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POBIEMA KJACCHOHKANWH NAQEWEM * (1949) gi HenpaBiibubli aaiu3 MpeqsloxHblx O6OpOTOB No CHX nop ABAeTCH, MO HalleMy MHEHHIO, OCHOBHBIM MpenATCTBHeM WWI aHaiH3a_Kareropuv tagexa. B mnocneqnux pa6orax, nocBaAulenHbIxX nagexy (Jl. Eapucaesa®, P. Axodconas, A. B. ge Tpoora‘), npeqaoxkupie o6oporn in60__Boodure OOXOAAT MOANARHeM, MGO pacCMaTpuBaloT MHaye, YeM «CHH- TeTHYeCKHey MazexHbie @opMpl. pu ycranopsenun oOuyero sHavecHIA nazexkel AKoOcou-PpacwienseT npesoxEble o60- pothl Tak: mpeXaor-+ naxexuas popma (o BHHHTebHOM cM. crp. 248, o posutTesbHoM — cTp. 260— 261, 0 TBopuTeibuom — cTp. 268, o jaTeabHom — erp, 272 HO Mpeaoxwknom — ctp. 274—276), Hapymaa tem caMbim MopdolorH¥eckoe EAHHCTBO IIpeswiora M 3aBHCAUlero OT Hero nagexkuoro okonuanna. Je Tpoor, ropopa o6 ynpapzenun najexkamu ( Wald-er), nim pasmHuHbie uHZoeBporelicKue OSpasoBaHMA Cc NepBMUHbIMH cyppukcamu, yacTo o6ycaBANBaIOULHMU oMmpeyeneHHpIli Bo- Kau3M KopHa (*loukos, *luks u 1. 2). OsHako gcoenHocTh Cay4an C MIpemOrOM CoCTOHT B TOM, \uro npeqor, xoTH H ABAAETCA He CAMOCTOATEIBHBIM CJIOBOM, MpoSaena raaccupuxayuu nadewed 177 a Mopdemoii, B usBecTHOH CTeneHu He3aBHCHM OT onpegevsi- eMOro_CYlecTBHTeIbHOLo. Dta HesaBHCHMOCTb MpoABAAeTCH mpexke BCero B TOM, ITO MexKAY Mpejorom H CyulecTBATeb- HbIM MOPyT BCTaBJIATbCA APYrHe CaMOCTOATEJIbHbIe YWICHbIl cuntakcu4eckoH rpynnet: ad ripam Rhodani «a Geper Po- ub» = ad Rhodani ripam. Sta orHocutenbHaa (orpanHuen- Waa) cBOOoda Mpeslorosw HE_NOsBO/IAeT CYNLATh WX PaHroM BpIMUe, HEM NatexKHble OKOHYAHUATaK HasbiBaeMbIX CHHTETH- yeCKHX Nak@xKel, HanpuMep 4p.-HHA. UKCTpyMeHTaqA, a6na- THBa HH JoKaTHBa. C pyHKUMOHaIbHOl_TOUKM_3peHHA 06a CpeACTBa BbIPaxKeCHHA HAXOMATCH HA OJHOM H TOM Ke YPOBHEe. Ananu3Hpys riaroabry cucTeMy dpanuy3cKoro A3bIKa, HHKTO. HE CTaHeT MPOBOAHTb PpaHHlly MexKyy «CHHTeTHUeC- KHMM»> (opMaMH npeseHca, HMMepdeKta, mpocToro npowies- mero H «aHaJlHTHYeCKHMH» POPMaMH MepdekTa HW MWOCKBaM- epexta, OTKa3bIBasich PaCCMaTPUBaTb STH @OPMbI BMecTe, Oquako «BCNOMOraTebHOCT» PiarOlOB avoir u etre aBAReTCA cnopHoii, Tak Kak OHH-(ocobeHHO MepBbIii H3 HUX) yloTpe6- JIAWOTCH WH KaK CaMOCTOATEJIbHbIe [arovibl. Tp, WIOT_ TOME MoxkeT YHOTpeGAsIThCA CAMOCTOSTENIbIO _B KavecTBe HapCuls (wanpiMep, avec), “TO He MeliiaeT CMY OCTABATbCH BHYTPH npexsoxHoro oSopota HecamocrosTeabHOH Mopdemoit. Hase- CTHO, ¥TO NpessorH oOpIMHO mpoucxogaT..or KapeyHit Haw HapeuHblX OSopoTos; npeBpaienve B Mpesor UpOuCXoHT B TOT MOMCHT, Kordaapeuue WIN HapedHDIll OSopor, AO CHx NOP OMpeseiABUINECA CYUECTBHTe/IbHIM, CTAHOBATCA B_pe- BYU bTATC UsMeHeHHA Hep apxul CFO HECAMOCTOATEbHbIM OMPe- Aeamouum. Hanpumep, dpaxuyscKoe a cause de Ta greve «iB-3a SAOACTOBKU CHayala Gbio paBHo (a cause) ~ de la gréve, rile crpeika HampaBaeHa oT onpeseraemoro K ompe- Ne Jesmoulemy, a mot aso (a cause de) + la gréve. Heca- MOCTOATeIbHas [M. a cause de cocToHT 43 oOCHOBHOI ey a cause H NaseKHoit cy de, uTo B TOUHOCTH AHANOFUNHO pacCMOTPeCHHOMY Bue npuMepy extra urbem. Touxo Tak »Ke pa3iaraetca grace A«GuaroRapa ( 4e- My)> wT. 2. Bo tpanuyscKoM_sapike_.equHcTBo Mopemnt | a cause de oulylyaetTca JTyue, UCM B JaTHHCKOM e€HHCTBO Mgpdbempr extra -> akkYSaTuB; Tak Kak B MocaeqHeEM cayyae o6e" CyGmMophembl He ABARIOTCA CMe>KHIMH. Tipedsoru HHjoesponetickux A3bIKOB TakxKe MOTH Npo- HCXOAWTb OT Hapeunii, CoMpoBoRKAaBUlMX NakexHy!o copMy 12 E. Kypuaoany 178 Tpo6sema kaaccuduxayuu nadenet Hanpumep *péri (3acTHIBUIHit TOKaTHB), KoTOPoe onpezers0 CYMeCTBHTebHOe B JIOKATHBe H T. J. Tpacuueckas. camocrosteabyocrh mpeasoros (ad ripam BMecto *adripam, HecMorpa Ha G6e3yapHocTh mpeasora ad, o6bacHAemy1O ero CeMaHTHYeCcKolt HECAMOCTOATEJIDHOCTHIO) OnpedelseTcA HalM4neMTaKuxX KoHCTpyKuuli, Kak ad Rho- dani ripam. Suement ad, HecMoTpsA Ha ero npoKaHTHYecKHi XapakTep, He MHUIeTCA BMECTe, B OAHO COBO C MoceAYIOULHM Rhodani, Tak kak ad HenocpezcTBeHHo cBA3aH c ripam, B TO Bpema Kak C Rhodani on cooTHocHTcs! JIHIb KOCBeHHO. Ecan 6b1 MpeAIOrH HHKOPLa HE OTZeMATHCh OT CBOHX CYLle- CTBHT@JbHbIX APYTHMH COBaMH, OHH CocTaBAAAH Obl C STHMH CYWECTBHTEbHDIMH rpatpuyeckoe eEAHHCTBO, NOAOGHO Mocae- HOraM, KOTOPble B PALE ASbIKOB, CCJIH HeBO3MOXHBI IpoMe- XKYTOUHBIE SICMEHTEI, MMUIYTCA CAMTHO C MpeAMecTBYIONLHM CYMLECTBHTebHEIM, B...KauectBerpadnyeckol nmapatenu TIpHBeeM OnpexesteHHBt apTHKab, C OHO! CTOpOHbi, BO épanuy3scKkom, HTaJibAHCKOM, HCMaHCKOM, aHraHiicKom, HemeuKOM, a C Apyroii — B PYMBINCKOM HaHB_cKanjNHaB- \ckHx__aabikax. Tpaduyeckan canioctontenbiioct TepBoro H H€CaMOCTOATCAbHOCTh BTOPOrO OTPaxKalOT 34KOHOMEPHOCTH HopsAdKa COB (HIM Mopdem): Bo (ppaHly3CKOM apTHK.b MO- %KeT OTMEMATHCA OT CYHLECTBHTeJbHOrO MPHJaraTebHbIM- onpedeteHvem (le bon curé «Zo6pprii Koper), B PyMbIHCKOM bKe 9TO HeBosMOxHO (omul mort «MepTBBIH YenOBeK»). Kpome pa3feabuoro HanncaHHA npesoros, ecTb Apyroi, 6olee cepbesHpiit apryMeHT: cCyulecTBOBaHHe mpedsioros, YUpaBJAIOULHX HECKOJIbKHMH Pa3JH4UHbIMH TajlexKHbIMH «pop- Manu (in urbe : in urbem). B camo Jese, eciM B MOROOHBIX MpHMepax masexkHad PopMa N10 KpalineH Mepe Zo HeKOTOpOt cTeneHH He3aBHCHMa OT MpeMiora, TO He CleAyeT HM CYHTATb, 4TO MafexKHoe OKOHYaHHe UMeeT Hapssy co 3iay¥enem npex- sora co6cTBeHHoe sHaveHHe? UToOnt OTBETHTb Ha 9TOT BONpoc, NPHBeAEM CHAYaa HECKOJbKO XOPOLWO H3BECTHBIX MPHMePOB. J[pesuenpiakackue mpeasorn air, fo, for, in(d) ynorpe6- AI#IOTCA TO C aTHBOM, TO C