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B.T. Tax (Mocxpa) Pycckas (UHaMMyecKas ISbIKOBAR kapriuna Mupa’ OGsI4HO Nog ASbIKOBCH KapTHHOH Mipa NOKMMaeTcA OTOOpaxeHHe B dopmax s3ika ycTpocTwa 3KCTpanMHrBucrH4eckol neficTBHTeAbHOCTH, 4TO B CBOIO ONepeRb MpoaRmseTca B OObeME 3Ha4eHUT HM BAHYTpeHHel opme azztkoBerx eqHHML. B yenom npepcrapnenue 0 ASBIKOBOH KapTHHe MMpa HOCHT CTaTHYeCKMA XapakTep: H3y4ajOTCA 3Ha4elwA cHoB HM TpaM- MaTW4eckHX OPM B ABBIKOBOH cHcTemMe Tak, KaK OM MpemcTaBneHbi 8 enoBape HM rpanMaTHYecKOM ONMCaHNM a3bIKa. Mexkay TeM TaKOH TozKON HegocTaToueH fia Toro, YTOGb! BCKPLITR cnelMpMueckyIo peaKUINE 10- cHTene! Ika Ha BHEAIEIKOBYIO AelicTBHTeALHOCT, NOCKONBITy s3bIKO- BOC BHICHHE MMpa NpOABsIXCICA HK IPH POpMMpOBAHH BBICKASEIBAHMA, TO €CTb B KOHEYHOM C¥eTe B cllocoOe nocTpoeHus akryanbHoro (peyenoro) ASBIKOBOTO 3HaKa. «CTATHYeCKOe)) ABBIKOROE WieHeHMe CHeAyeT AONOAHUT. AMHAMMUe- CKHM MOJIXOQOM, V3YYAIOUIMM, KaKHe CTOpOHLI ofbexrHsHoi gelicrau- TENbHOCTH MMCCT TCHTCHUMO OIMCaTb B epBy!0 OYepeAb rOBOpALIAH Ha AaKHOM ASbIKe TIp# QOpMMPOBAHMH BLICKASBIBAHHA. B crpyxtype Bbickasbisana pasmmuarorca Ba OCHOBHBIX acrieKTa: OTpakeHve MpenMerHow cutyauuw («quKTyM») 4 orpaxenue peveroit cuTyaumn («monycn), Uro kacactca MpeamerHod cHTyaUMM, TO HOCTpOeHHe BHICKAIBIBAHHA HauHHaeTca ¢ OT6opa sNeMeHTOR NAHHOrO dbparMeHta CHTyaLMH, HAeHTH- Quumpyioumx MpysHakoB 3THK 9Ne@MeHTOB M xXapakTepa oTHoIeHUs M@KIy STHMH anementamu. Dopopauie Ha pasHerx aSLIkaX B culy THHT- BOTICHXOMOrMHeCKHX YcTaHOBOK obpamiaior BinMaHMe Ha pasnHuHbe SHEMEHTb! HEMCTBUTEIbHOCTH, B CBA3H C 4YeM MPH (opMupcBanHM KarK- * Hevotopiie mpkmepsr ssaTst #2 onyb..Kopairsix padoT aetopa, [epenostsl wrar- HbIxX NAMepOB AaOTCR No OMYORHKOBAHHBIM NepeBOAAN. 36 B., Tak, Pycckaa QHHaMiueckad A3b1KOBas KapTHHa Mpa Zoro BbICKasBIBAHHT (opMMpyeTcaA cHenMbwyeckat ASBIKOBad KapTHHA Mupa, MoxkHo OTMeTHT®, B KavecTBe MpHMepa, Clenyromme XapakTeprsie ZA PYCCKOTO ABBIKA YepThI B CPAaBHeHHH, B YACTHOCTY, C (PpaHLly3ckHM, Tipa o6o3Ha1eHH4 MBMKeHMA pycckHil #3HIK B Gombe cTeneHH ‘buxcupyer crioco6 nepenpuxenus, ve% ppanuyscKuii, KoTopBiit orpaHH- uMBacTCa yKa3aHMeM Ha HampaBlenve jws:xeHHa. Hanpymep: JincrHuuxHit nowen Ha BrOpot Tax (L/onoxos). Listnitski monta au premier. Cy6sexr conepumun mpmxenve OOs4HEIM TeMTIOM (TemIKoM) H BMECTe ¢ TeM B HanpasieHHM Hapepx (j1a