo rOHH'IecKMM, Il npyrax rrpoHCXO,J1HT «nepesec» C«'!lOBQro KOMnOHeHTa. PaJHOMeCTHoe ynapeuae B O)\HHX H3.blKaX coxpauserca, B npyrax 33MeHSIerCH OllHOMeCTHhlM, "PH'IeM B nOCJJe.I]H).IX saxperrneaae MeCTa ynapemul IlPOHCXO.QHT He O)\HOBpeMeHHO ).I no paJHLIM rrpaaunnaa rpHKcauHH.

He HCKJlIoqeHO, "ITO B rpaacrpopaauun KaK MeCTa ynapenas B CJlOBe.

TaK Ii ern rpOHeTH4ecKoii peaJIH3aUHH B pasnstx SI.3WKax Ii pa3Hb1X peruoaax

84

Morno nrpars pOJIb H cy6cTpaTHoe aoanencrsae aa apaacxne lJ3blKH co CTOPOHW aOopHreHHblX.

§ 87. B peKOHCTPy"POB8HHOii 8KueHTHou cacreue npaCJIaBSlHCKOro 1I3b1Ka H naxe B 60nee n03llHHX ssstxax, KaK noxaasraaior ynoasayrsre suure (CM. § 79) OCCJ1eJl:OBaHIDI, 3HatlUTeJlbHO 60nblIIe CJ1ellOB aanoeaponencxoa aKueHTHOH CHCTeMbi. 3J]ecb, B OTJlH'IHe OT "paHCKHx Sl3b1KOB, I1)IHTeJlbHoe BpeMSI COXpaH.lIlOTCjI TOHOBble onn03HUHH (axyra 1'1 UHPKYM¢neKca), xoropue B onpeneneunsre MOMeHTbl HCTOPJilH OblllH CBSl3aHbr C J]OJIfOTOH - KpaTKOCTblO cnorootipaayiourero rnacnoro. B npacnaasnCKOH C"CTeMe '1eTKO onpeJ]eJ1S1IOTCSI lI.eTaJ1bHO paapatioraaasre axuearasie THnbI napanarx nMeHH (BKJIlO'I8a axuenrnae THUM npoH3BOJ]HbIX H uenpoH3BOJlHbiX I·meH, MecToHMeHHii H T.lI.) H rnarona (BKJIlOlfrui cHCTeM)' OTbIMeHHblX rnaronoa), axuenrnsre Tl1nbl xopaea H C~liKCOR Ii ox coOTHOllleHHe H MHorne apyrue npasana, a raxxe 3aKOHOMepHOCTH MOD.H¢HKauou axuenra B XOJIe HCTOPHH cnaasacxax Sl3bIKOB.

Bee 3TH HCCJIeJ]OBaHHlI n03BOJIHJIH conOCTaBHTb CHCTeMY cnaBSlHcKOX 1I3blKOR C oarrnfHCKOM: 0 nanee - C CHCTeMaMH npyrax HHJJ:OeBponeHCKHX 1I3blKOB. B nnane cpaBHeHHSI CJlaBSlHCKoii u DpaHCKOH axuerrryauaa 11)111 Hac Ba)KeH C<I>oPM)'JIHpOBaHHhrii: B.A.J{Moo BblBOJl 00 OTCyrcTBUH «OllHO-OJ]H03HalfHoro COOTBe'ICTBHSI Me)t{,lly 6arlTO-CJIaIDIHCKHMU, .l\peBlleHHJII1HCKOMU 0 rpelfecKHMo aXueHTilMU» LLJ:b100 1981., 10].

§ 88. TaKHM oopa30M, ecJIH npaapancxaa CHCTeMa B npauuane CXO)lua C lIpeBHeOH]U{HCKOH, TO axnearaae CHCTeMbl npaapaacxoro H npaCJIaS)lHCKOfO lie HMeKlT '1eTKHX COOTBeTCTBHii, KOTopble MOm" 6hl CBH,[IeTeJIbCTBOBaTb 00 HX oc060 6JIU3KOM POllCTBe. C6J1H)KeHH.II axueamstx CHCTeM OOJlee n03.IU-lHX HpanCKHX H cnaB»HCKHX ~3bJKOB TaXJKe He na- 6J1IOn:aerclI.

§ 89. nO,llhlTOJKOB!UI J]aHHbIH 6efJIhlH HCTOpHKo·4K>HeTHlfeCKHii 0630p CTaHOBJIeHIDI U lIaJIbHeHWHx H]MeHeHHH npa.II3blKOBbIX CHCTeM npaucxax H CJIaBlIHCKHX »3bIKOB B nnase clloHeMHoH nap8JlHrMaTHKH, caaramarnXH, npOCOnmleCKUX CHCTeM, cnenyer nO,l\'1epKHYTh CJIeJ])'IOmee.

4loHeTH'IeCKHe npU3HaKH, rpoHeMHbIil: COCTaB 0 saeceraerrrusre aneMeHTbl aTKX npIDI3b1KOllblX cacrea, npoueccst HX q,OpMHpOBanHSI 03 enaHOM HHlIoeBponeiicKOH CHCTeMbI " .naJIbHeHlIIei.f cpHJIHaUHH 3THX ceMeH aa rpynObI 11 nonrpynnu }'KaJblBaIOT, 'ITO OCOOOH reaera-recxotl omnoC'fH H.IlH CXO,UCTB B q,OHeTH'IeCHX npoueccax, KaKHX-JIH60 ofiurax JVU{ OOOHX npasauxoa 3ICC1CJIt03HBHbIX Marep"aJIbHblX "HHOBaUH" (no KOTOpblM npaapaacxaa ornasancs 6b1, uarrpauep, OT npaannoapmicxoro, HO cfinuxancs C npaCJIaSSlHCKHM) He 06HapYiKHBaeTC.II. A CJIe.lIOBaTeJIbHO, Her C8UDereJIbCT8 GOJIee recuoro pO,!l,CTBa 3TOX BeTBeH HtmOeBponeHCKOH 6oJIbwoii CeMbH, lfeM HHHOBaIlHH, o6bllfHble .LI.IDl Sl3bIKOB rpynnsr «caT3M».

&5

HPaHCKrui WoHOJIOIWleCKaJI CHCTeMa ¢lopt.mpoHwlach B UeJ10M B paaxax apHiicKOH, C1Iall:ilHCKrui - o6oco611eHHO.

BropH'IHLIe nponeccu, naxe cxonaue y "paHCKlIX H ClIaBaHCKHX a3bIKOB, nporexana B BHll.e 06wHx THllOJIOrn'leCKHX Teu.oeHUHH, II paae cnysaea no.rmep.lKHR3eMbIX apeansasnra cpaKTOpaMH.

fIPH ::iITOM, KaK nOKa3LlBaeT MarepHaJI, H ra H npyras npM3hlKOBWI CHCTeMLI He 6LL1lH MOHOJIHTHhi H3Ha'laJIhHO, a npe.il.CTa&JUUIH C060H Helme ,ltHaneKTHble KOHTHHY,YMM, H, CJlepOBaTeJIbHO, IIpH paCCM01peHltlf TIyrell HX )laJIbHeHIIIHX KOHTaKTOB H BJaHMo.oeHCTBH.II npHXO.oHTC5I yqh ThI sars, 'ITO ~TH KOHTaKTLl MOmn OhlTh cxopee MeX!lY OTlleJIbHblMH apeanbHblMH 30HaMn RrIlI .cmaJIeKTaMH H JIHaneKTHblMH rpyrmaxu, qeM Me)!(JI)' uemHhlMH rrpaJI3b1KOBblMH CHCTeMaMH, xoropsre K TOMY .lKe He cosuanana II XPOHOJIOfHqeCKOM OTHOIlleHHH.

Baecre C TeM nexoropue CXOJl,Hble npoueccsr (nanpaaep, a<:cH6HID1- UH5I pe<l>J1eKCOB anaoeaponeacxax nanaransuux, )leHCTBHe npaaana RUKI) npOTeKaJIH napannensao, sanaaasre e,D,HHhlMH H1IH CJI;OllHblMH .IIBJIeHJ.UIMH II HCJIpaX 06meH HH,!I,OeSpOneHCKoH CHCTeMhl.

