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POCCHACKAA AKAJEMHA HAYK WHCTHTYT PYCCKOIO ASBIKA um. B. B. BAHOFPAZOBA PYCCKMM A3bIK B HAYYHOM OCBELWEHMNM Ne 1 2001 EB. TIADYUEBA* KAY3ATHBHBIM FIAPOJI WH AEKAY3ATHB B PYCCKOM A3bIKE 1. JexaysaTHBaunsa Zlekay3aTHBb1 — 3TO pacnpoctpaHeHHbIi THN NpOW3sBOAHOrO HenepexonHo- ro ynorpeGnewua mepexoqHBIX Kay3aTHBHEIX rlaronos. Jlekay3aTHBallHA BO MHOPHX A3BIKAaX He HMeeT (POPMANBHOTO BhIPWKEHHA, T. €. MpecTaBIAeT CO6OK cCeMaHTHYecKyi0 DepHBalHio (meaning extension). Takosa, HallpHMep, CHTya- WHA B aHTIMHcKOM, Tae MHOrHe TpaH3HTHBHble Plarosibl HMCIOT HellepexogHoe ynotpe6nenHe, KoTOpoe HHTepnpeTHpyeTca Kak NeKay3aTHBHOe; Tak, (16), (26) NOJYYeHO, COOTBETCTBEHHO, H3 (1a), (2a) ekay3aTHBalHet: (1) a. John broke the window ‘Jbkox pas6un OKHO’; 6. The window broke ‘oxHo paz6unoce’; (2) a. John opened the door ‘/>kox omxpoi DBepb’; 6. The door opened ‘nBepb omxpeuace’. Y qekay3aTHBa, Kak HM y MlaccuBa, OObeKT HCXOZHOrO ynoTpe6seHHa CTaHO- BHTcA Cy6beKTOM — MepeXOJHT B NO3HLMIO Nosexaiwero. Ho cyab6a 6pIBLe- ro cyGpekta y maccuBa M eKay3aTHBa pa3Haa: rlarosu, NepepezeHHbit B mac- CHBHY!0 (opMy, MO-nmpexkHeMy NOHMMaeTCA Kak areHTHBHBIi, T. €. Cpe yuacT- HHKOB OG03HaYaeMOl MM CHTYAaUMH ecTb Wesenomaraoumi KaysaTop — Arexc; a ekay3arHBEl broke, opened B (16), (26) o603HaYaloT CHTyaLMIO, B KOTOpoOH HeT Wesenosaraouero AreHca. Tak ¥TO TakCOHOMMYeCKas KaTeropHa Marona B J€Kay3aTHBHOM ynoTpe6meHHH — 370 He AeHicTBHe, a mpouciuecTBHe (TepMHH «mpouciectBhe» — nepeBog aura. happening u3 [Wierzbicka 1980], mpeano- o2kenHBI B [BymbIrHHa 1982]; cm. TatoKe [Manyyesa 1996: 103]). CemaHTHueckoe OTHOMIeHHE MeXKITy MPOCTBIM H BO3BPaTHBIM rlarosoM B pyc- cKHX mpxMepax (3), (4) Tooke MoxeT OBIT, MpeCTaBNeHO Kak JeKay3aTHBauua: (3) a. Bana pas6un oKHo; 6. OKHo pas6unoce; (4) a. Bans omxpou aBepb; 6. [sepp omxpouace. B anrmHiickom s3bike jeKay3aTHB — 3T0 CeMaHTHYeCKHHi JepHBaT HCXOJHO- TO Kay3aTHBHOrO rarona, B pycckoM 2ke, NOcKOMbKy Dekay3aTHB oopmiszeTcA * Exena Buxtoposna Iaayyesa — noKrop dbunonormueckux Hayk, mpotbeccop, Be- Ayu Hay4uBitt compyannk BAHTH PAH. Pyccxuii asvix 6 naywnom oceewenuu. Ne 1. 2001. C. 52—7 Kaysarasanit riaron H JeKay3aTHB 53 wactuueli -ca (c aIOMOp(poM -cb), efO MOKHO CHHTAT J1H60 MpOW3BOTHBIM CIOBOM (u Torna DeKay3aTHBalast — 3TO O6brHas JIeKCHYeCKAA MPOUSBOHOCTE), JIHGO, kKaK B 1aCCHBHOH KOHCTpyKUH, rpaMMarwyeckoli bopMoli HcxoyHOrO rlarosia. CeMaHTHKy ekay3aTHBaliHM eCTeCTBEHHO MpeNCTAaBHTh C OMOUbIO HepHBa- HMOHHOH MoseNH, Topoknarouleli MpoHsBomHOe 3HaveHHe. HeparkHO, BEIpaKa- eTCA 1H 27a HepHBaLLHA COBOOOpasOBaTesIbHEIM popMaHTOM / rpaMMaTH¥ecKoli ¢bnexcueii (kak B pyccKOM), HH HHYeM He BbIP@KaeTCA (Kak B aHTaHiicKoM): B JOGOM cAy4ae MOXKHO CTABHTS BOIpOC © MozeNH TIpeo6paz0BaHHA EKCHYeCKO- To 3Ha¥eHHaA — 0 MOpesH NepHBalHH. B yanbHeiiiiem W310%KeHHH MbI OTpaHHYHMCA Wekay3aTHBaMH OT raros0B coBepuienHoro Bua (CB), Kak 8 mpuMepax (3), (4). Bo-nepspix, B pyccKoM A3bIKe JIA BO3BpatTHOrO riarona CB vcKmOYeHa MaccHBHaA HHTeplipeTalaa, ‘UTO CYIIeCTBEHHO COKpalllaeT HeEOQHO3HAYHOCTS 3a0POBOLO 3HAYCHHA BO3BpaT- Holt PopMsi. Bo-sropsix, bopma CB ropazi0 Gosee ONHO3HaYHA B BHAOBOM TUIa- He, 4To H36aBNAeT OT MpObNeM, Ha NepBOM STalle H3HLIHHX. Hakonel, B-TpeTb- HX, OCHOBY MeKay3aTHBOB COCTaBIAIOT rnaroibl H3M€HEHHA COCTOAHHA, ‘THMa pazbumb, paccbinamb, ANA KOTOpbIX CeMaHTHYECKH HCXOAHEIM BH, pasy- MeeTcs, COBepIICHHEI. TakHM 06pa30M, peub HeT O CEMaHTHKe OTHOLICHHA MexKIY COBePLICHHBIM BAJOM Kay3aTHBHOFO riaroma M ero NeKay3aTHBa. KaysaTuBubili rmaron NoHHMaeTca, B CooTBeTCTBHH ¢ [Lyons 1978: 490], kak Taro, OMHCbIBAIOWIH CHTyaLIHIO, B KOTOpOl OAMH YYAaCTHHK, CKaKeM, X, 43- MeHSeT COCTOAHHe, H 3TO H3MeHEHHE BEISBAHO APyrHM YYaCTHHKOM, Ha30BeM ero Y; y TpaH3HTHBHEIX Kay3aTHBHBIX PlarouloB yYacTHHK Y BbIpaxkeH cy6pek- ‘TOM, a YYacCTHHK X — OGbeKTOM. CrpaHHbim o6pa30M, pycckHe JeKay3aTHBbl NpakKTHYeCKH HTHOPHPyrOTCA B ‘TpanMUMOHHBIX OMHCaHHAX pyccKoro A3biKa!, OHH He ynoMuHatoTes B [HcayeH- ko 1960] 18 [AHKO-TpHHHuKas 1962]; ux HeT B nepeuHe CeMaHTHYECKHX THIOB BOSBpaTHBIX riaronos, lIpHBeneHHOM B [I'pammartuxa 80, I: 617); Aa HHX HET MecTa B TOApOOHOH KWaccHHKaWHH BOSBpaTHEIX riaroyos B [BepeHK 1985]. B [Bundrpanos 1947: 632] pbyienatca Kulacc BO3BpaTHEIX riaronoB, O603Hayal0- IHX «BHELUIHHe pusnyeckne H3MeCHeHHA HW H3MCHEHHA B COCTOAHHH H MO0J102%Ke- HHH cy6bekTa»; OMHAKO B 3TOT Klacc, Hapally C WeKay3aTHBAaMH, BKIIIOUCHBI npozyaueameca, kamamoca Mi Apyrve Marosbl, He OTHOCAUIHECA K Demy. B no- clemHee BPeMA WeKay3aTHBbl CTAIH MpeMeTOM TIpHCTambHOro BHAMaHHA B TH- TlomormyeckoM miaHe (cM., B yacTHocTH, [Haspelmath 1987; 1993] u [Levin, Rappaport 1995] c nozpo6Hoit 6u6nMorpabueli), H TO No3BONAeT 0-HOBOMY BSPIAHYTb Ha PyCcKHHi MaTepuan, TepMHH «jlekay3aTHB» Hesb3d CYHTaTs oOulenpHHaTEM. B [Taspwiopa 1990] mo oTHoeHHio K NpuMepaM THMa dom paspywurca, T. e. TAKHM %Ke, Kak 1 OGpscHeHHe cocTOHT, 0-BHJHMOMY, B TOM, ¥TO ele B XIX BeKke Dekay3aTHBBI BOCIIPHHAMANHCb Kak MaccuBbI, cM. [BytaxopcKnit 1954: 315]. Kpome Toro, 3c, BO3- MOXHO, CLITPANO Posh HEOOBACHHMOe NPHCTPACTHe PyCCKHX [PaMMATHCTOB K HECOBep- MI€HHOMY BHA, Pe CleuwpHKa Aekay3aTHBa Popasyo xyKe BALHA. 54 E, B. Manyyesa (3), (4), Hcnomp3yeTca TepMHH «KBa3HMaccHB», KOTOpbIi B3aT H3 [Meambuyk, Xonogosuy 1970], Ho npezctaBasetca HeyWa4HBIM, MOCKOABKy COnMxKaeT ye- Kay3aTHB C MacCHBOM, B TO BPeMA Kak OHA H3 MlaBHBIX 3aa4 — JeKay3aTHB OT naccusa oTmM4nts. B [Levin, Rappaport 1995], omHOM H3 CaMBIX MpoHHuaTesb- HBIX HCCJI¢0BaHHi Ha 3TY TeMy, HCMONB3yeTCA TepMHH Causative alternation — Kay3aTHBHOe YepeOBaHHe, KaK CCJIH Obi peub WW1a 0 CHMMETPHYHOM OTHOLIC- HHH M@%K/lyY Kay3aTHBHBIM TarosIOM H ero Jekay3aTHBOM. ABTOpEI NpHXOAAT K BBIBOJY, YTO B AHTIMHCKOM SSBIKE CCTb Ape Pa3Hble JepHBaUHOHHbIe MOAeAH, 1 cya No MpHMepaM, 3TO AeKay3aTHBalHA H Kay3aTHBallMs; MOXKHO AYMaTb, YTO «kay3aTHBHad asibTepHallHa> — 3TO K CCTb eKay3aTHBallHA, a Kay3ATHBALMA HE MMeCcT B 9TOH paGoTe OTAeMbHOTO Ha3BaHHA. B Tunonormyeckoi 1MTepatype HMeeT XOXKAeHHE TepMHH «“aHTHKay3aTHB», BHYTpeHHAA (OpMa KOTOPOTO MpocTO BBOAHT B 3abmy2%MeHHe (cM. 06 3TOM [Meapuyk 1998: 392]), mockonbKy Aekay3aTHBallHA, KaK MBI YBHJJHM, BOBCe He MCKUOUACT H3 CEMAHTHKH Ilarowa kay3aTHBHBIii KOMMOHEHT, @ TOJIBKO YBOJIMT ero Ha 3a0HHii nian. B pasmene 4 Mb O6OCHOBbIBaeCM IIpHMeHeHHe TepMHHa «jleKay3aTHB» K OJHOMY JIMUIb Klaccy BOSBpaTHEIX rarou10B, OOpas0BaHHEIX OT Kay3aTHBOB, — K [laroslaM H3MCHCHHA cOCTOsHHA?. 2. K opmasIbHomy NpescTaBjeHHi0 3Ha4eHHA CORA Virak, 3aa4a — BbIABUTb JepHBAal|MOHHY!W MO/EIIb, KOTOpad CBA3BIBACT J1eK- cHYecKoe 3Ha4eHHe Kay3aTHBHOTO Tiarosa co 3Ha¥eHHeM efO MpOH3BOAHOTO Wekay3aTHBa. Mgbi xoTuM MlOKa3aTb, YTO CCTh oOulee ceMaHTHYeCKOe COOTHOUIE- HH, CBA3BIBAIOLCe NOCTATOYHO GHOMbLIOe YHCIIO nap, COCTOAUIHX H3 Kay3aTHB- HOMO H ACKay3aTHBHOIO [larosia,; H YTO BO3MOXKHO bopMasibHoe UpaBHlo, KOTO- poe CTPOHT 3HadeHHe \eKay3aTHBa K3 MCXOAHOFO Kay3aTHBHOFO 3HadeCHHA, @opMannszauua ceManTM4ecKHx epuBauHit Tpebyet opManbHoro mper- CTaWIeHHA 3HaYeHHA CcuIOBa. TpalcibopMaljHOHHBle CHHTaKcHYeCKHe TeOpHH 60—70-x roqoB eciH H He NIpHBeNH K NOCTpoeHHio TpaHcipopMalulMOHHBIX rpam- MaTHK (No KpaiiHeii Mepe pyccKoro #3bIKa), TO BO BCAKOM CJly4¥ae OCTAaBHIH cief B JHHIBHCTHKE B BME YETKOFO NOHATHA CHHTAKCHYeCKOH CTpyKTYpbI Mpe1OKEHHA: JHHIBHCTHKa Nony4unsa B CBO pacnlopwkeHHe epeBo 3aBHCH- MocTeli H JepeBo coctapimouyyx. Ceiiuac Toxe peu HUeT 0 TpaHctbopMauHax, HO © TpaHcibopMallMsax sleKCHYeCKHX CTpyKTyp, 4 He CHHTAKCHYeCKHX; HO TpancbopMaliHaX He CHHOHMMHUYCCKHX, a H3MEHAIOLIHX CMBICA HCXOMHOMi seK- CeMbI — OMpejleJICHHbIM, OJHHM 1 TEM 2Ke o6pa3om. A HCXO#KY 3 TOJKOBAaHHH rlarosIbHBIX JIeKCeM, KOTOPBIC HCNONb3YIOTCA B pamkax cucTeMbI «Jlexcuxorpad» (cm. [KycTosa, [lanyyepa 1994; Kyctopa, [la- ? Cornacuo apyroi TepMunonoruu (cm., HanpuMep, [Israeli 1996]), aexay3aTaB — 370 mo6oH BOsBpaTHEIH raaron, NpoHsBOgHBI OT Kay3aTHBa; Torna B IpAMepax (1) — (4) Mequanbublii JeKayzaTn. KaysaTwpuniii rmarom 4 eKay3aTHe 55 my4ena, Paxunuua u ap. 1993]). Tomkosanua B cucteme «“JleKcuKorpac» opH- HTHPOBaHEI mpexkge Bcero Ha BbIABICHHe CXOACTB M@KAY pa3HbIMH 3Ha4e- HUSIMH CJIOBA; K HHCHY MOse3HbIX CXOJCTB OTHOCATCA H BO3MOXKHOCTH JIEKCHYE- ckOH JepHBauMH, OOulMe AA Toro HIM HHOTO KNacca CloB, T.e. AE PHBAWH- OHHBIA MOTCHWHAN JanHoro kiacca. TonkoBaHHa HMerOT onpedeenHElii so pMaT. DopMaTHpoBaHHe TOKOBa- HMA NO3BOMAET COMOCTABHTb 3HAYeHHIO CBOerO poua CTpyKTypHy!0 MopMy.1y; opmysbI MoryT MpeoOpa30BbIBAaTECA OAHH B APyrHe MpocTbIMH OnlepallMaMH, THMa 3aMelleHHA H MepeMelleHHA CBOHX yactel. Tak 4TO M0 OTHOMICHHIO K PopMys1aM MoxKHO FOBOPHTE O eMHEIX MoeAX HX TIpeoOpasoBaHus. Vines nperctapnenHa JeKcH4eckoro 3HavcHHA B TaKOM BH, pH KOTOPOM Ha, HHM MOoKHO NpOH3BOZHTE POpMaNbHbIe OnlepaulMH, celiyac nomy4Ha LH- poxkoe pacnpoctpaHeune, cp., HallpHMep, KBa3HNOTH4eCKHE *opMy.IbI B [Ja- ckendoff 1993]. Xapaxtepxoe Ha3Banve weet ctatba [Levin, Rappaport 1998]: «Building verb meanings». Anenne peryApHol MHoro3Ha4HOCTH OBuI0 orKpEiTo FO. JI. AnpecaoM Ha gape COBpeMeHHO!i NeKcHyeckoli cemaHTHKH (cm. [AnpecaH 1974}), Hc Tex nop BceoObeMsOUIH XapakTep MHOTO3HAYHOCTH C10Ba CTAHOBHTCA BCE Gostee H Go- Jee O¥eBHAHLIM. Baiapienve bopMasbHbix Moese npeoOpa3zoBaHHa JeKcHye- CKOPO 3HaYCHHA JaeT HALeKLY CpaBATbCA C MHOFO3HA4HOCTHIO, MIpeCTAaBHB ec KaK pe3ysIbTaT MHOFOCTYMeHYATEIX CEMAHTHYCCKHX DepuBallHii oAHOTO 3Haye- HHA H3 Apyroro. Vimeetes pa o6ulHx MexaHH3Ma ceMaHTHYecKoH yepuBaunu [[lanyyesa 19996] — kaTeropHanbHEIH CABHT, CBOero poma MeTahopa (cp. pewume sadayy K peuum cydb6y), H CaBHT @OKyCa BHHUMAHHS, Kak [Ip MCTOHH- MHH (CP. 3azpysumb menezy ceHoM HM 3aepy3umb ceHo 6 menezy). 06a MexaHH3- Ma MIpOCie@xKHBalOTCA H B CCMaHTHKE JeKay3aTHBOB. Hanwune y ciopa Toro HH HHOFO ceMaHTHYeCKOTO DepHBaTa CyleCTBEHHO 3ABHCHT OT Cro HCXOAHOFO 3Ha4eCHHA, TAK YTO Y 6aM3KHx 10 CMBICJIY CJIOB pa3- HBIX AZbIKOB, B NIPHHUHNe, CileqyeT OKMZATh CXOMHbIX CCMAHTHYCCKHX JiepHBa- TOB. Tlostomy HeYMHBHTCNbHO, 4TO Wekay3aTHBbl NpeACTAaBIAIOT HHTepec 1A Tunonorun. 3. JepHpauHonnas Mogenb ceMaHTHKH JeKay3aTHBa: AeKay3aTHBaulha H JeareHTHBallAA Mirak, o6paTuMca K pycckKHM Jekay3aTHBaM H MOMBITAeMCA OTBETHTb Ha TPH Bompoca. Bonpoc 1. Kak oxapaktepH30BaTb Kilacc Kay3aTHBHBIX TarosoB, KOTOpbIe AonyckaioT Zexay3aTHBauio. HanpuMep, Kak OObACHHTS, MOYeMy eKay3aTHB- Hoe ymoTpeOeHHe BO3MOxKHO B MpHMepax (3), (4) H HeBO3MOrxkKHO B (5) HJIH, Tem Gonee, B (6): 56 E. B. Manyuesa (5) a. Hipan sanep apepp; 6. °Jkpepb sanepnaco>. (6) a. On mpunec uauKy; 6. *YamKka npunecaace. Bonpoc 2. Kaxosa tepupalvonHas Mojens, T. e. oGulee NpaBHno, KOTOpoe NO3BONAO OI CTPOUTh 3HaveHHe JeKay3aTHBa H3 3HAYeHHA HCXOZHOTO Kay3a- THBHOrO Miaroya. TpaBwt0 WOKHO ONMcKIBaTb pa3HuUy Mey HCXOJHbIM Kay3aTHBHBIM H MIpOW3BOAHBIM Jekay3aTHBHbIM 3Ha4eHHeM Mlaroua, HalpHMep, menkyly (a) # (6) B npuMepax (3), (4). Bonpoc 3. B vem pa3Muve Mo CMBICIY MexKy 1eKay3aTHBOM HM MacCHBOM: (7) a. Tlocne store nogaya raza npexpamunace [eKay3aTHB]; 6. Tlocne storo nogaya raza 6euia npexpauyexa (maccuB]. Tlocneauee ocoGeHHo BaKHO ANA PyCCKOrO ABbIKa, Fe OMHH H TOT xe op- MAHT -ca BbIpaxkaeT M JeKay3aTus, Kak B (3), (4), H MaccHB HeECOBepleHHOrO BH- aa. Hanpumep, kakoe 3HaveHve HMeeT BOSBpaTHIH rarod B OOBABJICHHH, KOTO- POe MBI CJIBILIVM B MeTpO: (8) OctopoxHo, aBepH saxpeieaiomca! UcxoaHnim Mia Wekay3aTHBa ABIACTCA Kay3aTHBHBIK raron, XOTA Obl B OD- HOM H3 CBOHX ynoTpe6neHHit He areHTuBHBIii. TlosTomy myTb, BeayulMi K ne- kay3aTHBy OT are HTH BHOFO Kay3aTHBHOMO rnarona, T. €. rnaroa JelicTBuA, BKJIOYAT 18a OTICNMbHBIX Mepexola, H3 KOTOPLIX cOOCTBEHHO JeKay3aTHBaunelt ABMACTCA TOKO BTOpoli, a MepBbI NepeBOAMT areHTUBHOe yNorpeOseHHe Kay- 3aTHBHOTO Marosa B HeareHTHBHoe. Tak, (96) nonyyaetca 3 (9a) cneayroulH- MH JIBYMA OTJ@JIbHBIMH TlepexogaMH’: (9a) Bava omxpeu aBeps => (9a') Tloppis petpa omxpoui ABepb [WeareHTHBaLas); (9a') Tlopeis Betpa omxpou ABepb => (96) J[sepp omxpouiace oT NoppiBa BeTpa (Zekay3aTHBalHs]. Vupimu ciopaMn, ec Kay3aTHBHBIi raron B CBOeM HCxOqHOM ynoTpebre- HHH OOo03HaYaeT JelicTBHe (KaK Omxpolm), TO Tekay3aTHBallMv MpesuiecTByeT ceMaHTHY¥eCKHH CABUr «nelicTBHe => MpouculecTBHe» (qeareHTHBalHa), KOTO- pbiii MepeBOaHT 3HayeHHe UeicTBuA B 3Ha¥eHHe Npovcuecreua. UM ecau aren- THBHbI riarol He JOMyckaeT JeareHTHBauMH, K HeMy OyjeT HenpHMeHuMa 4 aAckay3aTHBallHa. Takoe onucanue yaeT uenbitit Pall NpeHMyilecTB, H3 KOTOPbIX MbI [l0Ka OTMe- THM TOJIBKO OHO: OHO MpeyCTaBaeT WeKay3aTHBallHlO KaK YHCTO [MaTeTHUe- 33nax ° anecb M Haee O3HaYaeT HEBO3MOXKHOCTb HOHHMAHHa OPM! B MHTepecy1o- eM Hac 3HaveHHH CNoHTaHHOTO coGpITHA. CKaxKeM, KOHATHBHOe MOHHMaHHe ‘ZBepb yaanocs 3anepeTs’ ana (56) He HcKMOHeHO. 4 3necb 1 HInKe CTpenka => OGo3HaYaeT CeMaHTHYECKyIO MepHBALHIO. KaysaTHBHnill riaron m nexay3aTHp 37 ckuii caBHr, He MeHsIOUIHi JeKCHYeCKOro 3Ha4CHHA C/IOBa, H3MeHEHHE JIeKCH- yecKOro 3HaYeHHA PMiarolla NPOMCXOJMT OPH AeCareHTHBaliHH. 3.1. eazenmueayua Mo>kHO pa3IH4HTb HECKONBKO KaTeropHli HeareHTHBHBIX Kay3aTopos: Kay- 3ATOPOM MOxeT OBITS COObITHE; MpupoHaA CHa; MUO, Jd KOTOpOro BO3HHK- HOBeHMe HOBOTO COCTOAHHA He ObUIO ocytlecTBNeHHeM ero HaMepeHHs. Mbt paccMOTpHM Be MOe1H JeareHTHBaLlMH: 1) B nosmuun cy6bekta smMuo-AreHc 3aMeHsetcs Ha coObITHe-Kaysarop (B pe- 3ysIBTaTe, riaron NepexouHT 43 KaTeTOpHH JeiCTBHIi B KaTeTOpHIO NpOncuIecTBHIA); 2) CyObekT-nMl0 Oka3bIBaeTCA MaCCHBHEIM YYaCTHHKOM MpOHCXosAllero ¢ HMM coOpITHa, He AreHcoM (B pe3ybTaTe, riaron nepexoaHT H3 KaTeropHH QeiicTBHii B KaTeropHio npouculecTBHii C elicTBy!OLIHM CyObEKTOM, T. €., CCH MO%KHO TaK CKa3aTb, HeHaMepeHHEIX JeiicTBHii). Buayane coOsrrnitupit cryyaii. Tipumeper raaromos aelictaua, cnocoOHEIX HMeTb CeMaHTHYeCKHii JepHBaT B Kjlacce raronoB npouculecTBuA, — pas6yOumb, HanomHumMe, uzmMeHuM, yee- auaume: (10) a. Tpusress xanomnun Mie 11po co6panne; 6. Boit sacos xanomnun Mue, 4TO TOpa yxOUHTB. (11) a. Pegarop B nocmeqHHii MOMeHT uaMenwi 3armaBHe CTaTbH; 6. Hpomeamuit roy [= co6nrtus npoweguero roga] MHoroe u3zmeHut B Moeii 2KH3HH. (12) a. Mipan (Y) pas6youn meus (X) rpy6sim MmHHKOM => 6. Meus (X) pas6ydur 3B0HOK B ABepE (Y). Mogens jeareHTHBalMu MbI MpoxeMoHCTpupyeM Ha Marone pas6youme 43 mipumepa (12): (12a*) Y pas6youa X-a [aeticrene] = I. Axmanmer: Panr Poab Takconomuyeckuit Kacc Y —Cy6pext Areuc JIAO. X —O6sexr Tlaunenc OKHBOE (Z) —Tlepudepua Croco6, AEKCTBHE 5 JImarerwueckuM cABHTOM MbI Ha3BIBaeM MeHY AHaTesbI, J[uareza — 3T0 HaGop Y4aCTHHKOB CHTYalHH © HX CeMaHTHYeCKHMH POJIAMH (TaKHMH Kak Arexc, Tauuexc, Muctpyment) a KoMMYHMKaTHBHBIMH paHraMu: corsmacHo pabore [Tanyuena 19986], cyObexT H o6sext uMelor HaMBBICuMi paur — Llentp; o6cTosTembcTRa HMeIOT paxr Tlepudepus, yaacTHHKH, KOTOPEIM He COOTBeTCTBYeT HHKAKOH CHHTAKCHYeCKOH m03H- UAH IPH rnaroje, HMerOT HH3UMii par — 3a xanpom. Tlonatve aMate3bi BBeyeHO B [Mensuyx, Xononosuy 1970]. 