BTopoit arax). B pyccKOM BEICKasbIBa- HAM Maron OTMeqaeT TONbKO MepBHIM acnexT DBwKeHHA (BrOpow BbIpa- %eH Mipe;.set_M), BO (ppaHUy3cKOM — TONBKO BTOpod («MomHALICA)). Takum o6pasom, roROpAMMe Ha PasHBIX ABbIKaX (PUKCHPYIOT B MpewAKaTe pasnwanie mpa3zaxu, o6sexTHBHO npucyuine Aelicramo. JIpyro# npu- 3HaK Spake BHe jjaroma muOo ocTacTcA COBCeEM HeBbIPaxeHHLIM MOACKASbIBAaeTCA CAMOH CHTyalHer. 3HaunTenbHo Yale, BBALY HaH4MA B PYCCKOM ASbIKe pasBeTBCHHOH cHCTeMBI MpPHCTABOYHBIX rnaromos, Me OcHOBa NOKa3bIBAaeT xApakTep geltcTBHA, a npeduKe — HanpabneHMe WN AONONHMTeENbHy! XaparTepH- CTHKY, B PYCCKOM BbICKa3bIBAHHM BEIPAKAIOTCA OMHOBPCMCHHO ABA 3HAYC- xa (aampasmenHe 4 crocoO ABwxeHHA), TOrza Kak BO paHuy3cKoM — TOMbKO OAHO M3 HHX: Je vois venir & moi une femme (Mérimée). Ko ne nodxodum KaKaa- TO KeHULHHA, Bo tbparuy3ckom raarone oTpwKeHO TOMBKO oOnHO cBOlicTBO ACHcTBHA (Hampapmenne), B pycckom — nba (HaMpaBseHHe H cnocos ABwKeHHA). AnanorHuHoe ABeHHe MMeeT MECTO H MPH OFO3HAYCHHH KOHKpeTHEIX aelictauit c o6bextamit: Emy npueasanu k cnune Kpsimba (/Zaycmoecxuit), On lui @ accroché des ailes dans le dos. B pycckoii pase rnarom BbIpaKaeT JBa 3HayeHHA: XAapakTep camoro Relictaua (easame) u HanpaprenHe ZeiicTBua (npu-), BO ppaHuyscKoh — TONBKO Hanpapmenve AelicTBus (npucoenunenMe OnHOrO oGexkTa K Apy- Tomy), Tora kak Xapaktep AeHcTBHA CHeWMANbHO He BEIP@KeH H Mpemmo- JaraeTca ACHBIM M3 CuTyaumn. H 6 9roM mpaMepe, kak H B Npegbizyuiem, pycckHil raroa OObeAMHACT {Be CeMbI M ABILAeTCA Gonee KOHKPETHLIM 10 cpaBHeHHMo ¢ bpakuy3cKum, . CpasHenve voMuHauuit peiicraua B npenpiaymmx npeanoxenHax: venir —-1 at 1 (a Tare npuexame um. n.); accrocher — npudasame (a TaWOKE NpUi;c.uMb, NPUKONOMb, npuKneumb, npuGume Mm, n.). NOKa3bI- BaeT, YTO pyccknit ABLIK Yale HCMOML3yeT THNOHHMMHNCCKHE HOMMHALAN 37 CounokysbTypHble ACMeKTh! Gy NKIMOHMPOwAHH st AILIKA TaM, Te pakuysckHt yHOBNeTBOPHTCA runepoHHMHYeCKHMH, 9310 Kaca- eTCA CHOB pasHbIX YacTeH peu. Hanpumep: Nous fimes un bon repas (Mérimée). Mbt mu1oTHo noobedanu. Bo panuyscKoit pase (Gyks. «Mbl Cena XOpOLyio egy») MIpHHa- THe MINH OOosHAYAeTCA POLOBLIM TePMHHOM, KOTOPHIM ykasblaaeT Ha mo6oH mpvem MHMUlM, He3aBHcHMO OT BpeMeHH AHA (gastpax, o6en, YoKHH), B TO BPeMA KaK B PYCCKOH OHO KOHKpeTHSHPOBaHO (noo6edanu). Bo cbpauuy3cKom BapwaHTe eda xapakTepusyeTca CaMbIM OOWIHM Onpeme- nennem (bon — xopowuti), B pycCKOM crellnH4eckHM ompeneneHnem, OTHOCAILMMCA K E16 — miomno). Tunep-runoHuMHueckHe COOTBETCTBHA YpesBelMaiido THTIMUHBI AA nepexoga OT paHUy3cKOro ABbIKa K pycCKOMy, Harp¥Mep: La foule se pressait endimanchée, embarrassée de paquets (Lanoux). Tipasanwiio ogeTsIe moaM ToporIHBO WINK CO ceepmicamu B PYKAX. Un paquet de copies a corriger (Mauriac). Cmonxa yueHHueckux TeT- panei. @panuy3cKoe paquet OXBaTbIBAeCT 3HAYeHHe PYCCKHX CHOB NaKer, cmonka, cBepmok, c@ASKG, y3eN, Nawka HT. 1., 0603Ha4aA COBOKYNHOCTE HECKOMBKHX MpeAMeTOB, CBEPHYTEIX WIM 3aBA3AHHBIX BMECTE. B ctpepe McpoHwMuyeckux oTHuMlesitit (7. e. oTHOWeHHA Uenoro H ero 4acTe) roBopaluMit Mo-pyccku ucnombsyet OFo3HaucHHE LeTOrO BO MHOTHX CHy4¥aRX, KOF a TOBOPALLHH NO-paHilysckH YKASbIBAeT Ha 4aCTS 9Toro UenOro. Pycckuit asnik uame wc Gonpiwel geranusanuel (buKCHpyer 3BYKO- BbIC OULYULCHHA, B TO BpeMA KaK BO (ppaHUYICKOM "ale HCHOMb3Y!OTCA pH HOMHH@WMM UBETOBBIe BieuaTAeHHA. panuyscKnt mucatenb Jlyu AparoH B CBOeM poMaHe «BNaHI, WIM 3aOBcHHey, KaCaACh ASIKOBBIX npo6nem, nucan: «...PpaHuy3cxuil a3bik — s3bIk 6e3 cnyxa [...J; Kakat GeaHocth cpemcTs ANA BCero, 4TO KacaeTCA 3ByKA..., LYMa, TEHHl, MeJO- ‘AMM WIM HeGnarosBy4Ha, B sro o6aacTu paom ¢ anrmHiicKHm wn pyc- CKHM ASbIKOM OH BBIPIADHT kak GeMHbIil POACTBEHHHWO. B pen mpi O603Ha¥eHHH JHMM pyCCKHi{ ASbIK OTHOCHTEABHO Halle noabayeTca NpsMbIMM HOMHHaLHAMH (MMs coOcTBeHHOe, HaflpHMep), Torna Kak, K MpHMepy, paHuyscKus pe npuberaer K KOCBeHHBIM o60- 3HayeHWAM (pOACTBCHHEIe M MHBIC OTHOWeIMA, ReMorpapHuecKue NpH~ 3HaKH mMUa), MaKe CNM MMA COOcTBeHHOe HsBecTHO. Hanpumep: Tlasen Merposw4 crporo HaxMypH GpoBy, a HuKonail Memposuy emytunca (Typzexes). Paul Pétrovitch fronga séverement les sourcils; son Srere se troubla. Bropofi nepconax oGo3Hach No ero pOACTBeHHOMy OTHOLIEHHIO C nepBbIM (220 6pam) He TOJIBKO NOTOMY, ¥TO BBHY OTCYTCTBHA OTHeCTB BO (bpauy3cKom y3yce pyccKoe HMA AIA @paHUy3scKoro YHTATeNA KaKETCH 38 B.T. Tax. Pycckas AuHammueckas ASEIKOBAt KApTHHa MHpa HenpHusttHBIM 1 TPOMO3ZKHM, Ho Taloxe BcneneTsHe Tory, 4TO KoCREH- HbI¢ O603HaYCHMA, YKASSIBAIOLIME HA POACTRCHHBI€ OTHOMICHHA HI CO- UHAJIbHBIC POH, BO (Ppakily3cKoK pew OTMedaOTCA HaMHOro yaUle. B BBICKaSHIBaHWAX Ha Pa3HBIX ASIKAX OHH H Te Ke NOHATHA MoryT oop: Te @ paSHBIMH YaCTAMH pewH. Ito BUTHO yxke H3 MpHBeeHHOTO BBIe NpHmepa H3 Mepume, re