~nEMEHThlMOP~OHO~OrHH

§ 1. Kax U3BecTHO, B npaapaacxoa npOllOJ1lKHJIC.II ytlacJleliOBaHHhlH U3 ofiuieapaiicxoro COCTOjlHH~ rax Ha3hlBaeMblH KO]mqeCTBeHHblH a6- nayr, KOTOPblll, B CBOIO osepens, npononxan a6Jlayr HH,ItOesponeHCKHH, ODJIaKO [j cym¢CTllemw 1paHC¢opMIl{JOBaHHOM [jHJ1e (eM. [Meue 1938, 174 H cn.: Bappoy 1976, 102 U CJl.]).

nOCXOJlbKY K.a4eCTBeHHOe npOmBOnOCTaBJ1eHUe HHJl:oeBponeHcKlIx macasrx K nepaony npaapaacxoro H rex 60JIee npaapaacxoro COCTOjlHlliI 6blJIO HeifrpaJIH30BaHO (c cosnaneaueu *e, *0, *a > *a; *e, *0, *ii > *a H C COBnaneanex C HHMlf pedrtexcos HOCOllbJx COHaHTOB *1}, *f!! > *a; *Ij, *rfI > *a), B o6meapHllcKOM BlaMeH aaaoeeponescxoro C04eTaHlliI Ka'leCTBeHHOro H KOJIM'l:eCTBeHHoro BIt,AOB a6JIayra (npononxeaaoro H Pa3l!HTOro B cnaIDIHCKHX Jl3bIKax, CM. "H:lICe) OCTaJlCIl U qaCTH"lHO PaJBHJICII KO]Hf4ecrneHHbIH. npOJlOmKeHHblH B uenox B nJ)aHpaHCKOM COCTOJ£HHH. K pe$1eKCaM craporo KOJ1H'!eCTBeHHOrO qepe.u013aHlu ,UoGaBHJ1HCb CJ1)"1aH nepexona HHAoeBponeHcKoro xasecraeaaoro '1epe.uOBaHIDI *e : *0 B KOJ1H'1ecTBeHHOe *a : *ii (cp. OTpIDKeHHe cyqxpltKca *-ler : <tor B CJ10BaX C *·ter: rpes, narepe; IIp.-HHA. pitaras 'QTUb1'; B CJIOBaX C *-tor: rpes, (ec-)7tampe, 'J1HweHHble OTUOB', .!l:P.-HH,U. (rwit.)pitaras '(re.) KOM)' HI oren' - HOM. MH.'!.) [Meae 1938, 173 H en ], C cnpeneneumrua MO!lH<pHKaJ.lHJIMH (CM. HH:lKe).

XOTIl IlBHble npH3HaKH aaryxanas 3TOro qepe,UoB3HIDI xax CHCTeMhl OTMe'laIOTCB Y::Ke B !lpeBHHX apanccax 1l3b1KaX, aexoropsre 6011ee nosaHHe SllbIKH eme BLliIB.TlIlIOT OT'feTJiHllble perpnexcsr npesnax CJIOroBbIX 3B)'KOTHnOB B pa3Hhlx cryneasx aGnayra.

06meapHit:cKHH a6.rJayr B HaH6oJ1ee oOuteM sHAe COCTOI1J1 B qepe.n:osauaa rpex crynenea ornacosox: I) HYJ1eBOH, ruTH Clla6oH; 2) cpennea, IUUI nonaoa: 3) npoaneuaoa (ans 2TOpol1 " rpersef crynenen B JIHTepaType ynorpetiarensuu .upeBHeHH.[IHifcKHe TepMHHbI: guna H vrdhi), Y'l.H· rusas, 'ITO B npaapaacxoa CHCTeMe. xax H B 06uteapHUCKoH. BOKMH3M 6blJ1 npeacrasnen TOJ1bKO !lBY!lfll maCHblMH q,OHeM aMU, a OCTaJIbHble rnacuue 3B)'KOTHnbl npencraansna cnoroeue napaaarsr <poHeM'COH3HTOB, CJ.lCTeM3 4epen:OB3.HJ.lH 6blJIa opaenrnpoaana He na Ka'leCTBO rnacaoro (XaK B J.lH,J.lOeBporrei.{cKOM H npacnaasacxo»), 3 aa THn CJ10ra B nnane ero KOJ1H'IeCTBeHHOH xapaxrepacrnxa,

87

TUIIbI ClIOroB, ocooeano KOpHeBbIX, 6blJIIi cyurecrseaau Will npaupancxoro CJIOBO- Ii q,0pMoo6pmOBaHIi.ll, nOCKOllbKY Ka;KJJ,WH ran KOpH.Il npenonpenenan ero rpancrpopaanaio B pa3JUi4HWt npoaaaoaaux eJ10BaX u B cnosorpopuax B napannrae (nonpofinee CM. [Bartholornae 1895. 67 u cn.; COKOll0B 1961, 26-28, 38, 1979, 161 Ii cn.]; Cpo eOOTBeTcTB)'IOm)'lO lamrcuMocTb B LlpeBHe~lHlIUHCKOM, eM., aanpauep, [3aJ1UJlliIK 1975. 66; Enusapeaxosa 1982, 122-127]).

§ 2. B npocrax CJIy<Ia.IlX, KOrDa B xaxecrse xopuesoro rnacuoro BhICryIIaJJ *11 Ii xopeas S UlmoeBponei.fcKOM He »MeJI *.?, qepetlommlie UMeJIO OHJl 0 (HMb myxa) - a (cpenass cryneas) - a (np0.lI11eHHa.Il CTyneus), To ecrs YCJlOBHhIii cnor Tuna SVP UJIM SIP (rne S - JIl060H comaCHblH llJlH HecJlOroBQH BapUaHT CQRaHTa, V - fn3eHblH a, I - coHell IT, P - comacnsnr) "MeeT $lPMbI: SP - SAP - SAP, eOOTBeTCTBeHHO cnonr C COHaHTHon MelIHaJ1blO: SIP - SAIP - SAIP H r.a, KaK npasano. TaKHe KOpHH BbI.IlB.lllHOTeR B Jl,Byx BIi.rr.ax omacosca, pe)lKo - H rpex, IToCJ1eJIHuH napaaar SbIlI8JUl.eTCSI B OCHOBHOM B rnaronsaux KOpmix. HaHTu ero B "MeHaX He scerna nerxo. Hanpaxep, B 1I3blKe ABeCTbI ¢OpMbI C ornacoaxaxn 0 - a -.., a: as. upabdi « "upa-pd-i; 'y nonaoJKIi}l (ropsr)', as. padabiS (or *pad-bis) 'HOraM"', pathml « "'pad-am) 'HOI),', - xoropsre paccMaTpHBaIOTC~ anorna KaIC peWIH3aUHH Tpex CTyHeHeM omaCOBOK e)1:HHOM oeHOBbI, npaKTH'IeCKH npHH3)J.JIeJKaT nByM paJHLiM nexcessax, paJlIenRBWHMC~ erne no npaxpancxoro COCTOXHKlI: *plid. (M.p.) 'nora' H "pada- (cp.p.) 'nora; CT)'IIHlI, ellen' (113 H.-e_ "ped-, *pOd- 'nora' - *pedo-m 'cnen. CT)'TlHlI' [Pok. lEW, 790-7921) H UpO.ll.OJl)KHBWHMC~ II )lByx aBeCTIlHCKHX cncsax: pad- : pad- (M.p.) 'nora' Ii pada- (cp.p.) 'nora; CT)'IIIDI, cnea' [Barth. AiW, 842]. Perpaexcsr ::lTHX paJ,lleJIHBWHXCSI CJI0B OTMeqalOTCX H B 60J1ee n03.iIHHX apaucxax Sl3hIKax (cp. TaJIJK. pu(y) 'nora', pay 'cnea', X3f. pe~ 'Hora', pM 'crynus, C1Ie,u; nepeKJIa.L\HHa rrpucraaaoa JIeCTHHUbl' M .Jl,p.)-

§ 3. Bonuue BOlMO;4(HOCTeH qepe.ll~BauHlI 6b1J1o Y CJlOroB C COHaIITHOM ¢HHaJlblO mna SJ - SAl - SAl, cp, ¢OPMM OT npaapancxoro KOpHll "bar- 'uecnr, YUOCHTh' < H,·e. *bher- [Pok. lEW, 128 H cn.]: npanpaa. *barati 'uecer', ocuoaa UTepaTHBa *biiraia-, neprp, npH'IaCTHe *brta-, npz ornacosxe *bar- B orrnaronsaux HMeHHbIX npoH3BOlIHbJX:

Cpo aa. baraiti 'uecer', baraya- - ocaona nreparnaa; bsrsta- npauaerne; .IIp.-nepc. asa-biira- 'BCaJIHHK' (rue asa- < *a.{IJO- 'KORb') H peqmeKcbI STore KOPHJI B OOJIee n03.!IHHX R3b1KaX, HanpHMep, K1I. nepc, barad, me-barad 'uecer, )'HOCUT' « *-barati), hurd 'ynec' « "btta-); savor 'BCanuHK' « asa·bara-), 06 HMellax eM. raKiKe H"JKe; cp. npHBenemrue HH:lKe eJlaSXHCKHe perpnexcu H.-e. *bher- c nepernacoasaaa.