58 E. B. Manyyesa Kay3aTHBHbili riaron H Wekay3aTHB 59 IL. Taxconomuueckaa kamezopua: nelicTBHe Ill. Toaxoeanue: @ou Qkcnosnuws: X cnan (npecynno3nuna) Ueutp Kayzarop: Y zeiicrpopas c wert (npecynno3Huna) (Cuoco: npumenss Z) 970 BEI3Ba.to (accepuna) Hogoe cocrosune: X ne enwt (ammMKaTHB) Mnbepenumn (126*) Y pas6ydun X-a (poucwectaue] = 1. Akmanmer: Y — Cy6sexr Kaysarop COBBITHE X— O6nexr Tlanvenc 2KMBOE IL, Taxconomuveckas kamezopua: npoucuiectee Ml. Toakoeanue: Pow 2xcno3HuMs: X cnan (npecynnosnuus) Uentp Kaysarop: npow3omto/amesto Meco Y (npecynno3uuns) 3TO BBI3Ba.I0 (accepuMsa) Hopoe cocroguwe: X we cenit (ammmKaTn) Ane Une B cemantuyeckoi dbopmyse sekcemst TpH# 30HBI: I. Axmaumor, Il. Taxcono- Muveckan Kamezopua; III. Toaxosanue. Jlearentwpauna 3aTparupaeT Bce TpH 30HBI. A HMeHHO, MeHaeTca: 1) 8B 30He Axmanme: — TaKcoHOMHUecKHii Kacc Cy6pexta (6b110 JMO, cTas0 COBbITHE) H ero ceMaHTH4eckas poms (651 Arex, cram Kay3atop); B ca- MOM deve, OCHOBY CeMaHTHYecKOrO H3MeHCHHA COCTABIIACT KaTeropHasibHblii CAB — HeYTO Bpoge MeTaopH4ecKoro MepeHoca; 2)B 30He Taxconomuyecxan kamezopua: 6biN0 qelicTBHe, cTaO Mpouc- llecTBHe; 3) B Toakosanuu w3MeHeHHe KacaeTca KOMMOHeHTA Kaysarop: y aelicTBua Kay3aTHBHbI KOMNOHEHT HMeeT Bu ‘Y selicTBOBAN Cc ueNbIO’, y Nporciect- BHA— ‘TIpoH30UNO cobsITHe Y’; COOTBETCTBEHHO, y NpOHClUecTBUA OTNAanaeT BOSMOXKHOCTE CleLMPHKALHH crocoba JeaTeNbHOCTH, cp. B (12a) — pas6ydur 2pyOvlm NunkoM: eCJIM CHTYallMA OTHOCHTCA K THI JelicTBHii, TO BOsMoxKeH yuacT- HHK Cr10c06, a B CHTYallHV-MpoucluecTBHH, Fe HeT DeaTeNbHOCTH, HeT H Criocoba. 3.2. exaysamusayua Tipeo6pa3opanue, coctapnaioilee cobcrseHHo Aekay3aTHBalHio, MbI pac- CMOTPHM Ha MPpHMepe riiarovia ucmowyume (KOTOPLIi 3aBeMOMO AOMYCKaeT Co- GpiTHiiusit cyObeKT H, CMeAOBATe/bHO, BXOAHT B Cibepy MpHMeHHMOCTH JeKay- 3aTHBaulHH): (13) a. Tloctosuusie Boiinni (Y) ucmowutu Ka3Hy (X) > 6. Or mocTosHHbIx BoitH (Y) ka3Ha (X) ucmougwrace. CootHouienve Mexay (13a) 4 (136) onvebIBaeTcA creayioumM mpeobpas0- BaHHeM CeMaHTH4ecKHX (popmy.1: (13a*) Y ucmowur X-a [nponcutectaue; kaysaTHe] = Don Ixcno3nnns: X AMen pecypcet (mpecynno3sHuHa) Uentp Kay3arop: nponsoulio/ameno mecro Y (npecynmosuuna) Cuocos: — , 970 BBISBaO (accepts) Hopoe cocrosuue: X He uMeer pecypcos (uMmHKaTHB) Hudepenunn — (136*) X ucmowunca (om Y) [nponcuiecTBHe; Aekay3aTHB] = @on Oxkcno3muna: X ume pecypcsl (ipecymmo3sHuHA) (Kay3arop: npon3ounio/Ameno Mecto Y 9TO BbI3BasI0) Ueurp Hosoe cocrosune: X He umeer pecypcos (accepuna) Hudepenuny Kay3atop ke cneuMHuMpoBaH WIH He cyuuecTByeT (10 yMom¥aHHIO) StH opMysbI ONCEIBAIOT H3MCHeHHe KOMMYHHKaTHBHBIX paHroB yuacTHH- kop, T. €. mepexoa Kaysaropa u3 Lentpa, nosvumn Cy6sexta, Ha Tepudepmo. O6utei B bopmynax ucmowume HM ucmoiumeca ABIAeTCA KOHMUTYpaAa (3kcno3sHuAa: X HMesI PecypCcet; Hosoe cocrosnue: X He HMeeT pecypcos), KOTOpad XapakTepu3yeT yuacTHuka X Kak TlatMeHca, mockombKy X W3MeHHI CO- cTosHve. UcxonHoe ucmoiyum Mi leKay3aTHB ucmolyumbca passMyaloTCA accep- ‘TABHBIM CTaTYCOM kay3aTHBHOTO H [allHeHTHOTO KOMNOHeHTa. ¥ HcxoqHOro Kay3a~ TABHOYO rarona ucmonjumb Kay3aTMBHbIi KOMIOHEHT MMeeT CTATYC ACCepLIMH,, T. €. CaMBIH MmaBHbiii; a MalveHTHbI KOMNOHeHT — cTatyc HMIVIMKaTHBa: CAH OTPHUla- €TCA aCcepllHa, OTPULaeTCA H ee HMIVIMKaTHB. A y Jekay3aTHBa UCmouyUMbCH CTa- TYc aCceplHH HMceT MalMeHTHBI KOMMOHeHT; Kay3aTHBHBIM 2Ke KOMMOHEHT HMeeT caMblii HH3KHH cTaTyc — (pou. Bostee Toro, 3TOT KOMMOHEHT ABJIAETCA IIa CeMaHTH- ‘KM Dekay3aTupa (aky.1bTaTMBHBIM: B Hallleii (bopMyse OH 3aKMOUeH B CKOOKH. @akysbTaTHBHbI Kay3aTHBHBili KOMMOBeHT B POpMyle JeKay3aTHBa MO3BOsAeT MOKa3aTB, Kak NOAKUOUAETCA K CHOBAPHOMY CMBICIy JeKay3aTHBa Doxosbiii (7. e. nepubepulineiti) kay3atop, B (136) — om nocmoannem eoiin®, Ecan 8 mpennoxe- © Movossitt Kay3aTop yale Bcero BEIPAKaeTCA NPeANOrOM om, CM. 0 3Ha4eHHH OM B €TO OTIHYHH OT APYTHX NPHYHHHEIX NpewToros B (MopmancKas, MenbuyK 1996]. Cp. 60 E. B. Maayuena Hu Donosoro KaysaTopa MpH rlarove HeT, BOSHHKaeT HHdepenuna ‘KaysaTop He crenm¢pHuMpoBal WM He cyilecTByer’ . Yro sto 3Ha4HT, MbI YBHIUM B pagiente 4, ®opmyzt (13a*) u (136*) npenctapnaor Aekay3aTHBallMio Kak AMaTeTH4e- CKHH COBH: NOHWKaeTCA B paHre KOMMNOHEHT, BKUOUAIOWIHi yuacrHuka Y; cO- OTBETCTBCHHO, NOHWKA€TCA KOMMYHHKaTHBHbI paxr Y-a: @ouoppiii Kay3a- TOp — 3TO CHpKOHCTaHT. TlearenTHBauHa MoxKeT OcyIecTBNATBCA HHa4e, YeM B IpHMepe (12), — no MoJ{esIM, KOTOpas MepeBOLHT UeeHanpaBieHHoe TelicTBHe AreHca B MIponcue- cTBHe ¢ JelicTByiollMM cy6bextom. B stom ciayyae TaKCOHOMMYeCKHi Kacc Cy6vexta He MeHAeTCA, MEHAETCA TOIBKO eF0 POlb B cueHapHi CHTyalMH. Sry Modedb AeareHTHBalMH Mb paccMOTpHM Ha TIpAMepe (14) a. Bana (Y) pas6wr oxxo (X) (4T06s! BouiTH B 0M) => 6. Baus pa36ur oKHo (nbrTastch OTKPEITb PopToUKy). Cemanruueckan bopmysia Jia riarosa paz6umb, MOHKMaeMoro Kak (146), korua Bana He Arexc, a Bcero AMUIb CyO6beKT NpHYHHeHHOrO yilep6a, HMeeT CHeDyIOWMi BUI: (146%) Y pas6wr X [npoucurectaHe ¢ zeiicrBy:omHM cyObeKTOM; KaysaTHB] = Gon Okenosnuns: X 6b11 neni (npecynnosmuns) Uenrp Kaysarop: c Y-om nponzomi0 neato TO BBI3Ba10 Hopoe cocrosuve: X nepectan 6piT yestbim (accepuns) HMiuepernmmu Y Haxec yurep6 xomy-to Y Hever orpetersenHocts 3a HaHecenubrit yutep6”. VisMenenue no cpasuenmo c dopmysoi (12a*), onucpiparouleli nelictBue, COCTOHT B TOM, 4TO Kay3aTOPOM H3MCHEHHA COCTOAHHA X-a CUIYKUT He HanpaB- JleHHas Kk 3ToH yen AeaTenbHOCTS Y-a, a HeKOe NPOHCUeMMee C HUM CObEITHE. TIpumep npow3BoqHoro AeKay3aTHBa: (15) Oxuo pas6uroce, korna a nbITAICA OTKPBITb doprouxy. Tonkopanne aeKkay3aTHBa: (15*) X pas6waca (us-sa Y-a) [npowcurectBue; neKaysarue] = Dkcnosnuus: X 6511 nent (mpecynnosHuna) CY neaan HesTo, 6yay4u B KoHTakTe c X-oM, 6bITb MoxeT, omocpenoBaHiiom c Y-0M mpou30u10/HMen0 MecTo HeyTo 93TO BbI3BAaI0) Tyu pacceanuce (om eempa; om nonanenua connya); Hebo pacwucmunoce (max Kak myuu pacceanuce). 7B [Lakoff 1977] «oretetseHHocti» ynoMaHactea B UMene MpH3HaKoB npoToTH- ‘TMNeckoro Areca; Ha CaMOM lene, OTBCTCTBEHHOCTS HeceT sHO60ii kay3aTOp-JIAUO. KaysaTupubiit rarom 4 lekaysaTHe 61 Uentp Hosoe cocroanue: X nepectan 6EITb uesbIm (accepuHs) Vudepenunn Kay3atop nepenepaxTen (tio yMomuaHH0) @opmyza (15*) ormuaetca or opmyzt (136*) mut Tem, 4To B (15*) Y 0603HaYaeT TOABKO CAMO JHU, a TO COObITHE, KOTOPoe C HAM NpoH30LUIO Ht ObI- HO TIpw4KHOH Mepexofa X-a B HOBOE COCTOAHHE, OCTACTCA HeH3BCCTHBIM, CM. KOMMOHeHT ‘c Y-OM NpoH30uINI0/AMer0 MecTo He 4T 0’. Ho He3aBHCHMO OT TO- To, HMeeT JIM HCXOZHBIM Kay3aTHBHbI raarom cyGsexTom co6situe (kak B (13) Boiinos ucmowuiu kasny — Ka3na ucmowunace) 41K THUO (Kak B (3) Bana pas- 6u1 oxHo — Oxxo pa36unoce), B OGOMX cy4asx Wid Wekay3aTHBa PeasibHbIM Kay3aTOpOM Tlepexoja B HOBO€ COCTOAHHE ABIIeTCA COOLITHE, a He DeATesb- HocTb Areuca, HanpaBseHHas Ha JOCTWKEHHE HesTH, K uncuy riaron0s JeiicTBMA, HMerOWIHX CeMaHTHUecKHii DepHBaT B KaTero- PHM «NMpouculecTBHe C DeHcTBYIOLIMM CyObeKTOM», OTHOCATCA: ceanume, pa3- pyuump, nopeame, pazopeam, packozome, omopeame, npobume, npoKonomp, nozHymb, cozKymb, paccbiname, sanymamb, pacnneckame, seintecnyme, nepe- epemb, o66umb, ombumb, chomamb, paziomame, omlomam», omnomumb, 3aye- numb W MHorHe Apyrhe (HO, cKaxKeM, He nepeeazame, ebi6pame, npuzomoeumb). Utak, wa pompoc | Moxxo Wate cilemyloulMii OTBET: eKay3aTHBbI OOpazyloT- CA TONBKO OT TaKHX Kay3ATHBHEIX T1aro0B, KOTOPbIe HONycKaioT HeareHTHB- HbIii cyObekT. ror 3anper Ha ekay3aTHBallMio bu oTMe4eH B [Haspelmath 1987]: aexay- 3aTHBbI He OOpasyioTcs OT Tex FlarouoB DelicTBHA, B CeMaHTHKY KOTOPEIX BXO- @aT «agent oriented meaning components», HaNpHMep, KOMMOHeHTEI, :bukKCH- pyroulme cnoco6 waH XapakTep JeaTeMbHOCTH (cMaxnyme, nodmMecmu, pa30- exam), B YaCTHOCTH HaNM4He H JaKe THM OpyAHAa WH HHCTpyMeHTa (Kak y Tiaronos paspezame, paspy6ume, cp. 06 aurn. cut B {Levin, Rappaport 1995: 103)). Pasnw4une Mexyy nopsam, c Mekay3aTHBOM nopeameca, H pazpesame, 6e3 Aekay3aTHBa, ONeBUAHO: YTOOEI PezaTb, HY%KeH HHCTPyMeHT, a 3HAYMT H HC- Tlomb3yrouyuii ero Areuc. Tpotoranwuecknit kay3aTHBHbIi rmaron — pas6umb; oH OGo3HadaeT CHTya- WMO, B KoTOpol CyObexr kay3HpyeT H3MeHeHHe cocTosHHA OGpexra, H pas- Oumeca — Tunw4nbiit DeKay3aTHp. Y TakKHX Kay3ATHBHBIX PIarONOB, KaK 6b! Mblme, nocmpoump, paspezame, 6eiKOnamb, bIKpacumb, HeT eKay3aTHBOB N0- TOMY, 4TO OHH OJHO3HA4HO areHTHBHEI. Ogun H ToT 2ke rmaron MoxkeT HMeTb arcHTHBHOe H HeareHTHBHOe ynoTpeb- eHMe, Hy HeareHTHBHOTO JeKkay3aTHB €CTb, a y areHTHBHOTO HeT. Tak, B (166) (npumep uz (Levin, Rappaport 1995: 85]) curyayua npeanonaraeT yyacrue Areuca, a B (16a) — eT: (16) a. The wind cleared the sky — The sky cleared; 6. The waiter cleared the table — *The table cleared. Taarom sanepemp, B oTM4Ke OT saxpeime, npeanomaraeT MHCTPYMEHT, Hi Tlo- ToMy BO3BpaTHbIii riaros B npuMmepe (56) Jeepe sanepnace (B 3Ha4eHHH ‘7BeEp 62 E. B. Naayyesa yAanocb 3anepeTs’) He DeKay3aTus. U06n1 npunecmu mpeyMeT, Halo Tak WI WHaYe [ep%KaTb ero B pykax, H 370 OGbacHseT MpuMep (6). CemaHTHKa riaroyia3a- xionuyme (ABepb) OTpaKaeT HANMYKe 3ByKa, CONPOBOKAAIOWIerO ZaKPbIBAHHe, YTO He OTHOCHTCA K IIPOABJICHHAM aleHTHBHOCTH, B CEMaHTHKe Pacnaxnyme, CKoOpee, €CTb yka3aHHe Ha xapaxtep Hosoro coctoaHua Ofbekra, 4em Ha Croco6 meaTemb- HocTu. Tlo3ToMy 3a@cionuymoca 4 pacnaxnymbca — NOMHOUCHHBIC 1eKay3aTHBbl. 