NOHATHe NPHHATUA TMU BEIPAKEHO TPH NOMOLUH CyWecTBHTenbHOrO (repas), KOTOpoe BKMOWAeTCR B COCTAB Mpe- dvx27a MIpH MOMGFIM rmaroma-onepatopa faire; Torma Kak B PyCCKOM sBbIKe — HemlocpeacTseHHO riaronom (noobedame). Hapeyne B UWeIOM B pyccKOM TeKcTe HCMOnL3yeTca Yale, 4eM BO (ppaHUy3cKOM. Creunpuieckue ocoGeHHOcTH byHKUMOHMpOBaHMA A3bIKa DpOABI- 1OTCA He TONKO B OTOOpe BNeMeHTOR MPH OOOSHAYCHHM CHTYAaLMH, HO MB BbIOOpe THMa OTHOMCHHK MexIy 2eMeHTaMM CHTYauMH, KOTOpbIM onpe- AeMAeT UCTOMESyeMyI0 OGLIYIO MOJeIb-MpeMIOKeHHs. Tax, orHowenve BKMOUeHHA Mexkiy. OOosHayaeMEIMH O6beKTaMH B pyccko pew 4acTo MpexcTAaBICHO KAK OTHOWICHHe MECTOTIONOKeHHA, a BO (ppaHUy3ckoH — kak OTHOIeHve OONaTaHHa: Kpome secon B Pepuax 6210 ellie OHO TAHHCTBeHHOe MeCTO — peka. (Tayemoaecxuii). Outre la forét, le Revni possédait un autre objet de fascination, sa riviére. Tosopstiuiit 1o-pycck CTpowr BbICKasbiBalive, iicCXOAA Mpeaye Bcero H3 CTPYKTypb! KOLITEY Mee NPOMSBOAHEIX («MPHXOMHTbY, «KYXOANTED), Torda Kak TOBOpsINM No-:ppaHuy3sckH — H3 CTPYKTYPEI «HMETBY H ee MpowsBogHEIx («nomyyaTe», «TepaTs»). Pax ocoSewnocte B opranwza- UMH BbICKASLIBAHHA NOSBONAIOT OTHECTH pyCCKHM ASBIK K ASLIKAM «OBIT», TOra kak (ppakuy3cKHikt — K ASbIKAM “HMETB, TipwpeqerHtit MpuMep BBIABIIAeT ele OBE BAXKHEIX YEPTH, CBOHCT- BeHHBIX PYCCKOMY BLICKa3BIBaHHIO TIO cpaBHEHMIO ¢ (bpatittyscxua. Tep- BOe W3 HAX — HCTIONBSOBAHMe HeNepeXOMHEIX FNATONBHLIX CTpyKTyp MPH TIpaAMoriepexoAHBIX BO PpanuyscKom Asbixe, Hanpymep: On e3qu1 ¢ Bembrmo, ¢ Anramo (Zypeexes). Il visita la Belgique, V'Angle’ unc Moxite cKa3aTb, ITO pyccKHH ABLIK — A3bIK «rue? (Kyaa?)», TorMa kak panuyscui — a3uik «uTo?) (GacToe COOTRETCTBHE JIOKANLHEIX cTpyATyp NepBoro mpaMonepexoaHBIM CTpykTypaM BToporo). Apyraa xapaktepraa ocoSexHocts pyccKoro BbICKasbIBaHMA — 4ac- Toe COOTBETCTBHE CHHTAKCMYeCKOrO TOsseKaMero M 'CeMaHTHHeCKOTO cy6bekrTa, B TO BPeMa Kak BO QpaHy3cKOM IpewnoxKeHMU CHHTaKcHIe- ckoe Mogsexamee Hepenko oopmuaet ceManTuyeckHt ofeekr, O6cTos- TeNbCTBO MpH4MHBI, MecTa, Bpemenv. Heoxyutesnentoe cymlecTaHTemb- HO€ 3aHHMaeT NPM 9TOM. NosHuMIO, Koropad OObI4HO NpewHasHayaeTca ANA CYLIECTRUTEMBHOTO ONYUIeBIeHHOTO}; ‘MpOucXOaHT: CBocoGpasHbI MeTa- 39 CounoxysbTypHbie acneKTs! pyHKUMOHMpOBaHHA ASbIKa opwueckH NepeHoc M TakHe KOHCTpYKUMM MMeHyIOTCA «CHATaKcHUe- CKHM @HHMH3MOM»: Septembre a ramené mes camarades au