B uenoa THnbl qepe.llOBaHHH CJlOroB H xopneii C rnacasnr a H COHaHTaMH, HO 6eJ pe¢JleKCOB ".-e. *a1i I3blrJlSUVlT Tax:

88

By.nellall crynesn, S Sf SU 513- SP SIP SUP SI_W
CPe.lIH:lUI cryneas SA SAl SAU SAR SAP SAIP SAUP SARP
flpoWIeHHWI crynens SA SAl SAU SAR SAP SAIP SAUP SARP
K HMM npMMhlKanu KOP"" c pe¢.rreKCaMH aunoeeponeackux HOCOBhlX
COHaHTOB. B IWTOPblX "IepeDOBaHH.lI COxpaHJIJlH CJIe.uyrowH" xapaxrep: Hyneaas cryneas SA « *51',:1') SA « "'S¥) SAP « "'Sl:'lP) SAP « "'S~P)

Cpe)l,IDIIi cTyneHb SAN SAM SAN? SAMP

DpoAlIellilIDl crynens SAN SAM SANP SAMP

BbT,llerulIOTCSI nerxae '" rsxenue KOpHH. Ilepaue npononxasor npaxra'1eeKM nepBHQHble I<OP"". no 3.EeHBeHHcry. T.e. THna SAP (cp, *pak'napHTb( -CSI)', "tap- 'rpersl -cs)') HJJH SAl (eM. "'kar~ 'nerrars '), sropue - rnna SAIP(P) (aanpauep, *lc'arl- tICP)r.KWI'l.(-Cg)', "kari- 'npoeonwrs 6opmJJ:Y', "baud- • 60j\PCTIlO8aTh; '1ygTh; naxayrs', +raixi- 'ebmaTb(-c"n· ~ r.n, Ilpn 3TOM KOpHR C Me.rmaJ1blO 'loa H cornacaoa cpHHarlbIO -CC (Tuna *(00- 'recan,', *ba.xS- 'nanenzrs, napars'), 6YJJ:Y'IH cpOHeTHlieCKH TJI»(eJTblMH, B MOPCPOHOJlOfH'IeCI(OM nnane "PHMhIKaJOT I( JlerKHM. Bnaro)lap" <lTOMY 113H60J1ee 3H3-.mMbIM )1)llI '1epe)lOBaIDlH OKaJhInaeTCl:i He cpOHerasecxaa .IIeneOCTh -- raxecrs C110roB, a UX COHaHTHOCTh -.. HeCOHaHTHOCTh, "peJ]OITpeDeJIJIBWas: nx nerxocrs -- TIDKeCTb B MOp¢OHOJIOmqeCKOM ITJIaHe H reu caMbiM cryneaa ornaCOBOK, npencraansesrsrx <lTUMU CJIOraMH MOpq,eM B pa3HI>IX cncaorpopxax.

§ 4. BMeCTe C TeM "PH 'IepellOBaHH:RX cryneaea ornaC080K B OCHOBaX OT KOpHe" .uaHHhlX ranos COHaHTHbie KopnH xame 8blCTynatOT B cTJIleHH, KOTOPa:R aa OJlHH «mar» HU»(e, '1eM I(OP"U C MeJJ,HartbIO a, T.e.:

2

nerJCHti xopeas c -a- SP SAP

COHaHl Hblii xopeus C -i - SI(P)

3

4

SAP

SAI(P) SAI(P)

TaKHM 06pa30M, paauyto Mop¢lO"OJIOIl-l'leCKYfO 3Ha"IRMOCTl> HUe]]" TaKue peaJIU3aUHH paaasrx xopaea, KOTopble 06eCITelBfBaJlH paBHoe KOJIH'IeCTBO rnacsoro aayxa - cnorosoro :meMeUTa: onaa KpaTKa:R enaHHU3 (Mopa?) 80 sropoa n03HUHH H oana nonraa IfJIH j\Be KpaTKHe (nee MOpbl?) ~ B rpersea, Ilpu aTOM a p:RlJ:e CJTyqaes aecouaarane KOpHR sucrynaior 8 cpenneil crynenn TaM, rne O)KH,IJ,aeTCIf HY11eBaH (nanpauep, B nprrvacrun "bag-ta- OT I(OPHll "bag- 'lJ:eJIHTh, HlUJ:eJJSlTh '), rrOCKO.IILKY 6e3BOKaJ1H'IeCKrui ¢lopMa Hey.u06l1a TaM, me OHa He xounencupyerca BOKa· JlH'IeCKHM H3'-1aJ10M acpqlHKca (TO %e B llpeBtleHH,lUlikKOM, CM. [3aJ1H3HJ1K 1975, 80]). B apaHCKRX :R3h!KaX OTMe'leH H HHOH auxon "3 llMOlKeHHSl:; eM. KJlaccH'leCI(HU npaxep all. r. dsbenaota - ¢opMa 2-00 II. MH.'l.

89

IIH"bJOHKTHsa OT KOptUl dab- '06MaHblBaTb', KOTOPaJ! paCCMaTpHBaerCSI B mrreparype XaK nepeaasa B :sJ3lJKe ABeClhJ H)'-'leW" ornacosxn KOpH.!:I, H TO BpeMS! KaK B Jl:peBHeHH)J.HiieKOM B sroii lfKlpMe KopeHb ssicrynaer B cpe.JlUell OrJIaCOBKe dabh-, MMelOTCJf H UHble TpaKTOBKH OfJIaCOBKH KOpH.!:I :3TOH lPOPMbI - B BHJle *db(a)naUla (eM. [Beeke~ 1988, 168)).

OrCIOJla - BCT3BHble rn8CHhle M HaMe'l8JOll{mlCIl )'iKe B npa.MpaHCKO.'.! (B03MO:t::HO, nepeoaa-iansao B )J.HaneKTUx) TeHlleHll,11SI II: napaaaruarmeCKOMY' Bhlpa8HHBaHIIIO ¢IoPM, rrre o)J(KlIaJIacf. HyneBa.!:l cryrrerrs, no sropos eryneua. Hanpastep, ecnn neppexnnae npasacras na *-ta HJ n-e. *-ro (cp, pYCCKHe npH'IaCTIUi llporn. Bp. ua -mol .!l.OJDKHbl 6WlH liMen HYJleByro cryneas omaCOBKH KOpHSl, TO .1laJIbHeHWHe nyrn paJBlITIDI pana TaKHX ¢apM nOKa3b1B8.K>T, 'ITQ YJKe B npaapaucxux ;uiaJJeKTax paasasanuce OTlOiOHeHllil OT aroro npasana, Tax, nanpaaep, OT rnarona *kan- 'xouan,' npasacrae "kata- < *kfJfa- JleKcMKtulH30BaJIOCb B 3Ha'leHHH ';(H}(ClIHa, .!lOM': aa, kata- 'nasyra', corn. kt(')k, KJI. nepc, -kada, -kad (B KOMfl03lITax), 9TH. kat, uiyrn. Cid, pyur, cod, .113l. kWi H T .n, '.!lOM', a rtorryruo 1Ib1pa60TaIlHCh HOBbie rtmpMbl rtpasacrns C ornacosxaaa "kenta- H +kanta- - co CJJa6b1M It nO.'1HbIM lUIt$TOHraMH: aa, -kanta- (cp . .JlP,-HHJ1. khata-), 11.p.-nepc. k_allta-, KIt nepc, kund, uryru, am, 5I3r. konr. Cp raxxe npasacme npour, ap, or KOpHSI *kar~ 'nenan,', KOTOpoe na Marepnwle pamux "paHCKHx R3hlKOf!, peKOHCTpYHPYeTCa 1I mme He *kfta-. a +karta-: eCIHf B aBeCTHHCKOM nanrno.ualOTca qx;PMbl korta- H karta-, TO nanee - np-nepc, kurta-; KJI. nepc, kard (rrpa *r> rr); rnym. CUd. asr, ktw. nUIT, kar Ii T.n. - H3 "'karla-.

§ 5, Ewe 60nee CJJOXHoii npencraer cacrexa xepeaoeaaaii xopaea c pedmexcaaa HH)loeBpone.ifcKHx napaaransaux, C Jl.KJJIO<J:CHHeM B CI1CTCMY 'Iepe).10B8.HliH cnatiux JlHcj:rrOHrUB II T. n. (CM. nonpotiaee t Bartholomae J 895, 4J; Imler 1971, 573; COK0J10B 1979, 1521_ If .np)._ npH }"reTe pe¢JleKCOB napanransnoro *a/H H KopHeR rana SPA~ H SIA~:

KOpCHb HyncB8.SI: cryneas Ilonnas cryneHl,
OCHOIIH 1 ccrroaa Jl
SAPH SPa> SPl SAPH> SAP SPAH > SPA
SAIH SlH » SI SAIH> SAl S(AH > SIA
SAUH SUH;> sD SAUH > SAU ST,JAH :> Sl,)A
SARH S~H > S~ > SAR SARH > SAR SRAH > SRA
SANH St-IH > SI5I > SA SANH> SAN SNAH > SNA
SAMH Si'ytH:> S@:::. SA SAMH >SAM SMAH:> SMA (eM, TaX)Ke [C(}KOJlOH t 961, 28, 1979, 152; CrB.H ~M, 11-13 D, Harrpmrep, (}T rtpaapaa. "dar- 'cxearsmars; nepxars' < H.~e. *dher(a)- [Pok, lEW. 252]: *daraia- (npes, OCH.), "'dtta- (npas.), "'dro-,

90

"dar- (B IUleHax) - cp. as. darayeinli, dareta- Car < *f), pain-dram 'MecTonpe6blBaJUie' (an. x.p.), darabrai 'aocnpnsrae' (nar. cp.p.).