7lekay3aTuBall4a OTKpbIBaeT MpH arose HOBYIO CHHTAaKCHYeCKy!O M03H- HW. Tak, TPH areHTHBHOM Kay3aTHBHOM Flaroe HEBO3MOKHO o6cTosTembcT- BO BHyla «om + TeHuTHB», OO6o3HaYaIo”ee DoHOBOrO Kay3aTopa: (17) a. CrpaHa pasopunace oF NOcTOMHHBIX BoHH; 6. *Kopon pazopun crpaly OT MocTOMHHbIX BOHH. Hi Hao6opor, Ana Jekay3aTHBa HCKMOYeHbI COueTAHHA, MpeyonpeseneHHnie areHTHBHOCTbWO, HalpHMep, Top. MafexkK HHCTpyMCHT@NbHOrO AeiicTBuA, Kak epy6om nunxom 8 (12a); Taop. najlex np JeKkay3aTuse B (18), a Take B NpH- Mepe (19), 43 [AnKO-Tpunaukas 1962: 143], npoTHBopedHT HOpMe: (18) = *Crpana pa3opwiach nocmoanHommu soiinamu, (19) *Tlokymka MaluMHsi yckopuach pasmonexou c Unset MaTpeesa4em (Kouertos). TBop. Magex Mp HanonHumoca, HacerumbcA, HaBodHUMbCA, NOKpbIMbCA, 3akpbimeca He BbipaKaeT KaysaTopa, 1O3TOMy BO3MOxHO Komuama Hanonnu- Nac’ Hapodom. OrseTom Ha Bompoc 2 cay2atT dopmynbi (12a*) H (126*), KoTopbie npez- CTAaBIIAIOT WekKay3aTHBalMio KaK quaTeTHuecKHit CBHI: CeMaHTHKA Aekay3aTH- BallHH CBOAHTCA K TOMY, 4¥TO yyacTHHK Kay3aTop MeHaeT KOMMYHHKaTHBHBIi paur, nepexogs #3 cyObexTHoH nosHunu, Hentpa, Ha Tepudeputio. O6patumca Teneps kK Bonpocy 3 4 npHMepy (7): (7) a. Tlocae atoro nogaua raza npexpamunace [neKay3aTHB); 6. Tlocne storo nogaua raza 6vuia npexparyena [naccus]. Hu (7a) nH (76) He ynomuuatot Areca. OnHako oTcytcTBHe Arenca B m0- BepXHOCTHOH CrpykType HHTepmpeTupyetcs B (7a) HB (76) 1lo-pasHoMy: B (76) Areue noapa3ymepaeTca — nogaya rasa Gpula mpekpallieHa K€ M-TO; a B (7a) Het. B caMom deze, rosopsujHli BbiOUpaeT B KaYeCTBe KOHLeNTa CHTYaLlMH e- Kay3aTHB POBHO MOTOMY, ¥TO XO¥eT MIpeACTABHTh ee KaK He HMeIOUly!O AreHca. Tak, B KOHTeKcTe MpHMepa (20) [sep omxponace, w Bouten Bans Bans, BO3MOxKHO, GbUI TeM CaMBIM YENOBEKOM, KOTOPEIii OTKPBUI ABEpb. OAHAKO TOBOpAMIHH BbIOpas KOHMeNT c Jekay3aTHBOM — CKOpee BCerO, MOTOMY 4TO XO- 4eT OCTAHOBHTb BHHMaHHe Ha TOM MOMCHTe, Korga HaOmogatenb, Haxoasumii- Cai B KOMHaTe, He BUAKT HeHCTBHA, a TOMBKO ero pesyibTaT. Dpasa Zaoceeca céem eCTECTBEHHA, CCIM ONMCbIBAeT B3PA YENOBEKA C YIMILBI. Kay3aTHBHbIi riaroy 4 ekay3aTHB 63, B mpumepe (21) Tonbko (216) npeactapnset coOsrtue pas6vBaHMa daMKH Kak HMerougee Areca — 8 (21a) J>kon apnsietca AreHCoM B CATYaLlHH, OMHCbI- paemoli rmaroyoM 6pocun, HO He paz6urace; B caMoM ene, B (21a) J>KoH Mor OpocuTs Yalliky Ha MOA ANA Toro, YTOGbI MIpOBepHTs YTBEPKACHHe O TOM, ITO oHa He ObeTca, HB 3TOM Cmy4ae ero HaMepeHHe Obi MPOBEPHTE, a He pasOHTb, kak HY?KHO DJA Toro, YTOObI OH GbuI NOApa3syMeBaeMbIM ATeHCOM Ilarosia pas- Gunace: (21) a. Jpkon 6pocun yaurky Ha non, H oa pax6urace; 6. I>Kou paz6un yauky. B anramiickom mpumepe (22) (npesioxeHHoM Bap6apoit Tapru 8 xone 2Hc- KYCCHH 0 CeMaHTHKe Jekay3aTHBa) AreHc IIpHcyTcTByeT B KOHTeKCTE je- kay3aTHBa opened ‘OTKpbulach’, HO HE B KOHWENTE, COMOCTAaBIAeCMOM CH- TYallMH CaMHM jleKay3aTHBOM: (22) After all of our pushing and shoving on it, when the door finally opened, it turned out there was nothing at all inside. 4, Ect 1 B ceMaHTHKe /leKay3aTHBOB «@HTHKay3aTHBHEli> KOMNOHeHT? B pa6ote [Haspelmath 1993] u B pale Apyrux AeKay3aTHBbI Ha3bIBalOTCA «@HTHKay3aTHBaMM»: eKay3aTHB B mpesoxeuuAx Tuna (1)— (4) TonKyetca Kak ‘pa36vslocb camo co6oii’, ‘orKppuiach cama co6oii’; Tem CaMbIM B ero ce- MaHTHKy BKJIO4aeTCA «aHTHKay3aTHSHbIM» KOMMOHEHT — «OTCYTCTBHE BHeLLI- Heli IIpHYHHb: yTBepakqaeTca, YTO MeKay3aTHB NpeCTaB/IAeT HOBO COCTOAHME (oTkKpbiToe OKHO, pa36uTax Yallika, ONyCTOMeHHas Ka3Ha H T. 1.) KaK HaCTYTIMB- lee «camo no cebe», 6e3 BCAKOM BHelHel MpH4HHBl. Mbi yoke BHeNH, ¥TO Takad TPaKTOBKa He MPOXOAUT ANA TeX KOHTEKCTOB, Tle B MoBepXHOCTHOH CTpykType NpeAoxKeHHA NpucyTcTByeT Doxosblit Kay3a- Top: B (12) NpH4vHa HaCTyMeHAA HOBOTO COCTOAHHA CCTb, OHA BbIPAKeHA Do- HOBBIM Kay3aTopom. [locMoTpHM Tenepb Ha KOHTeKCTHI, re PovosEilt Kay3aTop oTcyTcrayet, kak B (1) — (4). B (Comrie 1985] 1 5 [Inyxran 2000: 209] nekaysaTHBauma mpenctapnena kak «MOHWKaIOUIai AKTAHTHAaM JePHBALMA», MOCKONbKY CTpyKTypbI THMAa (138) PaccMatTpuBaloTes Kak COOTHECeHHbIC HemocpescTBeHHO Cc (13a): (13) a. Tlocroannbie BoiHBI ucmowunu KasHy; 6. Or nocrosHupix BoiiH Ka3Ha ucmo1ywiace;, B. Ka3Ha ucmoiwmnaco. TIpeactapnaetca, oqHako, Goyee ecTecTBeHHBIM CooTHOCHTS (138) c (136). S10 cooTHOUIeHHe MOxKeT ObITb MpescTaBeHO, Kcnonb3ya TepMHH H3 [TInyHraH 2000), kak HHTepnpeTHpywmlas akraHTHaa JepuBayua. U3BecTHIMH 64 E. B. Taayuepa TpuMepaMu Tako AepwBauMn aBimOTcA YualeHHe HecreuMpuLMpoBaHHOrO O6pexta, kak B (23), H Yaanenwe HecneuHHuKpoBaHHoro CyGpekta, kak B (24): (23) BonbHo#i noen cyny — Bombxoii noen (4ero-To cbeno06xoro); (24) Boaana mpoyen Bau pomaH — Ball pomax npow.iu. 7\1a Dekay3aTHBOB MOXKHO NpeIOXKUTb AepHBalMio YranenHe HecneuMou- lwupoRaHHoro Aybionkta (cHpKOHcTaHTa): Mepexoy oT (136) k (138) cocTouT B Tom, uo Kay3atop yxonur 3a kamp, eC/IM MpH4HHa W3MeHeHMA cocTosHHaA 1160 He crlewmduumpopana (T. e. HeH3BecTHa, HepemeBaHTHa, HecyilecTBeHHa, TpH- BHaJbHa HT. J), 1460 OTcyTcTByeT. Kakad HMeHHO M3 MlepeyHCJICHHbIX BO3MO%K- HOCTeH HMeeT MECTO, He Bcera ACHO; HanpHMep, dppa3y (25) MoxkHO CKa3aTb B KOHTeKCTe, Kora 6bLI0 HeYTO, YTO NpoOyAWIO MHTepec, H Kora He O40: (25) Y Hero npo6ydurca wHTepec K My3bIKe. Topa3no yaue Posopamait onyckaeT npHunHy NOTOMY, ¥TO OHa HecyLecT- BeHHa, a He NOTOMY, 4TO OHa He cyilectayer. Cp. npumep u3 [Levin, Rappaport 1995: 105]: (26) Hens yoaunurca. PasyMeeTca, y 3TOFO ABJICHHA ecTb IpH4udHa — 3emsa Npowwia HeKOTOpBIK onpeseneHHbI MyTE Mo cBoeli op6uTe. OnHaKo HHKaKOii HOpMAJIbHBI YerOBeK He OyeT UMeTb ee B BUY. Hexoropble Tunbi Kay3aTOpoB A3bIK BOOOLIe CKIOHEH KrHOpHpoBaTE: 6proKu ucmpenanuce, natemo u3HOCUNOCe, MyKa KOHYUNaCb, bauMmaku cmonmanucr, 6enve sanocuioce. Virak, «aHTHkay3aTHBHbii» KOMMOHCHT, BOSHHKaIOUIM B CeMaHTHKe JeKay- 3aTHBa fIpH OTcyTCTBHH PoHoBOrO Kay3aTopa, — 3TO He CTOMBKO OTCyTCTBHE BHeLIHeH NPHYHHBI, CKONKO ee HecrellMMLMpOBaHHOCTh. Tipyroe cBolicTbo «aHTHKay3aTHBHOTO» KOMMOHeHTa — 4TO OH HeycTOH4H- Bbili (TepMHH «HeycTOiuMBE KOMNOHeEHT» — H3 [3anM3HaKk 1987]). Ero accep- THBHBI cTaTyc — HeoOssaTeNbHOe CrenCTBHe, WIM HHepeHuHaA (OT aHra. inference). «AHTHKay3aTHBHbIM»> KOMIOHEHT OIOKHpyeTCA HE TOJIbKO B KOHTEK- cTe Moxosoro Kay3aTopa, kak B (136), HO H B m060M ApyroM Kay3aTHBHOM. KOHTCKCTe: (27) Tbi Hapo4Ho cyeman Tak, 4TO Yaka pas6urace; Yaka pas6unace, NOTOMY 4TO TbI OCTaBH ee Ha CaMbIii kpaii croma; On Gpocun wauiky Ha Nod, 4TO6bI OHA pax6unace. Zlaxe o6ctosTenbcTBO BpeMeHH nocre 2mozo HaMekaeT Ha Kakyl0-To NpH4H- Hy H 610KHpyeT MHdepeHmmo ‘npexpaTHace cama coGoi’: (7a) Meese store nogaya raza npexpamunace. Bo3HHKHOBeHHIO «aHTHKay3aTHBHOM» HHepeHUMM MOXET MpensTCTBOBATh He TONbKO CHHTakcH4ecKHi, HO H Gonee WIMpOKHii — TeKCTOBBIi — Kay3aTUB- Kay3aTHpHblit riaros H eKay3aTHB 65 ubii KoHTeKcT. Tak, B (28) OcO3HaeTCa IIPH4MHHad CBA3b MEX MeyabHolt cyab6oii 3o0TOrO AHYKa H B3MaXOM MBILMHOTO