collége (Dérez). B ceumabpe MOx Topapwun BepHysnce B KONE (GyKB. «CeHTAGpb BOIBPaTH MOHX ToBapHutelt B KOIEX»). Vb o6nactn ucnonb30RaHua 4YacTeh peyn, MB ccbepe uneHOB mpen- AOKEHHA Mbl BHAWM, 4TO B pyCCKom A3BIKe hopMbI Gomes TOHHO coOTBET- CTBYIOT COJepxKaHHIO, B TO BpeMA KaK @paHUy3CKOMy cBOMCTBeHEH Gonpummii rpammatuyecknit MeraddépyaM. Uo Kacaetca orpaxenun perebow cutyaunu («mogycn), TO OHO Mpo- ABACTCA NPEKTE BCETO B KCHONLIOBAHUM KaTeropult MpesHKaTHBHOCTH, uTO TakiKe OTparkaeT «BHAeHHe Mhpay, OcobeHHO B COMANLHOM nuaaHe. Paccmotpu Kparko bcoGeHHOCTH ynoTpeGNeHHs.B pyCcKOM saBIKe KaTe- Topuit sua, BPeMeHH, KOMMYHHKATHBHOM UeneycraHoBKH, accepTuBHO- CTH, MOZaNbHOCTH, BbIABJIAEMEIe B COMOCTABIICHHH C palilty3cKHM. B pycckmx pennuxax mpeqnouTHTembHan YacTOTHOCT opm HUA: 1— 2 — 0 (tpetse nmuo mam Ge3znrHocts), Torna Kak BO (bpaHLy3cKom — nao6opot. Hanpumep: (Ipencegarenzctsyioumni): — Je donne la parole 4 Monsieur N. Cnoso mpedocmasanaemca r-Hy N. B pycckoM s3bIke HacToailee BpeMa Hcromb3yeTca pexe, YeM BO PpamuyscKom. Qro kacaeTcs, B YACTHOCTH, TaKHX aKTOB peun, kak Mpocs6a, coBeT, BOMpoc, npemoxeHHe 4 Ap. Hanpumep: Tu m’arrée si je me trompe (6yks.. «ret Mens ocraHannypaemn, ecau.,.»), Thi Mens ocmanoeuue, eon A ommnByce. OcoSexHo mHTepeceH cny4ai pacxoxXHeHHA B MCNONbIOBAHHU Bpe- MCHHBIX MIGHOB NIP BbIMEEHMM pasMUHEIX acneKTOB nelicTRuA TORO- PALWMMH Ha pasHsix #3b1KaxX. OAHO H TO 2Ke cobbITHe MoxeT ObITh Npca- CTaBNeHO H Kak MpOuece, H Kak pe3yabTat. Hanpumep: — /de N.? — On yore yuen (onuchiBaeTca JeficTRHe) w1H — Ezo Hem (coobutaetca ToABKO pesyabrar zefcraua). B otux cnyyaax pycckHil A3bIK OTHOCHTEeAbHO YaLic OnMcEIBaeT DeHCTBHe, NpMBemMee K AHHOMY pesynbTaTy (MCMOAB3yeTCA Mpowenuee spema), dpanlysckui — tonbKo pesynbtat (ynotpebasetca HacTonuyee spema), Hanpumep: Ou yace sepryzca. I] est de retour, TIpH BEIPaKeHHH KOCBEHHOM KOMMYHHKATHBHOH LemeycTaHoBKH (BO- Mpoca WM MpukasaHHs) pyccKuit a34IK CpaBHHTeENBHO WaNle HCNOAL3yeT pambie hopms! (sonpocHTenbiyto H noBeaMTeAbHyI0), Tora Kak cpaH- Uy3CKHA npOeraeT K MOBeCTBOBATeENBHOM opMe, ¥TO BbICTYNAeT B JaH- HOM cylyyae Kak HenpsMolt cnoco6 aLipaKenua. Hanpumep: — Tu seras prudent, il y a du verglas (6yxs. «tb! Gynewb ocropo- xkeH»). — Byab ocTopoxen, Ha yaulie rononeguua. Yop: ynorpe6urb Symyulee BpeMa B PyCCKOM BLICKALIBBHMH, MpemNOUTHTeMLHO MOCTaBUTS ero B