§ 6. TaKHM o6pa30M, )'iKe B JUllilleKTax apmlcxoro COCTOJIHIDI, BKInoqrut npOTOHpaIICKHe ;lHaJleKTbl, ~ 3aTeM B npaHpaHCKHlI. CHc.eMa xepenoBaHH" 6wla HecllMMeTpH4HoH. nOMHMO nonroro *a - npOJV1eHHol1 cryneua 'Iepe.nOBaHH.II OT *a - 6bLllO nonroe *a, npe.QcTaBJI.IIIUlIee HyJ1eB)'IO crynens 'Iepe.!IOBallHit OT xopnea c peq:,JIeKCaMH annoeeponeacxax HOCOBhlX COHamOB (In coseranun nOCJle.llHUX C napaaranou no TIm)' 1)H > fj > ii, 'f1H > 1fl > ii), a TaK)Ke *5 H3 .u:pynlx HcrO'lHHKOB, He npHHHM3Buree ysacras B xepenosanasx. J1Me.rlUCb xparxae H lIOJUHe *i, *i, *U, *U, Bee npe,'J,eTaBIDl.BWHe HyJ1eB)'IO cryneus sepenoeauaa, H r.n. KpOMe roro, OTMe'l31OTC.II e11e.QhI napanaraanorecxax ynHCPHKau:HH, H3MeHeHUH orrraCOBOK aaanorasecxoro IIJIaHa, TCMaTH33UH.I1 OCHoa, esnasaeuraa 3a1)'X.aHHe nepernacosox, H T.,Il. Bee sro cnocobcraoaano nocreneanoay 3aT)'XaHHIO cnenoa npaapaitcxoro H npanpancxoro KOJIH'leCTBeHHoro a6J1ayra.

K srroxe .upeBHeHpaHCKUX naMllTUHKOB a6JIayrHbie '1epe.uOBaHUSI yxe s 3Ha'UlreJlbHOH CTenCHU 6wIH HenpO!l}'KTuBHM, O.QHaKO B Sl3bIKe Asecrn OHH erne coxpauanacs, OC06eHHO 3aMeTHO - B HeTeMaTU'IecKHX UMeHHblX napanaraax. 3.necb, aarrpaaep, OTHOCHTeJ1bHO 'IeTKO npcraaonocraaneuu: y UMeH C oeHODOH aa cornacnua - CHJibHruI ornacoaxa Y liMeH My.lK. H )KeH. pona II HOMUHaTHBe ecex rpex 'IUcen, B aKK)I3aT8Be en, U na, '1HCJIa; Y HMeH cpeanero POM - B HOMliHaTHBe H aKKYJaTHse MH. 'IHC11a; cnafiaa ornacosxa B OCTaJIbHblX CJIY'laSlX. Hanpnsrep, OT ap- : ap- (x.p.) 'Bolla': ell.':!.. HOM. ?llf, axs. apam, rea, apas-, apo • .QaT. ape, apae-, nncrp. apa, apa-; ,ll,B.q. HOM., aKK. iipa; MH.4. HOM. ii.po, aKK. apo, apas-, rea, apqm, a6n aiwyo, B HMeHax aa -i U na -u B eHllbHoR ornacosxe asrcrynaior RM.eRa M'j%.~t:oro !.l.. c :peruIero ~n.a p, \\QM!.l..\\a:rnre, UK)'1aTK~, ~RCT?YMeHTaJIHCe en, 'IueJIa, BCe na.Il.elKH aa. quena " Bee KOCBeHHble nanexu Mil. 'I HCJI a; cnafiaa ornacosxa B ocransasrx CJI)"iiUlX. CBOU oc06eHHocTH HMelOT H npyrae HeTeMaTH'leCKHe napanarasr (ca. rronpofinee [COK0J10B 1961, 56, 1979, 170 H cn.j),

§ 7. Onnaxo yxe B 31"0 BpeMJj CHCTeMa MOptPoHo.;IOnr<leCKOrO a6.rrn.yra B xroprponoraa CTaHOBUJIacb HenpOJl)'KTHBHOH n nOCTeneHHO yrpanaaanacs 6JIaro.!{apSi HeCKOJIbKHM tPaKTOpaM. Bo-nepastx, ee cnensr sarytueRblBaJJHCb HCTOPHKo-rpOHeTH'leCKUMH H]MeHeHH.lIMH: cp., HanpHMep, as. kersmcunt; 11 TeM fionee np.vnepc. kunautiy, 'nenaer', me npororxn "kr-nau-ti H xopess *knr- yxe He CTOJIb o-reaunnsr; euie MeHee OLJeBH.JlRbI OR" B 60JIee n03,QHHX .lI3bIKax, CM., uartpmsep, wyrn. kiit, :!I3r. bit '1I.eJlaeT' - 83 60J1ee pannero *kjrtti < *kiJm(a)ti < *kr-nau-ti [C rOSlIll, 62]. EO-IlTOPbIX, cymecraeaayio p0JTb arpan rrpouecc TeMaTUJaUHH OCHOB Ii. HMeUM. H marana, KOTOpbIl1 npoSlBJiJIC:!I YJKe B JlJblK3X .llpeBHeHpaHCKHX.

91

nal>UlTHUKOB, a nosnsee npUBO,llIDI K 3aT)'X,aHUIO uepernacosox IIa:.Ke rrpu orcyrcrsau :SIBHblX CJle,Il.OB HapameHH:SI K OCHOBe TeMaTJ.:I<!eCKom rnacaoro, r.e. afinayr acsesan B pxue CJI0B yxe no aaanoraa co CJlOBaMH C TeMaTH<!eCKllMH napa.uHThfaMH. He nOCJJe)lHIOIO porn, urpano H napanaraanorecxoe BhIpaBHHBamle. Cp., HanpHMep, npononxeuas npanpaacxnx nanelKen OT OCHOBIlI "pitar- 'oren' yxe B uapanarve H3blKa ABeCTbl, me JlHWh .. acn, CPOpM OTp<UKaeT 1.tpeBHlIH a6.nayr: B ,[lHaJIeKTe Tar en .n. HOM. pta, para, ta, aKK. patarsm, MT, Jaoroi, pdjre; B n03)lHei1 ABeCTe e.I1.'!. HOM. pta. pita, patai-ca], pito, aKK. pitarem, aar, pibre; MH.'l. HOM. pataro, an. jiJOro, nar, prar3byo; na. II. aKK. pitare, patars 11 np0I13BO,llHMe tiiirya- '6paT orua' (npa IJ.p.·IUf,[l. pit[vya-) H T.Il. [Ravnses 1981, 247 H cn.]: 0 pa3HhlX rnnax renepanmauan omaCOBOK HeKOmp.bIX q,OPM TepMHHoB pOIlCTBa H3 <tar B 60JIee n03,!UIHX "PaHCKHX Sl3bIKax CM. [3,lJ.e.rIbMaH 19991-

B naneueiiurea )lpeBHHH a6Jlayr KaK CHCTeMa nOJ1HOCTblO 3aTyxaeT, OCTaBJIHSI JlHillb :;lTHMOJIom'leCKRe CJIeAbI pa3J1H'IHbIX eJlOB U QlOPM, UMel3WUX onpenenenaue ciyneua 'Iepellos3HHii, B <{aeTHOCT" pedinexcsr npOJl,'TeHHOH cryneua B orrnaronsustx HMeHax, B OCHOBax, asrcrynaioinax B COCTane KOMn03UTOB. Hanpnuep, cr xopus *bar- 'HeeTU, YUOCUTh': aa. baraiti 'aecer', HO np-nepc .• MH.!l. *bara- 'rpys, TII-..::eCTI,' (cp, IIp.-I1H)l. bhara- - TO xe), cp.-nepc., KJI. rrepc. bar, COBp. rrepc. bar, Ta,1l)K. bor 'rpya, uoura; nOKJIaJK3; BblOK'; corn, (J'r, KWK, vur, M}'ll.!I.X\. vim 'rpya, uoura': cp, raxxe *-bara 'HOC5IlUUH, Hecyurnii' - BO BTOpOH .. aCID KOMn03UTa: Sl3l'_ W3z-ver 'HocHIIhmHX rpysa' (1-13 wiiz 'S1.1OK' + ver < *biira-), sax. yupk-vor 'npmrocaruas eony (auocxasarerrsero - 0 xenuraae)" (m yupk < "apaka + *bara-). Cnensr xepenoaaaas Ha6mo)laJOTCJ:I B onpenenenasrx 3aCThlSllII1X naaexaux ¢K>pMaJ{ aTeM3TI1'IecKOro Tuna CKJIOHemm 11 T.n. H - MeHee nocnenossremao - B BJf.Lle peqmexcoB nyneaux ornaCOBOK B rnaronsnux OCHOBax rrpouremnero BpeMeHH, npoJ].OJI;KaIOIUUX npaapaucxne npH"3CTHSI aa <ta, 11 r.n,

§ 8. OnpeJ].eJ1eHHYIO MOpq,oH0J10m'lecK)'lO pons 8 npaupaacxosi It B 6emee noanaae nepaonu pa3BUTIDI 1I3blKOB UrpaJIH 'IepellOBaHHSI cornacHhIX. 1-'13 HHX OC06eHHQ xapaxrepasr '-fepe,llOBaHHSI ¢l1HaJIbHhIX comacaux IWPHll B rnarone: e O.QHOH CTOPOHbI, B npe3eHTHhIX OCHOB<\X (oco6eHHO TeMaUr'leCKUX - nepen TeMaTIt'-fecKHM macnhlM *-a < H.-e. *-e, noCKOJlbKY 3J].eCh CQfJIaCHhte aannero psna nonsepranacs narIaTaJlU3aUHH euie B noapakcxyto snoxy), C .npyroH CTOPOHhJ, B rrpaxacraax (CTaBWHX 3aTeM OCnOBaMU npomenunrx BpeMen), UMeHax. .lJ.eiiCTBl1S1 U T.n., me cornacnsre HaXO;:UfJlHCb I.> npeKOHCOHallTHOH n03IIUI-iU.