XBOCTHKa, Tak YTO «aHTHKay- 3aTHBHOM» HHdepeHUMH He BOSHHKacT: (28) Moutka Gexkasa, XBOCTHKOM MaXHYJla, AHYKO yriayio H pas6u10c (Pyc- ckasi CKa3Ka); Tipunetenu 6patba, ynapwiuch 06 3emsi0 H cdenatuce WOOpbIMH MO- Atoguamu (Pycckas cka3Ka); TIpHpbrivas KH3Hb Hapywunace: B Hee BOPBAaNIMCh HOBbIe NopATKH. nbiMu clopamu, «anTHkay3aTHBHad» MHtbepeHuHA GOKMpyeTca B 060M TIpOTHBOpeyallleM eli KOHTeKCTe H BXOQHT B CE€MA@HTHKY Ji¢Kay3aTHBa TOJIbKO Mp¥ YCJIOBMM, 4TO HUKakHe MpHUHHbI KH3MeCHEHHA COCTOAHHA He YMOMAHYTHI B CaMOM BBICKa3bIBaHHH HJM B ero KOHTEKCTEe. B [Levin, Rappaport 1995: 108] yyacTue 6pisulero cyOsekTa HcxomHOTO kay3aTHBHOMO Tarona B CeMaHTHKe JeKay3aTHBa MpesiaraeTca OMMCBIBaTb C NOMOLIbIO KBaHTOpa CyIeCTBOBAHHA: «By/leM CYHTAT, YTO Hemepexonnas (bop- Ma Kay3aTHBHOrO Mlaroyia BO3HHKaeT B pesyibTate Toro, 4TO yyacTHHK Buelll- HAS MpH4HHa CBASIBACTCA KBAHTOPOM CYMIeCTBOBAaHHA». OnHaKO OTCyTCTBYIO- wii Donosblii kay3aTop O3Ha4aeT, 4TO roBopaLMH OCTAB/AeT BONPOC oO NpHUH- He OTKPBITbIM; MexK/y TEM KBaHTHMKALHA M0 Kay3aTOpaM Mpemfonaraet, yTo Npwunua cyiecTByer. Ha nepsbili a3riaa, JonyuleHHe 0 ToM, 4To y¥acTHuK IIpHunHa MoxeT oT- CYTCTBOBaTb, IIPOTHBOpe4HT ecTecTBeHHO AKCHOME Kay3aNbHOCTH: Beskoe m3MeHeHHe HMeeT Kakyr0-TO lIpHYHHY CyulecTBeHHo, O2HaKO, 410 DoHoBEI Kay3aTop OOO3HAYaeT BHE LIHIO10 npwunny®. A BHeuIHsa npH4nHa He OGs3atenbHa. V nekay3aTuBbl 2a0T roBops- UJEMy BO3MO2KHOCT OMHCBIBAT COOBITHE, He TOMBKO He YKa3bIBaa €TO BHELIHHX TIPH4HH, HO M He NospasyMeBad WX HaJIMYHe; BO BCAKOM CJly¥ae, OMyckad TPH- BuaJIBHbIe NpH4YHHbI. MoxHo ckasatb JJom paspyuuica, He YTOUHAS, TIpOU3oLI- AO JIM 3TO, CK@KEM, OT 3EMJIETPACEHHA HIM B CHJIY CCTECTBCHHOFO XoJa COOEI- TH, OT BpeMeHH. Virax, HM CIOHTAHHOCT HH CTHXHMHOCTR HacCTyMeHHA HOBOTO COCTOAHHA He ABIAIOTCA, BONIpeKH OOUIeMy MHeHHIO, YCNOBHEM CYIeCTBOBAHHA JeKay3a- Tuba. OOa3aTeNbHa TOMLKO MOTeHLMALHad HeareHTHBHOCTS Kay3aTHBHOTO Ta- TO1a — HMeHHO 9TO JeqaeT BO3MOXKHBIM FO yOTpeO/IeHHe B 3HaYeHHH YHCTO- TO H3MeHeHHA COCTOAHHA, KOra NpHYHHa H3MCHCHHA HE YeNOBeK KH TIOTOMY MO- 2K€T OcTapaTbca 3a KapoM. 5 Tepmnust «aHyTpeHHas» M CBHeLIHAAy MPHAHHA HCNONB3y!OTCA MHOTHMH asTopa- MH — BO3MOKHO, HE B TOYHOCTH B O/HOM H TOM 2ke 3HadeHHH; cp. [Benveniste 1971: nest Wierzbicka 1980: 171; Levin, Rappaport 1995: 92; Mopnarickas, Membuyx 1996: 66 E. B. Tanyuesa Tipwsnanve uxtepeHunanbHoro cTaTyca Y , T. €. CH Onl, Hanpumep, X yee- quyuica BCeT Ma o3Hayano ‘X ypenwunsca cam m0 ce6e’, TO HeKay3aTHB He Mor 65 COCTaBIIATh YaCTh 3HAYCHHA COOTBETCTBYIOWCrO Kay3aTHBHOrO riarosa: MbI TOMy4HIH OBI iad Y yeenusun X MpoTHBOpeyMBoe TOKOBAHHE “Y BBISBaT To, uo X yBenw4nsca cam ro ce6e’. 31o npotuBopeywe TpeGyeT K ce6e BHHMAHHA, MOCKONBKY CeMaHTHYeCKad (bopmyzia y HeKay3aTHBOB TaKkas Xe, KaK Y MeAMaJIbHBIX (no apyroi TepMHHoO- THH — MHXOaTHBHEIX) riarouoB, THMa ymepemb, czHumb, pacmanmb, ébico- XHymb; H HEBOSMOAKHOCT MpeCTABHT pacmonumb Kak ‘Kay3MpOBaTb pacTa~ SITb’, 6bICyuLUMb KaK ‘Kay3HPOBaTs BbICOXHYTE’ OBLIA 6bI, KOHEYHO, CYWecTBeH- HBIM BO3paxKeHHeM MPOTHB TOObIX TONKOBAaHHH, MIpesiaraeMBIx AIA HeKay3aTH- Ba. Tipusnanve 3€ «AHTHKay3aTHBHbIM» KOMIIOHCHTOM TeKay3aTHBOB H MeqH- ANIBHBIX rlarooB HHepeHlMabHOrO CTaTyCa CHHMAaeT BOSHHKUTY10 TPyAHOCTb. Megmansunii riaron — 3To Mop¢pouIorHyeckH Hempov3B0/HbIi JeKay3aTMB: Me- AMasbHbifi rmaron H Jlekay3aTHB XapakTepH3yl0TCA ODHOH HM To Ke KOHHTypalHeli CeMaHTHUeCKHX KOMMOHEHTOB B CeMaHTHYeCKoli opmyse. M MHorHe pyccKHe Kay- 3ATHBHEIC TAFONI ABILAOTCA, HCTOPHYeCKH WIM 1aKe CHHXPOHHO, Kay3aTHBAaMH MeMaNBHEIX, cp. 6dem» — 6ydume, eucem’ — nosecumb, 2Hum» — enoume, 3adoxHymeca — 3adyiuumb, Kunemb — Kunamumb, Konmemb — Konmumb, je- ocam’ — (no)noorcume, nunnyme (cp. nputeHyme) — 2enumb, MoKKymb — Mo- uum, ocnabuyme — ocnabume, nivime — niasum», nozubnyms — nozy6umb, noepasnyme — nozpy3zumb, nouiamb — nanumb, pacmu — pacmumb, pyxHyme — pyuume, cudeme — (no)cadume, *cmacmu (cp. cmamenue) — cmymumb, co- xHym’ — cyuumb, cname — ycvinum», cmoame — (no)cmagump, cmeime — cmydumo, (y)monyme — (y)monump, ymepems — ymopumb H Ap. Hanwuve B s3bIKe MeqManbHEIX rarosoB 6e3ycIOBHO JOIDKHO OBITS TIpHHA- TO BO BHAMaHHe B CBA3H C NpobseMaTHKOi AeKay3aTHBoB. B nape «Kay3aTHB — TeKay3aTHB» Kay3aTHBHBIH Paros OAHO3HAYHO BOCNPHHKMaeTCA Kak CeMaHTH- YeCKM HCXOJHBIi JIA MapHOro BO3BpaTHOFO TOJbKO MpH YCMOBHH, 4TO ero areH- THBHOe 3Ha4eHHE NepBHYHO M0 OTHOUIEHHIO K coOEITHHOMY. EcnH 3TO He Tak, To HampaBleHHe CeMaHTHYeCKOi NpOH3BOAHOCTH Me>KIy TIP{MBIM H BO3BpaT- HBIM TlaroyiOM MepectaeT ObITh HHTYHTHBHO ACHBIM; Tak, B Mapax MMlarov0B pacmeopums — pacmeopumpca, o6eanum — o6eanumpca, o6pyuums — obpy- uumbcn, 630peamb — ez0peambcn, Y KOTOPbIX Kay3aTOPOM MOTT OBITS NIpH- POAHBIe CHIBI, NeKay3aTHB MpeycTapiaeTca ceMaHTH4eckH HcxonHBIM. Man B3ATb Faron Kamumoca, OOo3HAYaOUIN ABHKEHHe, KOTOpOe MOxKET NPOHCXO- AUTb Nos DelicTBHeM CHIBI THKECTH; ero 3Ha4eHHe BIONHE MOXHO IIPHHATS 3a HCXOJHOE, a KaMUMb CHHTATb MPOW3BOZHEIM OT Hero Kay3aTHBOM?. 9 Vines BosMoxHoit ceMaHTH¥ecKOM HCXOAHOCTH BOSBpaTHOFO aroma Gavia BEICKa- sana B [Menbuyx 1967]. 1 snasomanchacoettt Kayszatupubifi rnaroa 4 Hekay3aTHB 67 Virak, akraHTHas cTpyKTypa Jekay3aTHBoB XapakTepusyetca: 1) HecoBMec- THMOCTEIO c AreHcoM u 2) JonycTHMBIM OTCyTCTBHeM yyacTHHKa Kay3aTop — sHemmHer TIPHUHHbI K3MCHEHHA COCTOAHHA. 5. TemaTHueckHe Kaccbl 1¢Kay3aTHBOB ZTlexay3aTHBsl o6pa3yloTcd HMeHHO OT Kay3aTHBHBIX MepeXOQHbIX MiaronoB; OT Hekay3aTHBHBIX TpaH3HTHBOB JeKay3aTHBbI B HOpMe He OOpa3yl0Tcs: Ox onpaedan HallM OKH_aHHA; O6naxKa Ha BocToKe npedeewyanu Bypw; TloesaKa npeesounta BCAKHe OKHIAHHS; Tlouckn sanaau vent 2eHb. Murepecusii mpamMep — riaron yeudemb: oH MepexogHbIii, HO He Kay3aTHB- HbIii, TpoucxoaHT H3MeHeHHe COCTOAHHA, HO 3TO CocTosHHe camoro CyGpexta, ae OGpexra. Hey2uBHTenbHo, 4TO yeudemb He HMeeT Fekay3aTuBa. 'naron obxapyoicum, B OTIMYHE OT yeudemb, Kay3aTHBHBIA (O6HapyxeHHe oObeKTa MeHSeT ero COCTOAHHE — CKOpee BCerO, OH CKPbIBa/] CBOC MECTONOOKEHHE WUIM CYWeCTBOBaHHe), Hy Hero ECT Wekay3aTHB. Bonbaa 4acts JeKay3aTHBOB MpOMCXOMHT OT raromoB H3MeCHEHHA coctosaHHa (change of state verbs), Ito MoxeT GpITs Necopmauusa (om10- _MUMbCA), W3MeHEHHe MeCTOTIONOKeHHA (cMecmumbcaA) KM MONOXKEHHA B Mpo- CTpaHctse (coznymeca), 9MOUMOHAIbHOTO COCTOAHHA (6036ydumeca, ycnoKo- umpca), COCTOAHUA bu3H4eCKOrO HM husHOMOrHYeCKOrO (cp. HazpembcA H co- epemoca), Ki JIp.: (29) Bo36yaHTb, BO3pOZHTb, BOCCO3aTb, BOCCTAHOBHTE, BCKpy>KHTE (ecKpy- OCUMBCA OM NOXEA}), BEITECHHTS, HOGaBHTS, 3araLHTb, 3arTY WMT, 3a- Depkatb, 3aKalUTb, 3aKPbITb, 3AMOPO3HTb, 3ATOPMO3HTb, H3MCHHTS, HC KOBepKaTb, HCKPOIIMTb, PaCKPOLIMTb, HCMa¥KaTb, HCNOpTHTS, HCCy- WMT, HCTOLIMTh, HCLENKTb, JMUIATb, HarpeTb, HaJIOMHTb, HaOpBaTb, HaK@HTb, HallomHHTb, O6e306pa3HTb, OOnerynTs, O6HAXKHTb, OOHO- BHTb, OO ypxya3HTb, OOKHBHTb, OKPacHTb, ONYCTOUIMTb, OCBETHTb, OCBO- Sonuts (koney eepesxu), OcnaOHTb, OCNOX%KHKTb, OCTAHOBHTb, OCTY- DMTb, OCYULECTBHTS, OTLAIUTb, OTKPBITb, OXIAIMTb, OUHCTHTECA (HaNp., 0 He6e), NepeBepHyTb, Nepenatb (Hanp., eorHenue nepedaroce), Tepe- MeHHT, NepeoxaluTb, NepenyTatb, NOAKpenHTb, NogorpeTs, Nozop- BaTb, NOATOUMTS (HaNp., 0 CHNaX), HOKOPOOUT, NOKOpexKHTs, Mpeobpa- 3KTb, MpHOaBHTb, NPOOYANTS, NpOALIPABHTb, pasBePHYTb, pasraqHTb, Pa3{aBHTb, Pa3{BOHTb, pa3IpOOHTS, pasMHOrXUTE, pas3MOpO3HTb, paspy- WIHTb, PacCIOHTb, PaCTBOPHTb, PacTAHYTb, paculaTaTb, pacuHpHTb (cmex paciuupun nox0pu — Ho3dpu pacuupunuce om cMexa), CKOM- KaTb, CKOHCHCHPOBaTb, CKOHLCHTPHPOBaTb, CKOMHT, CIOMATb, CMe~ 68 E. B, Manyyena CTHTb, CMeLlaTb, CMSFYHTb, COOpaTh, COrHYTb, COrpeTb (mens cozpena MbiCltb — A CozZpenca om MbICIU), COPAMHHTb, COKPaTHTb, COCTapHTb, cnytars (HumKu cnymanuce), Cy3HTb, YOaBHTb, YBIAKHHTb, YIBOKTb, YKPemIMTb, YMHOXKHTb, YHHYTOKUTS, YCKOPHTE, YCHOKOHTS, ycyryOuT, yTBepauts...!