BonpocuTenbHy10 opmy: Te 6ydeus ocmopoocen, 0a? 40 B. TY. Tax. Pyccxaa AuHamiyeckaa agpixonaa‘kapranta MHpa Kareropus accepruprocrn skmovaer pe cy6xareropum: yreepre- HMe 4 OTpPHUaHHe. B pane crydaen TOBOpAMLM MOKET ClenaTh Mek Ty fuiMu BLIGop, ocoBeHHO, ecnM OTpHUAHUe HeTOMKayeTcA WIA BEIpPAKeHHE cmsrvenot mpocbOst. Takoe cMarienme WOKyTMBHOM CHMbI BBICKAaEI- BaHHA M0-PYCCKA MOOKET MepetaBaTbCA BOMPOCHTEMBHO-OTPAUATEMBHOA bopmoi, Torna.Kak Ro tppanny3cKom — yTaepzuTenbHon.|Hanpumep: — Tu me prétes ta voiture? (6yxs. «Tb MHe O2aKABACII TBOIO Ma- mmny?») — Tet xe OfO(KMINE MH CBOIO MaLlIMHy? B° sc) *HHBIX BEICKA3EIBAHMEX MOZOGHOro posa pannyscKuh a3BIK WMpe McuubsyeT, Wem pyccKni, HeMapxupoBaHHyO yTBepaATeNbHyIO ‘bopmy, koTopoit B pycCKOM #3EIKe MOxKET COOTBETCTBOBATS OTPHUATEME- Hen. B chepy MomansHocru pycckuit s36Ik MpOsBIAeT CKNOHHOCTS.K HC- Trom30BaHMO OPM, BOCXOMAIIMX K aneTMHecKoH MOnANbHOCTH («Mou»), Tora Kak BO (ppaHltyscKom A3pIKe WMpe HeMOME3yroTCA tbopMEt BONMTHBHOM M JeOHTHYeCKOH MOfamBHOCTH. STO ocoGeHHO HarnaqHo TIPOABJIACTCA B KOCBEHHBIX BEICKA3bIBAHHAX, BbIPaKatowlHx mpocs6y, co- Ber, MpHxasanne: — Veux-tu fermer la fenétre? (yx. «Xouetb Tb 3aKPbITh OKHO?»). — He Moz Got Thi 3aKPEITS OKHO? (B McTOKe — COOTBETCTBEHHO BONMTHB- Had W aleTH4ecKad MOMasIbHOCTH). — J’aimerais que tu partes maintenant (6yke, «a mpegrioven 6x1, yTooi TH yexal ceitiac»). — Tebe credosano Get yexaTs cefyac (B c- TOKE BONHTHRHAA HM ACOHTHMECKaA MOTANBHOCTH). B uenom, opMupys REICKa3EIRAHHE, TOBOPSIHH MO-pyccKH MposB- aset oco6oe enenuipryeckoe «BUDeHHE MHpa. To, kak MIOAM BUT MHD, MIpoaBIAeTCH He TONDKO B CPOpMaX ABLIKA, HO HB ASLIKOBOM MOBegeCHHH. Tia OOACHEHHA pasIH4A B ASLIKOBOM KapTHHe MHpa BBIABHTanoch mea cbakropa: BHelHesBIKOBOH (3Ta creuMpuKa O6bACHATACh OCOGeHKO- CTAMH KyIILTYpsI, HCTOpHH, XapakTepa LOOTBETCTBYTOMIeTO Hapoya) H BHYT- PIBEKOBOR (ocoSenHocTu ycrpoiictaa 1 BHYTPeHHHe TeHeHIHH caMoro sabia)! Ewe B Hayane 30-x ronos w3necrHBiht yaerbiit B. HW. AGaes ropopun O ASLIKe KAK HICOMOPHH H ASBIKe KaK TCXHHKE, NOJYEPKHBAA, YTO KHDCOTO- TMs) UACTO NepeXOJHT B KTEXHMKY): MPeXHVE CMEICIOBEIC KY/ILTYPHO-3Ha- unMble OTMO3HIMA MpeRpalalorcs B hopManbunte, Bue7st Konoit baxtop — BHeMHMM Mo OTHOWEHMO K ASBIKY M ZaKe 0 OTHUNe IMfO K TOBOpsuLHM.,’ BHYTPHASbIKOBOH — ompemensetes cBoH- CTBAMH A35IKa MW MPOW3RONSHBIM: KOJIIEXTHBHEIM BEIGOPOM