Hau60JIee xapaxrepaue 'Iepe,[108aHIDI. cornacnsrx: a) rtpanpaa. *§, *i - * s (B apxanxasrx <fJoPMax TaKJKe Z) - H3 HH,lI;OeBpOneHcKHx rranaransasrx

92

(npaaepsr ex, ssmre); 6) npazpaa. >lid -- *s (8 apxaasuux q,opMax TaK)Ke z) - H] BapuaHTOB apuifcKHX *d, *dh. uartpanep, *basta- 'cB1I3aHHhIH, npHBJlJaHHhIH' - npaxacrae Ha *-Ia OT "bond- < H.-e. "bhendh-; B) npaupan. *(;, *] ...., *k. *x. *g H3 HH.U.OeBponeiJeKHx eenspaux H na- 6U:O-BeJlJIPHhlX. Hanpaaep, OT KOpHl'! "pak» 'sapurst-ca), ne%(-c.lI.)' - npesesrnsre OCHOBbl *pa{;afia)- (.!lJljI nepexoaaux rnaronoa) , * paca-, *patia- (nna He nepe xonaux) , npa-r. *pak-lja- (c H3MeHeHHIDfU no anarroraa C npH'IaCTUJlMH aa IF-ta): cp, JI3r. paid 'sapar' (uu<p. pajaj) -past 'saPHITJI. nocneeaer' (HHep. pa.~aj), pux' 'csaPHJI( -eJI). nocnen', rtonpotiaee CM. [CfB}1-¢l, 111-113. 156, 160, 203; CfBR-M, 14]. 3TH xepenoaanas anonue MO)!{HO C'l:HTaTb MopcpoHonOrn'leCKHMI-f. nOCKOJ1hKY s npaHpaHCKYIO snoxy, a reM 60Jlee noanaee OH" y;«e 6blJ1H laCTb.lBWHMH, He ZlHKTOBaJlUCb CHUXPOHHhlMH ¢oHeTI1'1~KHMH n03HUIDlMH.

l1MeIOTcH " 'IepellOBaH.IDI. cornacaux 60JIee noanaero npoacxoxneHlliI: B Jl3blK3X uryraaao-pyuraacxoa rpynnsr, rue npaapaa. *k, *g nepen rnacasnra 3BYKaMH nepenaero pxna H npaapaa. *a, *ii nanaTaJIH30BalIHCh H nepexonann COOTBeTCTBeHHO B C, j, i; Ha6mo.n:31OTCli sepenosaaas k - C, g - j, i, Ca., aanpaaep, OCHOBbl HaCT, ap, H npow. ap. B myru. kin- : CUd 'nenars' ~ H3 * kr-nau- ; * ka rta- (BM. oxanaeaoro "" krta-, eM. esnne),

§ 9. B 60nee nosnuux HPaHCKUX Jl3MKax pa3BHBaIOTe}l aropasnue COfiCTBeHHLle 'Iepe'!!;oBaHllll rnacustx II cornacastx. 113 uaafonee 3uallUMblX MOp$oH0J10rJf4:eCK¥U; }lBJIeHmd cnenyer Ha3BaTb CT3HOBJIeHHe '1epeIlOBa"H", BOJHHKalOW:~X npa emu,HoH perpeccaeuoa acCHMHJlj1UHH H axKOMOlIaUHH. HaMeTHBWHXCJI eiue B npasaaxe H npOJIBHBWHXCH nosnnee B pasaux sauxax napannensao H C pa:3HOM CTeneHbIO HHTeHCHBHOCTIL

O.n;HHM H3 CJle,LICTB~H ',1TOlt TeH,lleHUHH "BHJ1aCh Tax Ha3hIBaeMIlSI aneareaa B "3hrKe Asecru. rpa<l>H'IeCKH OHa astpaxaercs B BHlle nOJlBJIeHu:a B errore, npenurecreyiomex npyroay, conepxaureay asyxornnu nepennero HJIH saaaero pana, :meHTeTH'IecKHX i, U, xornpsre He e03,UaIOT OTlI,eJ1hHOro cnora (cp, an. gairi- < gari- 'ropa', paid- < pati- rtpeaepf H aapesne; paurva-, paourva-, pourva- < parva- 'nepsan", bandayeiti < bandayati 'casasraaer". visaiti < visatl 'nsanuan,' H np.). Cy,Ull no perpneacaa, 3TH npH3BYKH CBH,UeTeJlbCfByroT 06 OnpeJleJIeHHbIX pe30HaHCHblX aapnaarax cocemmx cornacnax (¢OHeTHlJ:ecKHe nanaTaJIH3aUIUI H na6HaJIH3aUIUl, He nepeXO,WIWHe B q,OHOJlOrn'l.eCKHe) , HO masnoe - 0 BC3,!J;eHCTBHH co CTOPOH)'I nOCJle.n:}'lOW:HX 3B:yKOB aa npeJl.weCTByroW:HH cnor, 0 npHJl.aHHH eMY cnpeneneaaoro pe30llaHeuoro npasnaxa, CBOHCTBeHHOro nOCJIell:)'IOw:eMY CJlOI)'.

Kax OM npo,llOJ1lKt:HHeM :!ITOro npouecca B 60J1ee n03,!I,HHX .lI.]blKaX (.:ti:HBhlX H BhlMepwnx) npeaeraer H3MeHeHHe rnacaux rrpemnecraytourero

93

cnora no~ BOllleHCTBlIeM rnacaux H OT,neJIbHhlX corrracasrx nOCJl~YJO~ero cnora !JuGo COrnaCHb[X, :m.KphlBaIOU{HX .lUlHHblH CJIOr, T.e. q,OHenIqecKoe aaneaae, cnyxauiee 6a30ii J]Jlg pasaaras Mop¢loUOJlOrnqecKoro )!BJlemrn - )'I\fJIayra.

§ 10. K 'fHCJIY raxax lIBJleHui:i OTHOCJlTCJI. uanpasrep, nafimonaeuue B Jl3blKaX wyntaHO-PYWaHCKOH rpynnsi nepenauxeaas rnacaux: 1) TaK Ha3hIBaeMhlH i-)'MJ1ayr - non RJIIDIHHeM nocneaytoumx pe¢JleKCOB 06- U{enpaHCKHX *i, *1, *1; *c, "l; 2) TaK Ha3bIBaeMhli:i u-y1>lJlayr - nOA WlHJlHHeM nocnenyioutax *u, *u, *y; 3) TaK Ha3bTBaeMblH a-YMJIayr - non BJUUIHueM rrocneayioiuero nonroro *0. 3TH nepeasaxenas asrpaxaIOTCli B TOM, 'ITO "PH i-YMJlayre rnacaua ae-uepennero p5l.lla npOIJ;BHraeTex snepen; nepenaepsnusra f]IaCHbIH ae-aepxnero nom.eaa cyxaercs (<<YCHJleHHe lIHeJUOCTH»); rnacnsre, xoropue ,a:O!J;t;:Hbl GblJlH OTOllBHraTbCH aasaa, He OT()~HmlOTC:ll sonpes« IlpynIM npaBHJI8M H TCI-IIlefll.fmlM, ,a:eHCTB)'IOlUHM B )laHHOM 1I3b1Ke. DpH u-}'M!Jayre OTMeqaeTC5I /1,BH.lICe"He rnacnoro Ha3M; cyxeaae sanuepaznrstx rnacasrx (<<YCHJJemre 6eMOJIbHOCTn),) JIH60 OTCyrcTBHe HX nponauxenas snepen aonpexa .upynlM npaBHJIaM H TeH,UeH1.VfilM. Ilpa a-)'MJlayre rnacnue C1peMSlTCSI K cpeaneay p.II,Uy; na6J1IO,[{aeTCSI pacumpenae Cpe/1,Hep.II,UHbIX rnacusrx JIH60 coxpaue"He HX a CpeD.HeM PSUly sortpexn llpyrnM npaaunan. CHCTeMY IIOH~rmH H MaTepHaJI eM. [C rOSl1lJ; C roxui. COKOJIOBa 1981 (I, 11)]. B l1.3ryllSl\fCKOhl Sl3blKe aafimonaercs raxxe THII H3MeHeHHit, CXOllHhlX C nanararra- 3aUHeH. a COCellCTBe C r, IIO-BH!l.HMOMY, rrpa '1aCTH'l:HOH nanaTaJ1H3aUHH IIOCJIe..IIHero (IIo,llpo6Hee CM. [OHR 1987 (II), 352]), 'ITO aansercs ranoJIO[1.fl.[eCKoH aaanoraeji R-YMJIayry B CKaHllHHaSCKHX Sl3b1KaX (CM. [CrefiJIltH - KaMeHcKHH M.H. 1962, 147]). 4loHernqeCKOe H rpouonoracecxoe TommBaHHe ~THX Sl'RJIeHH" C rr03HUHH reopau COHaHToa CM. TaJDKe [CrenaHOB, 3l{eJIbMaH 1976. 229. 247 H CJI.].