° Hanpumep: (30) Cesepubiit setep ucnopmun norozy — Noroga ucnopmunace; OH usmenun CBOe OTHOLIeHHE K JeTAM — Ero OTHOLIeHHe K JeTAM u3- MeHUNOCb, Ero npue3y, npu6aeun xnionioT— C ero npve3iom xilonoT npubasunoce. He 6ymeT, o4HakO, HMeTS JeKay3aTHBa Tako Kay3aTHBHbIt Taro, KOTO- pbili OGosHa4aeT H3MeHEHHe COCTOAHMA TpeTbero yuacTHHKa, a He OObeKTa: (31) 3T0 Hanomnwio 4TO-TO (KOMY-TO); edoxuyno Gozpocts (B Koro-T0); ureHue ra3eT omuano (y MeHa) MHOTO BpeMeHH. Muorve rarosbl H3MeHeEHHA COCTOSHHA OTANbeKTHBHBIe, HaNpHMep, yetaon- Humbca (€20 2na3a YeNaCHUIUCh OM BOCNOMUHAHUA H3 6OCNOMUHAHUe yenarc- Huno €20 2na3a); BECbMa NPOAYKTHBHE! LeKay3aTHBbI OT PpayaTHBos, T. €. raro- JOB, MOTHBHPOBAaHHBIX CpaBHHTeJIBHOH CTeneHbIO NpHlaraTeMbHOTO: (32) samednume, o6nezuume, ocnabume, noevicume, yeenuuume, yKopo- mumb, yaysuumb, yMeHbuumb, youlUme ... Zekay3aTHBbl OT rlaros10B H3 (29) BEIpaxKalOT H3MeHeHHe cocToaHHA OGbeK- Ta, nogromy CyObekr MoxkeT coliTH co cueHbI GesGone3HeHHO Ald CeMaHTHYe- cKou dopmy.1bI. Ecnu xe HOBOE COCTOAHHE, BbIPaxKaeMOe Kay3ATHBHBIM Tiaro- JIOM, MpeacTapiseT co6oli oTHOWeHHe Mexay Cy6bekToM H OGsexKToM, TO Cy6nexra Heib3a yCTpaHuTb M3 CHTyauMH Ge3 HenonpaBuMoro yulep6a win epicsIa, CM. HIKE pHMep (48). A3bIK pacnonaraeT, OAHAKO, cllocoGom OGoiiTH 9T0 orpannuenue. Tak, y riaroma xaiimu CyGnext BipaxkaeT DkcnepHeHta: 3TO tor Y, koTopsifi cHa4ala He uMesl X B 30HE CBOerO BHHMAHHs, a TOTOM Hayat MMeTb. Tak ¥TO ONHCaHHe HOBOrO COCTOAHHA BKMOYAET He TOMbKO X-a, HO Y-a. [lekay3aTup oT naiimu, TeM He MeHee, CyulecTByeT: Korma OGbekT 3aHHMa- et nosnuHio Cy6bexta, Cy6bext-Skcnepwext nepexoguT B Habmonatenu (cm. 06 Sxcneprentax u HaGmoygatemax B [Magyyesa 2000]): nawenca D> ‘oKazanca Bone s3penua HaG6moyatess’. AHaOrH4HO Aid rarosoB: CKPBITBCA, MOTepaTECA (omepanuc OuKu); 3aTePATECA, 3AeBATbCA, YTAHTb- CH; MOKa3aTbCH, BEIHCKATECA, Pa3bICKATBCA, BIABHTECA, BELeNHTECH, OOHa- XKUTBCA, OOHAPYKUTECA; 3aleyaTeTECA, HI0Opa3zHTECA (Ha ezo nuYye u30- 10 3necs, Kak H B APYTHX CHUCKaX, Maron MOxKeT paccMaTPHBATSCH B ODHOM 13 CBO- WX 3Ha4eHHi. SAAR LENS ARE MI AN KaysaTHpubiii raroa 4 AeKay3aTHB 69 6pasu1oc GonHeHue), OTOOpa3nTbCa; MpoaACHHTEcA (Om ez0 pacckasa cu- myayua He NpOACHUNaC»); NOATBEPAKTECA (npusHanue Onu Meiwepcxoii co- eepulenHo nodmeepduroce (ByHuK) — Paccxaz odbuyepa nodmeepdur npu- snanue Onu Mewepcxoi). Tlexay3aTHBbI OObIMHO ecTh y (ha30BBIX raron0B (4TO HeYAMBHTENBHO, M10- CKONIBKY MeHa :)a3bl — 9TO H3MeHEHHe COCTORHHA): HayamecA, KOHYUMBCA, eo306Hosumeca (0 3aHATHAX, GOJI, KPOBOTeYeHHH HM IpO4.), npodorzcumo- cA, npepeameca, npecereca, NodHAMe (TpeBory), nepe6umo (annetuT). Bomee Toro, AIA GOMbUIHHCTBA (a30BbIX TafONOB DeKay3aTHBHOe ynoTpeOseHHe nepBHuHO. 6. Dakropbl, NpenaTcTByIOUIKe JAekay3aTHBHOH HHTepnpeTalHh Bo3BpaTHOro riarosta TipenatcTBogaTb Aekay3aTHBOMY NOHMMaHHIO BO3BpaTHOrO rlarola MOxKeT He TombKo Cy6bexT Kay3aTHBHOrO miaroa, HO MH Obsext. Ecam y ucxoaHoro kay3aTHBa Tatwe..c OfyuieBeHHbIl, NpOM3BOAHBIT OT Hero BO3BpaTHBI ria- rou o6bI4HO He Jekay3aTHB: OAyWeBNeHHEI Cy6bext u3GeraeT YHCTO NalHeHT- HOFO OcMbICneHHA, KOTOporo Tpe6yer eKay3aTHB. ToT xe rmarom ¢ HeonyuleB- J@HHEIM OGbEKTOM MOXKET JONYcKaTb Jekay3aTHBHY!0 HHTepmpeTallHio: (33) oceo6odumeca (kak B A océobodunca, udem!) — pedseKcHBHOe 3Ha4e- HHe; -Mecmo oceobodunoce — nexay3aTHB. (34) nozpy3umeca: 06 ofyuleBneHHOM o6beKTe —- BHKeHHe, pedieKcuB- Hoe 3Ha4eHne; o npegmete (Koney eepeexu nozpysunca 6 eody) — heKay3aTHB. (35) noyapanamoca: 0 4enopeke — petpneKcus; kapmuna noyapananace npu nepesoske — jeKay3aTHB (HO oyapa- NambcAa TONbKO pedsleKcuB). (36) sadepocameca: 0 YenoeKe — pedexcHB; 6bix00 KHUZU 3adepr9caicA — ekay3aTHB. (37) sanymameca: 0 yenopexe — pecpeKcuB; HumxKa 3anymajacb — NeKay3aTHB. opm! Ha -ca OT raronoB ¢ OAKO3HAMHO oyileBsleHHEIM O6beKTOM — u3- gumbca, 3a20podumbCA, OZPaOUMbCA, 3a1UMUMbCA, HayYUMbCA, BbLMOMaMb- CA, 3amomameca, cOumoca (HECMOTPA Ha LONYCTHMOe Imo mena u c6u10), NO- kopumoca, yepobumbca — OAHO3Ha4HBIe pedseKCHBEI. Onyulesnennii O6text y no6youme; TostoMy *no6yOumeca; To Ke IK 8bIHyOume, 3acmaeumo. 70 E. B, Manyvena Ectb Kay3aTHBHble rlaroubl, KOTOpble He MMCIOT NPOH3BOMHOTO Aekay3aTH- Ba, HECMOTpA Ha COOBITHHHBIN cyObeKT; HaNpHMep, Y 6bi3eame OTCYTCTByeT dopa *evizeamoca (YTO HeyIMBHTeEILHO — Y «PaBHOro» Kay3aTHBHOrO Tia- rona Kay3atop taroteet k nosauHu B Llentpe): (38) npHxog neHTeHaHta ebi3ea7 3aMellaTeIbCTBO — *3aMeLaTeJIbCTBO 6bI- 3eanoc’ OT MpHxoga seiiTeHaHTa => 6e1i0 ébiz6aHo MpuXxoJOM NeliTe- HaHTa. EctectBeHHEIM TOPMO30M JIA JeKay3aTHBauMH B KAaCce ruilaroOB H3MeHe- HHA COCTORHHA ABIIACTCA HAIMYHE B A3EIKE TOTOBOTO C/IOBA C TEM CMBICIOM, KO- Topi JomkeH bul Obl MMeTE NpewMonaraemblit AeKay3aTHB (Tak 2%ke KAK B Xpe- cTOMaTHHiHOM lipuMepe 6apan => 6apanuna, HO Kopoéa => *Koposuxa; Hao — 206Aaduna). Tak, pas6ydume => *pax6ydumca, NOCKONbKy ecTb npocuymeca!'. B yacTHOCTH, eC Kay3aTHBHBI rarol ABIACTCA MPOH3BOAHBIM OT JICKCH- YeCKH MCXOHOrO Plarosia C MeJM@JIbHEIM (T. €. 110 CYTH AeKay3aTMBHBIM) 3Ha- ¥CHHeM, Jekay3aTHB YacTo OTCyTCTBYET: (39) ecxunamume — *eckunamumeca, NOCKOJIbKy ECTb 6cKunemb; ebipacmum — *evipacmumbca, NOCKONbKy ECTS Beipacmu!?, 3a2nyuwums — *3a21VuuUMbCA, OCKONbKY ECTb 3a210xHymb; ozayuum — *oznyuumeca, NOCKONBKY eCTb O210xHymo; ocitenums — *ocrenumbca, NOCKONBKY eCTb ocnennyme; nozacum — *nozacumpca, MOcKONbKy CTs nozacuymb; pazmouum» — *pasmo4Uumeca, NOCKONbKY CCTb pasMoKHymb; cokers — *coicebcA, MOCKONIBKY €CTb czopemp; yOums — °y6umoca, NOCKONbKy eCTb ymepemb; ‘yponum — *ypoxumbca, NOCKONbKY €CTb ynacmb; ymonum» — °ymonumpch, TOCKONBKY ECTb ymonyme (TO xe TIA no- monump). CemantHyeckolt ekay3aTHBHO napoli K ebicyuume GymeT eeicoxnyme, a @bICylUMbCA TIOHMMaeTCA Kak pedseKcuB. Brpouem, ecTb ocrabumeca OT ocna- Gump, HECMOTpA Ha HaH4He ociabuyme UH ociabemv; ocmydumoca OT ocmy- Oumb, HECMOTPA Ha OCmbIMb; UCMOLyUMbCA OT UCMOWUMe, HECMOTPA Ha UCCAK- Hymb C MOUTH TEM XK 3HAYCHHEM. Wutepecusii cemantHyecknii dakTop Jekay3aTHBalMH paccmoTpeH B [Kuli- kov 1998]. B npumepe (40) rnaron 8 rpynne (6) o6o3Ha4aeT HOpMasEHoe Ton0- oKeHHe Belle WIM COsmaHHe OObekTa, a B rpymme (a) — aHOMa/IHIO WIM pa3spy- "| Aurn. wake # awake nomyckaiot aekaysaTuBHoe ynoTpeGneHHe, NOcKoMbKy oT AesbHOro riaroya CO 3Ha4ueHHeM ‘MpocHyTECA’ HeT. "2B aura. asbike rnaronst boil, burn, grow jonycKaloT Jekay3aTHBHoe ynoTpeb- aeune. aes ie anna Kay3aTHBHbii rmaron H WeKay3aTHB 7 eHHe; 4 OT riaroma rpynnpt (a) Jekay3aTHB OGpa3zyetca, a OT riarona rpynnbt (6) — Her. Aprop cunTaeT, ¥TO CnocobcrByeT ekay3aTHBalHH CeMaHTHKa «BO3pacTaHHA SHTPOTHH». B camo jlevie, (40) a. napyucume — Hapyuumoca; 6. cobmocmu — *cobmocmuce; a. paseazam’ — pazea3zameca; 6. npueazamb — °npuenzamocn; a, paspyiuwum» — paspyuumecs; 6. nocmpoums — °nocmpoumeca; a, clomam — cnomamoca; 6, nowHume — °nowunumeca. AnaslorwuHo B ipuMepax: (41) ucnopmumoca — °ucnpaeumeca; omeazam» — °npueazamocn, omxneumvca — °npuxneumoca, nogpedumoca — *oGezepedumoca, Packneumpca — *3axneumpcn; packnenameca — *npuxnenameca, pacnaameca — *npunaamecs; pacnenexamoca — *3anenenamvcn;, paccednameca — *ocednameca; paccmeenymoca — °3acmeznymoca. opmal coznymoca, nozHymbca BOCNPMHMMAIOTCA Kak Jekay3aTHBBI, ec HOpMallbHoe moONoKeHHe/popma npezMeta npsMbie. HanpoTus, pasoznymeca NOHHMAeTCA B 3HaYeHHH MeKay3aTHBAa B KOHTeKCTe OOpeKTA, JIA KOTOporo HOp- MaJIbHOe NooxKeHHeE — COrHYyTOe, TaK 4TO ObITb pa30rHyTBIM WIA Hero HeHOp- M@JIbHO HIM ake m1oxo. TlonyyaeTca, 4TO H3MeHEHHA, KOTOpBIe NPOHCXOAsT camH coGol, 6e3 uenenonaratoulero Areca, OObMHHO K XYMUIeMy: KOMIOHEHT «yujep6» — noTeHUHa/IbHBI CHyTHHK BCAKOM HeKOHTpomHpyeMoii Kay3allHH. PasyMeeTca, ecTb riarosbi, HeTpasbHbIe No OTHOLIEHHIO K NOHSTHIO yulep- 6a, cM. (42), H AHTOHHMHYeCKHe Mapbl, B KOTOpEIX 06a wWieHa JeKay3aTHBHpy- toes, cm. (43): (42) ero nonoxenve yxpenuioce, Kora cMacuuiace, IBepb OmKpeutace, Ta- Pa CoreH Haxonuiac’ (HeareHTHBHOe ynotpebnenHe: Mue u py6na He Hakonuiu cmpouxu (MaskoscKHit)); (43) paznadumoca — ynadumecs; paspadumeca — sapndumeca. Tak 4To OTpHuaTenbHad KOHHOTALHA eKay3aTHBa—He Gomee 4eM TeH- TeHIHA. 