aKKysaTHBOM. B HemeukoM mped- sioru an, auf, hinter, in, neben, unter, tiber, vor, zwischen TpeOyioT AH6O LaTHBa-okaTHBa, HOO akKy3aTHBa WeaH. B NOabCKOM Mocae Mpesoros nad, pod, za ynoTpe6asetes 1H60 MHCTPyMeHTadb, yKasbIBaioulHli MecToHaxorkeHHe, H6O ak- KYSaTHB, OG6osHayaIONHit Web LBHKEHHA; Mocse npegworoB Tipobsena xaaccupuxayun nadeweit 179 na, przy, W To 2e CaMoe CMbICTOBOe paszrHyHe Mepexaetcs aipTepHalkeh NOK ATUB:akKYyY3aTHUB. Suavetiie npeddorg b STs BDUMEH AS Ue UsMeH ACTA, XoTA aro! ABWKCHHA COOSMACT HONOAHHTeAbUBII OTTeHOK WesH, no3sTOMy, HanpuMep, B JaTHHcKoM in urbem ire oGopor in urbe, re nagexKHoe OkoHYaHHe aGlaTHBa (= e) 3aBHCHT oT in, HcMbITbIBaeT CeMAHTHYeCKOe BAAN Co CTOpONDI r, a ABIDKeHUA UY nostomy waMenseTca: ire in urbe > ire in ur- bem. Oguako cam o6opot in urbe He 3aBNCcHT OT oKpy2KeHHA H ocTaeTCA Mp Tlaroaax ABMKeHHA HeH3MeHHBIM. B pyccKom ( mexay On npweaem na cmoge u On npoecem wo cuoa Her | npaMoro ‘TipoTHBongcTansenus, -KOTOPOe MO3BOH0 Obl HaM | yeTaHOBHTb HesaBHCHMBIe sHayeHHA AIA Ha cmoze H AIA xa cmoa..B mepBom MpHMepe (Wa cmoae) MpedioxKHad KOH- | erp 3aHHMaeT Gosee nepudepuiinyio No3suuuio, 4eM BO Bropom (cp. Ox numem Ha cmoae), a BO BTOPOM NpHmepe (Ha cmoa) ee NosHuvA Sozee-eHTpatbHad, YeM B mepBom, B pasBepHytom BuickasbiBanHu B komHame on npolenya Ha cmon Y3aTHB He eHHA (AG cmoae) 3aHuMaer_ Goviee Geinnpadnitie NoBuaian weNT TORaTHD TO KOMTMaIE) Een CPpaBHHTb ¢ 9TUM BHIparkenHe Aposleuem Ha cmose, TO Mbl YBH~ AMM, YTO Ha cmoAe COOTBETCTBYeT NO CBoeH mepHcepHriHoi NOSHUMH CoveTaHHIO 6 KOMNaMe, a HE HG cmoar. AvanorHunaa aJibTepHalHa akKy3aTUHUBia 6a a- THB (ucxonnan TOUKAa) Ha6smoqaeTcn B rpeweckaM TOce | mpeviora Nagi B jjxw Nagi G2 «npuxOKYy k TeGer, mux Pao- Uses jxw «ipuxoxy or waph». Ho tak Kak qx o3nauaer ; “IPHXOLHTb», aKKY3aTHB UeIH B xo naex of HOCHT Gosee | UeHTParbublit XapakTep, YeM reHHTHB (aOuaTHB) ynanenna | B maga Paothiog!. Berpeuatores: taxxKe Mpesmorn, yopapas, MaxerkKoM (Hampumep, bp. Terre 4 Pierre) 1 M pentoekusi coopera) cueeuaselra lvel_eo! HMe@KAy «cH OUSBOA- HbIM), Tak Ke, KAK ahanuTHYeCKHe Nakekn nonoAmnAOTcA 3a C4eT MpeowHDIX OGOpOTOB, Tak 4 peuteriicek te nade HM CTeCT) ‘| hesuentnabensa qpopMa ua -tas (Tuna mukhatab ‘cnepenn, Mpo6aena raaccupurayuu nadexed 181 OyKB. «nepex JMHOM»), ABMMOULaIcA HapewHeM B BeqHiicKoM gapike H B KWlaCCH4YeCKOM CaHCKpuTe, B cpeqHenHaulickom cTada_alexnoli dopmoi (mukhato BMecto ApepHero aG.a- rasa mukhat). Cipyrof croporbl, MHOrHe HapeyHA ABJLALOTCH MepOKUTKAMH, NPeACTAB/IAIONUMMH OKAaMeHeBLIHe MajexKH (Ha- mpuMep, rp. of%ov «oma», sar. certé «HaBepHAaKa», pycck. KpyeoM), KOTOPbIC OTOMIN OT XKHBBIX Takexell B Xoe ae | MasbHOrO OGHOBAeHMA Mapasurnpl. \ Tlepexol Hapeyune (wu mpetToxHEH O60 pot)>nmaxexnasH MopMa H, HaocbopoT, Nahe x- nas opmMa >Hapeune coorsercn HHO UH, Cyphukca, Mpetiora, oKxontannAy- Nake MPOLYKTHBHOR, OObIUHO OGAaaeT OTHOCHTeIbHO orpa* I bg. HlNeHHOH chepoli ynoTpe6senna. Tax, xora oOpasopanne Gi mukhatah saBaaeTca >xKHBEIM', OHO pacipocTpaHseTcA B yee APeBHeHHAUHCKOM TOAbKe—HA_HeOosbUoe YHCTO CyulecTBH- ‘ TEJIBHBIX 3To KOHKPeTHBIM |AHTHYCCK HM | conepxx ehebetcin onotcanetuipe ole uisGineactunen cia wore Hl pore 1a Hoe ynoTpedeHhe, OXBaTHIBAalO: Ieee pee uueusige ocnoou, YasTpEDTenNe STOTO” CyeppuKca orpaHuueHno ONpeseACHHbIM YNCAOM KOpHeli, CMbIC KOTOPBIX Lcorjacyetca co sHauennem cydpuxca. Kak Towbko Hapeune HavHHaeT BHICTYHarh-B PyNKUAH, MpUCy Mel WayexKKo! opt Me, a HMCHHO HawHHaeT YU paBJATbCA ralaroom, KOHKpeTHoe CeMaHTHYeCKOe BHaYeHHe _ycTynaeT MecTO CHH- TaKCHYeCKOMY, a COBOOOpasoBaresbUBIit cyd>buxe _crano~ ) Bupa baer Tupi Qkou wane ereph yrke oOAcTh yoor- |‘ pes, in 9th. CTanopurca HeorpanuyenHoit: mo- CKOIbKY MopdemMa peBpaTH.1acb B CHHTAKCHYCCKHH MOKa3a- Teab (TaM, Tle MallewkHad popMa ynpaBisieTca Apyrum cao- BOM), OHA MOXKET COeEAHHATHCA C JOGO MMCHHOIi OCHOBO! (HAH , KopHem). Hapeun caopoobpasoBanuA HW Ma; Ka OHU3MCHEHHA Pas/INYAaIOTCA PMIABHbIM OOpa3s0M v o6bemom __ccbe; TWOTpeGuenua COOTBeTCTBYIOUIHX —_ Mop- ces. — 1 Kunin B TOM ewbicse, YTO cBasb STOrO obpasoBanua co czo- BON-OchonO!l oMyulaeTeA TOBOPAMUMN MH MOSBONKET CTPONTH aNAsOrHH- HbIe OGpasoBauus. 182 Mpobsena Kaaccupurayua nadewei os §2 Hu oany Mopdonoruyeckyio HM (ononorM4ecky1o mpo6- JIeMy, MpeACTaB/IAOLyY!O H3BeCTHYIO CTeleHb C/1O%KHOCTH, MEBOSMOXKHO YCHeWHO HCCeLOBaTb, He OMpewesMB CHayana V ame 3HayeHHA HIM B Oonee oOule dopMe NOH ATHE oyueirnn. B oGaactu Mopdooruu, KoTOpoii Mbl cefiuac 3anHMaemca, P. SkoGcon (crp. 244, 252—253) pasanyaer o6mee suayenne (cGesamtbedeutung») HCH H- dutieckne 3H aie Hus. («spezifische Bedeutungeny), cpeaH KOTOPbIX HMeeTcH OCHOBH QC. H-a-H-e@ HH e («Haupthedeuting»). Sto pasinune, npHMeHHMOe B OGAacTH CeMAHTHKH, MpeACTaBIAeTCAHaM HeYAOOHBIM MpH Hccueso- BaHHH mepenmmereHHA CeMaHTHYeCKHX HW CHHTAKCH4eCKHX spaxtos. Kak nam KaxeTca, aviagiu3 ne Tpoota (erp. 124— \ 197) npesctapastet coOoll ugar Bnepesbo cpaBHeHHo C HCCe- AoBannem Ry -Sko6cona, XOTA MBI H He Morvid Gpl NpHHATb BCe MOMOKEHHA BbIAOULerOCA FolaHCKOrO AMHTBHCTa. B cTaTbe «ilepHBalua JeKCHYeCKaA WH JePHBallHA CHHTAaK> cHyeckan»>! Mb 1O/1b30Ba/1HCb BbIPa*KeHHAMH Me p BH 4- Haa PyYHKUHA H BTOPHUHHe PYHKUUE Eme PaHbule Mbt MpHMeHAH STH TepMHHbI B pa6ore «Etudes indo-européennes» (cM., Hampumep, erp. 197). B oGaactit ouonornn_37 eWacth! COMTaCHbIX HW OCBETHTb BOMPOc 06 HHOeBporelcKHX TOW Y~ raacubtx (cm. «Contribution a la théorie de la syllabe»).j \ | Cepannan H BLQpHuHaA oynkunn OMPeAeAAIOTCH COOTBET- \CTBE| A3bIKOBOH__CHCTeMOH H Y¥CJLOB HTEKCTOM). 