COBOPALLMX. SIsnik He MoxeT OTOGpakaTh BCC BOSMOXHBIC MPOTHBOTIONOKCHHA HM OT- AwaHa OObeKTOB AefcTBuTenbHocTH. ToBopsimme Moryr (To cyTH mena MPOHSRONBHO, KaK KOMEKTHBHEIM HOCHTeEN sA3BIKA) (PRKCMPOBATE OSH pasmMdna W urHOpHpoBaTS mpyrne dB PANE appAKaHCKHX ASBIKOB HET ICK- AT CounoxynerypHbie acnextal tbyHKIMOHHpOBaHHA A3bIKa cMueckoro pa3iwuna THNa pycckoro udmu/ exams. Sto obssacusetesn KYABTypHO-HcTopH4ecknm daxtopom, Bcneactsue ocoGenHocTeit nousbl HapObI COCTBETCTBYIOWIMX permOHOR He SHANI TAMMOBOLO CK%ra HM KONCC- Horo TpaHncnopta. Hanpotus, B 3THX ABbIKAX HeTaNbHO AMpdepeHuupy- €TCA cHocoh NepeHockH THxkecTeM ({HOCHTS Ha CMMHe, Ha pyke, Ha To- lope, Ha nieve» M 1.11), MOCKOMBKY 370 GbImH OCHOBHEIe crocobe! TpaxcnopruposKu. Pasnuune rnaronos «HaTw/ «exats» 66110 B aTHH- cKoM (ire/vehere), HO OHO HCYe3I0 B POMAHCKMX ASbIKAaX (XOTA MOnkeT OBITS NepenaHo HHbIMM criocoOaMH). OTcyTcTBHe YeTKOH meKcHYecKOH ONMOSHIWH 3MeCb He MOxeT GbITh OGbACHEHO MCTOPHKO-KyJBTYpHBIMM NpHumnamy (konecHsifi Tpacnopr’sce Bpema cymlecTBoBan HM MponomKaN passuBatscn). 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C apyroit cTopoHH, B 9TOM ABLIKe CPaBHHTENLHO Yallle Kak cpeAcTSO AudbpepeHumauMH, Da 4 B MepeHOCHOM CMbICHe, HCNOMB3yi0TCA CioBa, OOO3sHAYaIOLUNe LBETOBEIC snevarseHHa. «MseonormeckHe» HCTONKOBaHHA ASBIKOBO! creumbuKH, TeM Gomee, CIM OHM YBASBIBAIOTCA C «HALIMOHANBHBIM XapakTepOM”, Hepe2KO PUCKO- Banuut. B pycckom s3nike YWACTO MCTONBSyIOTCA pasHble THM NpesoKe- nna 6e3 rnarona, Oui sapy6exkHbIit AMHTBHCT B LIyTKy Ha3Ban STO ABNe- Hie «A3bIKOBOA oGnomoBmMHOn», BHJA B HEM HEKeaHHe TOBOPALHX YTpyxaatb ce6a nogG6opom rmarona.c cooTBeTcTBy!OuLMMH rpaMMaTHye- CKMMH MOKa3aTeNAMM, KOA CMBICA. HM TaK aceH (— Tor KyOa? — Ae uncmumym, BMecTo: — Tet KyOa udeius? — A udy @ uncmumym; Bo ppaH- Wy3CKOM ASBIKe, HANpHMep, Npomyck rmarona B STHX CHyYaAX HeBOSMO- 2keH), Ho Jeno 3fecb, KOHEYHO, He B.MOGJOMOBLIMHE), a B A3bIKOBOH 9KO- HOMHM, KOTOPAA HMEET MECTO BO BCEX A3BIKAX, HO B KaKOM MpoABNAeTCA TIO-CBOEMY H H@ Pa3HBIX YPOBHAX. Tax, MO-HeMeLIKH MOXKHO CKa3aTb j-m in der Mantel (auf die Beine) helfen (Gyxp. «nomo¥L KoMy-s. B NanbTO, Ha 42 B.T. Tax. Pycckas auHaMwueckas 12bIKOBaa KapTuHa MHpa Hori) nosbous komy-n. uademe nanemo (acmamb na Hoa). Tponyck ra- rona B pyccKoil @pase HeBosMoxKeHt. JA3bIKOBAR IKOHOMMA MOET GHIT CTPyKTypHOH, KOrMa