7. He-nekay3aTHBHbIe NPOH3BOAHEIe KAY3ATHBHOFO Fara TL. Gopmni Ha -ca or rarosoB 1B WK eH HA B Ka¥eCTBe NepBOH H3 BO3MOX- HbIX MIPHHHMAIOT HE JeKkay3aTHBHY!0, a pedseKcHBHYIO HHTepnpeTauHio — CyGtexr cam paccmarpubaeTca Kak Kay3aTOp CBOeTO ABMKEHHA: n E. B. Manysena (44) 3a6uteca (B yrom), HanpaBHTECa, TlepempaBHTbca, Norpy3HTBCA, 3anep- 2KATbCA (mene@onnout 360H0K sadeprcal MeHA — A 3A0EPIHCAICA 3-3 360HKa), NIPHOJH3HTECA, CHU3HTBCA, NOBEPHYTECA, MepenBHHYTECS, T10- CTPOHTECA, OTTOMKHYTECA, Pa3MeCTHTBCA. TlouTH Bce oGbekTEI, Jake HEOMYWIeBICHHBIe, MOryT JBHTaTbCa Kak ObI CaMH To ce6e (yaa nporemena Had zonosoil). TlosToMy B Kiacce rlaroulOB JBWKeHHA MpeoGslagaeT coGcTBeHHO BO3BpaTHAs, a CHCAOBATeNbHO, aKUMOHANbHAA MHTep- MIpeTal{WA BOSBPATHBIX F1arONOB; Tak, MOdHAICA = ‘NOJHA caMoro ceOa’, a He “TloaBAICca cam COGOii’; noduAICA eemep = ‘Ha4alca BeTep’. (45) HaknoHHTCa (depeso HaxnoHunoce K Bode), ABAHYTECA (1e0uHa Oeuny- Jace), B3PPOMO3AHTECA (Inbi6b1 20a e32pomMo3OunUcr Apy2 ua Opyea), cnyctutéca (Jodxa cnycmunace eHu3 no peke), ocTaHoBHTECA (Kopaza ocmanogunace om ecmpe4Hoz0 nomoKa). Taaronbl npu6nusumoca, chusumoca, nonusumeca MOTyT ObITb NeKay3aTHBa- MH, @CJIH He O603Ha4aIoT ABUKEHHe; yeryOumeca (0 MpOTHBOpedHAX) — eKay- 3aTHB; yenyOumpca @ nec — rIarOn ABWKEHAA, pedseKCHB; CMecmumeca — De- Kay3aTHB, MOCKONBKY cMecmumy — 3TO He MOJIHHHOe ABHXKeHHe; OcmaHo- eumbca — jeKay3aTHB B (466), CO 3Ha4eHHeM ‘“IpeKpaTHTbCA’, HO He B (46a); eepxymecs 8 (47) — jeKay3aTHB, NOCKONbKY He O603HaYaeT ABMDKEHHA: (46) a. Jluca ocmanoeunace; 6. TIputox HoBBIX MalIHH ocmanoeunca. (47) Ero npnesa eepuya Mue Hagexazy — C ero mpve3q0M eepuynace Ha- ACK Ta. B knacce riarom0B ABWKeHHA KMeeTCA TeHeHLMA K yloTpe6seHHIO Kay3a- THBA B HETIepeXOHOM 3HaYeHHH: Oeunymb BMECTO Oeunymoca, PeaHyMb BMECTO Peatymvcr, Mame BMECTO MYambCA, 2HamMb BMECTO 2HaMeCA Hi TIPO4.; CM. B [Anpecsn 1974: 208] 0 perynapHoii MHorosHa4yHocTH THMa ‘BHKeHHe’ — ‘kay3alMi JBWKEHHA’ Ha MpMMepax é6bipynueame, omuanume, npunycmump, mopMo3zumb, TL B xnacce ncHxXONOrM4eCKHX aroun, THN ucnyeamb, 3auHmepe- cosamb, paccmpoumb, 6360nKogame, ecmpesorcumb, yeners, omeneye (HO He saenexb!), co6nazHumb (0 BO3MOXKHOCTH), Niexumb, IpHOaBneHve -ca NaeT He Dekay3aTuBaunw, a KlaccHyeckHi AMaTeTHYeCKHii CABHr; Heo B TOM, YTO 3necb Kay3aTop cocTosHMa aBIaeTCA OHOBpeMeHHO ero CogepxaHHeM 1 He MOT OTCYTCTBOBATh, Kak MIpH JeKay3aTHBallnH (cp. 06 unmepecoeamb, pado- gamb B {AnpecaH 1998)]): (48) A ucnyeanca cromb no3qHeMy BH3HTy ~ MeHa ucnyzan cTomb m03aHHii BHSHT; 5 ozopuuica ero mposany ~ Mena ozopyun ero nposan. i Kay3aTHBHElii rarom H eKay3aTHB 3 Y HeKoTOpbIx IMOLHI (owapamums, 3a60pooCumb, 3azunHOMUZUposaMb, sayaposamb, 3aKondoeamb, oKondogame) Ikchepuent-cyObexT MOXET ObITh TONbKO B MaCCHBHOH AHaTe3¢: (49) S10 waBecTHe owenomuio MeHa — * owenomutca STAM W3BECTHEM — Al Gout owenomnen 3THM H3BECTHEM. Tnaron ycnoxoumeca o603HauaeT He HaCTYIUIeHHe, a lpeKpallleHHe COcTos- Ha HM OTHOCHTCA K KNaCcy rlaronlOB H3MeHEHHA COCTOAHHA; TAK 4YTO YcnoKo- umeca — OObI4HbIN AeKay3aTHB. TIL. Popma Ha -ca OT HeKOTOpbIX rMaronoB Ae Hc TBH A MOET HMETE Mac- CHBHO-IIOTCHLMabHoe 3HayeHHe (TepMHH Mpewioxken B. A. [nyHraHom): 106xa omcmupanace = ‘1o6Ky yanock oTcTupate’. [pyre npumepsi: (50) 6peBHO pacnunutoce; pyKH OMMbLIUCE; Tach noYUuHUIUCe; MapKa npu- KNeunacb; CBUTEP eJle-Cl1e HAMAHYICA, BCE NOMECMUIUCh B cTONOBOi; a ese @MUCHYICA, Wellb Oocmuenace erkoO;, CTaTbA Hanucanacb; POMaH npoxencn; MomOKa Hayedutoc’ BCeTO ABA JIMTpa; MalIHHa 3aeenaco. BosspaTHbie TMaPOsbl B MaCCHBHO-NOTEHUMAIbBHOM 3HaYeHHH YeETKO OTIIMYa~ 1OTCA OT JeKay3aTHBOB: AeKay3aTHB, Kak GbIO MOKa3aHO, McKOYaeT AreHca; Mex TEM MlaCCHBHO-MOTeHIMaILHOe 3HAYeHHe, HANPOTHB, MoAYePKHBAeT He- O6xOHMOCTE TIpHIOKeHHA yeunnit AJA JOCTHXKEHHA KEMaeMOro pesyJIbTaTa HW Tipegnomaraet Areca — uu 0 Kpaiineii Mepe cyOpexta, 3aMHTepecoBaHHOrO B ero HacTYMICHHH: Vickan Bo Bcex yraax — sce HampacHo: Ha He OmbicKanace. Tlapueiit Hecos. Bay Tex %Ke raromoB OOosHayaeT JelicTBHe, y3yaIbHO MIpH- MeHAeMOe K OObeKTY, HH Jake ero cBolicTBO — ‘X TaKOB, 4TO ETO MOXKHO Jer- ko / C TpyOM NosBeprHyTb JaHHoMy JelictButo’!?: Kuuza aeeKo yumaemca, Tlamua om yaa omcmupwieaiomca c mpydom. Sameuaune. B [Anpecan 1980: 64] 6sia BeylencHa rpynna rnaronos THNa now- Mamb, pewums, dozHamb, OONaNaIOWWAX TeM CBOHCTBOM, YTO «AesTeNbHOCTS» (BBIpA- 2kaeMaa NapHbim riaronom HCB) uMeeT B CeMaHTHKe 9THX rarosoB cTaTyc mpesyMn- WMH: He pewut > ‘pean’. [nx ApyTHXx rnaronoB 3TO HEBEPHO: He BbiHec Mycop He Mpeanonaraet ‘Biinocun’. B [Ilanyyesa 1996: 111—114] sto cBolictBo o6bsCHEHO BXO- AALHM B CeMaHTHKy raronoB THMa noimamb KOMMOHEHTOM ‘yfasoch’, XapakTepH3y10- UHM KOHaTHBBI. KoHaTHBbI, Kak MpaBHJI0, JONYCKalOT MaCCHBHO-NOTeHUMAIbHOe YIO- Tpe6nenwe. Hanpumep, JoMyckaeT accHBHO-NoTeHLMaNbHOe NOHHMaHHe riaron pac- No3Hamb, KOHATHB (nezKo pacno3Haemca), HO He 3aMemumb. KoHaTHBHbI KOMIOHEHT B CeMaHTHKe rmarosa MO%KeT ObITb KOHTeKCTHO OGYCNOBICHHBIM: MOKHO CKa3aTb 260306 He 3a6ulca, XOTA COBapHOe 3HaYeHHe 3a6umb> He BKMIOYACT KOMIIOHEHTA ‘yMasoce’. 13 Tlaccusio-notenumanHoe ynorpe6senne riaromos B aHTAHHCKOM s3bIKe (Kak B This book reads easily) onucano B {Spencer 1998]. 74 E. B, Maayyena KonaTupubii KOMMOHEHT MOKHO yCMOTpeTb B CeMaHTHKe riarosloB yeu- Oemoca, ysnamoca B TipuMepe (51) (43 [ApyTionosa 1999: 812): (51) Korna xe ocna6wnocb BHewee AapieHMe — pacliMpHica Moi H Hall Kpyrosop u MoctereHHo (...) yeuderca MW y3nanca TOT «Bech Mp» (Comxennupin). TlaccuBHo-noTeHuManbHoe 3HadeHHe areHTHBHOrO rilaroma MoxeT ObITb bopcupoBaHHEIM; TaK, B (52) cam coboil ynotpebneHo B TepeHOCHoM 3HayeHHH ‘kak 6bI cam coGoii’, T. e. ‘c MHHHMaIBHOH saTpaToii ycummit’. B (53a) a9 KOHATHBHOFO NOHHMaHHA He XBaTaeT KOHTEKCTA; B (536) OHO y>Ke BO3MOXKHO:! (52) Tian cocmaeuaca cam co6oii; Cratea nanucanace cama coboi = ‘kak 6b1 cama cool’; V (53) a. *Bopota sanepauce B 12 yacos; 6. Bopota sanepauce TonbKo B 12 4acos. B npumepax (54), (55) (saarsix 43 [ApyTionona 1999: 812], rae OHH MpHBo- AATCA B MHOH CBA3H) BOIBPATHOCTE NOAYEPKHBaeT He3aBHCHMOCTS BOSHHKIerO pe3ybTata OT CO3HaTeNBHOK BON AFeHca, HO He MO\KeT MOMHOCTBIO HCKMIO- unTb Areca H3 CHTyallHn: (54) To ects on [Ho3apes] xotem 6hUI0 cka3aTB «COPOK», HO «BECTH» cKa- 3anocb Kak-To camo coboii (Toros); (55) {...) MOHAN, 4TO elle HenaBHO 3T0 BOT TaK HeHapoKoM He @bizoeopu- 40cb Obi (M. XapuTouos). Zo cepenuus: XIX eka copepurennest Bu Bo3BpaTHoro Miarowa emule Mor NOHMMATECA KaK copMa CTpauaTeMbHOrO 3ayora; HaNpHMep, Tak TpaktyeT JI. A. Bynaxoncxuii [1954: 315] suiqenenusie KypcHBom popms! B cilezyIoujeM OTPEIBKe: (56) Tomux JJappu Vsanosuti Kak 6yaT0 cHOBa odenca UBeTOM: KpbIlia no- Kpbulacb %KEN3HBIM MCTOM, CTeHbI 3aKononamuiucb, CHapyxKH o6u- AuCb HOBBIM TECOM, BHYTPH Obknewluc’ O6osmu (BenbTMaH, 1846— 1847). B cospemenom s3bike Takue ynorpedseHHA BOCNPHHHMMAalOTCA KaK ycTapeB- uiHe (4To urHopupyetca B [AHKO-TpunnuKas 1962: 132)). JexaysaTHBHomy no- HMMAHHIO TMaros0B 3aKoKOnamumoca, O6umvcA, O6KNeumocA MellaeT UX O4- BHIHas APeHTHBHOCTS, a JA MOMAIbHOTO KOMMOHEHTA (56) He JaeT OCHOBaHHit. 8. KomMentapun k OT2e0bHBIM rlaronam 1. Touemy ects Aekaysarue y areHTHBHEIX raronoB ceapump, saxcapume, ucneXb: Kay3aTHBHbii riarom v AeKay3aTHB 75 Kaprouika ceapunace; Tupor ucnexca. B cutyalimn, onncbiBaeMoi 3THMH TaroJiaMH, Kay3aTOpOM, MOMHMO Jes- TeNbHOCTH YeOBeKa, ABJACTCA HCTOYHHK BbICOKOH Temnepatypbl — orons. Ha TOCHeAHEM 3TAMe OH MOXET OCTABATACA FIABHBIM Kay3ATOPOM; BAXHMO, 3TO H cosfaeT CeMaHTH4eCKyIO NOUBy ist AeKaysaruBa. Y rnarona nposempumb avia- JOPH4HbI MpHpoAHEI Kay3arop — Berep'4. 