1 CUCTE YAK, NPOABIAIOMAACA B TAKUX CNEIMMAbHBIX YCOBHAX, KOTOPble MOAKHO OMPeAEMHTS TOM OK UTE Mb HIM 06- paso, cuntaerca Bropuunoi’, B saBMcnMocTH oT Toro, HAeT JIM pedb O CeMaHTMYeCKOM MIM CHHTaKcCHYecKOH yHKUMH, \ 1 Cy. nacroauumii cOopuuK, erp. 57. \ * 43 Toro, ¥TO YCAOBMA ABAAIOTCA CHeUMabHbIMH, HE CHeayer, 4ro Bropnunar gyHKiLuA (ManpHMep, BropuuKoe sHaveHHe) ABARETCA Gonce cheunanbHoil, vem nepsHynan. M3 pa6ot Bynara («associative Verdichtung») W3BecTHO, “TO CHeuHadbible yCAOBA MoryT OTHHMaTD Y pacematpHBaenof opmet vacth cemaHTH4eCKOrO coRepxKaHHA, OOMLe- Toc 3TH ycronHamH. B nactomutee BpemA MOxHIO Gui 611 roBopHTS © ANCCHMHJAMHH — NPHMeHUTeBHO KaK K CeMaHTHMeCKHM, TAK HK MoponorH4eckHM sBNeHHAM. Tak, Mocae NataTanbHbix cormacHeix Tadataapuwie raacubie MOryT Yrpaywsath Natataausaumo (*kriceti > Mpo6aena Kaaccupurayuu nadewed 183 9TU-YCFOBH AObiBaloT- CeMaHT Hue KARE UH CHMTAKCHICCKOTO xapaktepa. Hexoropan onpexenseman cuctemoit byukius, Ha3bIBaOYLasen—HePBMIMOA, —MOMEL ObIT MOMHILHPoBana pas.1HYHbIMH cihocoOamu w apath pasiMYHble BTOPHYHbIE qgynkusn. Haulin TepMHHbl MOxkHO. OpiO Gbl CpaBHUBaTb C repmuHamH =P. SlKoGcona, ecaH Obl TepMHH MY HK LH A TOUHO cooTBeTcTBoBal TepMuny Bedeutung, uto mecTa He HMeeT. B TaKoM BbIpaxKeHHH, Kak manu dextra «ipaBol pyKOii», elle MOAHO TOBOPUTb O 3HAYEHHH OKOHYA- HHA -U B Manu, HO OKOHYaHHe TeCHHTHBa MHOKECTBEHHOTO yncaa -um B potiri rerum «@axBaTuTb BaacTb» — 3TQ_BCero + Jv NOKasaTenb CHHTakcH4yecKol gapHcuMocTn («Feld- zeichen»). Kak MpHMeHHTb nonaATHA Ne PpBUYHOH H BTO- pHyHot Py ukKuna kK akaausy nagexei? Bospmem, HanpHMep, aKKYy3aTHB. (B HHJOeBpoMeiicKuX A@3bIKax). Tipu. nepeXxOWHblLx Tlaroax, re 9TOT nawek o6o3sHauaeT BHYIPCHHUH HIM BHEWIHHit OOveKT JelicrBua (affectum . Han effectum), akouuanwe akuyaaTHBa He HMeeT HKaKOil CeMaH- THYECKOiL 4 aQ ABAAeTCA YHCTO CHHTAKCHY aM TORebareneM. NOMMMACHROSTH-TMEAT THarony. Vo. xponte 3TOrO, HMEMTCA, Kak CAy4an OCOOOrO YHOTpeOeHuA, aKKy ) 3ATHB WJM, AKKY3ATHB MPOCTRAHCTBEHHO! WH BDEMeHHOIt wee npoTaxKeHHocTH, aKKYSaTHB UWeHbI HT. A. Kaxkqoe 43 3THX BHaueHHH AkKy3aTHBa MpHcymle CoveTanHAM c raaromamH onpefeieHHoH cemaHTHuecKoi rpynnb. Tak, akky3aTuB Hed BOSMOZKeH TOJbKO Np riarodax, o6o03HayaloulHXYBH- yee. AKKy3aTuR_quureyipioctn (spemenndi mporsKen- HOCTH) OpiBaeT JH NPULHaAreAbMBLY (popMax, cosep2KaLHXx uflelo AAvTetbHocTH. B cAaBAHCKUX s13bIKaX TaKOl aKKY3aTHB: ynorpe6setca C_ rlaroJdaMu HecoBepieHHora, Buia. Tlo- MOAbCKH, HanpuMep, MOXHO CKa3aTb pisat dwa tygodnie «lucas ABe Hefe1H», HO HeTb3A Napisat dwa tygodnie «Hanu- \can Abe Heer» (napisal copepwennbrit Buz or pisat). Uro Ke jRacaeTea_ nepeXoJublX_.Liabosop,—ipn KoToppix yviloTped- WIACTCA AKKY3ATHB (TIPAMOFO AOMOAHeHHA), TO HX ONpetesUT © TOUKH 3) Ki He_ y, cl. NapaKTepHbi Wa HHX TIPH3HaK — NepexoAHOCTbh —_3' H3HaK CHHTAKCH- krigati); ogwako, ¢ Apyroi cTopoHM, 3%ecb Bo3MOKHA H accHMHIS- His Bewapanix racHbix (Hanpumep, Hoppexckoe hjarta > weegcKoe \jarta). 184 Mpobaema Kaaccupuxayun nadewed weCKOLO MOpAAKa: CYULeECTBUTebHOe MpocTO No_yMHAeTCA raaroay, M OKOHYaHHA aKKy3aTHBa He cojepxkaT KAakoro- u60 ocoOoro orreHka 3Ha4yeHHA, COOTBeTCTByIOWero CemaH- THYCCKOMY COjep%KaHHlo rlarowa. FlostoMy MoxHO TOBOpHTb o _NepBHyHoll pyNKuMM aKKy- 3aTHBa — B poaH mips. Sieh — TO PETE ETT ABR type aRE are ue bapa nagaram gacchati «HeT B ropoy», aT. Romam ire «HATH B Pum»), TIPOTA2KeH- HOCTH, WeHbi H T. A. YouoBuA_ynorpeGseniA akky3aTHBa BQ _BTrOpHYHOM yHKUHH BCCra MOry b CHBI. YcJOBHA 3TH <= KOHT€KCT, HO He B KAKOM-TO HeonpezeyleHHOM cmcae: STO aRERIE ECE H TwaBHbIM oOpa3oM ceManTHye- cKoe cojlepsKaHHe_ I, Ti aBHCHT Majle*KHan K Paarody, NPOHHKaaCh ero-eneuwaTbHbIM 3HaycHHeM, Tep- HuHyIO PYHKTMO, HaNpoTHB, Tak oMpexeqHTh we yaeTca. Honesyace TepMuHosioruveli Broaepa®, ona «oO yc ao B- deHa B cucTeme» (systembedingt) B To Bpema, KaK BTOPHUHbIe PyHKUNH «oF YC OBMAeHE B 104 e»(feld- bedingt). AnaJHsHpya CeMaNTHYecKoe He aKky3aTHBHOrO. OKOHYAHHA B ero pasMMUBDIX PYAKUMAX, MBI YBULHM, YTOB, nepBHUAoli byuKuHu, re akKysaTHB mpetcTaBiseT co6oit 4uCTO. AKCHYECKHH NOKAasaTesIb, OHQ PaBHO HYUO, HO BO BTOPHYHOH pyNKUHH OONaqaeT pas/IH4HbIMEH_CMbICLOBLIMN orteKaH. Caetopatenbuo, nakexnaat tbopMa akky3aTnBa yHKUHOHMpyer Kal Ppannatueckuli maen B JiaT. occidere hostem «y6uTb Bpara» K_KaK KO! fi.naqex Bat. Ro- mam ire «uyTu B Pump, triginta annos vivere OkHTb TpHAuatb set», mossex. kosztuje jedng setke «crour 10> HT. A. Koukperubiii_mazemk, Tak ae Kak M PpamMMaTu4ecKHii MNawexkK, NOJAYHHEH TviarOly, HO erO OKQHYAHHEe oe | co6cTBeHHoe cema KAHHE, W | KpeTHoM Hanpuniep, Beg. \ t Mur He npiimyaem auecs Bo BHUManie ToT dbakT, UTO pasaMunBe cneukarvtbe-YTorpeGmenua akKysaTuBa ONpemeamTeA TaKxe. akaye- HEM COOTBETCTRYIOMWX CYULECTBUTEADHMIX: aKKY3aTH® uemH — HasBa- HUAMH MeCTa, AKKY3aTHB BpeMeHHO! MpoTMKeHHOCTH — cyulecTBHTeAb- HSIMH, OGOIHAYAIOMINMK OTpesKH BpeMeHH, HT. 2. 