Bee <ITH 1I.BJleHIUI 06pal)'lOT KaK 6w $oHeTH'IeCKHil: H laTeM 'IaCTli'lHO q,oHOJIOffllleCKHH rpou nns pa3BHTIUI }'MJIayra, ero 06ll1,He apraxynaunoxHbIe npU3HaKH. Buxon B MOp$oHDnOllfiO no pa3HbIM HpaHcKHM H3bIKaM, naxe TaKHM 6J1H3KOPO.llCTBeHHhlM, KaK il3bIKH uryruaao-pyurancxoa rpynnbl, nanexo He acema O,lUfH3KOll.

B rex CJIyqiUlX, xoraa pe3YJIbTaTOM :HHX H3MeHeHJ.tH CTaHOBHTCSI sepenoeanae rnacasrx cpOHeM B OCHOBe HJIH xopae cnosa non sosnenCT1IHeM nocrxopuesoro 3J1eMeHTa H xorna ::lTO sepenoaauue CTaHOBHTCSI ¢OpMO- rum CJIoaopa3JJH'IHTeJlhHhlM Cpe1lCTBOM, Mbl MOJKeM roBOPllTh 0 c$'>PMHPOBaHHOM ywrayre (COOTBeTCTBeHHO 00 i-, U-. a- HJIH R-YMJIayre) KaK 0 MOpcpoHOJIOrnqeCKOM }IB.lfeHliH 11 3THX apaacxax asuxax. cp. 06- paJoBaIme JJeKceM It CPOpM xeacxoro po,u,a npa i-yMJIayre H a-YMJJayre, HunpHMcp, wym. kud 'nee, coG-aKa' (< *kuta-) ~ kid 'C)'Ka' i« *kuli-);

94

wym. tuyd 'nomen' « *tak-ta-) - loyd 'nomna' « *tak-ta-). Ilpa nOM, IIOll)"IHR C06CTBeHHbIH craryc, )'MJIayr MO.lKeT .u;eHCTSOBan. KaK caMOCTOSlTeJthHoe cpe,[(CTBO <P0PMO- 1-1 CJIOB006pa30BaHIDI, C03,!l;8BaJ[ cnoaa 1-1 <pOPMbI no aaanoraa K ~e HMeJOWUMCSI, ,[(a)Ke B rex CJIyqWlX, xorna B lIaHHOM C]lOBe He 6LlI10 HcroPHKo-q>oHeTH'IeCKHX npennocunox K o6pa- 30BaHHIO .naHHhlX npOU3BOltHblX ¢OpM " enos. B pane cnyuaea, KaK, aanpauep, a SllhlKax ruyraaao-pytnaacxoa rpynnu, pesynsrapymtuae nepernacosxa 06PaJOBallH npaKTH'IeCKH HOBbTit a6nayr, np02BJD1IOlll.HHCSI oeo- 6euuo .8 maroJiLHOM C!lOBOH3MeHeHHH H OT'laCTH B cnosooopaaoaanaa rnaronoa " "MeH.

TaK, B nape CJI0B rnyrn. nibO.f 'BH)'K' - nibes 'BH}"IKa' TOJIbKO nepsoe laKOHOMepHo npononxaer .npeBHHU npororan (U3 npaupau. * napat-s , cp. ]lp.-UH,Il. napat-, nar. nepos H3 H.-e. "nepot-s); AJU[ 0603Ha'leHIDl BH)"IKH $lHemqeCKH MO.lKHO 6LlI1o 6LI peKoHCTJlYHpOBaTh <P0PMY *napat-s·j, onaaxo TaKOH $:>PMhI He xorno 6hlTh. cp, cyurecranrensaue :lKeHCKOro pona aa, naptt-, ap.-HH.U. nap,t-, napti-, naptri-, TaKHM o6pa- 30M, myra, nibes 'BJl)"flCa' - BTOpH'IHoe npoaasonaoe OT HMeHH My.t\.CKOro pona npa noaouta UCTOpH'IeCKOU (paaaeuryruaacxoji) i-)'MIIayrHOH nepernacoaxa no aaanoraa C lI.pyrnMH HMeHaMH ::«:eHcKoro pona, npo.o:OJDKaBWHMH apesnne OCHOBbl na *-i. Jlnll cospeaeaaoro myraanCKOro IDblKa '1epelIOBaHHe 0 - i xanserca }"Ke a6rrayrHLIM, HCIIo.llL3yeMblM npH 06paJOBaHHH "MeH lKeHCKom pona OT HMeH M)'lKCKOro pona (cp. 3aHMCTBOBaHHoe 113 apa6CKom rnyrn. rafiq "rosapaut, npyr' H o6pa- 30BaHHoe OT Hero nepernacoaxoa myru. rafeq 'noapyra; JII06oBHHu:a').

§ II. B xasecrae rnnonoraxecxoa napannemr K UPaHCKOMY j'MJIayry - KaK no MexaHH3MY I-ICTOpru::O-¢oHeTHqecKOro CTaHOBJIeHIDI, Tax " no Mopq,OJlOrnqecKHM pe3YJIbTaTaM - MO)!(HO HaJBaTb )'MJIayr B repMaHCKHX H3hlKaX (CM. [CrooJllfH-KaMeHc:mH M.H. 1962; )KHPMYHCKHH 1976, 298-3131), rrptrrou 'ITO )'MJIayr He nJU:leTC5I renermecsa aanporpaaxapoBaHHbill B aunoeaponencxyio snoxy H ero noasnenae B HeKOTOpl.IX apanCKHX lBblKax He CBSl3aHO apeanhHhlMH KOHTlIKTaMlf C COOTBeTCTB)'IOll(HMH HFmOCBponeHCKHMH H3hIKaMH ESPOIlld, nOCKOJIhxy THnOJlOIWIecKH cxonnue cpoHlel1l'1eCKHe nponeccsr D cnOBU. conepxanrax COHaHTbl (a rosaee, «pesoaarrrsr»), Ha6rrfO.!laroTCll B Pa3JIH'lHblX !:I3h1Kax MHpa. Cp. YMJIayr " ponCTBeHHhle eM)' ¢oHeTlflJecKlfe jfBJIeHIDI C :rnaJIOnNHbtMH (ruH BO BCHKOM CJIY4ae noxolKHMH) MOp¢oHoJloruqeCKHMH pe3YJlhTaTaMH B aexoropux napncxax H HYPHCTaHCKHX HJLlKaX. a C llpyroi-i CTOPOHhI, B repxaacxnx, B an6aucKoM, a ueunnoesponeacxax, nanpaxep 8 CBaHCKOM H MHornx .r:IPYfix 1iI3bIKaX MHpa [Crenanoe, 3,11J!f1hMaH 1976; )lecHHUK32 1984, 2601-

Ilpa aTOM yxaaaaaue HCTOpHKo-$:'JHernqeCKHe jfMeHH£: nanexo He iIO scex HPaHCKHX 1I3b1Xax HMelOT WiH HMeJlH CSOHM CJ1ellC1:&l-IeM mleHHO

95

raxce MOp$JHOJIOfH'{ecKoe sarreaae, KaK ysorayr HJl1I a6Jlayr. A B J:r3£..[xax, rne OHI{ Hs6JIIOASIOTCH. I{X pa3BHTHe MOiKeT 6b1TL CTHMyJIHpOBrutO He6D.HHaKOBbIMH I{ K TOMY xe He acerna eHHxpOHHhlMH npoueccaMH. HeO.llHHaKOBa H MOpcponoCHQeCKruI H cnoaooepaaoearensaas JHa'·IHMOCl'b YMJIayrllblx Ii a6JIayrllbIX rteperrracosox. TaK. i-ywtayrH!UI rrepernacosxa OCHOBbI 8 ifx>PMe 2-ro JI. en.s. C80HCTBeHHa PImY maronoa B XOTaHOClli{CKOM .lI3bIKe (ex. no,Up06Hee [Emmenck SGS, 192]), O,!J,HaKO Jl,IUI npyrax HpaHCKHX H3b1KOB OHa sexapaxrepna. Hanpaxep, B sauxax uryrnaao-pyllIaHCKOH rpynnsr, 8 .lIJryJIjlMCKOM Ii MeHee qaCTOTHO B apyrax nasrapCKliX sauxax i-)'MJIayrHol1 nepernacosxe noasepxeuu OCHOBbI pana rnaronoa He 80 2-M, a B 3-M nnue en, 'meJIa.

TeM eaMblM lleUCTBHe perpeccnanoa aCCHMHAAUHH H ero MOpq,OHOJIOIWIeCKHe pesynsraru B BHJ]e )'MJIaYTa B p33HblX npancxax 1i3hlKax paaJIH'IHO. Ilpu 3TOM caua perpeccuaaas aCCHMHJI.lIUH.lI, na cpoHeTH'IeCKOM ¢ORe KOTOPOll paaanaaercs YMIJayr, 3Ha'lHTeJlbHO urape (no B03MO:JKHOCT.IIM B03.IIellCTBH$I na 3B)'KH CJlOBS H no oXBaTY H3blKOB), 'IeM ee <PaHOJIOllflIeCKHe H MOPct>OHOJlOrn'leCKHe npoexuaa, Pa3J1H'IHble ¢IoHeTH'IeCKJ.te JlBJleHWI nopo~moT H a6nayr (eM. HH:iCe).