2. TipHpoausie cunbi cnocoOHsl OTYacTH HMHTHpOBATb AeficTBHA YeNOBeKa, tak uTo Cy6bekT «mpHpogHas CHa» HHOra NOsBOsAeT COXPaHHTb B CeMaHTH- ke riaroma KomnoHeHT Cnoco6 jelicrpus. Tlosromy, ckaxKeM, BO3MOXHOCTb ynorpe6yienus rarona c HeareHTHBHBIM cyOpeKTOM éemep elle He CBHLETEMb- cTByeT 0 JONycTHMOii Nekay3aTHBaLlHH; B CaMOM Jes, Berep pazoznan Ty4H, Ho *Ty4H pasoznanuce; Berep copea c Hero wanky, Ho *[Nanka c Hero copsarace; Berep npunec 3anax %KWIbA, HO */]punecauce 3aflaxi KWIbS. Bnpouem, cyllecTBexHO MoxkeT ObITb TakKe TO, 4TO Bce TpH rmaroma o60- 3Ha4yaloT JBMKeHHe, CM. pa3zen 7.1. 3. [naron, B CBOeM HCXOJHOM 3Ha4eHHH buKcHpyroulMit Croco6 Aelicraua, Opynve WIM BH JBHKeHHA, MOKCT HMeTE NpOH3BOHBIH eKay3aTHB 3a CueT BbIBCTPHBaHHA 3Ha4deHHA: NyroBHla Omopeanace = ‘oTKpenHslach’. Vcxoguoe 3Hayenve riarona samanyme duKcupyeT cnoco6 AelicTBuA, YTO CNYKMT NpOTHBONOKa3aHHeM JIA Aekay3aTHBa. OnHaKo Jekay3aTHB 3samAHymo- cA BO3MOxKeH — Glaroyaps BbIBETPHBAaHHIO: sicuzHb MOA 3amanynace (Bpos- cKHit); Monome6a samanynace = ‘21MTCA DObule HOpMBI’. B sanagecka 3adep- HyAacb KOMNOHeHT Croco6 jelicTBua B CeMaHTHKe 3adepHymb TO%Ke BbIBETPH- ca: sadepnyms — 370 CTaHapTHad «ieKcH¥eckas (yHKUM OT sanagecka. Ta- koe 2ke pa3BHTHe B Mape cocame — corameca, 4. Ecam BepHo, 470 rpaHHiibl NPHMeHHMOCTH eKay3aTHBALHH 3aaloTCA ce- MAHTHYECKH, TO C1OBa, KOTOpBle CIy>KaT NepesowamMu Apyr Apyra B pa3sHbix A3bIKaX, NOWKHBI BeCTH ceOs ONMHAKOBO. Mexny Tem 370 He Bcera Tax. Ha- MIPHMep, HeMOHATHO, MoveMy eKay3aTHB eT y pyCcK. ucmowumb, yHuumo- scum, cmepemb, pazopumb, HO OTCyTCTBYeT y aH. exhaust, delete, erase, ruin. Pyccxwit rnaroa ydanum He HMeeT JeKay3aTHBa 10 CeMaHTH4eCKHM TIpH- 4HHaM — OH BKUOYaeT OLEHKY OObeKTA KaK JIHLHETO, IIOXOrO, a OLleHKa Tpe- Oyer cy6bexra cosHaHMs; MeXKJY TeM aH. remove Toke He HMeeT JeKay3aTHB- Horo ynotpe6xenna ([Levin, Rappaport 1995: 103]), xota u mumeH 3To cyGb- KTHBHOCTH, \4 Stor npumep npesyioxen K, MenbuHkopoil. 16 E. B. Maayyena 9. 3axmouenne Vitak, Mbi MpeycTaBHsiH COOTHOLIeHHe MexKZY Kay3aTHBHEIM PlaroyioM H ero Aekay3aTHBOM (Bana omxpoi Osepe — J[eepe omxpeuiace) B BAe Tpex CeMaH- THYECKH OXapakTepH30BaHHbIX Mepexonos (ceMaHTHYeCKHX WepHBalHit): 1) mea- TeHTHBauMs; 2) KeKay3aTHBallHA; 3) ynaneHHe HecreyMpHUMpOBaHHoro ayE- roukta. Kaxkq0e 43 3THX Tpex ABEHMH HMeeT CBOIO OTIENbHYIO M LOCTAaTOUHO WHpoKy10 cihepy pacnpocTpaHeHHA B UpyrHXx yYacTKax A3bIKOBOH CHCTeMBI. 1) Jlearentusauus (Bana omxpeii deepe — Iopvie eempa omxpoul deepe) — 3TO kaTeropHasbHblii CABHT, H3MCHCHHEe TAKCOHOMHYECKOrO Kacca yuacTHHKa. Oua JaeT H3MeHeHHe JIeKCHYeCKoro 3Ha4eHHA COB, Cp. pa3sHble 3HaYeHHA CIIO- Ba ecmpemumb B KOHTEKCTax ecmpemumb 3HaKOMOZO Ha yluye K ecmpemumo HE3HAKOMOE COBO 6 Mexcme. Jlearentusauna BbIJeACT B KAY3ATHBHOM rlaro- We, TAKOM Kak, cKaxKeM, paz6yOumb, Be OTICbHbIX JIeKCHYeCKHX CQHHALbI — OHA C areHTHBHBIM, Upyras c COOBITHMHEIM cy6beKTOM (THI MHOPO3HaYHOCTH XOTA H Pery.ApHbiit, HO He AGCOMIOTHO NPOLYKTHBHEIM), Vismenenne kaacca cy6exta CompoBorkwaeTcA pANOM xXapaKTepHEIX cien- cTBHii, KACaIOWIMXCA ASBIKOBOTO MOBeLeHHA eKceMBI. HanpuMep, MIpH co6pi- THHHOM cyObexkTe H3 YHCNa MOTeHUMAbHBIX YYACTHHKOB CHTyaLMH HCKMONAeT- ca WMuctpymentanbHoe gelictBHe, npHMep (12); HckmO4¥aeTcA BO3MO%KHOCTS yNlotpe6eHua HecoB. BHJa B AKTYAIBHO-/UINTEIBHOM 3HaYeHHH; HeBO3MO%xK- HBI Hape4HA — TaKHe Kak HeyaRHHo, HapOUHoO, a TakXxKe 2py60, OcmopoocHO; H Tpou. Uearentupauua Kak THM CeMaHTH4ecKOH JepHBallHH (T. e. ABIeHHE u3 06- JACTM WeKCHYeCKOH CeMaHTHKH) MO3BOACT BLIABHTb CEMaHTHYECKY1O IpHpoLy klacca rlarouloB H3MecHeHHA cocTosHHa. B [Levin 1993] rnaronbI w3MeHeHHA cocToAHHaA GBLIM ONpesleneHbI mpexke BCero Hepes CBOIO CMOCOOHOCTE HMETS Aekay3aTuB. Takoe onpesenenve He BaeT BO3MO%XHOCTH OOpalllaTbcA K 3TOMY kulaccy TIpH ykasaHHH chepbi MpHMeHHMOCTH AeKay3aTHBALIMH: Mosy4aeTcs M0- pouxbili Kpyr. MbI onpeseasem riaronbl H3MeHeHHA COCTOAHHA HeMocpencT- BeHHO 4epe3 CTpyKTypy HX CeMaHTHYeCKOl cbopMy bl: Kay3aTHBHBI riaron MO- 2eT OBITh OTHECeH K TWarosaM H3MCHeHHA COCTOAHHA pu YCNOBHM, 4TO B ero ceMaHTHKe OTcyTcTByeT crewMdukawHA crocoba nelictsus. Hanpumep, rnaro- Jib] H3MCHECHHA COCTOAHHA, TakHe KaK cmecmume, HANONHUMb, OTIMYAWTCA OT @KUHOHABHEIX MarosioB, TaKHX Kak npunecmu, nopesamb, TeM, 4YTO CeMaHTHKA MOcHeqHHX BKMOYAeT yKa3aHHe Ha Croco jeiicTBuA (cy6beKTa), B TO BpeMA kak Y TlarosOB H3MeHEHHA COCTOAHHA 3aaHbI TOMbKO HavalbHoe H KOHeYHOe COCTOAHHEe. Oxesnano, NTO OMMCaHHE JeKCHYeCKOrO KJIacca TlarosOB H3MeHe- HHA COCTOAHHA JOIDKHO OBIT OT/eNeHO OT CeMaHTHKH /leKay3aTHBOB. Boome nearenTHBaius, HecMOTpa Ha ee GomBULy!O NpOMYKTHBHOCTS, BCe- TaKH OCTaeTCA JIeKCHYeCCKHM MpOlleccOM H B KOHe4YHOM C4eTe MOXET GbITE 3ana- Ha TOJIbKO COBapeM; HallpHMep, BO3MO%KHO BbIBeTpHBaHHe areHTHBHO OpHeH- TMPOBaHHBIX KOMMOHEHTOB, pacuMpsioUiee MpaHHUbl JeKaysaTHBalHH. } KaysatuBuyiii rmaroa m 2eKay3aTHB 11 2) CoGcTBeHHo Aekay3aTHBallMA MpeyctaeT Mocs 3Toro Kak 4YHCTO WMaTeTH- yeckHii CBHT, He MeHAIOUIAH JeKcHYeCKOrO 3HaYeHHA Taro. CemanTuyeckaa cyTb Hekay3aTHBallMH B TOM, YTO Kaysatop (= BosielicTayroumii baktop, pH- ux) NpespallaeTca H3 akTaHTa B CMpKOHCTaHT. DoHosbIii KaysaTop HeKay3a- qTuBa Mo cBOeH CeMaHTHYeCKOH Pom TOXKMECTBCH Kaysatopy-cyObekty, a B KOMMYHHKaTHBHOM [laHe He OTIHYACTCA OT ApyTHx HemlapaMeTpHYeCKHX CHp- KOHCT@HTOB: YYACTHHK B KOMMYHHKATHBOM paHTe CHPKOHCTAHTA BXOAHT B KOH- Ment CHTYalWMH TOABKO MIpH YCIOBHH, YTO OH OTParKcH B MOBepXHOCTHOH CTpyK- lOKCHHA. TT ancreniaa MHTepripeTallHA OTHOLICHHA Mey Hekay3aTHBOM H HCXOD- HBIM Kay3ATHBHBIM TlarOsIOM OObACHAET, MOYeMy ¥ cyGbekta Wekay3aTHBa i 2ke pOllb H TOT 2Ke TAKCOHOMHYECKHH Kuacc, 4TO Y o6bektTa HCXOMHOrO riarosa; HaripHMep, pa36umbca MOXET TOKO TO, ¥TO MO2KHO pasbump. 3) Hakoneu, nocnequnit (4 HeOOs3aTeNBHbIH) Tal Dekay3aTHBallHH, yaasie- Hue nepudpepuitnoro Kaysatopa (Oxno omxpeutoce om nopeiea eempa — Oxno omxpbit0cb), MO3BOeT H30aBHTECA OT LIMPOKO pacnpocTpaHeHHOro owmGou- Horo MpeycTaBleHHA O TOM, uTO TeKay3aTHBhl OMMCbIBaIOT CIIOHTAHHBIC W3Me- HeHMA, KOTOPEIC TIPOHCXOAAT CaM To ceGe, HM OCO3HATb TOT «bak, 4TO OTCyTCT- Bue nepudepuiiuoro Kay3atopa mpx JeKay3aTHBe Topa30 wale oGo3Ha4aeT He- CyleCTBEHHOCTS BHeLHel IPH4HHbI, YeM C€ OTCYTCTBHC. Jlekay3aTHBbI HeKIO- YyalOT H3 CHTYaLIHH TOJIbKO AreHca, HO He BHELIHIOI MPHYHHy H3MeHeHHA JlutTepatypa Ampecant 1974 — 10. Jl. Anipecsni JJexcuueckas cemantuxa. M., 1974. Anpecan 1980 — 10. J]. Anpecan. 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Pappuaosa, Keasunaccupyad KOHCTpyKUMA B CHCTEMe 3anoropsix mpoTHBonoctaBneHHit pyccKoro raarona // Bonpocet KHGepHeTHKH: S3bik HOTHKH H sJorHKa s3piKa. M., 1990. C. 26—40. ** Aptop 6naronapen Bax. Bc. Meanony, JI. Kynukoay, K. Meabnuxosoii u P. H. Po- S3HHOM 3a 3aMe4aHHa H MONpaBKH K TCKCTy CTATbH. ii E. B. Tanyuesa Tpammaruxa 80 — Pycckas rpaMmaruxa. T. I—II. M., 1980. Sanusuax 1987 — Anna A. 3anH3Ha9X, O THNaX BsaHMonelicTBHA CeMaHTHYeCKHX npusnakos // SkcnepHMeHTanbHble MeTOAHI B NICHXONMHTBHCTHKe. M., 1987. Mopaaricxas, Menbuyk 1996 — JI. H. Wopnancxaa, H. A. Meabuy x. K ceman- THKE PYCCKHX IIPHYMHHBIX Npezioros // MockosckHii NHHTBHCTHYeCKHit xKypHan. T. 2. M., 1996. C. 162—211. Vcauerko 1960 — A.B. cauenko. Tpammarnuecknii crpoli Ppycckoro #3bIka B COnOcTaBNeHHH Co cHoBauKuM. 4. 2. Bpatucnapa, 1960. Kyctopa, Mamyyesa, Paxunuua u ap. 1993 — IT. W. Kyctopa, E.B. Tlanyuesa, E. B. Paxununa, P.M. Posuua, M. B. Ouauneno, H. M. Aky6opa, TE. An- ko. 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