2 Cw. K. Biihler, Sprachtheorie. Darstellungsfelder der Spra- che, Jena, 1934. Tipo6sena Kaaccupuxayuu nadernet 185 divi «aa ueGe» u ihd «syecb»: 4 toKaTHB M_Hapeune mpescran- JIAKOTCA OAMHAKOBO He3aBHCHMbIMH OT Télaroula (B CeMaHTH- ¥v yecKoM OTHOWeHHH). Cp. Take aoTaTHB MURWAt «pot, HL» u Hapeyne mukhatah «Bnepemu, neped HOM». SIcHo, YTO YK OJ U2Ke Kk Hal rpamMaruyeckne. Kakopst Ke pagauuy L , GIH- ulaTb»; 3) “pOHCXOAHTb», «BO3HHKATh», PO%*KATbcA»; 4) «lesdatb», «BepHTb»; 5) «ocBoOomwAaTb», «cMacaTb», «3alllH- ulaTh»; 6) «6paTb», «lodyyaTb»; 7) «ocTaBaTbCA m03a/4H», “ObITh YAaeHHbIM». SyaueHHe rviarosla, CoveTaACh Co _3Haue- HHEM_CYULECTBHTebHOTO, LOCTATOTHO HCHO OnpeAe TACT CBASb Mexiy TiaroJoM H_CYMecTBUTeIbHBIM, Tak YTO Nal@KHOe ‘Cw. K. Brugmann, Kurze vergleichende Grammatik der indogermanischen Sprachen, Berlin — Leipzig, 1933, ep. 422 ca. 186 Npobaena Kaaccupuxagua nadenet oKoHuaHHe wuulaeTcn CBoeTO CeMaHTHYecKOTO codepaKaHHA . (AHCCHMHAAHA). Odako Dep WH a A-yHKUHA a6ga- THBa HE BbISbIBaeT COMHCHHE: OH, 1 iCXOTHVIO TOUKY licTBust. O nepBHyHoctH SN par uTO OHa He 3aBHCHT OT OKpyxeHusA, Torga Kak «yMpaBasempliiy alaTuB CBA3ZAH C OMpejeeHHEIMH CeManTH- 4eCKUMH =TpynniaMu viaromos; 2) Tor dakT, uToO npHmepbi yipaBaenua, rye a6iaTHB cTaHOBHTCA KOMOMHATOPHBIM Ba- PHAHTOM AaKKY3aTHBa MPAMOrO OMOJIHCHHA, ABSIHIOTCA BTOPHYHLIMH 10 OTHOLICHHIO K NPHMepaM, B KOTOPbIX Cyile- cTBOBaHHe a6maTuBa B TlapaurMe onpaBAblBaeTcA ero CaMo- CTOSITEABHEIM 3HAayeHHeM. Mrak, Mbl moyxoguM kK T1pedRaputespyoi AHxoTOMH- ueckoh KslaccHukalun (upargaronpupix) nayexelt: 1) Tpammatiueckuit “nmanex' (akky3saTuB = nipsaMoro AONOAHeHHA): a) ‘TepBuyHad CHHTaAKCHUeCKAA cyHkuna; 6) BropyyHda HapCcunasa cyHKunA; 2) KoHKpeTHHe nagexn' (Bce NpowHe KocBeHHble npHsa- 7 TaTelbHble MajexH): 71 a) Teppuunaa HapeunHasa yHKuna; 6) BropHutad CHHTaAKCHUeCKAA yHkuaa. TloxyepkuBaem ete pas, YTO Mepexoy oT MepBHYHOli (pyHK- UHH K BTOpH4HOH Beerla CONPOBOKAaAeTCH OT ayuyye- HHe@M_ycuoBHi, B KOTOpHX BECTYNaeT maleknaa bopna. / Bo Bropysou ynkiuH. oa ynorpe6ineTcA ToAbKO moce Tl aPoslOB, OFpasViIQWLNX BHOIHE onpeseieHHble cHnTancime- ck yinbi. Hanpanientia iepexona Peninasa by Fenn >BTOpH¥UHaAH MYHKUNSA y rpam- MaTHYecKOro MafexKa H_Y KOHKPeTHIX Naxexeli AMaMeTpavlb- HO_LIPOTHBONOOXK HDI. [pammarnueckuii nalek nodBepraetca ee BepoOlHadusauuu, a KOHKpeTHHe malexH — wIY rpaMMaTukaaH3aunun, Crenenb Toro # Apyroro HenocpeACTBCHHO CKa3bIBaeTCH Ha ccpepe ynorpe6eHHa ma- Ae*KHoro oKONYAHHA. dem Goble KHapeUNOCTbY yoTpeGsenna ' Bonee_yaaunwnn mpexctanaaorca Tepamnpl «cHuraxcuueckii BMeCTO «rpaMMAaTMMeckHiy H «CEMaHTHYeCKHily BMECTO H 7. A. Hao6opot, Korda KOHKpeTHbIi Nake BCTYNaeT B OTHO- uleHve_ynpaBieHHs Mero okoHYaHHe yTpauHBacT CBOE ce- MaHTHYeCKoe COMepKaHHe, CHepa yNoTpeOeCHHA STOO NaleKa Seo , SYCTCH, yRenuuuBaeted, TCHo, HalipuMep, 4TO Y aOeTpaktHpyy | ¢ ~OKOHNAHUES OKATUBA He MOET _UMeTb KOHKDeTHOLO—{MeCTHOLO). 3HaveHHA: STQOKQHUaHHe Ovner y/ mperkie M_oOpPa30M_BbICTYNaTb B Pod CHH-| TAKCHUECK OTO “OK a3 ATR. BY aside MexkAy PpaMMaTH4¥eckHM mNasle7KOM H KONKPeTHBINM TaleKantt COCTOHT He TOKO B pasan4HoM CMbICOBOM COJepxKAHHH COOTBETCTBYIONHX OKOHYAHHI, HO XK. ji nosHunH. OWeHHIO_K Takoay. Pacemorpu, Hanpumep, (bp. Je reverrai mes col- legues 4 l’école «$1 BHOBb yBuaKy CBOHX KoaMer B UIKO.Ie>. Tlosnuua TIPAMOTO JONOIHEHHA ABIACTCA M10 OTHOLICHHIO K rlarodly Coleg LeHEpATbHOl, a NOSHIIMA OKAaTHBa — Govee nepudepuittoit. Mnave ropopa, 1oKaTna 4+ école-on penenneT rpynny je-reverrai_mes_collégues, paccMaTpuBaemyio Kak OTHOCHTeIbHoe eauncTBo. Menno notomy, To gbopma . aK KY3aTHBa — Sto CHHTakcuyeckHli NoKagaTedb CBA3H MOXY | nino donaaueuues WU TargioM, sTa_cBAsb Teciice, tem/ Codiah MenuLy LLaLailoM u.AOKATHBOM, PopMa KOTOOFO ANce | © e BHaueHe Oe3 TIPAMON CHHTAaK cuyecKkoi bywKUNH. OTOT JOKAaTHB MOMYHHEH Piaroly TosbK 6naroqapa cBoeMy HapeuHoMy 3Ha¥eHHIO (HaNpOTHB, BO pp. croire au Saint Espa arepare B CBATOFO AYXa> JQKATHB ‘MMeer CHHTAKC wayenue), PopMasbuat CBA MCKAY \\Gevreverrat u mes collégues (Gomee oTYeTHBO BbIPAKeHHaH BO (pAeKTHBHbIX ABLIKAX) H OTCYTCTBHe TakOil CBASH MexKAY (je)reverrai u a l’école — sor npnunna toro, uTo (je)reverrai/ w mes collégues caasatbl Mexyjy co6olt, Goaee -TeCHO, yen Best rpynna (je)reverral mes collégiies c “WokaTuBo a |’ école: Tpapnsecka 9TO MOXKHO BblpasHTb Tak: (je reverrai mes collégues) a |’école. 188 MpoGsena Kaaccupuxayuu nadenedt V3 sToro mpuMepa BHAKO, Kakoe 3Ha¥cHMe MMeeT At TeOPHH Nafexel pasinuve MExLy UGHIPATDNDIME HM nepH- @epHiinbimn NMo3uNAMU, TMpOHJiOCcTpHpoBaHoe BbIE B cBash ¢ NpotHBonoctaBrenvem in urbe: in urbem. Ecau TpaMMatHyeckuii nanex Sagee WeHTpareH, yeM KOHKpeTHolt, TO H KOHKDETHBIL ale, snoTpeOTeTTiat Bo Bropuunodt (cuHTakcnyeckod) byHKuMH, Qolee UsHTpateH, YeM KOHKper- ublii Maqexk B nepBH4noli (HapeyHoil) PywKuna. Hanpumep, B potiri civitate armis «3axBaTHTb ropof cHoli» (6yKB. «opy2kHem») nepBbtit (ympaBaaemplit) adatus civitate Conee ueHTpasleH, 4eM BTOpo_(cBOO9; ti aTuB armis, HMero- wait WACTpyMentagbHoe sHavenne; oTcioxa (potiri civitate) armis. H, Hakonell, rpaMMaTHyeckuit nadex, ynoTpe6ennptit Bo BTOpHUHO! (HapeuHoi) DyARMMN, mepidepulinee, vem TOT ke _CAMpHHajexc a TepByuHolt Hanpumep Dies circiter XV (iter fecerunt) «Onn npozenaau nyTb WpH6- JIM3HTeIbHO 3a MATHALMATh Duell», r PpaMMaTH KaJu 3 a i, H A Trayexxuolt PopMpt cod eli WeHTpambuoe Nono*KeHHe cpequ onpesenmoulMx riarota, aq Be POH aAAH3SanHsA alexa, HanporuB, oTOpacbiBaeT ero Ha Hepudepuio riaroab- HoH rpynmpl. Scho, ¥TO TepMHHEI WE HTpadabuBit nH NepH pepuiuoi it uuKak He oTHOCATCA K NOpsAKY CHOB, KOTO- poili Mateo He Bcerjla OTParxkaeT BHYTPeHHHi NMOPAAOK CAoB. § 3 Flo cux nop Mb roBopH.in oO MaexKax TaK, GyATO cyue- CTBYIOT