oMycKaerca CJIOBO, KaK B MpHBeMeHHbIX PyCCKIIX H HEMCIIKHX bpazax, A C@MaHTHYe- ckoli, Korga ynoTpeGusetcs HeMapKMpoRaHHan a35rKoBam cbopma c Gonee mpocrod cemantiyeckoh crpyktypoi. Bo MHOrux paccCMOTPeHHEIX BEIIIE cnyvadx ppanuyscKwi AsLIK mposBiaet TexgeHUMIO K ynoTpeOneHIO HeMapKmpopanHeix, Gowee miMpoxux m0 sHayeHmo (opm: HacToaMero BpeMeHH BMECTO Mpoulemmero HANH Oynytlero, mosecTBoRaTeMBHOTO MpeM1OxKeHHA BMECTO BOTIpOCHTeNBHOTO HNM NOGyAHTeNLHOrO, yTBepaH- TeIbHOTO BMECTO OTPHUAaTeBHOTO. Pycckut S3bIK OTHOCHTENBHO Yale Hemlomb’*'s* MapKHpoBanHete chopmpl. OrSop MapKHpoBaHHEI (popM ¢ UK JONOMh *Te isHBIMH CeMaMM TpeOyeT, MO-BANMMOMY, OonbIerO MbICIH- TeMbHOTO YcHIMA, 4eM HeMapKupoBaHHBIx. TloaTomy, eC cneqOBaTb Metaope 3apy6exHoro pycicTa, MOxXHO cka3aTb, YO B-STMK cTyyaRK Ppaniy3ckuik *3h1k MPORBNAET KAIEIKOBYIO OGMOMOBIIMHY”, MOsIB3ysCh B PASHBIX CHTYALHAX ASBIKOBSIMH (POPMaMH MaKCHMaMbHO MpocToro cemaH- THYECKOrO COCTaBa. Pa3yMeeTca, MOKHO MOMBITATSCA OOBACHHTb CKIOHHOCTL PpaHKodo- Hos K ynotpe6ienmo opm Hacrosmiero BpeMeHH ocoGeHHOcTaMM gpaH- My3CKOTO HauHOHaNbHOrO xapaktepa. V. Spern6ypr, xopomo sxasmmit panumo HW ee Hapon, MMMeT B NocBAMeHHoH sto crpane cratbe «O cuolicrsax yMepeHoro KMmatan: «A mpexnoumocs nepen [hpaHuys- ckoH] MpesqaHHOCTBIO KAKTOMY Yacy, KaxAOH MMBYTe, KOTOpy!O MO2%KHO OMpeeNHTb A Kak SecneuHocts, M Kak HaCTOALMY!O MypOcTby. Moxxo 3AKMOUNTH, Pparilys NCMXONOTHYeCKH %KMRET MPeUMyILeCTREHHO B Ha- croamem, B Poccum xe miogu Some BYMaloT, NO-BAANMOMY, O Mpo- mom 4 6ynytlem, H JaxKe u3 ABYx CYHTaOMMXCA TpanMuMOHHO poccHi- CKAMH BONPOCOB OAMH OTHOCHTCA K NpouTOMy (Kmo eunogam?), apyrok — k 6yaymemy (Ymo deramp?). Ho Moxkuo pacxoxmeHus B ynoTpe6neHMH BpeMeHHBIX MNaHoB Obb- SCHUTS W UUCTO rTpaMMaTHuecku. B cnenmuKe McrosbIOBaHHA ABEIKOBEIX opm MoxHO ycmarpHpaTL nosgeieTaNe AByX chakTOpoB, H3 KOTOPbIX OAMH NpHHaanexKUT pyccKoMy ASbIKy, pyro — (paHuyscKomy. B pycckoM s3bIKe PaFONI COREPIeHHOTO BHA He HMeIOT HacTos- ero BpeMeHM, BMeCTO KOTOporo ynorpebmerca Gymymee, pexe — powenwee. Sto coszaet MpHBLUKy kK HeynoTpedmeHMO HaCTOALerO HB TEX CHYYAAX, KOA OHO MOXKET ObITb ACTIONS30BaHO (HalIpHMep, B OOLe- BpeMeHHON ‘snavensn)|B CBOIO OYCperb panly3cKuhi ABbIK, KAK OTMe- 4YaNOCh YI .e, CKIOHEH HCNONIOBATL HeEMAapKHPOBaHHbe: cbopmer UIMpo- Koro 3Ha4eHHA MPH ACHOCTH CHTyallMM W KOHTeKcTa. STO KacaeTca u 43