§ 12. 3nrr ::.;::e THO acCHMlUIlIl]HH H aKKOMOllaUHU B pa3J1H'lHhle nepao,Ubi UCTOpHH HpaHeKH)( H3bIKOB noponaa B OT.D:eJlbHblX 83 HUX U arreMeHTbT rapMOHHH, 0 qeM roBOPHJlOCb asnne (CM. Pa3.u:eJI «qJQ'f£eTHKa H ¢lOHOOOIlHI», § 64). TaKOBa 6hl.1la BHyrPHCJIOroBa.ll rapxonaa na onpeneneaaou srane HCTOPHH cesepaonaanpcxax 1I3.hlKOB (uryraaao-pynraucxon rpynma H Sl3ryJIl1MCKOro), peaynsrarox 'Iero .lIBHJlHCb naJIaTaJlH3al]HSI sanae!l3M'IHbIX COmaCHbJX (XOTIl U B Pa3JIR'IHOH crenenn no !l3blKaM) H na6l1aJlH3auH.lI B H3ryilliMCKOM (n0.11p06Hee eM. [Crn.sI-~, 130-133, 142-143]), cxonnsre co CIU1IDIHCKHMH. Mexcnorosaa rapMOHH.lI scrpesaerca pexe (KaK, nanpnxep, 'Iac'l'H'IHillI. rapxouna rnacaux BuyrpU CJlOBa II rHIDlHCKOM H BaxaHCKOM y.3blKax). Ilpa 3TOM Cl1HrapMOHH3M xax MOP¢OR0J10- nI'IeCKOe "BJleHHe 3,!J,eCb He eOCTOAAC.lI, HeCM01'p.ll na arrmOTHHaTHBHIdH XapaKTep rrapa.r:lWrM. uenoro p.llJl8 HpaRCKH'" Jl3bIKOB.

Jlescusecsas 3Ha'lHMOCTb upaacxoro }'MJ1ayra peaJIH3yeTC5l OObl'lHO B OOPaJOBaHUU ¢lOpM pona, pexe - 'IRCna. KaK npaanno, 3TO cymecrsaTeJJ.blJMe H ct>OpMbI npanararensaux :.;:eHcKoro pona OT COBpeMeHHhIX "MeR M)l)KCKOro PO,!Ul, a TaK)Ke OT HCroPUQecl01X oeHOS MpKCKOro, )KeHCKOro I1JlH cpeanero pona, Cpe.uCTBOM H 'faKUX CJI)"IaJlX cnyxar 1- H1Ui a-ywrayr, npa KOTOPOM OCHOBbI BbICTyI1alOT KaK ObI rrpoaonxarounosa ~eBHe"paHCKHe OCHOBbI aa "'-1 " ua "'·ii, XOTl! aa CaMOM nene 3TO MO)l(el ObITb npocTO 06pa30BaHHe no axanoruu, npH'IeM II p33HbiX Jl3bIKaX "PO.lI)'KTIIBHblMH lIRll.lllOTCSI pa3Hble THnbI }'MJ1ayra (cp, ocofiyio npo.nyxHIBROCTL i-YMJIayra B UI}'rfHutCKOM H3hlKe, HO a-YMJIayra B H3bJKe nanrro).

96

YMJIayr tlCalC npaaano, a-YMJlayr) sucrynaer TaU(e npH 06paJOBaHHH 4KJpM MH. 'IHCJla - ~aJIbHHH peayrrsrar 05Il1eH HPaHCKOH TeH.QeHIJ;HH K TeMaTH3allHH npeauax HMeHHt>IX OCHOB H reHepaJIH3aLUfH ~OPM MH. 'Inc- 11a na *-ah no rany TeMaTll'leCKHX - B M)l)KCKOM pone OT OCHOB na *-a If D xeHCKOM OT OCHOD HOI *'12. 3ro OKOH'IaHHe *.lih IPOPM MH. 'IMCJla otiecneseearro q,opMaJ1H3allHIO a-)'M.I1ayra KaK nOKaJaTeJUI. MHo::«eCTBeHHOCTH.

§ 13. Hanasne B ornemasrx IlJhlKax (aanpzxep, B TOU JKe uryraaHO-PYWaHCKOH rpynne) PlUI'IH'IHhlX THnOB )'MJIayruhlx nepernacosox, aaJIO)KHBUIHXCII K TOM}' ::«e HOI paaasre acropzvecxae nepernacoaxa KOpHII, IIOPOllHJlO 3lleCb CHCTeM}' qepellOBaHH" B OOKaJlH3aUHH OCHOB, xoropyto, KaK yxe roBOpWlOCI:., MQ)KHO aaausan, ROBMM a5rrayroM, ocoeexao OTqeTJTHBO ua6mOJJ:aeMOM B cacrexe maronsnnx !f>oPM, )'KJIarJ:waalOIlIHXCII B onpeaeneaayio Tarum:uyl (nOllp06Hee CM [Mypasseea 1912, 1975; C roSiIlI; CfB.sI-<p. 205; CrB.sI-MJ). Xapaxrepno, 'ITO Mhl MOJKeM I1pOCJle.uHTb aaecs raxxe sranu lleAcTBIDI. perpeCC»SHOH aCcHMHmlUHH C nepepacrauaea ee B MOP£llOHOOOI'H'IecKHH )'MJIayr H 3aTeM B a6.rrayr na npnuepe 113bIKOB aroa rpynnbl (nonpotinee CM. [CrB.$l-C1>. 205])2. no CXO,UHOMY nyru pa3BHBaJIHCh cooTBeTCTByIOlUHe ¢OPMbJ B M)'H.!l::KaHCKOM H3hlKe, O.lUlaKO OHH OCTaHOBHJ1HCb sa 60JIee paanex srane.

IloCKOJIhKY 3TOT ran a6.rrayra OTIIOCHTeJibHO HOB, on MOJKeT 6blTb COnOCT3BJIeH co cnenaan npeaaero a6.rrayra TOJIhKO THDOJlOrn'leCKJI •

.upeBHH" .:t(e a6JIayr, BhllISJ(ll:eMblH B HPaHCKMX IBblKax OTHOCHTeJlhHO 'lena B 06pa30Bamm HMea OT rnaronsusrx OCHOB, "MeeT HeCOMHeHHbIe napannena B cnaasrrcxax a3bIK3X, O,llHaKO 3Ta xepra npencraanser C060R apxaasa - TPaHC¢OpMl1pOBaHHoe npononxeaze 60Jlee paanero HHlIOesponencxoro a6nayra.

§ 14. 0 MOpcfJoHOJIOfHqeCKHX '1epe.QoBamrnx B CIIaBIIHCKMX ~3bIKax cymecrayer 60J1blllWi mrreparypa, 3JleCh HeT B03MOJKHOCTM llaTb KOTb CKO}lf,KO-HHGYllb HHcpopMaTIfBHbIH c)'MMapHhlH oG30p npo6neM CJIaB5IHCKOH MOpq,oHOJlOmH H noceaureauux HM patior. Ca., aanpuaep, [BepaUJreHH 1968, 1974; EHpu6aYM 1987,112-113. 197-2ooJ. C60PHHK [CnaBSlHCKoe 19&1], CneUHaJlbHO nocBSI~eHUhl" 3TOMY KPyry npo6JIeM, RUHty )K.)K.Bap6OT, B KOTOPO" npHBOlUlTCJI raxxe 0630p H nrrreparypa no aaHHOR reae [Bap601' 1984, 13 K CJI.1. » MHorne pa60Tbl no MOP¢OHOnOrHH KOHKpeTHhlX CJI3ID1HCKHX 113hlKOB M llHaJIeKTOB; B HHX npaseaeaa H 60nee paaass nnreparypa. Ilna Hac anecs cyinecraenno TO, 'ITO TpaHC¢OPMaullJl HH.1IOeBpOneHcKoro a6nayra H MOPcPoH0J10rH<ieCKHX sepenoBal-HIM cornacastx .8 npaCliaBYHCKYJO anoxy H noaauee. B )')Ke paaaenaslUltxCfi CJla8XHCKHX 113b1KaX, npoxozmna no HHOMY, 60nee CJlO.lKHOMY nyra, 'IeM B npaacxax [Kyaneuos 1954],

73ax 53

97

B cnaB:ilHCKHX 51]I>IKax, Ha'lHHaII c pauaero npacnaaaacxcro, npoaon)(aJ1CJI H paanaeanca Ka1H!CTBeHHI>IH a6JJ ayr , r .e. 6a3HpyrownHCJJ aa npoUIBOnOCTaB.1Je!illH maCH:WX ¢OHeM no .Ka'ieCTBY. a TflIU(e KOJIH'iecTBeH· Rbi" a6nayr, 6a3HPyIOllIHHC:iI ua rrpornaonocraaneuaa JJ.OJlIltX H xparxax rrracusrx, Ilpu 3TOM )LJUI cpaBHeHIDI C HpaHCKOH MOP¢OHO;Iornefi Ba-:KHbl CaM rpaKT HaJIO)KeHIDJ B CJlamIHCKOM KOJIH'lecTBeHHoro afirIayra ua KaqeCTBeHHblH H Dblpa60TK8 HODbIX TImOB a6JIayra (CM., aanpasrep, [Bap60r 1981, 1984.21 u cn.I).