TOJIbKO MPHrarosbHble (= onpejestaioune riaroul) nazexu. OfHako uMeloTCH HM Apyrue mayexkuble PopMbl, COOTBETCTByIOuHe APYrHM CHHTAKCHYeCKHM (yHKWMAM, CymectBuTebHoe MOXKeT GbITh B mpeAJIOAKeHHH: 1) noqiexauyuM; 2) npuazoxennem (onpeseneHvem) K Apyromy cyulecrBH- TeJIbHOMY, HJM NMpeAMKaTHBOM; 3) cKasyemBIM; 4) KocBelHLIM onpeleseHHeM raarosia HIM MMeHH. B unfoepponelickux si3bikax cayyan | u 3 cooTBercTByIoT HOMunaTHBY, HepBUYHOK yHKWHel KOTOPOTO ABIAeTCA CTy- uait 1, a Bropuynoli — caryuali 3. B caBAHCKUX sA3bIKaX B oo) VHKUMM Cka3yeM HO BbICT' iCTPYMeHTab, Mpo6aena Kaaccupuxaquu nadewet 189 B CBA3H C 4eM BO3HMKaeT CeMaHTHYeCKat MpoOema paarpa- HHSC HOMBHATHBA W_MHCTpyMentaia. “Cymectautelp ioe T CeOn W Hesa, Kak Tpusa- ae cores OHO COMTACYETCA C ONPeeaMeMbIM CYMMCCTBHTE.Tb- HBIM B Traglexe (ofHaKo He BCerja B pose H unere). agerk Hie oKOHUAaNHA CYULECTBHTCJIbHOFO- LPH IOKEHE A —— CHHTAKCHYeCKHe NoKazaTeIH ero. A, KOTOpOe Bplpamaetcn, OLHAKO, HE MpocTo CaMHM MajexKHbIM OKOHGa- HMM, 4 CKOPee COLACOBAHHeM ITOFO OKOHYAHMA C MakerKHbIM OKOHUAHHEM Onpesersemoro cyukecTBUTeTbHOrO. MoxkHo 6bi10 Obl TOBOPHTH O CHeWHalbHOM chateaux MH. 4.) MO3BONAeT OCyMecTBAATS aHalH3 mocpen-! CTBOM MOACTaHOBKH OHO CPopMbI BMecTo Apyro B s06y10 CHHTakcHdecKyio KOH®HTypauuio, Hampumep Le chateau brile «34mox roput» : Le chatelet briile «Maaenpkuit samoK Topu7»; le toit du chateau «kppuua sdmxa» : le toit du cha- telet «Kppiwa ane 3aMKa> HT. 2. Onnakg ane WM HeCKObKO Malex. onpewea H- Haqe@KaT_B_SABHCHMOCTH JbHOlt Bi Gonee TepucbepuiiHoit (eck 199 MpoGaena Kaaccubuxaqua nadeweti xwraccam, Brie Mbl Bue, uTO On npoleaem Ha cmoa He MORCTObITh NoyyeHO H3 ON Npoleaem Ha cmoae (HAM HaoGo- Pot) mpocroii KoMMyTauHei Ha cmose > xa cmoa (WIM Ha- o60poT), HOTOMY YTO Ha cmoa HW _HA.cmoze 3anuMaIOT PagHble MecTa BHYTpH raarombHoli rpynmpt. TMeppoe Bbipaxkenne MOAKHO MpeAcTaBUTh B BILE (Rpoleaem Ha cmoa), a Bropoe— B BHJe (npoieaem —) Ha cmote, Te HesaNsTbIM ocTaeTCA MeCTO LEHTPabHoro ONpesxesMOMero, TOrMa Kak B (npoizaem Na cmoa) He_ XxBaTaer nepucepuiinora_onpeneasouero. Pasnmune Me@eKLY QyHKuUHAMH (3HAaYeHHeM) NMpoOH3BOMHbIX H CeMaHTHYeCKHX KaTeropHii BOObUle, a TakKe MEKAY — 3Ha- YeHHeEM mMafexeli H CHHTaKCHYeCKHX KaTeropHit Boome — STO pasIHune MexKLy BepTHKaJbHbBIMH H TOPH30HTabHbIMA OTHOMCHKAMH, KOTOPOe MoxKHO rpauyeckH npoHsocTpH- POBaTb caeAyionuM oGpasom: le chateau briile, le toit du (oTHouenve mexkay chateau chateau uw chatelet 6B ofMHaKkopbix le chatelet briile, le toit cuHTaxcnyeckux yc/lOBHAaX) du chatelet (orHoueHne Mexy Ha cmoA (OX npoaem Ha cmoa)é KOM- H 6 KOMMaMe, IPHYeM 6 KOM- Hamme Haine 3IKBUBaJIGHTHO, C CHH- TaKcwuecko TOUKH speHna, BHIPAKeHHIO Ha cmoze). Vimeo, NosTomy He caeayer, onpeledan CHHTakcHueckHe sHayeHHA, NpHOeraTh K CeMaHTHYeCKOMy MpoTHBoMocTaBue- HHO C HEH Tp ad bubIM, TOZHTHBHBIM HW HELP a- THBHbIM wWieHaMH. XOTA MOMBITKH JaTb Hay4¥Ho aseK- BaTHYIO KAaccH@UKAlMIO Majexkeli BecbMa LeHHbI, Mbl He Mo- 2KEM MPHHATL pewlenHa, mpeqsowennpie JI. EnbMciésom! nu P. Sxo6couom, Betpeyaiwtces, mpaBya, u BepTHkKasbHbe MpoTHBOMOcTaBeHNA Mahexeli, Hanpumep aeKyoaTBa oH reHvTHBa-MapTuBa BNGAbCKoM (HB pyccKom): lati nam x2e6 1 Mit yOexaens, uo Enbedes nepiyacn & cBonM crapiim no3sH- usm: ewe B 1938 roay, B XONe OAHO! HB honoaornueckux aucKyccuil, \on siickasaa ymenve, YO «pasaMae KAaccon NepsHYHO no OTHOMeHTHO (K AWaKpHTHueCKOi 3AaquMocTH> GoHeMb. CrexoBaTembuo, B naaHe CoMep KANN CHHTAKCHUECKUe pasININA Nepsuua To oTHOWeMITO K pasiWiiam CemauTHuecKHM H WTO CeMaHTHYeCKHe pa3z/MUHsA JOWKHB YcTaHaBAHBaTLeA TOKO B Mpegetax oAHOro HU Toro we CHHTAKCHYe- €Koro Kilacea, To ecTs MexKAY opus cKO, aes TaKCHYeCKO! TOUKH speHHa. Mpo6sena Kaaccupuxayuu nadenei 191 (donne-nous le pain wan un pain) u Jai xam xae6a (donne- nous du pain), HO yxke 43 @paHuyscKoro MepeBosa BUAHO, 4TO 93TO NPHMePpbl BeCbMa cmeunavibHoro CeMaHTH¥eckoro MPOTHBONOCTaBeHUA, KOTOPOe OCHOBaHO Ha Gosee CyulecTBeH- \ HOM “CHATaKcu4eckoM pasanunn (MeaAy pHraaros ibm AKKY3aTHBOM H MPKMMCHHbIM TeHHTHBOM).— YiidtowKkenne cHHTaKCHYeCkKOrO pa3sHUMA Mery 3THMK ABYMA MajlekamMH, ynorpe61eHHe TeHHTHBa HA Me€CT £] akKy3aTHBa, mopoxgaeT gco6oe_cemanTuyeckoe yeHne, | KoTOpoe ABAeTCA BTOPH4H IM TlO OTHOWICHMIO K oc} HOBHOMY Pa3/M4HIO. CHHTaKCHUCCKAX Ku aCCOB -(purtarogp- Hb MawexK : WPHUMeHHO!i Maex). B Hawem mpuMepe peyb HileT OO OTTCHKAX, CBA3AHHBIX C ynoTpeOeHHeM (Bo cpaH- Wy3CKOM) apTHK.IA, TO ecTh 06 OTTEHKAaX, He HMCIOUHX CHH- TaKCHYCCKO PYHKUHH, a 3aTparHBalomHx CKOpee CeMaHTH- yeckoe CofepxKaHve CyulecTBHTedbHoro, AnasorM4unblli npi- Mep yepeloBanve HOMMUHATHBA:HHCTPYMCHT a 1A B POM HMCHHOrO CKa3YeMOTO B_PasrOBOPHOM MosbckoM | sasbike. Hmeno TaK MbI TMOHHMa@eM pasn4ne MexKAY To ; j@t-kr6l_ ro — Kopoab», On jest krol «MMenHo on — Ko- Dob», On jest krélem «On Kopoap». Ham kaxkeTca, 4TO NpaBHbHbIii MeTOL — OMpedeIATh CeMaHTHYeCKHe pasiH4nA, eC OHH eCTb, HCXOMA H3 CHHTAKCHYECKHX pasanuuii, HO He |! \uaoGopor. Toraa emaHTuyecKoe sHaueHite opMbI ompee- LWHeTCH Wa ocHoBe -ee..nepBUYHOM HTAakCHYeCKOM Vv | dynam. Tlostomy npexjle Bcero. 