IbBeCTHo. 'ITO OI1pe.LIeJJeHHble HH,I[OeBpOneHcKHe TlII1hJ qepe.llOBaHHi!:

B npaCJIaB:ilHCKOM :il3blKe CTaHOIDlTC5:! HenpoJJ.yKTHBHbIMH, HO C HX saryxaRHeM BO MHomx CJIaD5:!HCKlIx ssaxax B03HHKalOr HOBbIe. TaK, HanpHMep, lfepe.uo1wme npacnas. beraii - bero - S'b-bOrb C 'Iepe)lOI!:3J:IHeM e B marone - 0 B "MeHH (cOOTBeTCTBytOlluiM *a : *a B aHaJIOflf1iH),IX <I>opMax or 3THMOnOrnqeCKH pcncrsenaoru rtpaupaacxoro "bar-; H C h, TpaKTyeMblM KaK cryness pe;zyKUHH, CTaJ10 yxe B PaHHJOJO npaCJ]IiRlIHCKj'lO snoxy 3aCTblBWHM, Henpo,o:yKTHBHbIM (XOT.ll U OCTaBHJlO snonae }lBHble petpnescu B sane, uanpnuep, pye. 6pamb - 6epy - C60Pbl). qepeJJ:OBaHue )iCe Tuna bsrati - ssbnati - OTHOCJITeJIbHO HOBoe, npQLlyKDIBHoe B Hcrop""eCKHH nepaon palBMTIDl CJIamIHCKHX S3blKOB . .H snecs eOOTBOiuenae rnacmrx e, z, b. Y asnserca )f)Ke He COOTHOUleHueM C1')'TTeHeH pe.Il)IKlUill. a 06b1'IHhlM '1epeLloBaHHeM maCHbIX MOHQ¢n'OBroB - KpaTXHx H normrx (nonpooaee CM. [:6epHlIlTeHH 1974. 33, 43]).

§ 15. TaxUM 06PaJOM, qepeJl.OBaHIDI rnacaeix (KaK H cornacxsrx, CM.

HH)fCe) B npac.1HIIDIHCKOM J1HllIb sacrasao 6a:mpOBaJIHCb na HH,IlOeBponescxax. OCHOBHble xe BH;IIbI qepeJlOBaHHH Ha'l'lJIH !f>opMupoBaTbCSI B upaCJHtB5!HCKYID anoxy (rana leteti ~ letati), a xacn, asrpatioranacs ewe noanaee - nOCJIe pacnana npaCJ13B.l:1HCKOro (B 'I2CTHOCTH, C HyJIeM macHOro na MeCTe CTapb1X csepxxparxax Tuna pyc. (OH ~ CHa), CM. [KYlHe· UOD 1954; EepHWTeHH 1968, 57-58].

X apaxrepao. <ITO B CJI8IDlHCKUX JI)lrJKax CHCTeMa MO.M>oHOJJoTH':IeCKHX qepe.uoBaHHH YCTofi'lHBee H 6ora'le B rnarone, qeM B HMeuu, ocoGeHHO B ¢opMax, npHH3,[lJle)KaIlIHX e.nHHOH napaaarsae [Bepaurreaa 1968. 59], OJlfHlIW Qepe.I1onamfSl OTJIaCOBOK CBOHCTBeHHhT H PW MMeH B onpenenenmrx nanexax, ocofeuno B HMeHax C fjefJ1LIMU rnaCHblMU B xopae (nonpotiaee C npHMepaMH CM. [6epHlUTeHH 1974. 55-59]). Oco- 6YJO CHCTeMY CQCT3RJI5JJOT qepe.IlO.BaHHJJ rJIaCHhlX H com3CHbIX B UMeHax C cYcFcFI-IKCaJlbHblMH OCHOBaMI-I (TaM: JKe, 60 n cn.).

B pesynsrare HanO:lKeHHJI KOJIH1.Je<:TBeHHoro afinayra na KaqecrBeH~ H.bJJ1 - npa oc06oH pOOH cryrreHJ.f yJVlHHeHKII (CM. 0 HeM Hu,*,e) , B ycnoI!IDIX OTHOClITeJlbHOro 60rarcrBa BQKaJllBMa KaI{ paaaero np3CJJ.amtHCKOI'O COCTOllHIDI, Tax H 60nee nOl,UHHX nepaonos - uenosxa sepeztcsaaua,

98

Il OTJ1I1'1He OT npaapaacxux, IlKJJIO'IaJlH .uOBOJ1bHO 60JlbillOe KOJIH'IeCTBO ,::0 MnOHeHTOIl. Ca., aanpuaep, npacJ13B51HCKHe "Iepe.!IYJ01ll.HeCSI aJIJIOMOpcpbI gol- : gol- : gel- : ghl-, rtpencraanmoutae e.uHHytO Mop¢eMY co 3H3- 'leHIDlMH 'ropers, nunars: rners', npoxansronryioca B npacrras. "" golvbflja (cp, pyc. 20lfOdHJI), ap.-nOJIhCK. tal 'ropenae', nOJIbCK. zgliszcze 'nenenauie' " np. [EepHWTeHH 1968, 49]. Bnaronaps HaJlO.:KeHlUO '1epe,l],OBaHUH KOJlH"leCTBeHHblX na xauecrseuaue H nOIlBJleHHIO K3TeropllH YW1UHeHWi B onpeaeneunsrx rpynnax npaCJIaBSlHCKHX rnaronos H orrnaronsHhIX HMeH nOllBJ1J1lQTCSI OTeyrcTBOSaBWHe panee HOBbie nponneaaue CTyneua OT TaKHX ornaCOBOK, xoropsre npexne He HMeJ1H O,ll;HOK3lJeeTBeHHbIX ,llOJIfHX xoppensr, onaro,llapJl <[eMY psnsr '-IepenOHaHHH nOnOJIlUHOTCJI 33 C'IeT HOBIdX snerroa. Ca. euie 6o.nee CJlO.:KHbIe pJlllbI 'IepeDytOWHXCJi rnacanx: e : 0; 'b. b : 0 He: 1;, ;; (nonpofinee 00 3TUX npoueecax H 'rIarepH3JI CM. [Bapfior 1984, 13, 30, 40, 46]).

§ 16. B CJIaBSlHCKHX JlJbIKax, KaK H B apaacxax, rrepernacoaxn 06ycr]OBJUIBaIOT (HJlH eOnpOBO)({l13IOT) xepenosaaas OCHOB H Cy¢q,HKCOB cno~OCPOPM KaK B MOPCPOJIOfHH, TaK H B CJI0B006pa30BaHHH, r.e. arpator pons H napa.rIHrnaTH'IeCKYJO, H ,llepHI!aIl.UOHH)'IO (rau xe, 52). Ocoeenao rrpo.uYKTHBHbI B npaCJl31ll1HCKHH nepnon If nOJ.uHee a6JIayrHble sepenoaaHWI B 06pa30BaHHH HMeH, BKJIlO'IruJ KOMnOJHTbl (eM. [Baprior 1974, 1978, 1981, 1984] U npyrae patioru). Ilpa :;'TOM He ecerna 06pa:30BaHHe HOBblX CJIOB B pa3HLIX CJIaB5I.HCKHX S13blKax conpOI!O.:K):laJ1OCL nepernacos((aMH, II He eceraa OHM COBna,ll,3JIH no lBblKaM, CM. nonpotiaee [BepaWTeRH 1974, 31-32].

§ 17. B npaCJI3Bl1HCKHH nepaon H n03.!IHee ynorpeoarensasr TaKJKe sepenoaaaas cornacasrx, pa3nI1'1HO e<tJoPMHp0BaBWHeeJl B parasrx cnaIiJIHCKHX S13blKax, ocotiesao B OTHOCHTeJ1bHO noJ.D.Hu" nepaoa. B UCTOpmI pyccxoro Sl3bIKa cncreua qepenOHaHHH cornacuux B 3UalJl1TeJlbHOU Itepe nOnOJIHHJIaCb aa C'IeT 'IepellOBaHHJI MOpq,eM e TBep,llblMH - MSirKHIfU cornacnuua (npn nOSlBJTeHHH nOCJIe,l:lHHX nepen HCTOpHlJeeKHMH rnaCHbIMH nepenuero psaa c nocJle.uYIOJ..[(HM nepexonoa *e > 0). 3TOT ran lJepeaoBaHHti: O'leHL SlpKO nposansercs, B '1aCTIfOCTH, B cnpRlKeHH" anpeaeneuuoa rpynrur rnaronoa B «PaPMax HaCTOl1IUerO I!peMeHH. Cp., 1f3npHMep. H.ecy - «ecetas (nesu - ne5'OS), tle3Y -- 8e3elUb (vezu -vez'oS), ..wemy ...... MemeUJ.b (metu .- met'oS) U T.,I:I. K 3TOMY PAAY xepeno~aHHH rrpnustxaior TaK.:Ke napsr k ....... C H g -- i - peJYJJbTaT HCTOpH· :reeKoR nanaranasauaa Ja.lIHeIl3b1'1HblX COfJIaCHbIX: ..w02y - .MO)KeUlI, 'mogu - moie.f), meK.Y - me'leWb (teku -- teCo§) , nell)' - neueue. 'peku ...... pecos).

DPH aTOM pacnpenerreaae pedmexcos MHrKHX H TBep.n;blX ansrepaaurOB (ocotienno pacnpenenenae pepnexcos anaoesponeacxax BeJUIPHblX

99