1 iT ie wT wii KTace, ii AA _paccmatpy- Baemoli LaerkHoli Popmbl, YHHYTOXKeHHE pasIHYHA CHHTAKCH- YeCKHX K.laCCOB, NpHBOMAIee K CeMaHTHYeCKHM pa3J1H4H- AM,— sIBJICHHE Hu3ulero NopaAAKa. §4 Tipunaaroppeie wales — 970 UMCHHbIe QopMbl ¢UBYMa. ynkumamu: 1) KOHKpeTHOH, HAH Hapeyxol, u 2) rpammatu- uccKol Mono mpescraBuTs cé6e nage, UMeIOWLN TOKO TpaMMaTHyecky10 PYHKUHIO, TO CCTb Takylo Maxexuyr1o dopmy, KoTOpad BbICTYMa/la Obl TOABKO B pow MpAMoro AonoNHe- Hua, Ognako @opMa, MMeioulad sTHiiib BH aveHHe’ (Bce paBno cHHTeCTHYeCKad HIM" aHaNitHuecKaa, TO ecTb 192 Mpobaena Kaaccupurayun nadewedt npeAox* Hit OGOpoT), OTHOCHTCH_Kk ,»a He K flae- xkaM. Bo BCAKOM Cly4uat, MbI GyeM pa3anvaTb (Ba Kjlacca MpMGlarowbunlx Naylexkeii B 3aBHCMMOCTH OT HX NepBH4Hoit bynkunn (sta KlaccHikauna umeer MeCTo IDUMeHHTeTd HO K JpeBHum nu, AKKY3aTHB MNPAMOrO jLONO/IHeHHA, 2) KOHKpeTHEIe uaserku, neppHunan byHKgHA-KoTOporo ABAeTCA HapedHol wih CemMaHTH¥ecKoll (HHCTpyMeHTadb, WaTuB, adaaTHB, AoKaTHB). MoxKHo 6p10 Obi-tlodarath, Yo mpodlema CHcTeMbl mage- weit CBOLMTCA, TAKUM 06pa30M, K BO3MOXKHOCTH crpymmHpo= BaTb B COOTBETETBHH C-KPHTepHeEM-CeMaHTHYECKOFO MPOTHBO- NOCTABACHHA -KOHKPETHLIE NalerkU, OTHOCAUIMECA kK OAHOMY H TOMy-2Ke CHHTAaKcH¥eckoMy Kuaccy. O_Nako eC OHH H o6pasytor cucremy, TO TowbKO cucTeMy HapedHbIx sHayenuii, MOcKOREACY Bo-atonUHol GVARUIN OH CTARORSTCE KONO: NaTopHen BapHaLLTAMlE FPANMaTINECKONe LACK. C apyroti CTOPOHbI, Gbi0 Obl YnCTOH CHYTAHHOCTHIO, ECM Onl TH Mage- | 2KH OOpasosblBain CucTemy, a He () p Ar MEH T bl CHCTeMBI. i Odpacusercs oto JBYMA mpHyHHaMn. » Tpeakge Bcero mbt BuquM (§ 1), uTO ¥eM SEI HapeyHoe 3Ha- Yenc He © BbIPakatoch — TMpeLOKHIM OOOPOTOM —HVIH «cunrerad KUM» HawewOM,— 3 pon He HrpaeT, Tak Kak MpeAor He ynpaBlger MaexkHoil opMoil, a AB/IAeTCA BCero Ane CCaTARTTec Koll Mopemoii, NoAYHHeHHOM cyuxecTBH- Vane (a P. SlkoScox cam. paccMatpuBaet npeqaxyprit | nanen (Ha cmoade, 6 cmoze HT. .) BMeCTe C scuNTeTuueCKUMH» | aleyKaMH . Pemrarouty10 PO1b HrpaeT PYHKUMA, a He Mmponc- xomgenue. Huxto ne 6yzeT oTpuyaTb naxexuplii XapaKtep Apepuenwluiicvaro WaruBa To/bKO MoTOMy, “TO 9Ta opma cosepxaAKHT MOCTNO3HTHBHBIA IM 3J1€MeHT. -a, KoTopplit oT.1n4aer ee of aTH8a MeCTOMMEHMN MOT aTHBa ApyrHXx HHAOeBponell-, CKuX A3bIkoB. Bee oTbIMeHHbIe HapewHA HU BCe MpeAO*RHbIe | o6oporel, KoTopble MoryT YM PaBAATHCA raarolame OnpeweieHHplX CeMaHTHYeCKHX TpyMN,AQTKHEI _OTHOCHTDCA KaM. Cc Upyroit CTOPOHbI, HMGIOTCA HapewuA WAM _DPeAIOxKHbIe . KOHCTPYKNMH, KOTOPHIe HUKOFAA HE YMEPABAAMIOTCA PALOHOM. Ny 9To weeto TeTani Hapeins. Cpeau onpesereHuii kK raaroay On 3aHHMaioT PEPIPPUN AGE sects MecTo; ¢ Marov1oM 9TH HapedHA \i Mpobaena aaccupurayua nadened 193 cBA3aHBI C1460 — TOsb! empicay!. Hanpumep, {[(raa- \, roa -+ FpaMMarnu kul nadlon) Te honxperieal magexk] «+ + Hapeune}, Mol BHauM, ¥TO eTHbI male 3aHHMaeT 3ilecb MpoMerkKyTQUHOe Mecto: ott noneuietca “MeAAY, HapedH- \ em H YHCTO CinTaKenueckoit qopmoit. Ec mpl orpanw4aumca ero BrOpHuHolt — rpammatnyeckoli — cdyHKuHell, TO NoAyYHM opMy, MpecTaBAMOWLy!o KOMOnMATOpHDH-BapHaHT akKy- 3aTHBa _pPsaMoroe AOI HEHHA (stor aKKY3aTHB ABJIAeTCA OCHOBIIbIM BapHaHTom). Bo BropayHolt pyHkuHH BCe KOHKpeT- HbIe_MaLexK Y30pYHKUHOHATDHLE H, CHEAOBATCIDHO, He oopasyloT. ceMaHTH4ecKon cHcreMbl. Ecau rpynnuposatb KOHKPpeTHble MakexKH MO HX HaPeCYHbiIM by HKuHAM, Mbl He MO- KEM OTBACUBCA OT SYHKILMH BCexX Mpounx HapeuHil: Be KOHKPCTHRIC H_cocTal Tan mukita- tah Avivage wT. As (aaIUTMNeCKHiis tun: pes O*KHELE odoporbt), aHe of MpHaraTe/bubIX (run fortement » HOMHMHATHB + TeHHTHB Cp. EB. Kypuaonns, Spratisvocry a ctaquansuocrs B a3bike, CM. HacTOAMMi cOopHmx, cTp. 122, Yoage § 8 a 196 ‘Mpobnexa xaaccupurayuu nadered Crpeaku yka3piBaior Haripabaenue of ocHOBHIX cbopM K TpoHsBoqHBM. SametuM, ¥TO Cy6beKTH OLEKTHBIT PEHHTHBHI CLK aT ] V |\ocuopoit, x18 ncex Apyrux {ipHT iMenHstx OTP cGaeHnti TeHu- | THBa, a HMCHHO, JIA [apTHTHBHOrO H foceccHBHOr (, { erondine dyin Koropse amoren wonspenaaes' | ynorpebuehiaMn, -26 P28 YioluMt cpapHutes Hallpumep, 4TO B HHAOeBpoNeHck) -TpiTin TEJIbHOCTb BbIDarKa- aC THaBHbIM 06pasom _upusarareabtibts).” TIpH 3ToM o4eH BaxkHO, IFO BO BEX HSbIKAX TL a T_OCHOBbIBATECA Ha _CYObCKTHOM _H OObeKTHOM TeHuTUBe BQIEICTBHE MOTHBUPOBAHHOO Xapaktepa store NocaeyHero, locKkowibky rpynna AMA RelicTBUA + O6REKT- Hb wan Cy6Obe KTH H TeHHTHB Beerga npon- CXOMMT OT rpynnb) AHH A Toaroa+no_aex a mee HAH TpAmMoe RonoaHeHHe. SamerTuM TakxKe, YTO pa31HYHble NPHUMeHHEIe ynorpeb.1e- Hs PeHUTHBA (apTHTHBHbIi, NOCeCCHBHDIii HT. 1. PeHHTHBDI), TO @CTb ynorpedeHua, BTOPHUHbIe MO OTHOIECHHIO K cy6bekT- i \ HOMy-OOLeKTHOMY TeHHTHBY, Cly2KaT cmocoGoM KOCBeHHaro | onpe, eNeHH a CYUCCTBHTeIbHOrO APYrHM CYULCCTBHTeJIbHbIM. Tipamoc onpexenenne cocrour B ToM, 4TO onpesedsiouree 9 CYIecTBHTeNbHOe CTaHOBUTCA MyTeM cory Mpusio- utd scouts onpenersemomy. STO AOKasbiBaeTCA pa3H4HeM To MbI acre Mexyy deus homo «Gor-yetopex» u deus hominis ‘for weNOBeKa>, pasJHYHeEM MevKaY TOAMECTBOM _H_OTHOUL MaTHYecKHX a, H Hitast : cu Oro ocHoBHolt cKejeT HcTeMbl, opty ee agin execs orp mapeda nein KOHKpeTHbIe MalexKN; OHH BXOAAT B CHCTeMY TOAbKO G.1aro- Japa sropHatod yHkuun B KavecTBe KOMOMHaTOpHBIX BapHaHTo8 akKy3aTHBa MpAMoro HononHeHHA. Ila cpoum 2xe 7 MepBHyHeIM PyHKUMEM KOHKpeTHbIe nazexu npuHaaneskat K CeMaHTHYecKol CHC: TC pOME UPOWsBOAHEIX (06paso-, BaHWolX OT CyMMecTBHTeIbHBIX). Ped HzeT o YeTHIPex mayerx-! HbIX..OPMaX: HHCTPYMeHTaJlb, aTuB, aGaTHB, TOKAaTHB. | C TOUKH BpeHHA ABbIKOBOM CHCTeMbI KQHKpeTHbIe maexKK sahuMaior ocodoe MomoxKeHHe MQ. OTHOMEHH aM HW K_rpaMMaTHueckum nagexkam. BosHukaeT Bompoc, MOxXHO \v | \ Mpc6aema Kauccupuxayua nadeweit 197 JIM BbIDgIATh Kacc (opM, MpoMexKYTOUHbIX MeIKAY _YaCTHIO peyH H_iekTHBHBI acTH pean. Ka- YeCTBE HOBOMA_B. Hob3y_3TO "] npHBectH caeayroutyio apasiiedb: TAR HagbiBaemple enysseGune caona TOKE 2aLHMHOT—TPOMeHYTOUHOS NOIOKEHHE MEKAY LBYMS KJlaccaMH mMoptem — ABTOCEMaHTHYeCKHX H CHHC@MaHTHYe- cKHx. B kaK/OM KOHKpeTHOM ynorpe6eHHH BbicTymaeT Ta HAH HHad PYHKWHA, HHKAKHX MpOMe@xKYTOUHEIX NoJOKeHHH HuKOTya He Obipaer, Hampumep, I] aun fils . MMeHHo 9THM 3HayeHH-| ,eM oSbacHwerca ynorpsiteuue Sactipuero AarHna user WeHCTBHA_B B cropoue ocraetes (BoKaTHB Ow uMeeT aneataTHBHyio yHKiio, oTmM4HyIO oT YE PenpesentaTMBHOl (CHMBOTH- yeckoll) PyHKUNH Apyrux maxexeh. PaccmatpuBaTb BOKAaTHB B Toi 2Ke MosKocTH, YTO HM _Apyrve_masexKubie opwer,— ‘3HaGUT MOMyCKaTh M2TOAONOrHYeCKHH MpoMax, adanorHynptii CMeWISHHiO _ 9KCHpeccHBHOrO, yMorpeOeHHA MerKOMeTHH Cc cHuMBOAHeCKOH- yHKuMe -ApyrHx uacrei peu. Tlostomy TISpBat BuxoroMus, ¢ KoTOpoli Mer HayHeM KsaccHpuKalHie Tagexeli, QUeIuL power oT wpOUx iafereit. B uNjoesporelickux a3biKax, Tye, Cc OHO! cTopoHnl, rpamMMaTuyeckie HaqenkKH (HomuHaTuB, aKKY3aTHB, TeHHTHB) M KOHKperHple makexky (uHCTPyYMeHTab, WaTuB, a6vaTuB, AOKATHB) OSpasyiorcA OLMHAKOBO, TO CCTb C MOMOLIbIO OKOH- yanuii, HM rye, C Apyroit cropouHbl, KONKpeTHble Nayerxku HK MpeAAOKUbIE KONCTPYKUHH BHIMOAHAIOT OHH HM Te 2Ke Haped- Hble PYHKUNH, pasiMune MexAy oGeHMH rpynnaMu nalexelt BbIPAKEHO HE CTOAb APKO, NPUMePOM MOXKCT- CAYKUTH KsACCH- ueckHit. apaGcKuli, Te TPaMMarHueckHe. paseuU ABI MIOTCA «CHHTeTHYCCK AMM» (HOMHMAaTHB -U, AKKY3ATHB -a, TeHHTHB -i), a KouKpeTuple — «ananuTyyeckumu». Hexoroppie rva- FONbI YUPaBAAIOT MPeAORHIMH OGopoTaMH, B CHy Yero TpeqAoxKHbIe OGOPOTb! CTaHOBATCA HaCTOSULMH KOHKpeT- HBIMH TMajlexKaMH C NepBHYHO! HapeuHoli u co BropuyHol cuHTakcuyeckoli- dynKuneli (Hanpumep, bada’a bi «na- unHaTb», ’dmana bi «Beputh B», dafa‘a‘an «saujMugatD» HT. J). TlockoipKy rpamMMaTuyeckHe nmayexH o6pasyior YHCTO CHHTAKCHYCCKY10 COBOKYMHOCTD, KavKAblit KONKPETHI nate npoTuBoyocrapanetcd B CHJy CcBoefO HapewHoro 3HaueHua cell 2ToH CoBOKYNHOCTH — TOUHO TaK 2Ke, Kak IIpoHsBoLHoe CHOBO MPOTHBONOCTABJIeHO COBOKYIHOCTH Beet napaHrMbl (= ocHoBe) TpousBO_Auero caOBa: Tipo6sena kaaccupuxayuu nadened 199 akKy3aTHB =—+ HOMHHATHB + reHHTHB + + ¥ + MHCTPYMCHTAJID avs a6aTHB JIOKaTHB Bee 3aMeyaHia cBeseHbl B TaOsIMUe, MoMeleHHoH B § 5. §5 Tenepb Ham ocraerca paso6paTpca B passiMuMAXx Mery KOHIWEMMUAAMH BbILeyYNOMAHYTHIX vicceloBaTevielt HM HawwHMA MONOKEHHAMH, MW AxkoScon u ye Ppoor, nepspii Ha MaTepuane pycckoro A3bIKAa, BTOPO! — JATHHCKOrO, CTapaloTcsd NOATBEPAUTh Mpey- slaraeMblii MeTo Ha CooTBeTCTBYIOULHX. NpuMepax. To xe CTPeMHMCH MOATBePAHTh H MbI CBoeli CXeMol HHOeBporelicKUx manexeit. AxoScou (yKas. coy., erp. 245) cormamaerca c Bpensa- nem? Koropplit_ocnat cHHTaKcHY 7 af HbIx opm. Mot Ke, Hanporm, Moslaraem, YTO WaroOM Beppe B STOM MilaHe ABaAeTCA MeTox we Tpoora. Ou mnie tyneas., cou., cTp. 122): «Mue KaxkeTca, ¥TO CHTY alla B RelicTBUTeTb- HOCTH HECKONbKO Goviee cnoxKHa [vem 9TO NoAarawT Enbm- cae u AKkocon]. Taek MoryT HMeTh Kak CHHTAaKCHYeCKHe, Tak HW CeMaHTHUeCKHe YHKUH... Tlostomy Beera MpHXojHtT- CA HMeTh AGO CABYMA CHCTeMaMH PyHKUHH, Gonee HH MeHee CaMOCTOATeADHBIMHY, CucTema nHfoepponelickux nagexeli * 1. Tlnan_o6pauenua II, Tnan_npegcrasnenna (,,Darstel- «,Appellfunktion* 10 lungsfunktion* mo K. Biosepy) K. Brozepy) Boxatus Cm. «Actes du IIT Congrés International des Linguistes», erp. 146. ® Cnntaxcuseckne @yxKaHM NpHAOKeHHa, MpeaHKaTHBa H HMeH- Soh uacrH cKasyeMoro BHPaKaOTcA He MageKHAMM OKOWAHHAMH, a coracopasivem oKotsanuit. Tlostomy HasBaniue by HKUMH He mpex- CTaBlenhl “B—Tasmines” 200 Mpo6rema Kaaccupuxayuu nadeacet A) 1. Tlagex noanexamero: HoMHnaTHB 2. Upurgaroabypie nagexu’: a) rpamyaTHdeckyi mage: akKy3aTHB (nepauunas byHKuus: npsMoe Jonon- HeHe; BTOPHNHad cyuKuHA: Haped- Hasi) 6) * KOHKpeTHbie nagzexKu: HucTpyMentaab * ) (neppuunasd yHKuna: Hapeduas; Havas BIOpHUHaA a6naTus | byaKuns: \ AOKATHB cMHTaKcnuecKaa) B) Tipwymenupie naexn: a) rpamMaTnyecknii nayexK: rcHHTHB (neppuunad dynkuna: cyObeKTHEt HAM OOBEKTHDIA TeHHIHB; BTOPHUHAR yHKUMA: MapTuTHBHbli, moceccuB- HbI H Ap. reHHTHBDI*) 6) KOHKperHbIe Nasexu + Y npuraaroapypix nafexeii CAHTaKCHYeCKaf 3ABHCHMOCTD BIpa- vKaeTCH MHGO HemocpercrBenHo — hopMoi OKOHYaHHA, KOTOPOe AB-~ aAeTCA TOPAa MPOCTHIM CHHTAKCHYECKHM MOKasaTeTem (rpaNMaTHYecKHA najex), AUGO KOCBEHHO — HapeyHim sHaveNHeM, KoTOPoe MateKxnaa popMa mpuo6petaer Gaarogapa oKoNYaNO (KOHKpeTHBIe Mazerk#). 2 YnorpeGaenne KoNKperHux NpHrAaromBUBIX Magexeli B KavecTBE NpHUMeHHDIX OnpesereHHit, Gonee WAN MeHee pacmpoctpanennoe B PASTHYALIX A3LIKAX, OCHOBLIBACTCA Ha CHENYIOULEM PasBNTH: J HB raarox+KouKpeTHHH nage x—-UMA Reet BUA WIM OTAaroabHoe NpHaAaratedbHoe+ KOR KpeTuni madqex-—-cymecTBuTeAbHOe Wa 1 pH warateapnoe}Koukpetumi mane x. 4 Bropuuilas pyiuuuia WiletpyMeHraan — conepHuuectao c KOMUHa- THBOM 34 POsb HMCHHOFO CKa3yeMoro (B CAaBAHCKHX A3bIKax), Gaarofla- pa VeMY HuCTpyMeHTatb MpORUKaer B TosHUMIO NpeANKatHna (A K.O 6- CoH, yxas. cou., crp. 268). * Bropuyuan yukuus renuripa——oro--Hapeuaee ylorpedrenKe B_Kauectae.. IpAMOrO l, TIpHveM TeHHTHB CeMaHTHYeCKB npotiBonoctanaen axxysaTHBy (npHMepH RB pyccKoM — cm. 1 KOO CoH, yas. cou., erp. 256 1 cal.). i Mpc6sena Kaaccugurayuu nade eti 208 Hoe MooxeHHe Ne [poora, TecHo CBA3aHHOe c mpesbiayuiAl STO r AbHbIX .HTepHde- pHHHBIX NOsHUHH pasiHUHDIX MpUrarolbHbIxX NMawexeli: «B TpeMIOKEHHH, Cosep%xaulem CyulecTBUTEAbHBIE B PasHy~ HBIX MaheKax, YUpaBAeMbI akKy3aTHB ABAAeTCA NepBbIM no OTHOWeHMO K Tarojy, ynpaBaAsemplii aTHB — BropbiM, yupaBasembl aGaarns — tperbum... (Ile mihi manu prop- ria librum dedit «On gan mue KHHry co6cTBeHHOH PyKoli») (ykas. cou., cTp. 123 w ca.). Manee (yKas. co4u., erp. 127) ne [poor npusnaa npexMymecrBexHo rpaMMaTHyeckuit ste Z TAaKCHYeCKHii) XapakTep TeHHTHBa: «MHOKECTBO «HANeHHi» TeHHTHBa OODACHHCTCA OTCYTCTBHEM 3HaYCHHA». Hakouen, ge [poot npaBrsibHo mosMerHA obuKyIo TeH- AeHUMIO pasBHTHA (yKas. cou., erp. 126): «BooGuse rosopsa, SBOTIOUNA 3JIeMeCHTOB, MOMOOHBIX NadexKy, TAKOBa: CHatee OHH HMeIOT TQJbKO ceMaHTuyeCKyIo (yHKUHIO, Tlotom — ceManTHYecKyIO H CHHTaKcMYecKyIO (yHKuMio, Hakone — HCKJIOYHTCIbHO CHHTAKCHYECKY 10, Py HKWHIO». B wawux Tep- MHHAX “STO BHITAAHT Tak: Hapeyne (mpon3BoAHoe OT cyuie- CTBHTEMbHOTO) HAH NpedOxHbIi OGCpor = KOHKpeTHbIit na- ex > rpamMatnyueckuit magzex. Y P. SKoGcona (y Kaz. cou., erp. 248) pasanune mexkAy CHAbHOYNpaB.AAeMbIM H CJaGOYMPaBAAeMbIM aKKy3aTHBOM (starkregierter und schwachregierter Akkusativus) He onpe- J Aeseuo_opmadpubim oSpasom. A Bexb STO paznune MexKAY CHHTaKCHYeCKHM H B TO Ke BPCMA LWeHTPa/IbHbIM, C ouHOH CTOPOHBI, H CeMaHTH¥eckHM HB TO 2Ke BpeMA MepHdepui- HbIM — C Apyroit. Mbi He MoxkeM Tak2ke CorviacuTBes ¢ SKOG- COHOM, Korda Ha cTp. 249 on roBopHuT 06 akky3aTHBe_H_HOMH- HaTHBe Kak QO MM. i MH HEMaD. ceMaHTHYecKoro. npoTiportocrag, HHA, BUTO BpeMA Kak Tam eet MECTO NPOTHBONOCTaBHeHHe CHHTakeHYeeKOrO XapaK- j Tepa. Ha crp. 22 Sxo6cou numet: «Bonpoc a6 oCHOBHbIX 3Ha- NeHHAX MalexKell IPHHaLAeKUT yueHHIO 0 CUOBE,~a BONpoc o WaCTHRIX sWayenunx Nagexeli —- yYeHHIO 9 cnopocoyera- WWM; OCHOBHOe aHaue OCHOBHO@ 3HaveH He MaervKa HE34BHCHMO OT e€FO OKPy- XCHHT; B TO BPeMA KaK eFo oTeTbHOe (-bIe) sHayenne (-#) ABUAAe(IO)TCH, TAK CKa3aTb, KOMOMHATOPHBIMH BapHaHTaMH OC HoBHoro 3Ha4yeHHs» «Die Frage der kasuellen Grundbedeu- tungen gehért der Wortlehre und die ihrer Sonderbedeutun- 202 Mpo6sena kaaccupuxayuu nadeocedt gen der Wortverbindungslehre an, da die Grundbedeutung des Kasus von seiner Umgebung unabhangig ist, wahrend seine einzelne(n) Bedeutunge(n)... sozusagen die kombina- torischen Varianten der Grundbedeutung (sind)». Oanako ectb-cemauTHueckuli KouTeKer H CHHTaKCHYecKHHt KONTEKCT, Me”KAY KOTOpbIMN CyiecTByer sHavuTeybHoe pas- auame- Kora KonKperabiti nayex, BbiIcTynad B powH ph- raiaroabuoro onpeicnentis, cTaHoBites Hapeunem, 36cb ‘cKa3bIBaeTCH BosjelicTBHe CHHTaKcHYecKoro KOHTeKCTa. Ha- MPOTHB, B TAKOM BolpaxkeHuu, Kak ete de fer «ynpameny» (6ykB. @kene3Hast rouoBar), AelicTByeT CeMaHTHYeCKH KOH- TeKCT, MOCKOAbKy Nepemena suayenuA Se aces oSyeiopnena He Tem, onpenersmourero, a TOAbKO crremuuyeck’ téte «rosoBa». Pan pasauguil, yctanosnennex P. Akodconom (yKkas. cou., erp. 258, 264), ornocaTes kK o6MacTH cTHIA H MosTOMy ABEAOTCA BTOPHUHbIMH, NOAMHCHHbIMH TpaMMaTHueCKHM cbaxtam. an - Cambie caaSpre MecTa pa3/M4HbIX Tpy2oB — Hey2a4Holit aHatH3 MpeA1OKHIX OSOPOTOB, OTCYTCTBHE OTYeTAMBOTO pas- JMYCHHA MepBUaHO! H BropuyHol byAKWHH (B CMbICHe, onpe- JeneHHoM B § 2), HakoHeul, orcyTcTBHé bopMatbHoro Odoc- HOBAHUA pedaraeMblx CXeM. Uro Ke KacaeTcH AByX MocaeqHHXx aBropoB (P. AKkobcon, yka3. cow., ctp. 233: ye Tpoor, yka3. cou., crp. 127), To n3 MpeduecrByloimero MOMOKeHHA ACHO, YTO TOY. HA Te | raoora ropaaso ¢ OaioKe K Hawell, vem P. Axddcoua. Je [poor pasmitael BAYT pu rpyanbt «nayeku C CHATaKcHyeckolt OynKiwei» gee nor) arenes —ceManT TECK oi oyaxunn (rpawitarieckise nagsexu) W «naexu C7 Ceman- THITECKON bynes (romepersnte mane TRpetubre nase). Cunrakcuyeckaa yHKUMA KONKpeTHEIX TaleRe T H3 HX CeMaHTH- yeckoro (HapeyHoro) CosepxKaHHA, B TO BpeMA Kak TpamMaTH- yeckHe malexu c CaMoro Ha¥aia MMelOT TepBHYHyIo CHH- vakcuueckyio bynkunio. PyHkyuu oSoHX BHJOB, CeMaHTH- yeckHe WM CHHTaKCHYeCKHe, MIpHcyulM MiaHy mpeqcraBsleHna (cumBonusatun), KoTopstii mporABonocraBaeH many oGpaute- HHA (BOKAaTHB). Kpome toro, Kak Karkerca, (popMya «HoMHHaTHB — He onpeenmouree, akky3aTHB H PeHHTHB — ompeseaio muer Tipo6sema xaaccupurayun nadeoced 203 He OTPaxKaet NOMMHNEIX B3AMMOOTHOWIEHHH MexLY rpamma- THYeCKHMH TakeKamu. Kpurepuw mporuBonoctapaenua He chelyeT BLIOHPaTb MPOKSBOAbHO: OHH OAKHBI OLITR op- MaJIbHbI, TO @CTh JHKTOBATbCH CaMHM A3bIKOM. Ashik 2Ke npedetaBasier, ¢ ofHoit_cTopoHLl, albTepHanmo akKysarHa (1paMoro JonoavenHa) H HOMAHaTHBa B 3aBNCHMQCTH Of Sarora (hoster. -profligare «yunutoxats Bparay, hostis profligatur appar YHHITOKaeTCAY), C APO CTOPOHb! — aJIbTepHaLlHIo HO- MUHaTHBa MU AKKYy3aTHBa (TipAMoro NONOMHEHUA) ¢ CYORERTALIM W OOHCRTHDIM TCHHTHBOM, B 3ABHCHMOCTH OT OTIJaroAbHOrO caosooopasosanua (plebs secedit «ne6c yxomur» : secessio plebis «yxox ne6ca», hostem occidere «y6urb Bpara» : occi- sio hostis «y6uitcrso Bparay). OrnocutTenbHble omepanuu YKa3biBaloT HaM HalpaBenHe 3aBHCHMOCTel HM OHOBpeMeH- HO — coorsererByrouyue qWxoToMHN. AKKysaTHB HM HoMHHa- THE_BMecTe Cy 2KaT QCHOBANHeM Wud TeuuTHBA, TIpHTeN Cam HOMHHATHB OCHOBaAH Ha AKKY3aTHBe. Hakonel, Woapasieteme oTHOWMeHHEe Ge3 TO Kaqtu3anuuN:oTHOMeHHe MeCTa, KoTOpoe Je Tpoor ase 19 KOHKpeTHbIX MawexKell, ABIgeTCH HepeeBayT- HEIM, MOCKObKY STH NalkeovKH, KaK Mbl BHIGIH, CBA3AHBI C cucTemoli ToAbKo cBoelt BropHuHOi (cuHTaKcHYecKoil) PyHK- uve. Tlo cBoeit neppuuno dyHKuMH OHM TIpHHaqexKaT Kk ceMaHTHYecKol cucreme Hapeanit.